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perldelta for 94d4006
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1=encoding utf8
2
3=head1 NAME
4
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5[ this is a template for a new perldelta file. Any text flagged as XXX needs
6to be processed before release. ]
7
8perldelta - what is new for perl v5.21.1
c68523cb 9
238894db 10=head1 DESCRIPTION
c68523cb 11
7065301c 12This document describes differences between the 5.21.0 release and the 5.21.1
238894db 13release.
c68523cb 14
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15If you are upgrading from an earlier release such as 5.20.0, first read
16L<perl5210delta>, which describes differences between 5.20.0 and 5.21.0.
17
18=head1 Notice
19
20XXX Any important notices here
21
22=head1 Core Enhancements
23
24XXX New core language features go here. Summarize user-visible core language
25enhancements. Particularly prominent performance optimisations could go
26here, but most should go in the L</Performance Enhancements> section.
27
28[ List each enhancement as a =head2 entry ]
29
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30=head2 Experimental C Backtrace API
31
32Starting from Perl 5.21.1, on some platforms Perl supports retrieving
33the C level backtrace (similar to what symbolic debuggers like gdb do).
34
35The backtrace returns the stack trace of the C call frames,
36with the symbol names (function names), the object names (like "perl"),
37and if it can, also the source code locations (file:line).
38
39The supported platforms are Linux and OS X (some *BSD might work at
40least partly, but they have not yet been tested).
41
42The feature needs to be enabled with C<Configure -Dusecbacktrace>.
43
44Also included is a C API to retrieve backtraces.
45
46See L<perlhacktips/"C backtrace"> for more information.
47
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48=head2 C<qr/foo/x> now ignores any Unicode pattern white space
49
50The C</x> regular expression modifier allows the pattern to contain
51white space and comments, both of which are ignored, for improved
52readability. Until now, not all the white space characters that Unicode
53designates for this purpose were handled. The additional ones now
54recognized are
55U+0085 NEXT LINE,
56U+200E LEFT-TO-RIGHT MARK,
57U+200F RIGHT-TO-LEFT MARK,
58U+2028 LINE SEPARATOR,
59and
60U+2029 PARAGRAPH SEPARATOR.
61
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62=head2 S<C<use locale>> can restrict which locale categories are affected
63
64It is now possible to pass a parameter to S<C<use locale>> to specify
65a subset of locale categories to be locale-aware, with the remaining
66ones unaffected. See L<perllocale/The "use locale" pragma> for details.
67
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68=head1 Security
69
70XXX Any security-related notices go here. In particular, any security
71vulnerabilities closed should be noted here rather than in the
72L</Selected Bug Fixes> section.
73
74[ List each security issue as a =head2 entry ]
75
76=head1 Incompatible Changes
77
78XXX For a release on a stable branch, this section aspires to be:
79
80 There are no changes intentionally incompatible with 5.XXX.XXX
81 If any exist, they are bugs, and we request that you submit a
82 report. See L</Reporting Bugs> below.
83
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84=head2 C<\N{}> with a sequence of multiple spaces is now a fatal error.
85
86This has been deprecated since v5.18.
87
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88=head2 In double-quotish C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must now be a printable ASCII character
89
90In prior releases, failure to do this raised a deprecation warning.
7065301c 91
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92=head2 Splitting the tokens C<(?> and C<(*> in regular expressions is
93now a fatal compilation error.
94
95These had been deprecated since v5.18.
96
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97=head2 5 additional characters are treated as white space under C</x> in
98regex patterns (unless escaped)
99
100The use of these characters with C</x> outside bracketed character
101classes and when not preceeded by a backslash has raised a deprecation
102warning since v5.18. Now they will be ignored. See L</qrE<sol>fooE<sol>x>
103for the list of the five characters.
104
105=head2 Comment lines within S<C<(?[ ])>> now are ended only by a C<\n>
106
107S<C<(?[ ])>> is an experimental feature, introduced in v5.18. It operates
108as if C</x> is always enabled. But there was a difference, comment
109lines (following a C<#> character) were terminated by anything matching
110C<\R> which includes all vertical whitespace, such as form feeds. For
111consistency, this is now changed to match what terminates comment lines
112outside S<C<(?[ ])>>, namely a C<\n> (even if escaped), which is the
113same as what terminates a heredoc string and formats.
114
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115=head2 Omitting % and @ on hash and array names is no longer permitted
116
117Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names and the % on hash
118names in some spots. This has issued a deprecation warning since Perl
1195.0, and is no longer permitted.
120
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121=head2 C<"$!"> text is now in English outside C<"use locale"> scope
122
123Previously, the text, unlike almost everything else, always came out
124based on the current underlying locale of the program. (Also affected
125on some systems is C<"$^E>".) For programs that are unprepared to
126handle locale, this can cause garbage text to be displayed. It's better
127to display text that is translatable via some tool than garbage text
128which is much harder to figure out.
129
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130=head2 C<"$!"> text will be returned in UTF-8 when appropriate
131
132The stringification of C<$!> and C<$^E> will have the UTF-8 flag set
133when the text is actually non-ASCII UTF-8. This will enable programs
134that are set up to be locale-aware to properly output messages in the
135user's native language. Code that needs to continue the 5.20 and
136earlier behavior can do the stringification within the scopes of both
137'use bytes' and 'use locale ":messages". No other Perl operations will
138be affected by locale; only C<$!> and C<$^E> stringification. The
139'bytes' pragma causes the UTF-8 flag to not be set, just as in previous
140Perl releases. This resolves [perl #112208].
141
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142=head1 Deprecations
143
144XXX Any deprecated features, syntax, modules etc. should be listed here.
145
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146=head2 Using a NO-BREAK space in a character alias for C<\N{...}> is now
147deprecated
148
149This non-graphic character is essentially indistinguishable from a
150regular space, and so should not be allowed. See
151L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
152
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153=head2 Module removals
154
155XXX Remove this section if inapplicable.
156
157The following modules will be removed from the core distribution in a
158future release, and will at that time need to be installed from CPAN.
159Distributions on CPAN which require these modules will need to list them as
160prerequisites.
161
162The core versions of these modules will now issue C<"deprecated">-category
163warnings to alert you to this fact. To silence these deprecation warnings,
164install the modules in question from CPAN.
165
166Note that these are (with rare exceptions) fine modules that you are encouraged
167to continue to use. Their disinclusion from core primarily hinges on their
168necessity to bootstrapping a fully functional, CPAN-capable Perl installation,
169not usually on concerns over their design.
170
171=over
172
173=item XXX
174
175XXX Note that deprecated modules should be listed here even if they are listed
176as an updated module in the L</Modules and Pragmata> section.
177
178=back
179
180[ List each other deprecation as a =head2 entry ]
181
182=head1 Performance Enhancements
183
184XXX Changes which enhance performance without changing behaviour go here.
185There may well be none in a stable release.
186
187[ List each enhancement as a =item entry ]
188
189=over 4
190
191=item *
192
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193Many internal functions have been refactored to improve performance and reduce
194their memory footprints.
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195
196L<[perl #121436]|https://rt.perl.org/Ticket/Display.html?id=121436>
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197L<[perl #121906]|https://rt.perl.org/Ticket/Display.html?id=121906>
198L<[perl #121969]|https://rt.perl.org/Ticket/Display.html?id=121969>
7065301c 199
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200=item *
201
202C<-T> and C<-B> filetests will return sooner when an empty file is detected.
203
204L<perl #121489|https://rt.perl.org/Ticket/Display.html?id=121489>
205
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206=back
207
7ef8b31d 208=head1 Modules and Pragmata
f6f3144e 209
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210XXX All changes to installed files in F<cpan/>, F<dist/>, F<ext/> and F<lib/>
211go here. If Module::CoreList is updated, generate an initial draft of the
212following sections using F<Porting/corelist-perldelta.pl>. A paragraph summary
213for important changes should then be added by hand. In an ideal world,
214dual-life modules would have a F<Changes> file that could be cribbed.
215
216[ Within each section, list entries as a =item entry ]
217
218=head2 New Modules and Pragmata
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219
220=over 4
221
222=item *
223
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224XXX
225
226=back
227
228=head2 Updated Modules and Pragmata
229
230=over 4
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231
232=item *
233
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234L<Carp> has been upgraded from version 1.3301 to 1.34.
235
236Carp::Heavy now ignores version mismatches with Carp if Carp is newer
237than 1.12, since Carp::Heavy's guts were merged into Carp at that
238point.
239L<[perl #121574]|https://rt.perl.org/Ticket/Display.html?id=121574>
240
241=item *
242
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243L<Data::Dumper> has been upgraded from version 2.151 to 2.152.
244
245Changes to resolve Coverity issues.
246
247XS dumps incorrectly stored the name of code references stored in a
248GLOB.
249L<[perl #122070]|https://rt.perl.org/Ticket/Display.html?id=122070>
250
251=item *
252
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253L<Encode> has been upgraded from version 2.60_01 to 2.62.
254
255B<piconv> now has better error handling when the encoding name is nonexistent,
256and a build breakage when upgrading L<Encode> in perl-5.8.2 and earlier has
257been fixed.
258
259=item *
260
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261L<Hash::Util> has been upgraded from version 0.16 to 0.17.
262
263Minor bug fixes and documentation fixes to Hash::Util::hash_stats()
264
265=item *
266
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267The libnet collection of modules has been upgraded from version 1.25 to 1.27.
268
269There are only whitespace changes to the installed files.
270
271=item *
272
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273The Locale-Codes collection of modules has been upgraded from vesion 3.30 to 3.31.
274
275Fixed a bug in the scripts used to extract data from spreadsheets that
276prevented the SHP currency code from being found.
277L<[cpan #94229]|https://rt.cpan.org/Ticket/Display.html?id=94229>
278
279=item *
280
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281L<Math::BigInt> has been upgraded from version 1.9993 to 1.9994.
282
283Synchronize POD changes from the CPAN release.
284
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285C<< Math::BigFloat->blog(x) >> would sometimes return blog(2*x) when
286the accuracy was greater than 70 digits.
287
288The result of C<< Math::BigFloat->bdiv() >> in list context now
289satisfies C<< x = quotient * divisor + remainder >>.
290
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291=item *
292
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293L<Math::BigRat> has been upgraded from version 0.2606 to 0.2607.
294
295Synchronize POD changes from the CPAN release.
296
297=item *
298
f97d984b 299L<Module::Metadata> has been upgraded from version 1.000022 to 1.000024.
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300
301Support installations on older perls with an L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker> earlier
302than 6.63_03
303
304=item *
305
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306L<OS2::Process> has been upgraded from version 1.09 to 1.10.
307
308=item *
309
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310L<perl5db.pl> has been upgraded from version 1.44 to 1.45.
311
312fork() in the debugger under C<tmux> will now create a new window for
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313the forked process. L<[perl
314#121333]|https://rt.perl.org/Ticket/Display.html?id=121333>
315
316The debugger now saves the current working directory on startup and
317restores it when you restart your program with C<R> or <rerun>. L<[perl
318#121509]|https://rt.perl.org/Ticket/Display.html?id=121509>
24a38d90 319
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320=item *
321
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322L<PerlIO::encoding> has been upgraded from version 0.18 to 0.19.
323
324No changes in behaviour.
325
326=item *
327
328L<PerlIO::mmap> has been upgraded from version 0.012 to 0.013.
329
330No changes in behaviour.
331
332=item *
333
334L<PerlIO::scalar> has been upgraded from version 0.18 to 0.19.
335
336No changes in behaviour.
337
338=item *
339
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340L<Unicode::Collate> has been upgraded from version 1.04 to 1.07.
341
342Version 0.67's improved discontiguous contractions is invalidated by default
343and is supported as a parameter 'long_contraction'.
344
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345=item *
346
347L<Unicode::Normalize> has been upgraded from version 1.17 to 1.18.
348
349The XSUB implementation has been removed in favour of pure Perl.
350
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351=item *
352
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353A mismatch between the documentation and the code in utf8::downgrade()
354was fixed in favour of the documentation. The optional second argument
355is now correctly treated as a perl boolean (true/false semantics) and
356not as an integer.
3eaa3d14 357
238894db 358=back
24a38d90 359
92fa985e 360=head2 Removed Modules and Pragmata
24a38d90 361
238894db 362=over 4
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363
364=item *
365
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366XXX
367
368=back
369
370=head1 Documentation
371
372XXX Changes to files in F<pod/> go here. Consider grouping entries by
373file and be sure to link to the appropriate page, e.g. L<perlfunc>.
374
375=head2 New Documentation
376
377XXX Changes which create B<new> files in F<pod/> go here.
378
379=head3 L<XXX>
380
381XXX Description of the purpose of the new file here
382
383=head2 Changes to Existing Documentation
384
385XXX Changes which significantly change existing files in F<pod/> go here.
386However, any changes to F<pod/perldiag.pod> should go in the L</Diagnostics>
387section.
388
9c0f2733 389=head3 L<perlfunc>
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390
391=over 4
392
393=item *
394
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395C<-l> now notes that it will return false if symlinks aren't supported by the
396file system.
397
398L<[perl #121523]|https://rt.perl.org/Ticket/Display.html?id=121523>
7065301c 399
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400=item *
401
402Note that C<exec LIST> and C<system LIST> may fall back to the shell on
403Win32. Only C<exec PROGRAM LIST> and C<system PROGRAM LIST> indirect object
404syntax will reliably avoid using the shell.
405
406This has also been noted in L<perlport>.
407
408L<[perl #122046]|https://rt.perl.org/Ticket/Display.html?id=122046>
409
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410=back
411
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412=head3 L<perlapi>
413
414=over 4
415
416=item *
417
418C<sv_usepvn_flags> - Fix documentation to mention the use of C<NewX> instead of
419C<malloc>.
420
421L<[perl #121869]|https://rt.perl.org/Ticket/Display.html?id=121869>
422
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423=item *
424
425Clarify where C<NUL> may be embedded or is required to terminate a string.
426
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427=item *
428
429Previously missing documentation due to formatting errors are now included.
430
431=item *
432
433Entries are now organized into groups rather than by file where they are found.
434
435=item *
436
437Alphabetical sorting of entries is now handled by the POD generator to make
438entries easier to find when scanning.
439
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440=back
441
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442=head3 L<perlhacktips>
443
444=over 4
445
446=item *
447
448Updated documentation for the C<test.valgrind> C<make> target.
449
450L<[perl #121431]|https://rt.perl.org/Ticket/Display.html?id=121431>
451
452=back
453
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454=head3 L<perlre>
455
456=over 4
457
458=item *
459
460The C</x> modifier has been clarified to note that comments cannot be continued
461onto the next line by escaping them.
462
463=back
464
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465=head3 L<Unicode::UCD>
466
467=over 4
468
469=item *
470
471The documentation includes many clarifications and fixes.
472
473=back
474
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475=head1 Diagnostics
476
477The following additions or changes have been made to diagnostic output,
478including warnings and fatal error messages. For the complete list of
479diagnostic messages, see L<perldiag>.
480
481XXX New or changed warnings emitted by the core's C<C> code go here. Also
482include any changes in L<perldiag> that reconcile it to the C<C> code.
483
484=head2 New Diagnostics
485
486XXX Newly added diagnostic messages go under here, separated into New Errors
487and New Warnings
488
489=head3 New Errors
490
491=over 4
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492
493=item *
494
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495XXX L<message|perldiag/"message">
496
497=back
498
499=head3 New Warnings
500
501=over 4
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502
503=item *
504
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505L<PerlIO layer ':win32' is experimental|perldiag/"PerlIO layer ':win32' is experimental">:
506
507(S experimental::win32_perlio) The C<:win32> PerlIO layer is
508experimental. If you want to take the risk of using this layer,
509simply disable this warning:
510
511 no warnings "experimental::win32_perlio";
24a38d90 512
238894db 513=back
24a38d90 514
7065301c 515=head2 Changes to Existing Diagnostics
24a38d90 516
7065301c 517XXX Changes (i.e. rewording) of diagnostic messages go here
24a38d90 518
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519=over 4
520
521=item *
522
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523<> should be quotes
524
525This warning has been changed to
526L<< <> at require-statement should be quotes|perldiag/"<> at require-statement should be quotes" >>
527to make the issue more identifiable.
528
529=item *
530
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531L<Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline|perldiag/"Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline">
532
533This warning is now only produced when the newline is at the end of
534the filename.
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535
536=back
537
538=head1 Utility Changes
539
540XXX Changes to installed programs such as F<perlbug> and F<xsubpp> go here.
eb561242 541Most of these are built within the directory F<utils>.
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542
543[ List utility changes as a =head2 entry for each utility and =item
544entries for each change
545Use L<XXX> with program names to get proper documentation linking. ]
546
eb561242 547=head2 F<x2p/>
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548
549=over 4
550
551=item *
24a38d90 552
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553The F<x2p/> directory has been removed from the Perl core.
554
555This removes find2perl, s2p and a2p. They have all been released to CPAN as
556separate distributions (App::find2perl, App::s2p, App::a2p).
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557
558=back
559
560=head1 Configuration and Compilation
561
562XXX Changes to F<Configure>, F<installperl>, F<installman>, and analogous tools
563go here. Any other changes to the Perl build process should be listed here.
564However, any platform-specific changes should be listed in the
565L</Platform Support> section, instead.
566
567[ List changes as a =item entry ].
568
569=over 4
570
571=item *
572
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573C<make test.valgrind> now supports parallel testing.
574
575For example:
576
577 TEST_JOBS=9 make test.valgrind
578
579See L<perlhacktips/valgrind> for more information.
580
581L<[perl #121431]|https://rt.perl.org/Ticket/Display.html?id=121431>
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582
583=back
584
585=head1 Testing
586
587XXX Any significant changes to the testing of a freshly built perl should be
588listed here. Changes which create B<new> files in F<t/> go here as do any
589large changes to the testing harness (e.g. when parallel testing was added).
590Changes to existing files in F<t/> aren't worth summarizing, although the bugs
591that they represent may be covered elsewhere.
592
593[ List each test improvement as a =item entry ]
594
595=over 4
596
597=item *
598
599XXX
600
601=back
602
603=head1 Platform Support
604
605XXX Any changes to platform support should be listed in the sections below.
606
607[ Within the sections, list each platform as a =item entry with specific
608changes as paragraphs below it. ]
609
610=head2 New Platforms
611
612XXX List any platforms that this version of perl compiles on, that previous
613versions did not. These will either be enabled by new files in the F<hints/>
614directories, or new subdirectories and F<README> files at the top level of the
615source tree.
616
617=over 4
618
619=item XXX-some-platform
620
621XXX
622
623=back
624
625=head2 Discontinued Platforms
626
627XXX List any platforms that this version of perl no longer compiles on.
628
629=over 4
630
f05550c0 631=item NeXTSTEP/OPENSTEP
7065301c 632
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633NeXTSTEP was proprietary OS bundled with NeXT's workstations in the early
634to mid 90's; OPENSTEP was an API specification that provided a NeXTSTEP-like
635environment on a non-NeXTSTEP system. Both are now long dead, so support
636for building Perl on them has been removed.
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637
638=back
639
640=head2 Platform-Specific Notes
641
642XXX List any changes for specific platforms. This could include configuration
643and compilation changes or changes in portability/compatibility. However,
644changes within modules for platforms should generally be listed in the
645L</Modules and Pragmata> section.
646
647=over 4
648
649=item XXX-some-platform
650
651XXX
652
653=back
654
655=head1 Internal Changes
656
657XXX Changes which affect the interface available to C<XS> code go here. Other
658significant internal changes for future core maintainers should be noted as
659well.
660
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661=over 4
662
663=item *
664
8dab3ba5 665The deprecated variable C<PL_sv_objcount> has been removed.
7065301c 666
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667=item *
668
669Perl now tries to keep the locale category C<LC_NUMERIC> set to "C"
670except around operations that need it to be set to the program's
671underlying locale. This protects the many XS modules that cannot cope
672with the decimal radix character not being a dot. Prior to this
673release, Perl initialized this category to "C", but a call to
674C<POSIX::setlocale()> would change it. Now such a call will change the
675underlying locale of the C<LC_NUMERIC> category for the program, but the
676locale exposed to XS code will remain "C". There is an API under
677development for those relatively few modules that need to use the
678underlying locale. This API will be nailed down during the course of
679developing v5.21. Send email to L<mailto:perl5-porters@perl.org> for
680guidance.
681
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682=back
683
684=head1 Selected Bug Fixes
685
686XXX Important bug fixes in the core language are summarized here. Bug fixes in
687files in F<ext/> and F<lib/> are best summarized in L</Modules and Pragmata>.
688
689[ List each fix as a =item entry ]
690
691=over 4
692
693=item *
694
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695index() and rindex() no longer crash when used on strings over 2GB in
696size.
697L<[perl #121562]|https://rt.perl.org/Ticket/Display.html?id=121562>.
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699=item *
700
701A small previously intentional memory leak in PERL_SYS_INIT/PERL_SYS_INIT3 on
702Win32 builds was fixed. This might affect embedders who repeatedly create and
703destroy perl engines within the same process.
704
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705=item *
706
707C<POSIX::localeconv()> now returns the data for the program's underlying
708locale even when called from outside the scope of S<C<use locale>>.
709
03ceeedf
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710=item *
711
712C<POSIX::localeconv()> now works properly on platforms which don't have
713C<LC_NUMERIC> and/or C<LC_MONETARY>, or for which Perl has been compiled
714to disregard either or both of these locale categories. In such
715circumstances, there are now no entries for the corresponding values in
716the hash returned by C<localeconv()>.
717
c1284011
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718=item *
719
720C<POSIX::localeconv()> now marks appropriately the values it returns as
721UTF-8 or not. Previously they were always returned as a bytes, even if
722they were supposed to be encoded as UTF-8.
723
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724=item *
725
726On Microsoft Windows, within the scope of C<S<use locale>>, the following
727POSIX character classes gave results for many locales that did not
728conform to the POSIX standard:
729C<[[:alnum:]]>,
730C<[[:alpha:]]>,
731C<[[:blank:]]>,
732C<[[:digit:]]>,
733C<[[:graph:]]>,
734C<[[:lower:]]>,
735C<[[:print:]]>,
736C<[[:punct:]]>,
737C<[[:upper:]]>,
738C<[[:word:]]>,
739and
740C<[[:xdigit:]]>.
741These are because the underlying Microsoft implementation does not
742follow the standard. Perl now takes special precautions to correct for
743this.
744
2884baee
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745=item *
746
747Many issues have been detected by L<Coverity|http://www.coverity.com/> and
748fixed.
749
7065301c
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750=back
751
752=head1 Known Problems
753
754XXX Descriptions of platform agnostic bugs we know we can't fix go here. Any
755tests that had to be C<TODO>ed for the release would be noted here. Unfixed
756platform specific bugs also go here.
757
758[ List each fix as a =item entry ]
759
760=over 4
761
762=item *
763
764XXX
765
766=back
767
768=head1 Errata From Previous Releases
769
770=over 4
771
772=item *
773
774XXX Add anything here that we forgot to add, or were mistaken about, in
775the perldelta of a previous release.
776
777=back
778
779=head1 Obituary
780
781XXX If any significant core contributor has died, we've added a short obituary
782here.
783
784=head1 Acknowledgements
24a38d90 785
7065301c 786XXX Generate this with:
52e02e68 787
7065301c 788 perl Porting/acknowledgements.pl v5.21.1..HEAD
f5b73711 789
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790=head1 Reporting Bugs
791
e08634c5
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792If you find what you think is a bug, you might check the articles recently
793posted to the comp.lang.perl.misc newsgroup and the perl bug database at
238894db 794https://rt.perl.org/ . There may also be information at
7ef8b31d 795http://www.perl.org/ , the Perl Home Page.
44691e6f 796
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797If you believe you have an unreported bug, please run the L<perlbug> program
798included with your release. Be sure to trim your bug down to a tiny but
799sufficient test case. Your bug report, along with the output of C<perl -V>,
800will be sent off to perlbug@perl.org to be analysed by the Perl porting team.
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801
802If the bug you are reporting has security implications, which make it
e08634c5
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803inappropriate to send to a publicly archived mailing list, then please send it
804to perl5-security-report@perl.org. This points to a closed subscription
805unarchived mailing list, which includes all the core committers, who will be
806able to help assess the impact of issues, figure out a resolution, and help
f9001595 807co-ordinate the release of patches to mitigate or fix the problem across all
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808platforms on which Perl is supported. Please only use this address for
809security issues in the Perl core, not for modules independently distributed on
810CPAN.
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811
812=head1 SEE ALSO
813
e08634c5
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814The F<Changes> file for an explanation of how to view exhaustive details on
815what changed.
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816
817The F<INSTALL> file for how to build Perl.
818
819The F<README> file for general stuff.
820
821The F<Artistic> and F<Copying> files for copyright information.
822
823=cut