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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
12 (S) A severe warning (mandatory).
13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
748a9306 18Optional warnings are enabled by using the B<-w> switch. Warnings may
68dc0745 19be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}> to a reference to a routine that
20will be called on each warning instead of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
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21Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
22L<perlfunc/eval>.
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23
24Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are denoted with a %s,
2ba9eb46 25just as in a printf format. Note that some messages start with a %s!
702d120d 26The symbols C<"%(-?@> sort before the letters, while C<[> and C<\> sort after.
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27
28=over 4
29
30=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
31
32(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense
33to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use local()
34if you want to localize a package variable.
35
2ba9eb46 36=item "my" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same scope
37
fb73857a 38(W) A lexical variable has been redeclared in the same scope, effectively
2ba9eb46 39eliminating all access to the previous instance. This is almost always
8b1a09fc 40a typographical error. Note that the earlier variable will still exist
2ba9eb46 41until the end of the scope or until all closure referents to it are
42destroyed.
43
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44=item "no" not allowed in expression
45
46(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
47no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
48
49=item "use" not allowed in expression
50
51(F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
52no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
53
54=item % may only be used in unpack
55
5f05dabc 56(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
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57checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other
58way. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
59
60=item %s (...) interpreted as function
61
62(W) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator followed
8b1a09fc 63by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list operators arguments
5f05dabc 64found inside the parentheses. See L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
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65
66=item %s argument is not a HASH element
67
5f05dabc 68(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash element, such as
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69
70 $foo{$bar}
71 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
72
5f05dabc 73=item %s argument is not a HASH element or slice
74
75(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash element, such as
76
77 $foo{$bar}
78 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
79
80or a hash slice, such as
81
82 @foo{$bar, $baz, $xyzzy}
83 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
84
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85=item %s did not return a true value
86
87(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
88it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
89traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
90do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
91
92=item %s found where operator expected
93
94(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
95sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an operator,
96it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an operator or
97delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
98
f86702cc 99=item %s had compilation errors
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100
101(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
102
f86702cc 103=item %s has too many errors
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104
105(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
106Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
107
108=item %s matches null string many times
109
110(W) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
111regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See L<perlre>.
112
113=item %s never introduced
114
115(S) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of scope
116before it could possibly have been used.
117
118=item %s syntax OK
119
120(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
121
f86702cc 122=item %s: Command not found
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123
124(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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125of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
126Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 127
f86702cc 128=item %s: Expression syntax
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129
130(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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131of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
132Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 133
f86702cc 134=item %s: Undefined variable
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135
136(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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137of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
138Perl yourself.
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139
140=item %s: not found
141
8b1a09fc 142(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 143instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
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144into Perl yourself.
145
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146=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
147
148(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
149found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
150the previous line just because you saw this message.
151
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152=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
153
154(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
155which provides a race condition that breaks security.
156
157=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
158
159(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
160know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
161
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162=item C<-p> destination: %s
163
164(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
165command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
166redirected it with select().)
167
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168=item 500 Server error
169
170See Server error.
171
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172=item ?+* follows nothing in regexp
173
174(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it
175if you meant it literally. See L<perlre>.
176
177=item @ outside of string
178
2ba9eb46 179(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
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180the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
181
182=item accept() on closed fd
183
184(W) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
185the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/accept>.
186
187=item Allocation too large: %lx
188
54310121 189(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
55497cff 190
191=item Allocation too large
192
193(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes.
a0d0e21e 194
2ae324a7 195=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
196
2c268ad5 197(W) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and transliteration (tr///)
2ae324a7 198operators work on scalar values. If you apply one of them to an array
199or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to a scalar value -- the
200length of an array, or the population info of a hash -- and then work on
201that scalar value. This is probably not what you meant to do. See
202L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for alternatives.
203
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204=item Arg too short for msgsnd
205
206(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
207
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208=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
209
210(W)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
211you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
5f05dabc 212a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
748a9306 213
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214=item Args must match #! line
215
216(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
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217with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
218impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
219for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 220
f86702cc 221=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
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222
223(W) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator that
224expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
225will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
226
227=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
228
229(D) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some spots. This
230is now heavily deprecated.
231
232=item assertion botched: %s
233
234(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
235
236=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
237
238(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
239
240=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
241
242(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
243must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
244know which context to supply to the right side.
245
246=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
247
248(P) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas that will
249be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be outside any
250of those arenas.
251
54310121 252=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 253
254(P) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of strings to
255optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other strings. This
256indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count of a string
257that can no longer be found in the table.
258
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259=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
260
261(W) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the free_tmps()
262routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the SV before
263the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the free_tmps()
264routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does try to free
265it.
266
267=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
268
269(P) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
270
271=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
272
273(W) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to see if it
274would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0 earlier,
275and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed. This
276could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or that
277SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was mortalized
278when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been corrupted.
279
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280=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
281
282(W) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
283function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
284means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
285invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
286literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
287avoid this warning.
288
b7a902f4 289=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
290
291(W) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr() used
8b1a09fc 292as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
b7a902f4 293dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
294
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295=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
296
297(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl() or
2ba9eb46 298shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 299S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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300S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
301
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302=item Bad filehandle: %s
303
304(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the symbol
305has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or
306did it in another package.
307
308=item Bad free() ignored
309
310(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had never been
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311malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
312setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
313
314This message can be quite often seen with DB_File on systems with
315"hard" dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of
316C<Berkeley DB> which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving>
317system malloc().
a0d0e21e 318
aa689395 319=item Bad hash
320
321(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
322
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323=item Bad name after %s::
324
325(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then didn't
326finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes,
327so
328
329 $var = 'myvar';
330 $sym = mypack::$var;
331
332is not the same as
333
334 $var = 'myvar';
335 $sym = "mypack::$var";
336
337=item Bad symbol for array
338
339(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
340wasn't a symbol table entry.
341
342=item Bad symbol for filehandle
343
344(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something that
345wasn't a symbol table entry.
346
347=item Bad symbol for hash
348
349(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
350wasn't a symbol table entry.
351
8b1a09fc 352=item Badly placed ()'s
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353
354(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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355of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
356Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 357
3fe9a6f1 358=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
359
360(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
361subroutine identifier, in curly braces or to the left of the "=>" symbol.
54310121 362Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
3fe9a6f1 363
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364=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
365
366(W) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but
367the compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point.
368Perhaps you need to predeclare a package?
369
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370=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
371
372(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN subroutine.
373Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is exited.
374
68dc0745 375=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
376
377(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
378implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had
379already occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}>
380could not be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code
381likely depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
382
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383=item bind() on closed fd
384
385(W) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
386the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
387
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388=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
389
390(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not copiable.
391
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392=item Callback called exit
393
394(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via perl_call_sv()
395exited by calling exit.
396
0a753a76 397=item Can't "goto" outside a block
398
399(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look
400like a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually
401occurs if you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which
402is a no-no. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
403
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404=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
405
406(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a
407foreach loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
408
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409=item Can't "last" outside a block
410
411(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
412except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a
413current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a
0a753a76 414"loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can usually double
415the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner curlies
416will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/last>.
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417
418=item Can't "next" outside a block
419
420(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
421there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
0a753a76 422count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
423usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 424curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
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425
426=item Can't "redo" outside a block
427
428(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
429there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
0a753a76 430count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(). You can
431usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner
54310121 432curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
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433
434=item Can't bless non-reference value
435
436(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
437encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
438
439=item Can't break at that line
440
54310121 441(S) A warning intended to only be printed while running within the debugger, indicating
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442the line number specified wasn't the location of a statement that could
443be stopped at.
444
445=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
446
447(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
448functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
449in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
450
451=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
452
54310121 453(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
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454ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but
455you didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't
456an object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
457
458=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
459
460(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
461object reference or package name contains an expression that returns
462neither an object reference nor a package name. (Perhaps it's null?)
463Something like this will reproduce the error:
464
465 $BADREF = undef;
466 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
467 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
468
469=item Can't chdir to %s
470
471(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
472that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
473
474=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
475
476(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 477(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
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478say things like:
479
480 *foo += 1;
481
482You CAN say
483
484 $foo = *foo;
485 $foo += 1;
486
487but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
488
489=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
490
491(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 492(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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493
494=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
495
496(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 497(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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498
499=item Can't create pipe mailbox
500
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501(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted quotas
502or other plumbing problems.
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503
504=item Can't declare %s in my
505
5f05dabc 506(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as lexical variables.
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507They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
508
509=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
510
511(S) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated reason.
512
54310121 513=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 514
54310121 515(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try reading
3fe9a6f1 516from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say C<-i.bak>, or some
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517such.
518
8b1a09fc 519=item Can't do inplace edit: %s E<gt> 14 characters
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520
521(S) There isn't enough room in the filename to make a backup name for the file.
522
523=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
524
525(S) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as a file in
526/dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
527
528=item Can't do setegid!
529
530(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
531of suidperl.
532
533=item Can't do seteuid!
534
535(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
536
537=item Can't do setuid
538
539(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to
540do setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the
541form sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides
542under the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines.
543If the file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask
544your sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
545
546=item Can't do waitpid with flags
547
548(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only waitpid()
549without flags is emulated.
550
8b1a09fc 551=item Can't do {n,m} with n E<gt> m
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552
553(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
554your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. See L<perlre>.
555
556=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
557
558(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this point.
559For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #! line.
560
561=item Can't exec "%s": %s
562
5f05dabc 563(W) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the named
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564program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the permissions
565were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in C<$ENV{PATH}>, the
566executable in question was compiled for another architecture, or the
567#! line in a script points to an interpreter that can't be run for
568similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at all.)
569
570=item Can't exec %s
571
572(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because that's
573what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may need to
574mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
575
576=item Can't execute %s
577
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578(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute found
579in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
580
581=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
582
583(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
584in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The script
585exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
586
587=item Can't find %s on PATH
588
a0d0e21e 589(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
2a92aaa0 590in the PATH.
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591
592=item Can't find label %s
593
594(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's possible
595for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
596
597=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
598
599(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means that
5f05dabc 600the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count nesting
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601levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
602
fb73857a 603 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
604
605If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
606included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good
607programmer's editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e
LW
608
609=item Can't fork
610
611(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a pipeline.
612
748a9306
LW
613=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
614
615(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference between
616access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes. Under VMS,
617access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in the stat buffer, so
618that ACLs and other protections can be taken into account. Unfortunately, Perl
619assumes that the stat buffer contains all the necessary information, and passes
620it, instead of the filespec, to the access checking routine. It will try to
621retrieve the filespec using the device name and FID present in the stat buffer,
622but this works only if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat()
5f05dabc 623routine, because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
748a9306
LW
624appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up and
625returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking routine
626knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you shouldn't ever
627see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises only if some internal
628code takes stat buffers lightly.)
629
a0d0e21e
LW
630=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
631
748a9306
LW
632(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a pipe, Perl
633can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
634
635=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
636
748a9306
LW
637(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
638mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e
LW
639
640=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
641
642(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one subroutine
643call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole cloth. In general
5f05dabc 644you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine anyway. See
a0d0e21e
LW
645L<perlfunc/goto>.
646
b150fb22
RH
647=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
648
649(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval "string".
650(You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you probably don't want to.)
651
706a304b 652=item Can't localize through a reference
4633a7c4 653
706a304b
SM
654(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
655handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
656pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be
657sure that $ref will still be a reference.
4633a7c4 658
748a9306
LW
659=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
660
2ba9eb46 661(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
662lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
663localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
664package name.
665
4727527e
IZ
666=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
667
668(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows autoload,
669but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes are a misprint
670in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit> the file, say, by
671doing C<make install>.
672
a0d0e21e
LW
673=item Can't locate %s in @INC
674
7a2e2cd6 675(F) You said to do (or require, or use) a file that couldn't be found
54310121 676in any of the libraries mentioned in @INC. Perhaps you need to set the
677PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the extra library
678is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name to @INC. Or maybe
a0d0e21e
LW
679you just misspelled the name of the file. See L<perlfunc/require>.
680
681=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
682
683(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
684functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 685method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
686
687=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
688
689(W) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that doesn't seem
690to exist.
691
3e3baf6d
TB
692=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
693
694(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably VMS.
695
a0d0e21e
LW
696=item Can't modify %s in %s
697
698(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try to
5f05dabc 699change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 700
54310121 701=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
702
703(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
704a NULL.
705
5f05dabc 706=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 707
5f05dabc 708(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
709buffer.
710
711=item Can't open %s: %s
712
08e9d68e
DD
713(S) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<E<lt>E<gt>>
714filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
715switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
716is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named
717on the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
718
719=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
720
721(W) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported. You can
722try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such as
7e1af8bc 723IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using "E<gt>",
a0d0e21e
LW
724and then read it in under a different file handle.
725
748a9306
LW
726=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
727
728(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc 729couldn't open the file specified after '2E<gt>' or '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the
730command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
731
732=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
733
734(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc 735couldn't open the file specified after 'E<lt>' on the command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
736
737=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
738
739(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc 740couldn't open the file specified after 'E<gt>' or 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command
741line for writing.
748a9306
LW
742
743=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
744
745(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
746couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined for stdout.
747
a0d0e21e
LW
748=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
749
750(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
751
7bac28a0 752=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
753
754(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
755pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when it
756was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
757this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
758
a0d0e21e
LW
759=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
760
761(S) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason, probably because
762you don't have write permission to the directory.
763
748a9306
LW
764=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
765
766(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried to
767reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
768
a0d0e21e
LW
769=item Can't reswap uid and euid
770
771(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
772of suidperl.
773
774=item Can't return outside a subroutine
775
776(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
777there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
778
779=item Can't stat script "%s"
780
781(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have
782it open already. Bizarre.
783
784=item Can't swap uid and euid
785
786(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
787of suidperl.
788
789=item Can't take log of %g
790
fb73857a 791(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
792negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
793standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for
794the negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
795
796=item Can't take sqrt of %g
797
798(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a 799negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
800with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
801
802=item Can't undef active subroutine
803
804(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
805however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
806redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
807
808=item Can't unshift
809
810(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
811as the main Perl stack.
812
813=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
814
815(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making
816it into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are
817so specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This
818message indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
819
820=item Can't upgrade to undef
821
822(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme
823of upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the
824code calling sv_upgrade.
825
c07a80fd 826=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
827
828(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
8b1a09fc 829You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the E<lt>=E<gt> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd 830and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
831Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
832lexical variable.
833
a0d0e21e
LW
834=item Can't use %s for loop variable
835
836(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a foreach.
837
838=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
839
840(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
841reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
842test the type of the reference, if need be.
843
748a9306
LW
844=item Can't use \1 to mean $1 in expression
845
846(W) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that creates
847a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a backreference
5f05dabc 848to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular expression pattern.
748a9306
LW
849Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints
850out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form instead.
851
44a8e56a 852=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while \"strict refs\" in use
853
854(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
855are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
856
748a9306 857=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e
LW
858
859(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
860are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
861
862=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
863
864(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
54310121 865be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
a0d0e21e 866
a0d0e21e
LW
867=item Can't use global %s in "my"
868
869(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This is
5f05dabc 870not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location (namely
a0d0e21e
LW
871the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to have
872variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
873weren't.
874
748a9306
LW
875=item Can't use subscript on %s
876
877(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
878subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
879didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
880
a0d0e21e
LW
881=item Can't write to temp file for B<-e>: %s
882
883(F) The write routine failed for some reason while trying to process
884a B<-e> switch. Maybe your /tmp partition is full, or clobbered.
885
5f05dabc 886=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e
LW
887
888(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value) with
889an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
890Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
891
51fa4eea
JH
892=item Cannot create temporary file "%s"
893
894(F) A temporary file could not created for some reason while trying to
895process a B<-e> switch. Maybe your temporary file partition is full,
896or over-protected, or clobbered.
897
b6c543e3
IZ
898=item Cannot find an opnumber for "%s"
899
900(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but
901there is no builtin with the name C<word>.
902
51fa4eea 903=item Cannot generate temporary filename
a0d0e21e 904
51fa4eea
JH
905(F) While trying to process a B<-e> switch, a filename for a temporary
906file could not be generated. Maybe your temporary file partition is
907full, or over-protected, or clobbered.
a0d0e21e 908
e7ea3e70
IZ
909=item Cannot resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
910
911(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
912opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
913package. If method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
914
4599a1de
JH
915=item Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions
916
917(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
918with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
919If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
920expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
921backslash: "\[." and ".\]".
922
923=item Character class syntax [: :] is reserved for future extensions
924
925(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
926with "[:" and ending with ":]" is reserved for future extensions.
927If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
928expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
929backslash: "\[:" and ":\]".
930
931=item Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions
932
933(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
934beginning with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions.
935If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
936expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
937backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".
938
a0d0e21e
LW
939=item chmod: mode argument is missing initial 0
940
941(W) A novice will sometimes say
942
943 chmod 777, $filename
944
945not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number, equivalent
946to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in Perl, as in C.
947
8b1a09fc 948=item Close on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
949
950(W) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
951
7a2e2cd6 952=item Compilation failed in require
953
954(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
955Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it encountered
956were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
957
a0d0e21e
LW
958=item connect() on closed fd
959
960(W) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
961the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/connect>.
962
4cee8e80
CS
963=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
964
965(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
966inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
967workarounds.
968
9607fc9c 969=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
970
971(S) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
972inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
973workarounds.
974
e7ea3e70
IZ
975=item Copy method did not return a reference
976
977(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
978
a0d0e21e
LW
979=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
980
981(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
982
983=item corrupted regexp pointers
984
985(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
986expression compiler gave it.
987
988=item corrupted regexp program
989
990(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without
991a valid magic number.
992
993=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
994
995(W) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly) 100
3e3baf6d 996times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an infinite
a0d0e21e
LW
997recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in which
998case it indicates something else.
999
fc36a67e 1000=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1001
1002(F) In a here document construct like C<E<lt>E<lt>FOO>, the label
1003C<FOO> is too long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously
1004twisted to write code that triggers this error.
1005
4633a7c4
LW
1006=item Did you mean &%s instead?
1007
1008(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some such.
1009
748a9306 1010=item Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?
a0d0e21e 1011
748a9306
LW
1012(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or @hash{@keys}.
1013On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got carried away.
1014
7e1af8bc 1015=item Died
5f05dabc 1016
1017(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1018you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1019
54310121 1020=item Do you need to predeclare %s?
748a9306
LW
1021
1022(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1023found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1024name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1025because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
1026"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're
1027referencing something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have
1028to define the subroutine or package before the current location. You
1029can use an empty "sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward"
1030declaration.
a0d0e21e
LW
1031
1032=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1033
1034(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1035
1036=item do_study: out of memory
1037
1038(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1039
1040=item Duplicate free() ignored
1041
1042(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had already
1043been freed.
1044
4633a7c4
LW
1045=item elseif should be elsif
1046
1047(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1048ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1049named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
1050unlikely to be what you want.
1051
a0d0e21e
LW
1052=item END failed--cleanup aborted
1053
1054(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing an END subroutine.
1055The interpreter is immediately exited.
1056
748a9306
LW
1057=item Error converting file specification %s
1058
5f05dabc 1059(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306
LW
1060specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
1061single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've
1062passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a
1063case the conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
1064
fc36a67e 1065=item Excessively long <> operator
1066
1067(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1068Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1069filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1070variable and glob that.
1071
f86702cc 1072=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1073
1074(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1075
1076=item Exiting eval via %s
1077
8b1a09fc 1078(W) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1079a goto, or a loop control statement.
1080
0a753a76 1081=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1082
1083(W) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a sort block or
1084subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a loop control
1085statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1086
a0d0e21e
LW
1087=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1088
8b1a09fc 1089(W) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1090a goto, or a loop control statement.
1091
1092=item Exiting substitution via %s
1093
8b1a09fc 1094(W) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1095a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
1096
748a9306 1097=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1098
748a9306
LW
1099(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS system
1100service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more details. The
1101filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell you which section of
1102the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1103
1104=item fcntl is not implemented
1105
1106(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1107PDP-11 or something?
1108
1109=item Filehandle %s never opened
1110
1111(W) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was never initialized.
1112You need to do an open() or a socket() call, or call a constructor from
1113the FileHandle package.
1114
5f05dabc 1115=item Filehandle %s opened for only input
a0d0e21e
LW
1116
1117(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
1118intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1119"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 1120you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 1121L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1122
5f05dabc 1123=item Filehandle opened for only input
a0d0e21e
LW
1124
1125(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
1126intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1127"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 1128you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 1129L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1130
1131=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1132
1133(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
1134a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1135that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1136the name.
1137
1138=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1139
1140(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
1141a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1142that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1143the name.
1144
1145=item Format %s redefined
1146
1147(W) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
1148
1149 {
1150 local $^W = 0;
1151 eval "format NAME =...";
1152 }
1153
1154=item Format not terminated
1155
1156(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1157to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1158
1159=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1160
1161(W) You said
1162
1163 if ($foo = 123)
1164
1165when you meant
1166
1167 if ($foo == 123)
1168
1169(or something like that).
1170
1171=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1172
1173(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1174
1175=item gethostent not implemented
1176
1177(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1178because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1179on the Internet.
1180
1181=item get{sock,peer}name() on closed fd
1182
1183(W) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed socket.
1184Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
1185
748a9306
LW
1186=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1187
1188(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1189C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1190
1191
a0d0e21e
LW
1192=item Glob not terminated
1193
1194(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
1195a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
1196finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
1197the line, and you really meant a "less than".
1198
1199=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1200
68dc0745 1201(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
1202must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), or explicitly qualified to
a0d0e21e
LW
1203say which package the global variable is in (using "::").
1204
1205=item goto must have label
1206
1207(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1208unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1209
1210=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1211
1212(S) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought to have
1213existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be created on
1214an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
1215
1216=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1217
1218(D) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some spots. This
1219is now heavily deprecated.
1220
8903cb82 1221=item Identifier too long
1222
1223(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 1224about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
1225names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future
1226versions of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1227
8b1a09fc 1228=item Ill-formed logical name |%s| in prime_env_iter
a0d0e21e 1229
8b1a09fc 1230(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. A logical name was encountered when preparing
1231to iterate over %ENV which violates the syntactic rules governing logical
5f05dabc 1232names. Because it cannot be translated normally, it is skipped, and will not
1233appear in %ENV. This may be a benign occurrence, as some software packages
54310121 1234might directly modify logical name tables and introduce nonstandard names,
8b1a09fc 1235or it may indicate that a logical name table has been corrupted.
a0d0e21e 1236
4fdae800 1237=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1238
1239(F) A carriage return character was found in the input. This is an
1240error, and not a warning, because carriage return characters can break
54310121 1241multi-line strings, including here documents (e.g., C<print E<lt>E<lt>EOF;>).
1242
1243Under Unix, this error is usually caused by executing Perl code --
68dc0745 1244either the main program, a module, or an eval'd string -- that was
54310121 1245transferred over a network connection from a non-Unix system without
68dc0745 1246properly converting the text file format.
1247
1248Under systems that use something other than '\n' to delimit lines of
1249text, this error can also be caused by reading Perl code from a file
1250handle that is in binary mode (as set by the C<binmode> operator).
1251
1252In either case, the Perl code in question will probably need to be
1253converted with something like C<s/\x0D\x0A?/\n/g> before it can be
1254executed.
4fdae800 1255
a0d0e21e
LW
1256=item Illegal division by zero
1257
1258(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in your
1259logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against meaningless input.
1260
1261=item Illegal modulus zero
1262
1263(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most numbers
1264don't take to this kindly.
1265
1266=item Illegal octal digit
1267
1268(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1269
748a9306
LW
1270=item Illegal octal digit ignored
1271
1272(W) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number. Interpretation
1273of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
1274
54310121 1275=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
1276
1277(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1278following switches: B<-[DIMUdmw]>.
1279
9607fc9c 1280=item In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s
1281
1282(F) It used to be that Perl would try to guess whether you wanted an
1283array interpolated or a literal @. It did this when the string was first
1284used at runtime. Now strings are parsed at compile time, and ambiguous
1285instances of @ must be disambiguated, either by prepending a backslash to
1286indicate a literal, or by declaring (or using) the array within the
1287program before the string (lexically). (Someday it will simply assume
1288that an unbackslashed @ interpolates an array.)
1289
a0d0e21e
LW
1290=item Insecure dependency in %s
1291
8b1a09fc 1292(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
a0d0e21e
LW
1293The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or setgid,
1294or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The tainting mechanism
1295labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly from the user,
1296who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any such data is
1297used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See L<perlsec>
1298for more information.
1299
1300=item Insecure directory in %s
1301
1302(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid
8b1a09fc 1303script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by the world.
a0d0e21e
LW
1304See L<perlsec>.
1305
1306=item Insecure PATH
1307
1308(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
8b1a09fc 1309setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> is derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1310potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1311known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1312
bbce6d69 1313=item Integer overflow in hex number
1314
1315(S) The literal hex number you have specified is too big for your
1316architecture. On a 32-bit architecture the largest hex literal is
13170xFFFFFFFF.
1318
1319=item Integer overflow in octal number
1320
1321(S) The literal octal number you have specified is too big for your
1322architecture. On a 32-bit architecture the largest octal literal is
1323037777777777.
1324
748a9306
LW
1325=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1326
1327(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number
5f05dabc 1328of times you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine
2ba9eb46 1329whether the current call to C<exec> should affect the current
748a9306
LW
1330script or a subprocess (see L<perlvms/exec>). Somehow, this count
1331has become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating
1332this C<exec> as a request to terminate the Perl script
1333and execute the specified command.
1334
a0d0e21e
LW
1335=item internal disaster in regexp
1336
1337(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
1338
5cd24f17 1339=item internal error: glob failed
1340
1341(P) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for C<glob>
1342and C<E<lt>*.cE<gt>>. This may mean that your csh (C shell) is
1343broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1344config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1345were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1346empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1347think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
1348C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
1349
a0d0e21e
LW
1350=item internal urp in regexp at /%s/
1351
1352(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.
1353
1354=item invalid [] range in regexp
1355
1356(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
1357greater than the maximum character. See L<perlre>.
1358
c635e13b 1359=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1360
878e08df 1361(W) Perl does not understand the given format conversion.
c635e13b 1362See L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
1363
96e4d5b1 1364=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1365
8903cb82 1366(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
fb73857a 1367(W) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be silently
1368ignored.
96e4d5b1 1369
1370=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1371
8903cb82 1372(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
fb73857a 1373(W) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be silently
1374ignored.
96e4d5b1 1375
a0d0e21e
LW
1376=item ioctl is not implemented
1377
1378(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1379strange for a machine that supports C.
1380
1381=item junk on end of regexp
1382
1383(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1384
1385=item Label not found for "last %s"
1386
1387(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a
1388loop of that name, not even if you count where you were called from.
1389See L<perlfunc/last>.
1390
1391=item Label not found for "next %s"
1392
1393(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1394that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1395L<perlfunc/last>.
1396
1397=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1398
1399(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1400that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1401L<perlfunc/last>.
1402
1403=item listen() on closed fd
1404
1405(W) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1406the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/listen>.
1407
a0d0e21e
LW
1408=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1409
1410(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1411doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1412
1413=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1414
1415(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1416by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1417ended earlier on the current line.
1418
1419=item Misplaced _ in number
1420
1421(W) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
1422
1423=item Missing $ on loop variable
1424
8b1a09fc 1425(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables are always
1426mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from
a0d0e21e
LW
1427one line to the next.
1428
1429=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1430
1431(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1432"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1433
748a9306
LW
1434=item Missing operator before %s?
1435
1436(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1437found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1438
a0d0e21e
LW
1439=item Missing right bracket
1440
1441(F) The lexer counted more opening curly brackets (braces) than closing ones.
1442As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you were last
1443editing.
1444
a0d0e21e
LW
1445=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1446
1447(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1448constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1449catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1450
1451 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1452 mod(2);
1453
1454Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1455
54310121 1456=item Modification of noncreatable array value attempted, subscript %d
a0d0e21e
LW
1457
1458(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1459subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1460backwards.
1461
54310121 1462=item Modification of noncreatable hash value attempted, subscript "%s"
a0d0e21e
LW
1463
1464(F) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it couldn't
1465be created for some peculiar reason.
1466
1467=item Module name must be constant
1468
1469(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1470
1471=item msg%s not implemented
1472
1473(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1474
1475=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1476
8b1a09fc 1477(W) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>. They're written
1478like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
1479
1480=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1481
68dc0745 1482(W) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
1483If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention
1484it again somehow to suppress the message. The C<use vars> pragma is
1485provided for just this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
1486
1487=item Negative length
1488
1489(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer length
1490that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
1491
1492=item nested *?+ in regexp
1493
5f05dabc 1494(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
a0d0e21e
LW
1495things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal.
1496
5f05dabc 1497Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and C<??> appear
a0d0e21e
LW
1498to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
1499
1500=item No #! line
1501
1502(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1503even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
1504
1505=item No %s allowed while running setuid
1506
1507(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or setgid
1508script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there will be
1509another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least securable.
1510See L<perlsec>.
1511
1512=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
1513
1514(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
1515
1516=item No comma allowed after %s
1517
1518(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
1519allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
1520Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
1521
0a753a76 1522One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
1523constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
1524importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
1525does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
1526explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
1527L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
1528would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
1529remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
1530constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
1531list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
1532this error was triggered?
1533
748a9306
LW
1534=item No command into which to pipe on command line
1535
1536(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
54310121 1537and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know where you
748a9306
LW
1538want to pipe the output from this command.
1539
a0d0e21e
LW
1540=item No DB::DB routine defined
1541
1542(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1543but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1544didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
1545statement. Which is odd, because the file should have been required
1546automatically, and should have blown up the require if it didn't parse
1547right.
1548
1549=item No dbm on this machine
1550
1551(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 1552supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1553
1554=item No DBsub routine
1555
1556(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1557but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1558didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
1559ordinary subroutine call.
1560
8b1a09fc 1561=item No error file after 2E<gt> or 2E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1562
1563(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc 1564and found a '2E<gt>' or a '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find
1565the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 1566
8b1a09fc 1567=item No input file after E<lt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1568
1569(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc 1570and found a 'E<lt>' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file
1571from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 1572
8b1a09fc 1573=item No output file after E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1574
1575(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc 1576and found a lone 'E<gt>' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know
54310121 1577where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 1578
8b1a09fc 1579=item No output file after E<gt> or E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1580
1581(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc 1582and found a 'E<gt>' or a 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find the
1583name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 1584
a0d0e21e
LW
1585=item No Perl script found in input
1586
1587(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
1588with #! and containing the word "perl".
1589
1590=item No setregid available
1591
1592(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
1593your system.
1594
1595=item No setreuid available
1596
1597(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
1598your system.
1599
1600=item No space allowed after B<-I>
1601
1602(F) The argument to B<-I> must follow the B<-I> immediately with no
1603intervening space.
1604
748a9306
LW
1605=item No such pipe open
1606
1607(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
1608close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught earlier as
1609an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
1610
a0d0e21e
LW
1611=item No such signal: SIG%s
1612
1613(W) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was not recognized.
1614Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
1615
1616=item Not a CODE reference
1617
1618(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1619subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1620use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1621See also L<perlref>.
1622
1623=item Not a format reference
1624
1625(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
1626format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
1627
1628=item Not a GLOB reference
1629
55497cff 1630(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is,
a0d0e21e
LW
1631a symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
1632something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out
1633what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1634
1635=item Not a HASH reference
1636
1637(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but
1638found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1639function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1640
1641=item Not a perl script
1642
1643(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1644even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
1645mention perl.
1646
1647=item Not a SCALAR reference
1648
1649(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but
1650found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1651function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1652
1653=item Not a subroutine reference
1654
1655(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1656subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1657use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1658See also L<perlref>.
1659
e7ea3e70 1660=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
1661
1662(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 1663doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1664
1665=item Not an ARRAY reference
1666
1667(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but
1668found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1669function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1670
1671=item Not enough arguments for %s
1672
1673(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
1674
1675=item Not enough format arguments
1676
1677(W) A format specified more picture fields than the next line supplied.
1678See L<perlform>.
1679
1680=item Null filename used
1681
5f05dabc 1682(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many machines
a0d0e21e
LW
1683that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
1684
55497cff 1685=item Null picture in formline
1686
1687(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
1688specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
1689supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
1690
a0d0e21e
LW
1691=item NULL OP IN RUN
1692
1693(P) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode pointer.
1694
1695=item Null realloc
1696
1697(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
1698
1699=item NULL regexp argument
1700
5f05dabc 1701(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
1702
1703=item NULL regexp parameter
1704
1705(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
1706
fc36a67e 1707=item Number too long
1708
1709(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to about
1710about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future versions of
1711Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In the meantime,
1712try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of "1_000_000").
1713
a0d0e21e
LW
1714=item Odd number of elements in hash list
1715
1716(S) You specified an odd number of elements to a hash list, which is odd,
5f05dabc 1717because hash lists come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 1718
bbce6d69 1719=item Offset outside string
1720
1721(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
1722pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine.
1723The sole exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer
1724will extend the buffer and zero pad the new area.
1725
a0d0e21e
LW
1726=item oops: oopsAV
1727
1728(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
1729
1730=item oops: oopsHV
1731
1732(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
1733
e7ea3e70 1734=item Operation `%s': no method found,%s
44a8e56a 1735
e7ea3e70
IZ
1736(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which
1737no handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in
1738terms of other handlers, there is no default handler for any
1739operation, unless C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be
1740true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 1741
748a9306
LW
1742=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
1743
1744(S) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser was
1745expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant
1746to use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect.
1747For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as
1748if you said "*foo * 'foo'".
1749
a0d0e21e
LW
1750=item Out of memory for yacc stack
1751
1752(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue parsing,
1753but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or otherwise.
1754
1755=item Out of memory!
1756
55497cff 1757(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
54310121 1758remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.
eff9c6e2
CS
1759
1760The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
1761depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
1762However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as
1763an emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the
55497cff 1764error is trappable I<once>.
1765
1766=item Out of memory during request for %s
1767
1768(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
1769remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
1770the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so
1771a possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
1772
a0d0e21e
LW
1773=item page overflow
1774
1775(W) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a page.
1776See L<perlform>.
1777
1778=item panic: ck_grep
1779
1780(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
1781
1782=item panic: ck_split
1783
1784(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
1785
1786=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
1787
1788(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than there
1789are in the savestack.
1790
1791=item panic: die %s
1792
1793(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
1794it wasn't an eval context.
1795
1796=item panic: do_match
1797
1798(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1799
1800=item panic: do_split
1801
1802(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
1803
1804=item panic: do_subst
1805
1806(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1807
1808=item panic: do_trans
1809
1810(P) The internal do_trans() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1811
c635e13b 1812=item panic: frexp
1813
1814(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
1815
a0d0e21e
LW
1816=item panic: goto
1817
1818(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
1819and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
1820
1821=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
1822
1823(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
1824
1825=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
1826
1827(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
1828
1829=item panic: last
1830
1831(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
1832it wasn't a block context.
1833
1834=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
1835
5f05dabc 1836(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
1837
1838=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
1839
1840(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
1841invalid enum on the top of it.
1842
1843=item panic: malloc
1844
1845(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
1846
1847=item panic: mapstart
1848
1849(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
1850
1851=item panic: null array
1852
1853(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
1854
1855=item panic: pad_alloc
1856
1857(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1858and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1859
1860=item panic: pad_free curpad
1861
1862(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1863and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1864
1865=item panic: pad_free po
1866
1867(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1868
1869=item panic: pad_reset curpad
1870
1871(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1872and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1873
1874=item panic: pad_sv po
1875
1876(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1877
1878=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
1879
1880(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1881and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1882
1883=item panic: pad_swipe po
1884
1885(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1886
1887=item panic: pp_iter
1888
1889(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
1890
1891=item panic: realloc
1892
1893(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
1894
1895=item panic: restartop
1896
1897(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
1898didn't supply the destination.
1899
1900=item panic: return
1901
1902(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
1903then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
1904
1905=item panic: scan_num
1906
1907(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
1908
1909=item panic: sv_insert
1910
1911(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
1912was string.
1913
1914=item panic: top_env
1915
1916(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
1917
1918=item panic: yylex
1919
1920(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
1921
5f05dabc 1922=item Pareneses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e
LW
1923
1924(W) You said something like
1925
1926 my $foo, $bar = @_;
1927
1928when you meant
1929
1930 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
1931
1932Remember that "my" and "local" bind closer than comma.
1933
1934=item Perl %3.3f required--this is only version %s, stopped
1935
1936(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more recent
1937than the currently running version. How long has it been since you upgraded,
1938anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
1939
1940=item Permission denied
1941
1942(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
1943
748a9306
LW
1944=item pid %d not a child
1945
1946(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a process which
1947isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is fine from VMS'
1948perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
1949
a0d0e21e
LW
1950=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
1951
1952(F) Your C compiler uses POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
1953the BSD version, which takes a pid.
1954
bbce6d69 1955=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
1956
774d564b 1957(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
1958strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated
1959as literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
1960exclamation marks parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently
1961used.)
bbce6d69 1962
774d564b 1963You probably wrote something like this:
1964
54310121 1965 @list = qw(
774d564b 1966 a # a comment
bbce6d69 1967 b # another comment
774d564b 1968 );
bbce6d69 1969
1970when you should have written this:
1971
774d564b 1972 @list = qw(
54310121 1973 a
1974 b
774d564b 1975 );
1976
1977If you really want comments, build your list the
1978old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
1979
1980 @list = (
1981 'a', # a comment
1982 'b', # another comment
1983 );
bbce6d69 1984
1985=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
1986
774d564b 1987(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore commas
68dc0745 1988aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used different
774d564b 1989delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently
1990used.)
bbce6d69 1991
54310121 1992You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 1993
774d564b 1994 qw! a, b, c !;
1995
1996which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
1997commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 1998
774d564b 1999 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2000
a0d0e21e
LW
2001=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2002
2003(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2004Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2005end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2006Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2007
2008=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
2009
2010(S) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 2011
a0d0e21e
LW
2012 open FOO || die;
2013
2014is now misinterpreted as
2015
2016 open(FOO || die);
2017
68dc0745 2018because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary
2019and list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must
2020put parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator
2021instead of "||".
a0d0e21e
LW
2022
2023=item print on closed filehandle %s
2024
2025(W) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime before now.
2026Check your logic flow.
2027
2028=item printf on closed filehandle %s
2029
2030(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2031Check your logic flow.
2032
2033=item Probable precedence problem on %s
2034
54310121 2035(W) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a conditional,
a0d0e21e
LW
2036which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part of the
2037last argument of the previous construct, for example:
2038
2039 open FOO || die;
2040
3fe9a6f1 2041=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2042
3fe9a6f1 2043(S) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been declared
2044or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2045
8b1a09fc 2046=item Read on closed filehandle E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2047
2048(W) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime before now.
2049Check your logic flow.
2050
2051=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2052
54310121 2053(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e
LW
2054
2055=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2056
2057(F) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce the
2058desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
2059which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2060
2061=item Recursive inheritance detected
2062
2063(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2064an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2065
2066=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2067
2068(W) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with a
2069reference count of other than 1.
2070
fb73857a 2071=item regexp *+ operand could be empty
2072
2073(F) The part of the regexp subject to either the * or + quantifier
2074could match an empty string.
2075
a0d0e21e
LW
2076=item regexp memory corruption
2077
2078(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
2079expression compiler gave it.
2080
2081=item regexp out of space
2082
2083(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it earlier.
2084
2085=item regexp too big
2086
2ba9eb46 2087(F) The current implementation of regular expressions uses shorts as
a0d0e21e
LW
2088address offsets within a string. Unfortunately this means that if
2089the regular expression compiles to longer than 32767, it'll blow up.
2090Usually when you want a regular expression this big, there is a better
2091way to do it with multiple statements. See L<perlre>.
2092
2093=item Reversed %s= operator
2094
2095(W) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must always
2096comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
2097
2098=item Runaway format
2099
2100(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
2101produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
2102199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
2103themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
2104shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
2105
2106=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
2107
a6006777 2108(W) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
a0d0e21e 2109an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
8b1a09fc 2110The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2111assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves
a0d0e21e 2112like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
5f05dabc 2113subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 2114
748a9306 2115On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 2116element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
2117Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2118L<perlref>.
2119
a6006777 2120=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
2121
2122(W) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
2123a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
2124The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2125assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves
2126like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
2127subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
2128
2129On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash
2130element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
2131Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2132L<perlref>.
2133
a0d0e21e
LW
2134=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
2135
54310121 2136(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
2137or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
2138
2139=item Search pattern not terminated
2140
2141(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
2142construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2143Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2144
96e4d5b1 2145=item %sseek() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2146
96e4d5b1 2147(W) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a filehandle that
2148was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2149
2150=item select not implemented
2151
2152(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
2153
2154=item sem%s not implemented
2155
2156(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
2157
2158=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
2159
2160(S) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a scalar
2161that had previously been marked as free.
2162
2163=item Semicolon seems to be missing
2164
2165(W) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing semicolon,
2166or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
2167
2168=item Send on closed socket
2169
2170(W) The filehandle you're sending to got itself closed sometime before now.
2171Check your logic flow.
2172
1b1626e4
MG
2173=item Sequence (? incomplete
2174(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?.
2175See L<perlre>.
2176
a0d0e21e
LW
2177=item Sequence (?#... not terminated
2178
2179(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
5f05dabc 2180parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2181
2182=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented
2183
2184(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved
2185but has not yet been written. See L<perlre>.
2186
2187=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized
2188
2189(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
2190See L<perlre>.
2191
a5f75d66
AD
2192=item Server error
2193
9607fc9c 2194Also known as "500 Server error".
2195
2196B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
2197
2198You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the user
2199CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user account you
2200tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables (like PATH)
2201from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a location where the CGI
2202server can't find it, basically, more or less. Please see the following
2203for more information:
2204
2205 http://www.perl.com/perl/faq/idiots-guide.html
2206 http://www.perl.com/perl/faq/perl-cgi-faq.html
2207 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/www/cgi-faq
2208 http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/interface.html
2209 http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/WWW/faqs/www-security-faq.html
a5f75d66 2210
a0d0e21e
LW
2211=item setegid() not implemented
2212
8b1a09fc 2213(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2214the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2215think so.
2216
2217=item seteuid() not implemented
2218
8b1a09fc 2219(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<gt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2220the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2221think so.
2222
2223=item setrgid() not implemented
2224
8b1a09fc 2225(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2226the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2227think so.
2228
2229=item setruid() not implemented
2230
1f8d2005 2231(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<lt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2232the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2233think so.
2234
2235=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
2236
2237(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the world,
2238because the world might have written on it already.
2239
2240=item shm%s not implemented
2241
2242(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
2243
2244=item shutdown() on closed fd
2245
2246(W) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit superfluous.
2247
f86702cc 2248=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e
LW
2249
2250(W) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist. Perhaps you
2251put it into the wrong package?
2252
2253=item sort is now a reserved word
2254
2255(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
2256But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
2257
2258=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
2259
2260(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
4633a7c4 2261it by not using C<E<lt>=E<gt>> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
2262See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2263
2264=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
2265
2266(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
2267or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2268
2269=item Split loop
2270
2271(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't iterate
2272more times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)
2273See L<perlfunc/split>.
2274
8b1a09fc 2275=item Stat on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2276
2277(W) You tried to use the stat() function (or an equivalent file test)
54310121 2278on a filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2279
2280=item Statement unlikely to be reached
2281
2282(W) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a die().
2283This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns unless
2284there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system() instead,
2285which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in a block
2286by itself.
2287
e7ea3e70
IZ
2288=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
2289
2290(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation stubs.
2291Stubs should never be implicitely created, but explicit calls to C<can>
2292may break this.
2293
a0d0e21e
LW
2294=item Subroutine %s redefined
2295
2296(W) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
2297
2298 {
2299 local $^W = 0;
2300 eval "sub name { ... }";
2301 }
2302
2303=item Substitution loop
2304
2305(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a
2306substitution shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of
68dc0745 2307input, which is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 2308L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2309
2310=item Substitution pattern not terminated
2311
2312(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2313construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2314Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2315
2316=item Substitution replacement not terminated
2317
2318(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2319construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2320Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2321
2322=item substr outside of string
2323
3e3baf6d
TB
2324(S),(W) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of a
2325string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
2326length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is
2327mandatory if substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side
2328of an assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 2329
f86702cc 2330=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2331
2332(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but a
2333version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
2334
2335=item syntax error
2336
2337(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
2338
2339 A keyword is misspelled.
2340 A semicolon is missing.
2341 A comma is missing.
2342 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
2343 An opening or closing brace is missing.
2344 A closing quote is missing.
2345
2346Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
2347error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
2348The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
2349it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 2350before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
2351Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
2352the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
2353C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
2354if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20 questions>.
2355
cb1a09d0
AD
2356=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
2357
8b1a09fc 2358(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 2359instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2360into Perl yourself.
2361
a0d0e21e
LW
2362=item System V IPC is not implemented on this machine
2363
5f05dabc 2364(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem", "shm",
a0d0e21e
LW
2365or "msg". See L<perlfunc/semctl>, for example.
2366
2367=item Syswrite on closed filehandle
2368
2369(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2370Check your logic flow.
2371
fc36a67e 2372=item Target of goto is too deeply nested
2373
2374(F) You tried to use C<goto> to reach a label that was too deeply
2375nested for Perl to reach. Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.
2376
8903cb82 2377=item tell() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2378
8903cb82 2379(W) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that was either
2380never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e 2381
8b1a09fc 2382=item Test on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2383
2384(W) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle that isn't
2385open. Check your logic. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2386
2387=item That use of $[ is unsupported
2388
8b1a09fc 2389(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted as
5f05dabc 2390a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
2391
2392 $[ = 0;
2393 $[ = 1;
2394 ...
2395 local $[ = 0;
2396 local $[ = 1;
2397 ...
2398
2399This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base
2400out from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
2401
2402=item The %s function is unimplemented
2403
2404The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
2405to the probings of Configure.
2406
f86702cc 2407=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
a0d0e21e
LW
2408
2409(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
2410probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 2411think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
2412will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
2413will deny it.
2414
2415=item The stat preceding C<-l _> wasn't an lstat
2416
2417(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic linkhood
2418if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went past
2419the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename instead.
2420
2421=item times not implemented
2422
2423(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I suspect
2424you're not running on Unix.
2425
2426=item Too few args to syscall
2427
2428(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
2429system call to call, silly dilly.
2430
9607fc9c 2431=item Too late for "B<-T>" option
2432
2433(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
8cc95fdb 2434B<-T> option, but Perl was not invoked with B<-T> in its command line.
2435This is an error because, by the time Perl discovers a B<-T> in a
2436script, it's too late to properly taint everything from the environment.
2437So Perl gives up.
f86702cc 2438
9607fc9c 2439If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!
2440mechanism (or its local equivalent), this error can usually be fixed
2441by editing the #! line so that the B<-T> option is a part of Perl's
2442first argument: e.g. change C<perl -n -T> to C<perl -T -n>.
f86702cc 2443
9607fc9c 2444If the Perl script is being executed as C<perl scriptname>, then the
2445B<-T> option must appear on the command line: C<perl -T scriptname>.
f86702cc 2446
8cc95fdb 2447=item Too late for "-%s" option
2448
2449(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
2450B<-M> or B<-m> option. This is an error because B<-M> and B<-m> options
2451are not intended for use inside scripts. Use the C<use> pragma instead.
2452
cb1a09d0
AD
2453=item Too many ('s
2454
2455=item Too many )'s
2456
2457(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
2458of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
2459Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 2460
a0d0e21e
LW
2461=item Too many args to syscall
2462
5f05dabc 2463(F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().
a0d0e21e
LW
2464
2465=item Too many arguments for %s
2466
2467(F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.
2468
2469=item trailing \ in regexp
2470
2471(F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash. Backslash
2472it. See L<perlre>.
2473
2c268ad5 2474=item Transliteration pattern not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
2475
2476(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
fb73857a 2477or y/// or y[][] construct. Missing the leading C<$> from variables
2478C<$tr> or C<$y> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2479
2c268ad5 2480=item Transliteration replacement not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
2481
2482(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
2483construct.
2484
2485=item truncate not implemented
2486
2487(F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that
2488Configure knows about.
2489
2490=item Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
2491
2492(F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
8b1a09fc 2493certain type. Arrays must be @NAME or C<@{EXPR}>. Hashes must be
2494%NAME or C<%{EXPR}>. No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
a0d0e21e
LW
2495{EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference. See L<perlref>.
2496
2497=item umask: argument is missing initial 0
2498
5f05dabc 2499(W) A umask of 222 is incorrect. It should be 0222, because octal literals
a0d0e21e
LW
2500always start with 0 in Perl, as in C.
2501
4633a7c4
LW
2502=item Unable to create sub named "%s"
2503
2504(F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.
2505
a0d0e21e
LW
2506=item Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
2507
2508(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many execution
2509contexts were entered and left.
2510
2511=item Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
2512
2513(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many
2514values were temporarily localized.
2515
2516=item Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
2517
2518(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many blocks
2519were entered and left.
2520
2521=item Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
2522
2523(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many mortal
2524scalars were allocated and freed.
2525
2526=item Undefined format "%s" called
2527
2528(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2529another package? See L<perlform>.
2530
2531=item Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
2532
2533(F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps
2534it's in a different package? See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2535
2536=item Undefined subroutine &%s called
2537
2538(F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2539has since been undefined.
2540
2541=item Undefined subroutine called
2542
2543(F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined,
2544or if it was, it has since been undefined.
2545
2546=item Undefined subroutine in sort
2547
2548(F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem to
2549have been defined yet. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2550
4633a7c4
LW
2551=item Undefined top format "%s" called
2552
2553(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2554another package? See L<perlform>.
2555
a0d0e21e
LW
2556=item unexec of %s into %s failed!
2557
2558(F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason. See your local FSF
2559representative, who probably put it there in the first place.
2560
2561=item Unknown BYTEORDER
2562
5f05dabc 2563(F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte order.
a0d0e21e
LW
2564
2565=item unmatched () in regexp
2566
2567(F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
2568expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding
5f05dabc 2569the matching parenthesis. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2570
2571=item Unmatched right bracket
2572
2573(F) The lexer counted more closing curly brackets (braces) than opening
2574ones, so you're probably missing an opening bracket. As a general
2575rule, you'll find the missing one (so to speak) near the place you were
2576last editing.
2577
2578=item unmatched [] in regexp
2579
2580(F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to
2581include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it first.
2582See L<perlre>.
2583
2584=item Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2585
54310121 2586(W) You used a bareword that might someday be claimed as a reserved word.
a0d0e21e
LW
2587It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert
2588an underbar into it. You might also declare it as a subroutine.
2589
54310121 2590=item Unrecognized character %s
a0d0e21e 2591
54310121 2592(F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the specified character
2593in your Perl script (or eval). Perhaps you tried to run a compressed
2594script, a binary program, or a directory as a Perl program.
a0d0e21e
LW
2595
2596=item Unrecognized signal name "%s"
2597
2598(F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not recognized.
2599Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
2600
90248788 2601=item Unrecognized switch: -%s (-h will show valid options)
a0d0e21e
LW
2602
2603(F) You specified an illegal option to Perl. Don't do that.
2604(If you think you didn't do that, check the #! line to see if it's
2605supplying the bad switch on your behalf.)
2606
2607=item Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
2608
2609(W) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that operation
2610failed, PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline, PROBABLY
54310121 2611because you forgot to chop() or chomp() it off. See L<perlfunc/chomp>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2612
2613=item Unsupported directory function "%s" called
2614
2615(F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and readdir().
2616
54310121 2617=item Unsupported function fork
2618
2619(F) Your version of executable does not support forking.
2620
2621Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different flavors of
2622Perl executables, some of which may support fork, some not. Try changing
2623the name you call Perl by to C<perl_>, C<perl__>, and so on.
2624
a0d0e21e
LW
2625=item Unsupported function %s
2626
2627(F) This machines doesn't implement the indicated function, apparently.
2628At least, Configure doesn't think so.
2629
2630=item Unsupported socket function "%s" called
2631
2632(F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or at
2633least that's what Configure thought.
2634
8b1a09fc 2635=item Unterminated E<lt>E<gt> operator
a0d0e21e
LW
2636
2637(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
2638a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
2639finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
2640the line, and you really meant a "less than".
2641
5cd24f17 2642=item Use of "$$<digit>" to mean "${$}<digit>" is deprecated
2643
2644(D) Perl versions before 5.004 misinterpreted any type marker followed
2645by "$" and a digit. For example, "$$0" was incorrectly taken to mean
2646"${$}0" instead of "${$0}". This bug is (mostly) fixed in Perl 5.004.
2647
2648However, the developers of Perl 5.004 could not fix this bug completely,
2649because at least two widely-used modules depend on the old meaning of
2650"$$0" in a string. So Perl 5.004 still interprets "$$<digit>" in the
2651old (broken) way inside strings; but it generates this message as a
2652warning. And in Perl 5.005, this special treatment will cease.
2653
a0d0e21e
LW
2654=item Use of $# is deprecated
2655
8b1a09fc 2656(D) This was an ill-advised attempt to emulate a poorly defined B<awk> feature.
a0d0e21e
LW
2657Use an explicit printf() or sprintf() instead.
2658
2659=item Use of $* is deprecated
2660
4a6725af 2661(D) This variable magically turned on multi-line pattern matching, both for
a0d0e21e
LW
2662you and for any luckless subroutine that you happen to call. You should
2663use the new C<//m> and C<//s> modifiers now to do that without the dangerous
2664action-at-a-distance effects of C<$*>.
2665
748a9306
LW
2666=item Use of %s in printf format not supported
2667
5f05dabc 2668(F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible from
2669only C. This usually means there's a better way to do it in Perl.
748a9306 2670
8b1a09fc 2671=item Use of bare E<lt>E<lt> to mean E<lt>E<lt>"" is deprecated
4633a7c4
LW
2672
2673(D) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted form if you
3fe9a6f1 2674wish to use an empty line as the terminator of the here-document.
4633a7c4 2675
a0d0e21e
LW
2676=item Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
2677
2678(D) It makes a lot of work for the compiler when you clobber a
2679subroutine's argument list, so it's better if you assign the results of
2680a split() explicitly to an array (or list).
2681
dc848c6f 2682=item Use of inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is deprecated
2683
5cd24f17 2684(D) As an (ahem) accidental feature, C<AUTOLOAD> subroutines are looked
2685up as methods (using the C<@ISA> hierarchy) even when the subroutines to
2686be autoloaded were called as plain functions (e.g. C<Foo::bar()>), not
2687as methods (e.g. C<Foo->bar()> or C<$obj->bar()>).
dc848c6f 2688
2689This bug will be rectified in Perl 5.005, which will use method lookup
2690only for methods' C<AUTOLOAD>s. However, there is a significant base
2691of existing code that may be using the old behavior. So, as an
2692interim step, Perl 5.004 issues an optional warning when non-methods
2693use inherited C<AUTOLOAD>s.
2694
2695The simple rule is: Inheritance will not work when autoloading
2696non-methods. The simple fix for old code is: In any module that used to
2697depend on inheriting C<AUTOLOAD> for non-methods from a base class named
2698C<BaseClass>, execute C<*AUTOLOAD = \&BaseClass::AUTOLOAD> during startup.
2699
fb73857a 2700In code that currently says C<use AutoLoader; @ISA = qw(AutoLoader);> you
2701should remove AutoLoader from @ISA and change C<use AutoLoader;> to
2702C<C<use AutoLoader 'AUTOLOAD';>.
2703
dc848c6f 2704=item Use of %s is deprecated
2705
2706(D) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for use, generally
2707because there's a better way to do it, and also because the old way has
2708bad side effects.
2709
a0d0e21e
LW
2710=item Use of uninitialized value
2711
2712(W) An undefined value was used as if it were already defined. It was
2713interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a mistake. To suppress this
2714warning assign an initial value to your variables.
2715
2716=item Useless use of %s in void context
2717
2718(W) You did something without a side effect in a context that does nothing
2719with the return value, such as a statement that doesn't return a value
2720from a block, or the left side of a scalar comma operator. Very often
2721this points not to stupidity on your part, but a failure of Perl to parse
2722your program the way you thought it would. For example, you'd get this
2723if you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence and said
2724
2725 $one, $two = 1, 2;
2726
2727when you meant to say
2728
2729 ($one, $two) = (1, 2);
2730
748a9306
LW
2731Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a list
2732reference when you should be using square or curly brackets, for
2733example, if you say
2734
2735 $array = (1,2);
2736
2737when you should have said
2738
2739 $array = [1,2];
2740
2741The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar value,
2742while parentheses do not. So when a parenthesized list is evaluated in
2743a scalar context, the comma is treated like C's comma operator, which
2744throws away the left argument, which is not what you want. See
2745L<perlref> for more on this.
2746
55497cff 2747=item untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
2748
2749(W) A copy of the object returned from C<tie> (or C<tied>) was still
2750valid when C<untie> was called.
2751
68dc0745 2752=item Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined()
a6006777 2753
68dc0745 2754(W) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*> (glob), C<each()>,
2755or C<readdir()> as a boolean value. Each of these constructs can return a
2756value of "0"; that would make the conditional expression false, which is
2757probably not what you intended. When using these constructs in conditional
2758expressions, test their values with the C<defined> operator.
a6006777 2759
9607fc9c 2760=item Variable "%s" is not imported%s
4633a7c4
LW
2761
2762(F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable
2763that you apparently thought was imported from another module, because
2764something else of the same name (usually a subroutine) is exported
2765by that module. It usually means you put the wrong funny character
2766on the front of your variable.
2767
44a8e56a 2768=item Variable "%s" may be unavailable
2769
2770(W) An inner (nested) I<anonymous> subroutine is inside a I<named>
2771subroutine, and outside that is another subroutine; and the anonymous
2772(innermost) subroutine is referencing a lexical variable defined in
2773the outermost subroutine. For example:
2774
2775 sub outermost { my $a; sub middle { sub { $a } } }
2776
2777If the anonymous subroutine is called or referenced (directly or
2778indirectly) from the outermost subroutine, it will share the variable
2779as you would expect. But if the anonymous subroutine is called or
2780referenced when the outermost subroutine is not active, it will see
2781the value of the shared variable as it was before and during the
2782*first* call to the outermost subroutine, which is probably not what
2783you want.
2784
2785In these circumstances, it is usually best to make the middle
2786subroutine anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. Perl has specific
2787support for shared variables in nested anonymous subroutines; a named
2788subroutine in between interferes with this feature.
2789
2790=item Variable "%s" will not stay shared
2791
2792(W) An inner (nested) I<named> subroutine is referencing a lexical
2793variable defined in an outer subroutine.
2794
2795When the inner subroutine is called, it will probably see the value of
2796the outer subroutine's variable as it was before and during the
2797*first* call to the outer subroutine; in this case, after the first
2798call to the outer subroutine is complete, the inner and outer
2799subroutines will no longer share a common value for the variable. In
2800other words, the variable will no longer be shared.
2801
2802Furthermore, if the outer subroutine is anonymous and references a
2803lexical variable outside itself, then the outer and inner subroutines
2804will I<never> share the given variable.
2805
2806This problem can usually be solved by making the inner subroutine
2807anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. When inner anonymous subs that
2808reference variables in outer subroutines are called or referenced,
54310121 2809they are automatically rebound to the current values of such
44a8e56a 2810variables.
2811
f86702cc 2812=item Variable syntax
cb1a09d0
AD
2813
2814(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
2815of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
2816Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 2817
3e6e419a
JH
2818=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2819
2820(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
2821
2822 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2823 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
2824 LC_ALL = "En_US",
2825 LANG = (unset)
2826 are supported and installed on your system.
2827 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
2828
2829Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
2830settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
2831This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your system
2832administrator have set up the so-called variable system but Perl could
2833not use those settings. This was not dead serious, fortunately: there
2834is a "default locale" called "C" that Perl can and will use, the
2835script will be run. Before you really fix the problem, however, you
2836will get the same error message each time you run Perl. How to really
2837fix the problem can be found in L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
2838
7e1af8bc 2839=item Warning: something's wrong
5f05dabc 2840
2841(W) You passed warn() an empty string (the equivalent of C<warn "">) or
2842you called it with no args and C<$_> was empty.
2843
f86702cc 2844=item Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly
a0d0e21e 2845
8b1a09fc 2846(S) The implicit close() done by an open() got an error indication on the
5f05dabc 2847close(). This usually indicates your file system ran out of disk space.
a0d0e21e 2848
5f05dabc 2849=item Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous
a0d0e21e
LW
2850
2851(S) You wrote a unary operator followed by something that looks like a
2852binary operator that could also have been interpreted as a term or
2853unary operator. For instance, if you know that the rand function
2854has a default argument of 1.0, and you write
2855
2856 rand + 5;
2857
2858you may THINK you wrote the same thing as
2859
2860 rand() + 5;
2861
2862but in actual fact, you got
2863
2864 rand(+5);
2865
5f05dabc 2866So put in parentheses to say what you really mean.
a0d0e21e
LW
2867
2868=item Write on closed filehandle
2869
2870(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2871Check your logic flow.
2872
2873=item X outside of string
2874
2875(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position before
2876the beginning of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2877
2878=item x outside of string
2879
2880(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position after
2881the end of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2882
2883=item Xsub "%s" called in sort
2884
2885(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
2886
2887=item Xsub called in sort
2888
2889(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
2890
2891=item You can't use C<-l> on a filehandle
2892
2893(F) A filehandle represents an opened file, and when you opened the file it
2894already went past any symlink you are presumably trying to look for.
2895Use a filename instead.
2896
2897=item YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
2898
5f05dabc 2899(F) And you probably never will, because you probably don't have the
a0d0e21e
LW
2900sources to your kernel, and your vendor probably doesn't give a rip
2901about what you want. Your best bet is to use the wrapsuid script in
2902the eg directory to put a setuid C wrapper around your script.
2903
2904=item You need to quote "%s"
2905
2906(W) You assigned a bareword as a signal handler name. Unfortunately, you
2907already have a subroutine of that name declared, which means that Perl 5
2908will try to call the subroutine when the assignment is executed, which is
2909probably not what you want. (If it IS what you want, put an & in front.)
2910
2911=item [gs]etsockopt() on closed fd
2912
2913(W) You tried to get or set a socket option on a closed socket.
2914Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
2915See L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2916
2917=item \1 better written as $1
2918
2919(W) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables. The use
5f05dabc 2920of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
a0d0e21e
LW
2921substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
2922because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better
2923if there are more than 9 backreferences.
2924
8b1a09fc 2925=item '|' and 'E<lt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
2926
2927(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
2928found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to redirect STDIN using
8b1a09fc 2929'E<lt>'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
748a9306 2930
8b1a09fc 2931=item '|' and 'E<gt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
2932
2933(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
2934thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and into a pipe to another
2935command. You need to choose one or the other, though nothing's stopping you
2936from piping into a program or Perl script which 'splits' output into two
2937streams, such as
2938
2939 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
2940 while (<STDIN>) {
2941 print;
2942 print OUT;
2943 }
2944 close OUT;
2945
774d564b 2946=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
33c8a3fe 2947
774d564b 2948(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2949version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
33c8a3fe
IZ
2950
2951=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2952
dc848c6f 2953(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
33c8a3fe
IZ
2954
2955 prefix1;prefix2
2956
2957or
2958
2959 prefix1 prefix2
2960
dc848c6f 2961with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix
2962of a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error
2963may appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
2964"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
2965
2966=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
2967
54310121 2968(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
dc848c6f 2969C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
2970
2971=item Process terminated by SIG%s
2972
2973(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
dc848c6f 2974applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
2975port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
2976L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
2977in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe 2978
a0d0e21e
LW
2979=back
2980