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perldiag: more sorting
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
1109a392
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous overloaded argument to %s resolved as %s
80
81(W ambiguous) You called C<keys>, C<values> or C<each> on an object that had
82overloading of C<%{}> or C<@{}> or both. In such a case, the object is
83dereferenced according to its overloading, not its underlying reference type.
84The warning is issued when C<%{}> overloading exists on a blessed arrayref,
85when C<@{}> overloading exists on a blessed hashref, or when both overloadings
86are defined (in which case C<%{}> is used). You can force the interpretation
c69ca1d4 87of the object by explicitly dereferencing it as an array or hash instead of
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88passing the object itself to C<keys>, C<values> or C<each>.
89
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90=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
91
92(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
93all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
94first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
95C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
96
6df41af2 97=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 98
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99(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
100you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
101a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 102
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103=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
104
105(W ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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106bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
107(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
108like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
109assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
110clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
111really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 112
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113=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
114
115(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
116asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
117named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
118the varable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
119function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
120and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
121
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122=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
123
124=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 125
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126(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo
127represents the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for
128element number 2 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write
129C<$foo[2]>, or you might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to
130the function named foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it
131returns. If you meant that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
132
133In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
134to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
135C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length>
136followed by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what
137you want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/>
138to the unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to
139something that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by
140simply turning off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 141
bdac9d71 142=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
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143
144(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
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145string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
146the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
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147write C<-foo()>.
148
6df41af2 149=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 150
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151(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
152redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
153redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 154
6df41af2 155=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 156
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157(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
158redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
159into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
160though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
161which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 162
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163 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
164 while (<STDIN>) {
165 print;
166 print OUT;
167 }
168 close OUT;
c9f97d15 169
6df41af2 170=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 171
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172(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
173transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 174one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 175a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
176hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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177you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
178alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 179
6df41af2 180=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 181
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182(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
183with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
184impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
185for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 186
6df41af2 187=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 188
6df41af2 189(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 190
b0fdf69e 191=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 192
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193(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
194subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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195
196 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 197 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 198 &do_something
a0d0e21e 199
8ea97a1e 200=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 201
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202(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
203such as:
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204
205 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 206 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 207
8ea97a1e 208or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 209
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210 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
211 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 212
6df41af2 213=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 214
6df41af2 215(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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216name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
217error.
a0d0e21e 218
f86702cc 219=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 220
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221(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
222that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
223will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 224
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225=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
226
227(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
228forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
229data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
230the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
231If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
232the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
233
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234=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
235
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236(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
237spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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238
239=item assertion botched: %s
240
241(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
242
243=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
244
245(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
246
247=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
248
249(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
250must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
251know which context to supply to the right side.
252
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253=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
254
4447dfc1 255(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
96ebfdd7 256thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
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257Usually it's a good idea first to collect the return values of the
258created threads by joining them, and only then to exit from the main
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259thread. See L<threads>.
260
2393f1b9 261=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 262
49293501 263(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 264the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 265
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266=item Attempt to bless into a reference
267
268(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
269the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
270supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
271
272 bless $self, $proto;
273
274when you intended
275
276 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
277
278If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
279of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
280example by:
281
282 bless $self, "$proto";
283
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284=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
285
286(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
287which is not in its key set.
288
289=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
290
291(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
292declared readonly from a restricted hash.
293
de42a5a9 294=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 295
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296(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
297that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
298outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 299
54310121 300=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 301
111a855e 302(P internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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303strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
304strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
305of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 306
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307=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
308
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309(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
310free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
311SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
312free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
313try to free it.
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314
315=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
316
e476b1b5 317(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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318
319=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
320
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321(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
322see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
323earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
324This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
325that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
326mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
327corrupted.
a0d0e21e 328
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329=item Attempt to join self
330
331(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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332impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
333to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 334
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335=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
336
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337(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
338function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
339means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
340invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
341literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
342avoid this warning.
84902520 343
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344=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
345
346(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
347compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
348unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
349L<perlvar/%INC>.
350
1b20cd17
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351=item Attempt to set length of freed array
352
353(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
354can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
355of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
356
357 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
358 $$r = 503
359
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360=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
361
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362(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
363used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
364dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 365
c32124fe
NC
366=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
367
111a855e 368(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "locked"
c32124fe 369attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no
a5547419 370effect since 5005 threads were removed, and will be removed in a future
c32124fe
NC
371release of Perl 5.
372
f1a3ce43
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373=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
374
111a855e 375(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "unique"
b7a2910f 376attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference. The :unique attribute has
a5547419
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377had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in a future release
378of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 379
de42a5a9 380=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 381
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382(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
383or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 384S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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385S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
386
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387=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
388
496a33f5 389(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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390substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
391most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
392
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393=item Bad filehandle: %s
394
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395(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
396symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
397open(), or did it in another package.
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398
399=item Bad free() ignored
400
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401(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
402been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 403setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 404
9ea8bc6d 405This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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406dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
407which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 408
aa689395
PP
409=item Bad hash
410
411(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
412
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413=item Badly placed ()'s
414
415(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
416of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
417Perl yourself.
418
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419=item Bad name after %s::
420
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421(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
422didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
423of quotes, so
a0d0e21e
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424
425 $var = 'myvar';
426 $sym = mypack::$var;
427
428is not the same as
429
430 $var = 'myvar';
431 $sym = "mypack::$var";
432
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JV
433=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
434
435(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
436plugin API.
437
4ad56ec9
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438=item Bad realloc() ignored
439
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440(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
441never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
4dcecea4 442by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 443
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444=item Bad symbol for array
445
446(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
447wasn't a symbol table entry.
448
4df3f177
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449=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
450
451(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
452that wasn't a symbol table entry.
453
454
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455=item Bad symbol for filehandle
456
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457(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
458that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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459
460=item Bad symbol for hash
461
462(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
463wasn't a symbol table entry.
464
34d09196
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465=item Bareword found in conditional
466
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467(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
468conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
469of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
GS
470
471 open FOO || die;
472
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473It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
474a bareword:
34d09196
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475
476 use constant TYPO => 1;
477 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
478
479The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
480
6df41af2
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481=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
482
483(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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484subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
485symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
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486
487=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
488
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489(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
490compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
491you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 492
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493=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
494
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495(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
496subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
497exited.
a0d0e21e 498
68dc0745
PP
499=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
500
501(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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502implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
503occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
504be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
505depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 506
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507=item \1 better written as $1
508
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509(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
510The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
511substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
512because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
513there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 514
252aa082
JH
515=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
516
e476b1b5 517(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
518(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
519L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 520
69282e91 521=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 522
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523(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
524check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 525
c289d2f7
JH
526=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
527
528(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 529Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 530
f866a7cd
FC
531=item "\b{" is deprecated; use "\b\{" instead
532
533=item "\B{" is deprecated; use "\B\{" instead
534
535(W deprecated, regexp) Use of an unescaped "{" immediately following a
536C<\b> or C<\B> is now deprecated so as to reserve its use for Perl
537itself in a future release.
538
c5a0f51a
JH
539=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
540
e476b1b5 541(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 542
4633a7c4
LW
543=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
544
be771a83 545(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
4dcecea4 546copiable.
4633a7c4 547
f675dbe5
CB
548=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
549
be771a83
GS
550(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
551iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
552which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 553
a0d0e21e
LW
554=item Callback called exit
555
4929bf7b 556(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
557exited by calling exit.
558
6df41af2 559=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 560
be771a83
GS
561(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
562parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
563that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
564early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
565subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
566checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
567function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
568the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 569
49704364 570=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
571
572(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
573compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
574attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
575See L<perlfunc/pack>.
576
49704364 577=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
578
579(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
580format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
581
5c1f4d79
NC
582=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
583
584(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
585then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
586triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
587from that type of reference to a typeglob.
588
ba2fdce6
NC
589=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
590
591(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 592be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 593
b5d97229
RGS
594=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
595
596(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
597either with open() or binmode().
598
96ebfdd7
RK
599=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
600
601(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
602integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
603to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
604
a0d0e21e
LW
605=item Can't bless non-reference value
606
607(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
608encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
609
dc57907a
RGS
610=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
611
0d863452
RH
612(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
613a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
614
615=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 616
0d863452
RH
617(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
618
6df41af2
GS
619=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
620
621(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
622object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
623like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
624
625 $BADREF = undef;
626 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
627 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
628
a0d0e21e
LW
629=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
630
54310121 631(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
632ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
633didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
634object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
635
636=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
637
638(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
639object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
640defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
641Something like this will reproduce the error:
642
643 $BADREF = 42;
644 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
645 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
646
a0d0e21e
LW
647=item Can't chdir to %s
648
649(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
650that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
651
0545a864 652=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 653
be771a83
GS
654(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
655nosuid.
104d25b7 656
22e74366 657=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
658
659(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 660(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
661say things like:
662
663 *foo += 1;
664
665You CAN say
666
667 $foo = *foo;
668 $foo += 1;
669
670but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
671
0d863452 672=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 673
0d863452
RH
674(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
675or C<default> block.
676
a0d0e21e
LW
677=item Can't create pipe mailbox
678
be771a83
GS
679(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
680quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 681
eb64745e
GS
682=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
683
30c282f6
NC
684(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
685"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 686
6df41af2
GS
687=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
688
be771a83
GS
689(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
690a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 691
a0d0e21e
LW
692=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
693
be771a83
GS
694(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
695reason.
a0d0e21e 696
54310121 697=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 698
be771a83
GS
699(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
700reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
701C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 702
10f9c03d 703=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 704
e476b1b5 705(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
706characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
707inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 708
7253e4e3 709=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 710
b45f050a 711(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 712regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 713regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 714
a0d0e21e
LW
715=item Can't do waitpid with flags
716
be771a83
GS
717(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
718waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 719
a0d0e21e
LW
720=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
721
be771a83
GS
722(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
723point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
724line.
a0d0e21e 725
1109a392
MHM
726=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
727
728(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
729or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
730little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
731See L<perlfunc/pack>.
732
a0d0e21e
LW
733=item Can't exec "%s": %s
734
d1be9408 735(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
736named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
737permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
738C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
739architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
740can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
741#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
742
743=item Can't exec %s
744
be771a83
GS
745(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
746that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
747need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
748
749=item Can't execute %s
750
be771a83
GS
751(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
752found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 753
6df41af2 754=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 755
be771a83
GS
756(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
757is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 758
56ca2fc0
JH
759=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
760
761(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
e1b711da
KW
762could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
763See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
764for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 765
6df41af2
GS
766=item Can't find label %s
767
be771a83
GS
768(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
769possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
770
771=item Can't find %s on PATH
772
be771a83
GS
773(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
774found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 775
6df41af2 776=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 777
be771a83
GS
778(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
779found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
780script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
781
782=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
783
be771a83
GS
784(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
785that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
786nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 787
fb73857a
PP
788 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
789
be771a83
GS
790If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
791unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
792editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 793
660a4616
ST
794=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
795
5f8ad6b6
FC
796(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode
797property (for example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase
798letters). If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
e1b711da 799L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
5f8ad6b6
FC
800for a complete list of available properties. If you didn't
801mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either by C<\\p>
802(just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
803until C<\E>).
660a4616 804
b3647a36 805=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 806
be771a83
GS
807(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
808pipeline.
a0d0e21e 809
b3647a36
SR
810=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
811
c973c02e 812(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
813after five seconds.
814
748a9306
LW
815=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
816
be771a83
GS
817(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
818between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
819Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
820the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
821account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
822the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 823the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
824the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
825if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
826because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
827appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
828and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
829routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
830shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
831only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 832
a0d0e21e
LW
833=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
834
be771a83
GS
835(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
836pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
837
838=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
839
748a9306
LW
840(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
841mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 842
6df41af2 843=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 844
be771a83
GS
845(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
846loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
847
848=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
849
be771a83
GS
850(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
851a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
852you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
853See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 854
9850bf21 855=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 856
9850bf21
RH
857(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
858comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
859as the reduce() function in List::Util).
860
c74ace89 861=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 862
be771a83 863(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 864"string" or block.
b150fb22 865
6df41af2
GS
866=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
867
be771a83
GS
868(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
869subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
870cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
871routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 872
0b5b802d
GS
873=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
874
be771a83
GS
875(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
876signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
877signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
878processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
879situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
880may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 881
e2c0f81f
DG
882=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
883
884(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
885attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
886process identifier.
887
6df41af2 888=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 889
6df41af2 890(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
891except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
892block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
893block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
894usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
895inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
896L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 897
2c7d6b9c
RGS
898=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
899
900(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
901package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
902
b8170e59
JB
903=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
904
905(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
906may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
907incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
908between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 909extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
910installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
911extensions.
912
748a9306
LW
913=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
914
2ba9eb46 915(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 916lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
917localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
918package name.
919
6df41af2 920=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 921
6df41af2
GS
922(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
923handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 924pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 925that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 926
ea071790 927=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
928
929(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
930found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
931unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
932need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
933the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
934to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
935L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 936
6df41af2
GS
937=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
938
be771a83
GS
939(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
940autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
941are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
942the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 943
b8170e59
JB
944=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
945
946(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
947for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
948unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
949
a0d0e21e
LW
950=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
951
952(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
953functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 954method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
955
956=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
957
be771a83
GS
958(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
959doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 960
2f7da168
RK
961=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
962
963(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
964e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
965
3e3baf6d
TB
966=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
967
be771a83
GS
968(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
969VMS.
3e3baf6d 970
a0d0e21e
LW
971=item Can't modify %s in %s
972
be771a83
GS
973(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
974to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 975
54310121 976=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
977
978(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
979a NULL.
980
6df41af2
GS
981=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
982
983(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 984such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 985
5f05dabc 986=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 987
5f05dabc 988(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
989buffer.
990
6df41af2
GS
991=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
992
993(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
994there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
995count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
996grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
997though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
998once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 999
a0d0e21e
LW
1000=item Can't open %s: %s
1001
c47ff5f1 1002(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
1003filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
1004switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
1005is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
1006the command line.
a0d0e21e 1007
9a869a14
RGS
1008=item Can't open a reference
1009
1010(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1011using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1012
1013 open FH, '>', $ref;
1014
1015but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1016open is not supported.
1017
a0d0e21e
LW
1018=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1019
be771a83
GS
1020(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1021You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1022as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1023">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1024
748a9306
LW
1025=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1026
be771a83
GS
1027(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1028redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1029the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1030
1031=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1032
be771a83
GS
1033(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1034redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1035command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1036
1037=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1038
be771a83
GS
1039(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1040redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1041the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1042
1043=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1044
be771a83
GS
1045(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1046redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1047for stdout.
748a9306 1048
2b8ca739 1049=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
1050
1051(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1052
fa3aa65a
JC
1053If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1054shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1055you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1056
6df41af2
GS
1057=item Can't read CRTL environ
1058
1059(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1060from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1061missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1062or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1063searched.
6df41af2 1064
6df41af2
GS
1065=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1066
1067(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1068there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1069count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1070or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1071though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1072loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1073
64977eb6 1074=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1075
be771a83
GS
1076(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1077file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1078the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1079
a0d0e21e
LW
1080=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1081
e476b1b5 1082(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1083probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1084
748a9306
LW
1085=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1086
be771a83
GS
1087(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1088to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1089
fe13d51d 1090=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1091
be771a83
GS
1092(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
1093to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
2fe2bdfd 1094the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1095
cd06dffe
GS
1096=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1097
be771a83
GS
1098(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1099temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1100is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1101
96ebfdd7
RK
1102=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1103
1104(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1105there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1106
78f9721b
SM
1107=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1108
1109(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1110but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1111to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1112the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1113list context.
1114
a0d0e21e
LW
1115=item Can't stat script "%s"
1116
be771a83
GS
1117(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1118open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1119
a0d0e21e
LW
1120=item Can't take log of %g
1121
fb73857a
PP
1122(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1123negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1124standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1125negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1126
1127=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1128
1129(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1130negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1131with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1132
1133=item Can't undef active subroutine
1134
1135(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1136however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1137redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1138
c81225bc 1139=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1140
be771a83
GS
1141(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1142into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1143specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1144indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1145
1db89ea5
BS
1146=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1147
e27ad1f2 1148(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1149table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1150for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1151
96ebfdd7
RK
1152=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1153
1154(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1155be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1156
6df41af2
GS
1157=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1158
be771a83
GS
1159(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1160references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1161
90b75b61 1162=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1163
1164(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1165Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1166provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1167
1109a392
MHM
1168=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1169
1170(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1171byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1172allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1173
6df41af2
GS
1174=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1175
be771a83
GS
1176(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1177foreach.
6df41af2 1178
aab6a793 1179=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1180
be771a83
GS
1181(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1182is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1183(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1184have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1185weren't.
1186
6d3b25aa
RGS
1187=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1188
1189(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1190that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1191For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1192is inside a big-endian group.
1193
c07a80fd
PP
1194=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1195
1196(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1197You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1198and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1199Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1200lexical variable.
1201
a0d0e21e
LW
1202=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1203
1204(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1205reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1206test the type of the reference, if need be.
1207
748a9306 1208=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1209
be771a83
GS
1210(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1211references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1212
748a9306
LW
1213=item Can't use subscript on %s
1214
1215(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1216subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1217didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1218
6df41af2
GS
1219=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1220
75b44862
GS
1221(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1222creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1223backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1224expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1225value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1226instead.
6df41af2 1227
0d863452 1228=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1229
0d863452
RH
1230(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1231loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1232from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1233or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1234
810b8aa5
GS
1235=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1236
1237(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1238references can be weakened.
1239
5f05dabc 1240=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1241
be771a83
GS
1242(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1243with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1244Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1245
4a68bf9d 1246=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1247
17a3df4c
KW
1248(F|W deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
1249It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl 5.16. In the
1250cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
1251derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1252
1253Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well.
f9d13529 1254
f337b084 1255=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1256
1257(W pack) You said
1258
1259 pack("C", $x)
1260
1261where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1262only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1263and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1264
1265 pack("C", $x & 255)
1266
1267If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1268instead.
1269
f337b084
TH
1270=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1271
1272(W pack) You said
1273
1274 pack("U0W", $x)
1275
1276where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1277all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1278meant:
1279
1280 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1281
1282=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1283
1284(W pack) You said
1285
1286 pack("c", $x)
1287
1288where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1289is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1290and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1291
1292 pack("c", $x & 255);
1293
1294If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1295instead.
1296
f337b084
TH
1297=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1298
1299(W unpack) You tried something like
1300
1301 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1302
1a147d38 1303where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1304below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1305modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1306
1307 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1308
1309=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1310
1311(W pack) You tried something like
1312
1313 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1314
1a147d38
YO
1315where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1316value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1317uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1318
1319 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1320
1321=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1322
1323(W unpack) You tried something like
1324
1325 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1326
1a147d38
YO
1327where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1328value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1329uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1330
1331 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1332
f866a7cd
FC
1333=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1334
1335(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1336to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1337evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
1338ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.16. Just use a
1339semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1340
1341=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1342
1343(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1344non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1345written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1346characters.
1347
96ebfdd7
RK
1348=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1349
1350(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1351
abc7ecad
SP
1352=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1353
1354(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1355a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1356
541ed3a9
FC
1357=item Closure prototype called
1358
1359(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1360handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1361This subroutine cannot be called.
1362
49704364
LW
1363=item Code missing after '/'
1364
1365(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1366template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1367
0876b9a0
KW
1368=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1369
9ae3ac1a
KW
1370=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, no properties match it; all inverse properties do
1371
0876b9a0
KW
1372(W utf8) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum of U+10FFFF.
1373
1374Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code
1375points, up to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on
1376your system, but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems.
1377At one time, it was legal in some standards to have code points up to
13780x7FFF_FFFF, but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require
1379larger than a 32 bit word.
1380
9ae3ac1a
KW
1381None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1382code point. For example,
1383
1384 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1385
1386will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1387
1388 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1389
1390will match.
1391
6df41af2
GS
1392=item %s: Command not found
1393
be771a83
GS
1394(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1395Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1396
7a2e2cd6
PP
1397=item Compilation failed in require
1398
1399(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1400Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1401encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1402
c3464db5
DD
1403=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1404
be771a83
GS
1405(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1406situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1407to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1408arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1409recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1410under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1411in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1412that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1413on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1414
38875929
DM
1415=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1416
1417(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1418cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
a568ca76 1419function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
38875929 1420cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
a568ca76
FC
1421has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread
1422first to wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
38875929
DM
1423after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1424lock.
1425
38875929
DM
1426=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1427
1428(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1429cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
a568ca76 1430function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
38875929 1431cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
a568ca76
FC
1432has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread
1433first to wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
38875929
DM
1434after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1435lock.
1436
69282e91 1437=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1438
be771a83
GS
1439(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1440to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1441L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1442
41ab332f 1443=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1444
be771a83
GS
1445(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1446an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1447specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1448corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1449L<overload>.
6df41af2 1450
fc8cd66c
YO
1451=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1452
1a147d38
YO
1453(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1454the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1455forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1456See L<charnames>.
1457
1458
779c5bc9
GS
1459=item Constant is not %s reference
1460
1461(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1462is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1463The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1464usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1465See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1466
4cee8e80
CS
1467=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1468
bb028877 1469(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1470eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1471commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1472
9607fc9c
PP
1473=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1474
be771a83
GS
1475(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1476for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1477workarounds.
9607fc9c 1478
e7ea3e70
IZ
1479=item Copy method did not return a reference
1480
64977eb6 1481(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1482L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1483
6798c92b
GS
1484=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1485
1486(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1487
a0d0e21e
LW
1488=item corrupted regexp pointers
1489
1490(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1491expression compiler gave it.
1492
1493=item corrupted regexp program
1494
be771a83
GS
1495(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1496valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1497
de42a5a9 1498=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1499
1500(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1501
49704364
LW
1502=item Count after length/code in unpack
1503
1504(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1505you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1506L<perlfunc/pack>.
1507
a0d0e21e
LW
1508=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1509
be771a83
GS
1510(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1511100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1512infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1513which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1514
aad1d01f
NC
1515This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1516setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1517
f10b0346 1518=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1519
be771a83
GS
1520(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1521checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1522array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1523
f10b0346 1524=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1525
be771a83
GS
1526(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1527checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1528is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1529
bcb95744
FC
1530=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1531
1532(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
1533most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1534of the C<....> part.
1535
1536The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1537discovered.
1538
62658f4d
PM
1539=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1540
1541(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1542there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1543
fc36a67e
PP
1544=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1545
be771a83
GS
1546(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1547long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1548that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1549
4a68bf9d 1550=item Deprecated character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s<-- HERE %s
cb233ae3
KW
1551
1552(D deprecated) Just about anything is legal for the C<...> in C<\N{...}>.
5fca8acb
FC
1553But starting in 5.12, non-reasonable ones that don't look like names
1554are deprecated. A reasonable name begins with an alphabetic character
1555and continues with any combination of alphanumerics, dashes, spaces,
1556parentheses or colons.
cb233ae3 1557
6d3b25aa
RGS
1558=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1559
1560(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1561There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1562not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1563conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1564static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1565relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1566declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1567
6d3b25aa
RGS
1568 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1569
1570becomes
1571
1572 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1573
36fb85f3
RGS
1574Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1575have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1576
1577 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1578
500ab966
RGS
1579=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1580
1581(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1582just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1583to create a dangling reference.
1584
3cdd684c
TP
1585=item Did not produce a valid header
1586
1587See Server error.
1588
6df41af2
GS
1589=item %s did not return a true value
1590
1591(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1592it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1593traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1594do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1595
cc507455 1596=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1597
413ff9f6
FC
1598(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1599some such.
4633a7c4 1600
cc507455 1601=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1602
be771a83
GS
1603(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1604variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1605seems superfluous.
33633739 1606
cc507455 1607=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1608
be771a83
GS
1609(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1610@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1611carried away.
748a9306 1612
7e1af8bc 1613=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1614
1615(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 1616you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 1617
3cdd684c
TP
1618=item Document contains no data
1619
1620See Server error.
1621
62658f4d
PM
1622=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1623
1624(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1625define a C<$VERSION.>
1626
49704364
LW
1627=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1628
1629(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1630See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1631
a0d0e21e
LW
1632=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1633
1634(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1635
1636=item do_study: out of memory
1637
1638(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1639
6df41af2
GS
1640=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1641
56da5a46
RGS
1642(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1643"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1644name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1645because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1646"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1647something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1648subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1649"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1650
ac206dc8
RGS
1651=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1652
1653(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1654qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1655
84d78eb7
YO
1656=item dump is not supported
1657
1658(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1659
a0d0e21e
LW
1660=item Duplicate free() ignored
1661
be771a83
GS
1662(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1663already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1664
1109a392
MHM
1665=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1666
1667(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1668in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1669
4633a7c4
LW
1670=item elseif should be elsif
1671
56da5a46
RGS
1672(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1673ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1674"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1675unlikely to be what you want.
1676
ab13f0c7
JH
1677=item Empty %s
1678
af6f566e
HS
1679(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1680described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1681a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1682
85ab1d1d 1683=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1684
85ab1d1d 1685(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1686effective uids or gids failed.
1687
c038024b
RGS
1688=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1689
1690(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1691aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1692program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1693
748a9306
LW
1694=item Error converting file specification %s
1695
5f05dabc 1696(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1697specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1698single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1699an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1700conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1701
e4d48cc9
GS
1702=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1703
be771a83
GS
1704(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1705expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1706is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1707
fc8f615e 1708=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1709
be771a83
GS
1710(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1711C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
1712pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
1713it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
1714C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
1715interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
1716L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1717
6df41af2
GS
1718=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1719
be771a83
GS
1720(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1721assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1722pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1723
1a147d38
YO
1724=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1725
1726(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1727any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1728
1729The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1730discovered.
1731
fc36a67e
PP
1732=item Excessively long <> operator
1733
1734(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1735Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1736filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1737variable and glob that.
1738
ed9aa3b7
SG
1739=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1740
af8bb25a
FC
1741(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
1742OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 1743
fe13d51d 1744=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1745
1746(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1747
1748=item Exiting eval via %s
1749
be771a83
GS
1750(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1751goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1752
1753=item Exiting format via %s
1754
9a2ff54b 1755(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1756goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1757
0a753a76
PP
1758=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1759
be771a83
GS
1760(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1761sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1762loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1763
a0d0e21e
LW
1764=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1765
be771a83
GS
1766(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1767as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1768
1769=item Exiting substitution via %s
1770
be771a83
GS
1771(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1772as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1773
7b8d334a
GS
1774=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1775
be771a83
GS
1776(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1777the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1778usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1779e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1780
6df41af2
GS
1781=item %s: Expression syntax
1782
be771a83
GS
1783(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1784Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1785
1786=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1787
3c10abe3
AG
1788(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1789CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1790queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1791
7253e4e3 1792=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1793
be771a83 1794(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1795character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1796in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1797"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1798problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1799
1b1ee2ef 1800=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1801
be771a83
GS
1802(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1803system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1804details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1805you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1806
1807=item fcntl is not implemented
1808
1809(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1810PDP-11 or something?
1811
22846ab4
AB
1812=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1813
1814(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1815is not possible.
1816
f337b084
TH
1817=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1818
1819(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1820which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1821a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 1822C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 1823
af8c498a 1824=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1825
6c8d78fb
HS
1826(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1827it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1828"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1829write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1830
af8c498a 1831=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1832
6c8d78fb
HS
1833(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1834you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
1835with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
1836read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
1837is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
1838output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1839
1840=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1841
1842(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1843as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1844previously.
1845
1846=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1847
1848(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1849as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1850
1851=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1852
1853(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1854a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1855happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1856name.
a0d0e21e 1857
56e90b21
GS
1858=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1859
be771a83 1860(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1861some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1862filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1863same name?
56e90b21 1864
6df41af2
GS
1865=item Format not terminated
1866
1867(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1868to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1869
a0d0e21e
LW
1870=item Format %s redefined
1871
e476b1b5 1872(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1873
1874 {
271595cc 1875 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1876 eval "format NAME =...";
1877 }
1878
a0d0e21e
LW
1879=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1880
e476b1b5 1881(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1882
1883 if ($foo = 123)
1884
1885when you meant
1886
1887 if ($foo == 123)
1888
1889(or something like that).
1890
6df41af2
GS
1891=item %s found where operator expected
1892
56da5a46
RGS
1893(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1894If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1895operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1896operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1897
a0d0e21e
LW
1898=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1899
1900(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1901
1902=item gethostent not implemented
1903
1904(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1905because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1906on the Internet.
1907
69282e91 1908=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1909
be771a83
GS
1910(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1911socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1912
748a9306
LW
1913=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1914
1915(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1916C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1917
6df41af2
GS
1918=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1919
be771a83
GS
1920(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1921forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1922L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1923
1924=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1925
a4edf47d 1926(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1927that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1928declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1929which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1930
e476b1b5
GS
1931=item glob failed (%s)
1932
be771a83
GS
1933(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1934C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1935C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1936nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1937resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1938broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1939config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1940were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1941empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1942think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1943C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1944
a0d0e21e
LW
1945=item Glob not terminated
1946
1947(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1948a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1949not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1950earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1951
bcd05b94 1952=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 1953
e9200be3 1954(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b
MS
1955it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1956date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1957not-a-number value).
1958
bcd05b94 1959=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 1960
e9200be3 1961(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
fc003d4b
MS
1962it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1963date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1964not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 1965
6df41af2 1966=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1967
6df41af2
GS
1968(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1969version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1970
1971=item goto must have label
1972
1973(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1974unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1975
49704364 1976=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1977
bca4a986
FC
1978(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
1979something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 1980
fe13d51d 1981=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
1982
1983(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1984
a0d0e21e
LW
1985=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1986
be771a83
GS
1987(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1988to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1989created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1990
1991=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1992
be771a83
GS
1993(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1994spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1995
6df41af2
GS
1996=item %s has too many errors
1997
1998(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1999Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2000
e6897b1a
KW
2001=item Having no space between pattern and following word is deprecated
2002
2003(D syntax)
2004
2005You had a word that isn't a regex modifier immediately following a pattern
2006without an intervening space. For example, the two constructs:
2007
2008 $a =~ m/$foo/sand $bar
2009 $a =~ m/$foo/s and $bar
2010
21356872
FC
2011both currently mean the same thing, but it is planned to disallow the first
2012form in Perl 5.16. And,
e6897b1a
KW
2013
2014 $a =~ m/$foo/and $bar
2015
2016will be disallowed too.
2017
252aa082
JH
2018=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2019
e476b1b5 2020(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2021(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2022L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2023
8903cb82
PP
2024=item Identifier too long
2025
2026(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2027about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2028names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2029of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2030
c3c41406 2031=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 2032
ff3f963a
KW
2033(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return a
2034zero length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 2035its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2036been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2037
6df41af2 2038=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2039
6df41af2 2040(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2041
6df41af2 2042=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2043
be771a83
GS
2044(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2045binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2046offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2047
78d0fecf 2048=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2049
d5898338 2050(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2051would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2052when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2053version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2054to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2055
d37a9538
ST
2056=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2057
197afce1 2058(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2059Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
d37a9538 2060
904d85c5
RGS
2061=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2062
2063(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
2064you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
2065
8e742a20
MHM
2066=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2067
2068(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
2069
a0d0e21e
LW
2070=item Illegal division by zero
2071
be771a83
GS
2072(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2073your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2074meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2075
6df41af2
GS
2076=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2077
be771a83
GS
2078(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2079A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2080number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2081
a0d0e21e
LW
2082=item Illegal modulus zero
2083
be771a83
GS
2084(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2085numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2086
6df41af2 2087=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2088
6df41af2
GS
2089(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2090two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2091
2092=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2093
d1be9408 2094(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2095
399388f4 2096=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2097
d1be9408 2098(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2099Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2100
fe13d51d 2101=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2102
6df41af2 2103(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2104following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2105
6df41af2 2106=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2107
75b44862 2108(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2109internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2110delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2111
6df41af2 2112=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2113
be771a83
GS
2114(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2115name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2116didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2117ignored.
54310121 2118
6df41af2 2119=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2120
be771a83
GS
2121(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2122the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2123system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2124times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2125would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2126
be771a83
GS
2127Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2128also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2129
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2130=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2131
2132(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2133C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2134documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2135
979699d9
JH
2136=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2137
2138(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2139Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2140encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2141
1a147d38
YO
2142=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2143
2144(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
2145text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
2146either consume text or fail.
2147
2148The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2149discovered.
2150
6dbe9451
NC
2151=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2152
2153(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2154of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2155C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2156as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2157
a0d0e21e
LW
2158=item Insecure dependency in %s
2159
8b1a09fc 2160(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2161The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2162setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2163tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2164from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2165such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2166L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2167
2168=item Insecure directory in %s
2169
be771a83
GS
2170(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2171setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2172the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2173See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2174
62f468fc 2175=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2176
2177(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2178setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2179C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2180supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2181the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2182
b9ef414d
FC
2183=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2184
2185(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2186or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2187integers for your architecture.
2188
a7ae9550
GS
2189=item Integer overflow in %s number
2190
75b44862 2191(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2192either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2193your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2194On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2195representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
21960b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2197transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2198internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2199operations.
bbce6d69 2200
46314c13
JP
2201=item Integer overflow in version
2202
2203(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2204size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2205because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2206element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2207trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2208100/9.
2209
7253e4e3 2210=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2211
2212(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2213The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2214discovered.
2215
748a9306
LW
2216=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2217
be771a83
GS
2218(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2219you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2220to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2221L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2222Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2223terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2224
7253e4e3 2225=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2226
7253e4e3
RK
2227(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2228<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2229discovered.
a0d0e21e 2230
6df41af2
GS
2231=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2232
75b44862 2233(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2234followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2235operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2236L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2237
09bef843
SB
2238=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2239
a4a4c9e2 2240(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2241by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2242
2243=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2244
a4a4c9e2 2245(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2246recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2247
c635e13b
PP
2248=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2249
be771a83
GS
2250(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2251L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2252
9e08bc66
ST
2253=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2254
2255(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2256didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2257from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2258The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2259The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2260escape was discovered.
2261
8149aa9f
FC
2262=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2263
2264(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2265number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
22660 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2267
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2268=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2269
162a3e34
FC
2270(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2271where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2272the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2273a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2274
7253e4e3 2275=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2276
2277(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2278greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2279C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2280up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2281problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2282
d1573ac7 2283=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2284
2285(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2286character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2287
09bef843
SB
2288=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2289
0120eecf 2290(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2291elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2292parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2293See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2294
b4581f09
JH
2295=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2296
2bfc5f71
FC
2297(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2298than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2299If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2300list was terminated too soon.
2301
2c86d456
DG
2302=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2303
2304(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2305A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2306decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2307v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2308The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2309See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2310
49704364 2311=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2312
49704364
LW
2313(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2314See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2315(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2316silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2317
2c86d456
DG
2318=item Invalid version format (%s)
2319
2320(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2321A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2322decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
9da2b86b
FC
2323v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it must
2324have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is optional.
2325Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a trailing "alpha"
2c86d456
DG
2326component separated by an underscore character after a fractional or
2327dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized text indicates which
a6485a24 2328criteria were not met. See the L<version> module for more details on
2c86d456 2329allowed version formats.
46314c13 2330
798ae1b7
DG
2331=item Invalid version object
2332
2333(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid. Perhaps
2334the internals were modified directly in some way or an arbitrary reference
2335was blessed into the "version" class.
2336
a0d0e21e
LW
2337=item ioctl is not implemented
2338
2339(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2340strange for a machine that supports C.
2341
c289d2f7
JH
2342=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2343
2344(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2345Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2346
fe13d51d 2347=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2348
2349(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 2350you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
2351with 'useperlio'.
2352
80cbd5ad
JH
2353=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2354
2355(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 2356neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 2357
b4581f09
JH
2358=item $* is no longer supported
2359
a58ac25e
FC
2360(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
2361perls, has been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In
2362previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
2363matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
2364
2365Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
570dedd4
FC
2366modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
2367with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
2368then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2369
8ae1fe26
RGS
2370=item $# is no longer supported
2371
a58ac25e
FC
2372(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
2373perls, has been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You
2374should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 2375
6ad11d81
JH
2376=item `%s' is not a code reference
2377
04a80ee0
RGS
2378(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2379needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2380to a subroutine.
2381
2382=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2383
04a80ee0
RGS
2384(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2385unaware of.
6ad11d81 2386
a0d0e21e
LW
2387=item junk on end of regexp
2388
2389(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2390
2391=item Label not found for "last %s"
2392
be771a83
GS
2393(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2394of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2395L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2396
2397=item Label not found for "next %s"
2398
2399(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2400that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2401L<perlfunc/last>.
2402
2403=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2404
2405(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2406that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2407L<perlfunc/last>.
2408
85ab1d1d 2409=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2410
85ab1d1d 2411(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2412effective uids or gids failed.
2413
49704364
LW
2414=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2415
d7f8936a 2416(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
LW
2417length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2418an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2419
f0e67a1d
Z
2420=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2421
2422(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
d35a2c71
FC
2423(using L<lex_stuff_pvn_flags|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn_flags> or similar), but tried to insert a character
2424that couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
2425of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where it
2426is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
2427
2428=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2429
2430(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2431detectable way.
2432
69282e91 2433=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2434
be771a83
GS
2435(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2436to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2437L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2438
bcd05b94 2439=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2440
e9200be3 2441(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
fc003d4b
MS
2442than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2443wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2444not-a-number value).
2445
bcd05b94 2446=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2447
e9200be3 2448(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
fc003d4b
MS
2449than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2450wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2451not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 2452
58e23c8d 2453=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2454
2455(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2456handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2457
b88df990
NC
2458=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2459
2460(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2461for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2462hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2463because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2464are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2465You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2466
2f7da168
RK
2467=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2468
2469(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2470by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2471instead on the filehandle.)
2472
885ef6f5
GG
2473=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2474
963d9ce9 2475(W misc) Making a subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined
d9159685
RS
2476by declaring the subroutine with an lvalue attribute is not
2477possible. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine add the
e2bd2e2b 2478lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the declaration before
885ef6f5
GG
2479the definition.
2480
96ebfdd7
RK
2481=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
2482
2483(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
2484values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
2485L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
2486
2db62bbc 2487=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 2488
2db62bbc 2489(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2490are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2491
2492=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2493
2db62bbc 2494(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2495are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2496
6df41af2
GS
2497=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2498
2499(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2500
2501 prefix1;prefix2
2502
2503or
6df41af2
GS
2504 prefix1 prefix2
2505
be771a83
GS
2506with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2507a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2508appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2509"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2510
2f758a16
ST
2511=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2512
d37a9538
ST
2513(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2514syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2515obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2516when the function is called.
2f758a16 2517
ba210ebe
JH
2518=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2519
2575c402
JW
2520(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2521encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2522
2575c402
JW
2523One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2524you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
25258-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2526
2527If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2528sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2529set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2530message.
2531
2532See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2533
ff3f963a
KW
2534=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N
2535
2536(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2537
4a5d3a93
FC
2538=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2539
2540(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2541rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2542
f337b084
TH
2543=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2544
2545(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2546rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2547
2548=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2549
2550(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2551rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2552
4a5d3a93 2553=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 2554
4a5d3a93
FC
2555(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2556doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2557
2558=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2559
2560(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
2561regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2562shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2563See L<perlre>.
f337b084 2564
de42a5a9 2565=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2566
2db62bbc 2567(F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2568usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2569too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2570resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2571safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2572
25f58aea
PN
2573=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2574
2575(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2576interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2577"use" or "my".
2578
49704364 2579=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2580
2581(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2582checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2583See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2584
a0d0e21e
LW
2585=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2586
2587(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2588doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2589
3cdd684c
TP
2590=item Method %s not permitted
2591
2592See Server error.
2593
a0d0e21e
LW
2594=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2595
2596(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2597by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2598ended earlier on the current line.
2599
2600=item Misplaced _ in number
2601
d4ced10d
JH
2602(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2603separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2604
7baa4690
HS
2605=item Missing argument in %s
2606
2607(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2608supplied.
2609
9e81e6a1
RGS
2610=item Missing argument to -%c
2611
2612(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2613immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2614
ff3f963a 2615=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2616
4a2d328f 2617(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
532cb70d
FC
2618double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space
2619(or comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2620This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately
2621follow the C<\N>.
423cee85 2622
f0a2b745
KW
2623=item Missing braces on \o{}
2624
2625(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2626
a0d0e21e
LW
2627=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2628
2629(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2630"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2631
06eaf0bc
GS
2632=item Missing command in piped open
2633
be771a83
GS
2634(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2635C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2636blank.
06eaf0bc 2637
961ce445
RGS
2638=item Missing control char name in \c
2639
2640(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2641character name.
2642
6df41af2
GS
2643=item Missing name in "my sub"
2644
be771a83
GS
2645(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2646they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2647
2648=item Missing $ on loop variable
2649
be771a83
GS
2650(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2651are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2652can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2653
cc507455 2654=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2655
56da5a46
RGS
2656(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2657"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2658
ab13f0c7
JH
2659=item Missing right brace on %s
2660
ff3f963a
KW
2661(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2662
4a68bf9d 2663=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2664
d32207c9
FC
2665(F) C<\N> has two meanings.
2666
2667The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed in braces,
2668meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that
2669name. Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
2670double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns,
2671it doesn't have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
2672
2673Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only)
2674in patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short
2675for C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
2676
2677This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately
2678by a left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if the braces
2679form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes that this
2680means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
26813; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a
2682C<\N{> and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2683
2684However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was
2685mistakenly omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and raises this error.
2686If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant the latter,
2687escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2688
d98d5fff 2689=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2690
be771a83
GS
2691(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2692ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2693were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2694
6df41af2
GS
2695=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2696
56da5a46
RGS
2697(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2698"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2699the previous line just because you saw this message.
2700
a0d0e21e
LW
2701=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2702
2703(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2704constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2705catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2706
2707 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2708 mod(2);
2709
2710Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2711
c5674021
PDF
2712Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2713is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2714
2715 $x = 1;
2716 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2717 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2718 }
c5674021 2719
7a4340ed 2720=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2721
2722(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2723subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2724backwards.
2725
7a4340ed 2726=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2727
be771a83
GS
2728(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2729couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2730
2731=item Module name must be constant
2732
2733(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2734
be98fb35 2735=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2736
be98fb35
GS
2737(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2738you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2739about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2740
fe13d51d 2741=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7
SG
2742
2743(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2744can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2745list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2746See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2747
a0d0e21e
LW
2748=item msg%s not implemented
2749
2750(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2751
2752=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2753
75b44862
GS
2754(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2755They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2756
49704364 2757=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2758
49704364
LW
2759(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2760follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2761See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2762
2763=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2764
be771a83
GS
2765(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2766that yet.
6df41af2 2767
fd1b7234 2768=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2769
be771a83
GS
2770(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2771sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2772local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2773
8149aa9f
FC
2774=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2775
2776(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
2777If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2778again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
2779provided for this purpose.
2780
2781NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2782%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2783the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2784will not trigger this warning.
2785
4a68bf9d 2786=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...}
ff3f963a 2787
c3c41406 2788(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
f4e361c7
FC
2789character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses
2790its specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not
2791what you want.
c3c41406 2792
4a68bf9d 2793=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer
c3c41406 2794
f4e361c7
FC
2795(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or
2796sequence was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that
2797bypass the lexer, such as using single-quotish context, or an extra
7fae04b9 2798backslash in double-quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2799
2800 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2801 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2802 /$re/;
2803
b09c05e6 2804Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2805
2806 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2807 /$re/;
2808
2809The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2810components:
2811
2812 $re = '\N';
2813 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2814
2815It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2816doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2817
2818Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
2819C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
2820
2821 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
2822 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 2823
49704364
LW
2824=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2825
2826(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2827negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2828
a0d0e21e
LW
2829=item Negative length
2830
be771a83
GS
2831(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2832length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2833
ed9aa3b7
SG
2834=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2835
2836(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2837greater than or equal to zero.
2838
7253e4e3 2839=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2840
b45f050a 2841(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2842things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2843expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2844
7253e4e3 2845Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2846C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2847
6df41af2 2848=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2849
be771a83
GS
2850(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2851scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2852
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2853=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2854
2855(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2856real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2857See L<mro>.
2858
a0d0e21e
LW
2859=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2860
be771a83
GS
2861(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2862setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2863will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2864securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2865
a0d0e21e
LW
2866=item No comma allowed after %s
2867
2868(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2869allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2870Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2871
0a753a76
PP
2872One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2873constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2874importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2875does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
f7af5ce1 2876explicit import list for the constants you expect to see; please see
0a753a76
PP
2877L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2878would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2879remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2880constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2881list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2882this error was triggered?
2883
748a9306
LW
2884=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2885
be771a83
GS
2886(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2887redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2888doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2889
a0d0e21e
LW
2890=item No DB::DB routine defined
2891
be771a83 2892(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
f7af5ce1 2893for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
ccafdc96
RGS
2894module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2895statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2896
2897=item No dbm on this machine
2898
2899(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2900supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2901
ccafdc96 2902=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2903
ccafdc96
RGS
2904(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2905for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2906module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2907of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2908
96ebfdd7
RK
2909=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2910
2911(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2912
c47ff5f1 2913=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2914
be771a83
GS
2915(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2916redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2917find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2918
49704364
LW
2919=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2920
2921(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2922matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2923
c47ff5f1 2924=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2925
be771a83
GS
2926(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2927redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2928name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2929
6df41af2
GS
2930=item No #! line
2931
2932(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2933even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2934
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2935=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2936
2937(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2938in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2939it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2940or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2941
6df41af2
GS
2942=item "no" not allowed in expression
2943
be771a83
GS
2944(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2945returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2946
c47ff5f1 2947=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2948
be771a83
GS
2949(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2950redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2951doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2952
c47ff5f1 2953=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2954
be771a83
GS
2955(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2956redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2957find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2958
1ec3e8de
GS
2959=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2960
be771a83
GS
2961(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2962declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2963semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2964
a0d0e21e
LW
2965=item No Perl script found in input
2966
2967(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2968with #! and containing the word "perl".
2969
2970=item No setregid available
2971
2972(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2973your system.
2974
2975=item No setreuid available
2976
2977(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2978your system.
2979
6df41af2
GS
2980=item No %s specified for -%c
2981
2982(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2983you haven't specified one.
f7af5ce1 2984
e75d1f10
RD
2985=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
2986
2987(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
2988but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
2989package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
2990
2c692339
RGS
2991=item No such class %s
2992
dc7e5945
FC
2993(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state"
2994declaration, but this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2c692339 2995
3c20a832
SP
2996=item No such hook: %s
2997
dc7e5945
FC
2998(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl.
2999Currently, Perl accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks.
3c20a832 3000
6df41af2
GS
3001=item No such pipe open
3002
3003(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
3004close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
3005earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 3006
a0d0e21e
LW
3007=item No such signal: SIG%s
3008
be771a83
GS
3009(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
3010not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
3011names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
3012
3013=item Not a CODE reference
3014
3015(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3016subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3017use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3018also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3019
3020=item Not a format reference
3021
3022(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
3023format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
3024
3025=item Not a GLOB reference
3026
be771a83
GS
3027(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
3028symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
3029something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
3030kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3031
3032=item Not a HASH reference
3033
be771a83
GS
3034(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
3035reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
3036find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3037
6df41af2
GS
3038=item Not an ARRAY reference
3039
be771a83
GS
3040(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
3041a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3042to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 3043
a0d0e21e
LW
3044=item Not a perl script
3045
3046(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
3047even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
3048mention perl.
3049
3050=item Not a SCALAR reference
3051
be771a83
GS
3052(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
3053a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3054to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3055
3056=item Not a subroutine reference
3057
3058(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3059subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3060use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3061also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3062
e7ea3e70 3063=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
3064
3065(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 3066doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3067
a0d0e21e
LW
3068=item Not enough arguments for %s
3069
3070(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
3071
6df41af2
GS
3072=item Not enough format arguments
3073
be771a83
GS
3074(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3075supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3076
3077=item %s: not found
3078
be771a83
GS
3079(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3080of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3081yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3082
3083=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3084
6df41af2
GS
3085(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3086timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3087to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3088F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3089need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 3090
f0a2b745
KW
3091=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3092
5493e060
FC
3093(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was
3094unexpectedly encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value is as
3095indicated.
f0a2b745 3096
4ef2275c
GA
3097=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3098
3099(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3100Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
bc4b151d 3101select. See L<perlfunc/select>.
4ef2275c 3102
a0d0e21e
LW
3103=item Null filename used
3104
be771a83
GS
3105(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
3106machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 3107
6df41af2
GS
3108=item NULL OP IN RUN
3109
be771a83
GS
3110(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
3111pointer.
6df41af2 3112
55497cff
PP
3113=item Null picture in formline
3114
3115(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
3116specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
3117supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
3118
a0d0e21e
LW
3119=item Null realloc
3120
3121(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
3122
3123=item NULL regexp argument
3124
5f05dabc 3125(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
3126
3127=item NULL regexp parameter
3128
3129(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
3130
fc36a67e
PP
3131=item Number too long
3132
be771a83 3133(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 3134about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
3135versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
3136the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
3137"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 3138
f0a2b745
KW
3139=item Number with no digits
3140
1043934d
FC
3141(F) Perl was looking for a number but found nothing that looked like
3142a number. This happens, for example with C<\o{}>, with no number between
3143the braces.
f0a2b745 3144
6df41af2
GS
3145=item Octal number in vector unsupported
3146
be771a83
GS
3147(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
3148The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
3149future version.
6df41af2 3150
252aa082
JH
3151=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
3152
75b44862 3153(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
3154(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
3155L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 3156
6ad11d81
JH
3157=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
3158
04a80ee0
RGS
3159(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
3160arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 3161
b21befc1
MG
3162=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
3163
3164(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3165which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
3166
1930e939 3167=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 3168
be771a83
GS
3169(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3170which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 3171
bbce6d69
PP
3172=item Offset outside string
3173
a4a4c9e2 3174(F|W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
42bc49da 3175with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
3176imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
3177take place when going past the end of the string when either
3178C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
3179for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
3180with real files).
bbce6d69 3181
c289d2f7 3182=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
3183
3184(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
3185never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
3186call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
3187
96ebfdd7
RK
3188=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
3189
3190(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
3191that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
3192
a0d0e21e
LW
3193=item oops: oopsAV
3194
e476b1b5 3195(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
3196
3197=item oops: oopsHV
3198
e476b1b5 3199(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 3200
abc718f2
RGS
3201=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
3202
a4a4c9e2 3203(W io, deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3204a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
3205Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3206and is deprecated.
3207
3208=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
3209
a4a4c9e2 3210(W io, deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3211a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
3212Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3213and is deprecated.
3214
a0288114 3215=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 3216
be771a83
GS
3217(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
3218handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
3219of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
e4aad80d 3220the C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 3221
5ff1373f 3222=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for non-Unicode code point 0x%X
9ae3ac1a 3223
5ff1373f
FC
3224(W) You performed an operation requiring Unicode semantics on a code
3225point that is not in Unicode, so what it should do is not defined. Perl
3226has chosen to have it do nothing, and warn you.
9ae3ac1a
KW
3227
3228If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3229matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3230
3231If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
3232C<no warnings 'utf8';>.
3233
5ff1373f 3234=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for UTF-16 surrogate U+%X
9ae3ac1a 3235
5ff1373f
FC
3236(W) You performed an operation requiring Unicode semantics on a Unicode
3237surrogate. Unicode frowns upon the use of surrogates for anything but
3238storing strings in UTF-16, but semantics are (reluctantly) defined for
3239the surrogates, and they are to do nothing for this operation. Because
3240the use of surrogates can be dangerous, Perl warns.
9ae3ac1a
KW
3241
3242If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3243matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3244
3245If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
3246C<no warnings 'utf8';>.
3247
748a9306
LW
3248=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
3249
be771a83
GS
3250(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
3251was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
3252use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
3253example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
3254"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 3255
6df41af2
GS
3256=item "our" variable %s redeclared
3257
be771a83
GS
3258(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
3259in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 3260
a80b8354
GS
3261=item Out of memory!
3262
3263(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
3264remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
3265no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 3266
19a52907
JH
3267At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
3268process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
3269C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
3270the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
3271and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
3272
6d3b25aa
RGS
3273=item Out of memory during %s extend
3274
3275(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
3276the largest possible memory allocation.
3277
6df41af2 3278=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 3279
6df41af2
GS
3280(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
3281remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
3282the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
3283possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 3284
1b979e0a 3285=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 3286
be771a83
GS
3287(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
3288insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
3289request.
eff9c6e2
CS
3290
3291The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
3292depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
3293However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
3294emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
3295is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
3296where the failed request happened.
55497cff 3297
1b979e0a
IZ
3298=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
3299
3300(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
3301is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
3302C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 3303
6df41af2
GS
3304=item Out of memory for yacc stack
3305
be771a83
GS
3306(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
3307parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
3308otherwise.
6df41af2 3309
28be1210
TH
3310=item '.' outside of string in pack
3311
3312(F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working
3313position to before the start of the packed string being built.
3314
49704364 3315=item '@' outside of string in unpack
6df41af2 3316
49704364 3317(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
6df41af2
GS
3318the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3319
f337b084
TH
3320=item '@' outside of string with malformed UTF-8 in unpack
3321
3322(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
3323the string being unpacked. The string being unpacked was also invalid
3324UTF-8. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3325
7cb0cfe6
BM
3326=item Overloaded dereference did not return a reference
3327
3328(F) An object with an overloaded dereference operator was dereferenced,
3329but the overloaded operation did not return a reference. See
3330L<overload>.
3331
3332=item Overloaded qr did not return a REGEXP
3333
3334(F) An object with a C<qr> overload was used as part of a match, but the
3335overloaded operation didn't return a compiled regexp. See L<overload>.
3336
6df41af2
GS
3337=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
3338
be771a83
GS
3339(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
3340package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
3341some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
3342mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 3343
96ebfdd7
RK
3344=item pack/unpack repeat count overflow
3345
3346(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
3347signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3348
a0d0e21e
LW
3349=item page overflow
3350
be771a83
GS</