This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
perldiag: pseudo-hashes are long gone
[perl5.git] / pod / perldiag.pod
<
CommitLineData
a0d0e21e
LW
1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
a0d0e21e
LW
13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
e476b1b5
GS
20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
4438c4b7
JH
34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
6df41af2
GS
38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
a0d0e21e
LW
44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
be771a83
GS
49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
1109a392
MHM
59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
be771a83
GS
65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
6df41af2
GS
69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
be771a83
GS
76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
cba5a3b0
DG
79=item Ambiguous overloaded argument to %s resolved as %s
80
81(W ambiguous) You called C<keys>, C<values> or C<each> on an object that had
82overloading of C<%{}> or C<@{}> or both. In such a case, the object is
83dereferenced according to its overloading, not its underlying reference type.
84The warning is issued when C<%{}> overloading exists on a blessed arrayref,
85when C<@{}> overloading exists on a blessed hashref, or when both overloadings
86are defined (in which case C<%{}> is used). You can force the interpretation
c69ca1d4 87of the object by explicitly dereferencing it as an array or hash instead of
cba5a3b0
DG
88passing the object itself to C<keys>, C<values> or C<each>.
89
c2e66d9e
GS
90=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
91
92(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
93all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
94first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
95C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
96
6df41af2 97=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 98
6df41af2
GS
99(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
100you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
101a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 102
d8225693
JM
103=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
104
105(W ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
3303f755
FC
106bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
107(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
108like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
109assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
110clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
111really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 112
1ef43bca
JM
113=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
114
115(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
116asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
117named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
118the varable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
119function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
120and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
121
4da60377
JM
122=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s%s} resolved to %c%s%s
123
ccaaf480
FC
124(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo
125represents the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for
126element number 2 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write
127C<$foo[2]>, or you might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to
128the function named foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it
129returns. If you meant that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
130
131In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
132to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
133C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length>
134followed by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what
135you want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/>
136to the unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to
137something that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by
138simply turning off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 139
bdac9d71 140=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
397d0f13
JM
141
142(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
a7f6e211
FC
143string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
144the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
397d0f13
JM
145write C<-foo()>.
146
6df41af2 147=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 148
be771a83
GS
149(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
150redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
151redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 152
6df41af2 153=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 154
be771a83
GS
155(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
156redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
157into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
158though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
159which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 160
6df41af2
GS
161 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
162 while (<STDIN>) {
163 print;
164 print OUT;
165 }
166 close OUT;
c9f97d15 167
6df41af2 168=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 169
496a33f5
SC
170(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
171transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 172one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 173a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
174hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
be771a83
GS
175you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
176alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 177
6df41af2 178=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 179
6df41af2
GS
180(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
181with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
182impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
183for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 184
6df41af2 185=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 186
6df41af2 187(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 188
b0fdf69e 189=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 190
cc1c2e42
FC
191(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
192subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
a0d0e21e
LW
193
194 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 195 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 196 &do_something
a0d0e21e 197
8ea97a1e 198=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 199
06e52bfa
FC
200(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
201such as:
5f05dabc 202
203 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 204 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 205
8ea97a1e 206or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 207
6df41af2
GS
208 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
209 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 210
6df41af2 211=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 212
6df41af2 213(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
be771a83
GS
214name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
215error.
a0d0e21e 216
f86702cc 217=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 218
be771a83
GS
219(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
220that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
221will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 222
b4581f09
JH
223=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
224
225(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
226forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
227data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
228the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
229If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
230the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
231
a0d0e21e
LW
232=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
233
75b44862
GS
234(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
235spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e
LW
236
237=item assertion botched: %s
238
239(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
240
241=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
242
243(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
244
245=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
246
247(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
248must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
249know which context to supply to the right side.
250
96ebfdd7
RK
251=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
252
4447dfc1 253(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
96ebfdd7 254thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
111a855e
FC
255Usually it's a good idea first to collect the return values of the
256created threads by joining them, and only then to exit from the main
96ebfdd7
RK
257thread. See L<threads>.
258
2393f1b9 259=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 260
49293501 261(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 262the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 263
81689caa
HS
264=item Attempt to bless into a reference
265
266(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
267the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
268supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
269
270 bless $self, $proto;
271
272when you intended
273
274 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
275
276If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
277of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
278example by:
279
280 bless $self, "$proto";
281
96ebfdd7
RK
282=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
283
284(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
285which is not in its key set.
286
287=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
288
289(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
290declared readonly from a restricted hash.
291
de42a5a9 292=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 293
be771a83
GS
294(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
295that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
296outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 297
54310121 298=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 299
111a855e 300(P internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
be771a83
GS
301strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
302strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
303of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 304
a0d0e21e
LW
305=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
306
be771a83
GS
307(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
308free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
309SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
310free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
311try to free it.
a0d0e21e
LW
312
313=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
314
e476b1b5 315(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
a0d0e21e
LW
316
317=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
318
be771a83
GS
319(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
320see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
321earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
322This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
323that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
324mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
325corrupted.
a0d0e21e 326
dcdda58d
GS
327=item Attempt to join self
328
329(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
be771a83
GS
330impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
331to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 332
84902520
TB
333=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
334
be771a83
GS
335(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
336function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
337means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
338invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
339literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
340avoid this warning.
84902520 341
087b5369
RD
342=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
343
344(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
345compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
346unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
347L<perlvar/%INC>.
348
1b20cd17
NC
349=item Attempt to set length of freed array
350
351(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
352can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
353of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
354
355 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
356 $$r = 503
357
b7a902f4 358=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
359
be771a83
GS
360(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
361used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
362dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 363
c32124fe
NC
364=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
365
111a855e 366(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "locked"
c32124fe 367attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no
a5547419 368effect since 5005 threads were removed, and will be removed in a future
c32124fe
NC
369release of Perl 5.
370
f1a3ce43
NC
371=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
372
111a855e 373(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "unique"
b7a2910f 374attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference. The :unique attribute has
a5547419
FC
375had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in a future release
376of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 377
de42a5a9 378=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 379
be771a83
GS
380(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
381or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 382S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
a0d0e21e
LW
383S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
384
7a95317d
GS
385=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
386
496a33f5 387(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
7a95317d
GS
388substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
389most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
390
a0d0e21e
LW
391=item Bad filehandle: %s
392
be771a83
GS
393(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
394symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
395open(), or did it in another package.
a0d0e21e
LW
396
397=item Bad free() ignored
398
be771a83
GS
399(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
400been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 401setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 402
9ea8bc6d 403This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
be771a83
GS
404dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
405which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 406
aa689395 407=item Bad hash
408
409(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
410
6df41af2
GS
411=item Badly placed ()'s
412
413(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
414of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
415Perl yourself.
416
a0d0e21e
LW
417=item Bad name after %s::
418
be771a83
GS
419(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
420didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
421of quotes, so
a0d0e21e
LW
422
423 $var = 'myvar';
424 $sym = mypack::$var;
425
426is not the same as
427
428 $var = 'myvar';
429 $sym = "mypack::$var";
430
88e1f1a2
JV
431=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
432
433(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
434plugin API.
435
4ad56ec9
IZ
436=item Bad realloc() ignored
437
be771a83
GS
438(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
439never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
4dcecea4 440by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 441
a0d0e21e
LW
442=item Bad symbol for array
443
444(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
445wasn't a symbol table entry.
446
4df3f177
SP
447=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
448
449(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
450that wasn't a symbol table entry.
451
452
a0d0e21e
LW
453=item Bad symbol for filehandle
454
be771a83
GS
455(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
456that wasn't a symbol table entry.
a0d0e21e
LW
457
458=item Bad symbol for hash
459
460(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
461wasn't a symbol table entry.
462
34d09196
GS
463=item Bareword found in conditional
464
be771a83
GS
465(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
466conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
467of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
GS
468
469 open FOO || die;
470
be771a83
GS
471It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
472a bareword:
34d09196
GS
473
474 use constant TYPO => 1;
475 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
476
477The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
478
6df41af2
GS
479=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
480
481(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
be771a83
GS
482subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
483symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
GS
484
485=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
486
be771a83
GS
487(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
488compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
489you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 490
a0d0e21e
LW
491=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
492
be771a83
GS
493(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
494subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
495exited.
a0d0e21e 496
68dc0745 497=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
498
499(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
be771a83
GS
500implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
501occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
502be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
503depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 504
6df41af2
GS
505=item \1 better written as $1
506
be771a83
GS
507(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
508The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
509substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
510because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
511there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 512
252aa082
JH
513=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
514
e476b1b5 515(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
516(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
517L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 518
69282e91 519=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 520
be771a83
GS
521(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
522check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 523
c289d2f7
JH
524=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
525
526(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 527Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 528
c5a0f51a
JH
529=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
530
e476b1b5 531(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 532
4633a7c4
LW
533=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
534
be771a83 535(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
4dcecea4 536copiable.
4633a7c4 537
f675dbe5
CB
538=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
539
be771a83
GS
540(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
541iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
542which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 543
a0d0e21e
LW
544=item Callback called exit
545
4929bf7b 546(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
547exited by calling exit.
548
6df41af2 549=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 550
be771a83
GS
551(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
552parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
553that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
554early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
555subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
556checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
557function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
558the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 559
49704364 560=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
561
562(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
563compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
564attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
565See L<perlfunc/pack>.
566
49704364 567=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
568
569(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
570format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
571
5c1f4d79
NC
572=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
573
574(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
575then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
576triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
577from that type of reference to a typeglob.
578
ba2fdce6
NC
579=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
580
581(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 582be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 583
b5d97229
RGS
584=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
585
586(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
587either with open() or binmode().
588
96ebfdd7
RK
589=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
590
591(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
592integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
593to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
594
a0d0e21e
LW
595=item Can't bless non-reference value
596
597(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
598encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
599
dc57907a
RGS
600=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
601
0d863452
RH
602(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
603a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
604
605=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 606
0d863452
RH
607(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
608
a0d0e21e
LW
609=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
610
611(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
612functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
613in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
614
6df41af2
GS
615=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
616
617(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
618object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
619like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
620
621 $BADREF = undef;
622 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
623 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
624
a0d0e21e
LW
625=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
626
54310121 627(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
628ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
629didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
630object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
631
632=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
633
634(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
635object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
636defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
637Something like this will reproduce the error:
638
639 $BADREF = 42;
640 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
641 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
642
a0d0e21e
LW
643=item Can't chdir to %s
644
645(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
646that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
647
0545a864 648=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 649
be771a83
GS
650(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
651nosuid.
104d25b7 652
a0d0e21e
LW
653=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
654
655(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 656(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
657say things like:
658
659 *foo += 1;
660
661You CAN say
662
663 $foo = *foo;
664 $foo += 1;
665
666but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
667
668=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
669
670(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 671(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
672
673=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
674
675(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 676(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 677
0d863452 678=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 679
0d863452
RH
680(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
681or C<default> block.
682
a0d0e21e
LW
683=item Can't create pipe mailbox
684
be771a83
GS
685(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
686quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 687
eb64745e 688=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 689
2f7e735d 690(F) Currently, only scalar variables can be declared with a specific
30c282f6 691class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration. The semantics may be
2f7e735d 692extended for other types of variables in future.
eb64745e
GS
693
694=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
695
30c282f6
NC
696(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
697"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 698
6df41af2
GS
699=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
700
be771a83
GS
701(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
702a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 703
a0d0e21e
LW
704=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
705
be771a83
GS
706(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
707reason.
a0d0e21e 708
54310121 709=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 710
be771a83
GS
711(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
712reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
713C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 714
10f9c03d 715=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 716
e476b1b5 717(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
718characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
719inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 720
7253e4e3 721=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 722
b45f050a 723(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 724regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 725regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 726
a0d0e21e
LW
727=item Can't do waitpid with flags
728
be771a83
GS
729(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
730waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 731
a0d0e21e
LW
732=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
733
be771a83
GS
734(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
735point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
736line.
a0d0e21e 737
1109a392
MHM
738=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
739
740(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
741or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
742little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
743See L<perlfunc/pack>.
744
a0d0e21e
LW
745=item Can't exec "%s": %s
746
d1be9408 747(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
748named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
749permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
750C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
751architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
752can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
753#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
754
755=item Can't exec %s
756
be771a83
GS
757(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
758that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
759need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
760
761=item Can't execute %s
762
be771a83
GS
763(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
764found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 765
6df41af2 766=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 767
be771a83
GS
768(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
769is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 770
56ca2fc0
JH
771=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
772
773(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
e1b711da
KW
774could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
775See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
776for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 777
6df41af2
GS
778=item Can't find label %s
779
be771a83
GS
780(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
781possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
782
783=item Can't find %s on PATH
784
be771a83
GS
785(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
786found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 787
6df41af2 788=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 789
be771a83
GS
790(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
791found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
792script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
793
794=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
795
be771a83
GS
796(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
797that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
798nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 799
fb73857a 800 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
801
be771a83
GS
802If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
803unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
804editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 805
660a4616
TS
806=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
807
808(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode property (for
e1b711da
KW
809example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase letters). If you did mean to use a
810Unicode property, see
811L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
812for a complete list of available properties.
660a4616
TS
813If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
814by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, until
815possible C<\E>).
816
b3647a36 817=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 818
be771a83
GS
819(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
820pipeline.
a0d0e21e 821
b3647a36
SR
822=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
823
c973c02e 824(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
825after five seconds.
826
748a9306
LW
827=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
828
be771a83
GS
829(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
830between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
831Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
832the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
833account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
834the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
835the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
836the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
837if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
838because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
839appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
840and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
841routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
842shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
843only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 844
a0d0e21e
LW
845=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
846
be771a83
GS
847(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
848pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
849
850=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
851
748a9306
LW
852(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
853mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 854
6df41af2 855=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 856
be771a83
GS
857(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
858loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
859
860=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
861
be771a83
GS
862(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
863a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
864you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
865See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 866
9850bf21 867=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 868
9850bf21
RH
869(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
870comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
871as the reduce() function in List::Util).
872
c74ace89 873=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 874
be771a83 875(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 876"string" or block.
b150fb22 877
6df41af2
GS
878=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
879
be771a83
GS
880(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
881subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
882cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
883routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 884
0b5b802d
GS
885=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
886
be771a83
GS
887(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
888signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
889signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
890processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
891situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
892may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 893
e2c0f81f
DG
894=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
895
896(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
897attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
898process identifier.
899
6df41af2 900=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 901
6df41af2 902(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
903except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
904block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
905block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
906usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
907inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
908L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 909
2c7d6b9c
RGS
910=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
911
912(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
913package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
914
b8170e59
JB
915=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
916
917(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
918may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
919incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
920between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 921extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
922installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
923extensions.
924
748a9306
LW
925=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
926
2ba9eb46 927(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 928lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
929localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
930package name.
931
6df41af2 932=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 933
6df41af2
GS
934(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
935handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 936pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 937that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 938
ea071790 939=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
940
941(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
942found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
943unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
944need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
945the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
946to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
947L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 948
6df41af2
GS
949=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
950
be771a83
GS
951(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
952autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
953are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
954the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 955
b8170e59
JB
956=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
957
958(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
959for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
960unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
961
a0d0e21e
LW
962=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
963
964(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
965functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 966method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
967
968=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
969
be771a83
GS
970(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
971doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 972
2f7da168
RK
973=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
974
975(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
976e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
977
3e3baf6d
TB
978=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
979
be771a83
GS
980(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
981VMS.
3e3baf6d 982
a0d0e21e
LW
983=item Can't modify %s in %s
984
be771a83
GS
985(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
986to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 987
54310121 988=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
989
990(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
991a NULL.
992
6df41af2
GS
993=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
994
995(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
996such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
997
5f05dabc 998=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 999
5f05dabc 1000(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
1001buffer.
1002
6df41af2
GS
1003=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1004
1005(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1006there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1007count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1008grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1009though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1010once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1011
a0d0e21e
LW
1012=item Can't open %s: %s
1013
c47ff5f1 1014(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
1015filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
1016switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
1017is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
1018the command line.
a0d0e21e 1019
9a869a14
RGS
1020=item Can't open a reference
1021
1022(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
1023using the 3-arg open() syntax :
1024
1025 open FH, '>', $ref;
1026
1027but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1028open is not supported.
1029
a0d0e21e
LW
1030=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1031
be771a83
GS
1032(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1033You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1034as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1035">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1036
748a9306
LW
1037=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1038
be771a83
GS
1039(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1040redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1041the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1042
1043=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1044
be771a83
GS
1045(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1046redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1047command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1048
1049=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1050
be771a83
GS
1051(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1052redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1053the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1054
1055=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1056
be771a83
GS
1057(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1058redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1059for stdout.
748a9306 1060
2b8ca739 1061=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
1062
1063(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1064
fa3aa65a
JC
1065If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1066shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1067you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1068
6df41af2
GS
1069=item Can't read CRTL environ
1070
1071(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1072from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1073missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1074or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1075searched.
6df41af2 1076
6df41af2
GS
1077=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1078
1079(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1080there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1081count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1082or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1083though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1084loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1085
64977eb6 1086=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1087
be771a83
GS
1088(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1089file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1090the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1091
a0d0e21e
LW
1092=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1093
e476b1b5 1094(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1095probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1096
748a9306
LW
1097=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1098
be771a83
GS
1099(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1100to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1101
fe13d51d 1102=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1103
be771a83
GS
1104(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
1105to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
1106method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1107
cd06dffe
GS
1108=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1109
be771a83
GS
1110(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1111temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1112is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1113
96ebfdd7
RK
1114=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1115
1116(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1117there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1118
78f9721b
SM
1119=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1120
1121(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1122but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1123to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1124the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1125list context.
1126
a0d0e21e
LW
1127=item Can't stat script "%s"
1128
be771a83
GS
1129(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1130open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1131
a0d0e21e
LW
1132=item Can't take log of %g
1133
fb73857a 1134(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1135negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1136standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1137negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1138
1139=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1140
1141(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a 1142negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1143with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1144
1145=item Can't undef active subroutine
1146
1147(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1148however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1149redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1150
1151=item Can't unshift
1152
1153(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1154as the main Perl stack.
1155
c81225bc 1156=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1157
be771a83
GS
1158(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1159into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1160specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1161indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1162
1db89ea5
BS
1163=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1164
e27ad1f2 1165(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1166table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1167for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1168
96ebfdd7
RK
1169=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1170
1171(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1172be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1173
6df41af2
GS
1174=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1175
be771a83
GS
1176(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1177references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1178
90b75b61 1179=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1180
1181(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1182Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1183provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1184
1109a392
MHM
1185=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1186
1187(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1188byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1189allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1190
6df41af2
GS
1191=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1192
be771a83
GS
1193(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1194foreach.
6df41af2 1195
aab6a793 1196=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1197
be771a83
GS
1198(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1199is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1200(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1201have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1202weren't.
1203
6d3b25aa
RGS
1204=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1205
1206(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1207that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1208For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1209is inside a big-endian group.
1210
c07a80fd 1211=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1212
1213(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1214You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd 1215and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1216Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1217lexical variable.
1218
a0d0e21e
LW
1219=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1220
1221(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1222reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1223test the type of the reference, if need be.
1224
748a9306 1225=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1226
be771a83
GS
1227(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1228references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1229
748a9306
LW
1230=item Can't use subscript on %s
1231
1232(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1233subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1234didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1235
6df41af2
GS
1236=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1237
75b44862
GS
1238(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1239creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1240backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1241expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1242value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1243instead.
6df41af2 1244
0d863452 1245=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1246
0d863452
RH
1247(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1248loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1249from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1250or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1251
810b8aa5
GS
1252=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1253
1254(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1255references can be weakened.
1256
5f05dabc 1257=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1258
be771a83
GS
1259(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1260with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1261Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1262
4a68bf9d 1263=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1264
17a3df4c
KW
1265(F|W deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
1266It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl 5.16. In the
1267cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
1268derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1269
1270Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well.
f9d13529 1271
f337b084 1272=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1273
1274(W pack) You said
1275
1276 pack("C", $x)
1277
1278where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1279only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1280and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1281
1282 pack("C", $x & 255)
1283
1284If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1285instead.
1286
f337b084
TH
1287=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1288
1289(W pack) You said
1290
1291 pack("U0W", $x)
1292
1293where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1294all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1295meant:
1296
1297 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1298
1299=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1300
1301(W pack) You said
1302
1303 pack("c", $x)
1304
1305where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1306is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1307and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1308
1309 pack("c", $x & 255);
1310
1311If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1312instead.
1313
f337b084
TH
1314=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1315
1316(W unpack) You tried something like
1317
1318 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1319
1a147d38 1320where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1321below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1322modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1323
1324 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1325
1326=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1327
1328(W pack) You tried something like
1329
1330 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1331
1a147d38
YO
1332where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1333value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1334uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1335
1336 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1337
1338=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1339
1340(W unpack) You tried something like
1341
1342 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1343
1a147d38
YO
1344where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1345value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1346uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1347
1348 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1349
96ebfdd7
RK
1350=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1351
1352(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1353
abc7ecad
SP
1354=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1355
1356(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1357a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1358
541ed3a9
FC
1359=item Closure prototype called
1360
1361(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1362handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1363This subroutine cannot be called.
1364
49704364
WL
1365=item Code missing after '/'
1366
1367(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1368template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1369
0876b9a0
KW
1370=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1371
9ae3ac1a
KW
1372=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, no properties match it; all inverse properties do
1373
0876b9a0
KW
1374(W utf8) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum of U+10FFFF.
1375
1376Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code
1377points, up to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on
1378your system, but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems.
1379At one time, it was legal in some standards to have code points up to
13800x7FFF_FFFF, but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require
1381larger than a 32 bit word.
1382
9ae3ac1a
KW
1383None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1384code point. For example,
1385
1386 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1387
1388will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1389
1390 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1391
1392will match.
1393
6df41af2
GS
1394=item %s: Command not found
1395
be771a83
GS
1396(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1397Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1398
7a2e2cd6 1399=item Compilation failed in require
1400
1401(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1402Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1403encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1404
c3464db5
DD
1405=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1406
be771a83
GS
1407(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1408situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1409to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1410arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1411recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1412under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1413in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1414that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1415on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1416
38875929
DM
1417=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1418
1419(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1420cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
1421function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1422cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1423has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1424first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1425after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1426lock.
1427
38875929
DM
1428=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1429
1430(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1431cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
1432function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1433cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1434has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1435first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1436after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1437lock.
1438
69282e91 1439=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1440
be771a83
GS
1441(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1442to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1443L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1444
41ab332f 1445=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1446
be771a83
GS
1447(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1448an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1449specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1450corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1451L<overload>.
6df41af2 1452
fc8cd66c
YO
1453=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1454
1a147d38
YO
1455(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1456the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1457forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1458See L<charnames>.
1459
1460
779c5bc9
GS
1461=item Constant is not %s reference
1462
1463(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1464is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1465The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1466usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1467See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1468
4cee8e80
CS
1469=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1470
bb028877 1471(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1472eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1473commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1474
9607fc9c 1475=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1476
be771a83
GS
1477(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1478for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1479workarounds.
9607fc9c 1480
e7ea3e70
IZ
1481=item Copy method did not return a reference
1482
64977eb6 1483(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1484L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1485
6798c92b
GS
1486=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1487
1488(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1489
a0d0e21e
LW
1490=item corrupted regexp pointers
1491
1492(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1493expression compiler gave it.
1494
1495=item corrupted regexp program
1496
be771a83
GS
1497(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1498valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1499
de42a5a9 1500=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1501
1502(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1503
49704364
WL
1504=item Count after length/code in unpack
1505
1506(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1507you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1508L<perlfunc/pack>.
1509
17a3df4c
KW
1510=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1511
1512(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1513to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1514evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
1515ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.16. Just use a
1516semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1517
1518=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
f9d13529 1519
17a3df4c 1520(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
f9d13529 1521non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1408fb84 1522written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
17a3df4c 1523characters.
f9d13529 1524
a0d0e21e
LW
1525=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1526
be771a83
GS
1527(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1528100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1529infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1530which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1531
aad1d01f
NC
1532This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1533setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1534
f10b0346 1535=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1536
be771a83
GS
1537(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1538checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1539array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1540
f10b0346 1541=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1542
be771a83
GS
1543(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1544checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1545is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1546
62658f4d
PM
1547=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1548
1549(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1550there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1551
fc36a67e 1552=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1553
be771a83
GS
1554(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1555long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1556that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1557
4a68bf9d 1558=item Deprecated character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s<-- HERE %s
cb233ae3
KW
1559
1560(D deprecated) Just about anything is legal for the C<...> in C<\N{...}>.
1561But starting in 5.12, non-reasonable ones that don't look like names are
1562deprecated. A reasonable name begins with an alphabetic character and
1563continues with any combination of alphanumerics, dashes, spaces, parentheses or
1564colons.
1565
6d3b25aa
RGS
1566=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1567
1568(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1569There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1570not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1571conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1572static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1573relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1574declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1575
6d3b25aa
RGS
1576 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1577
1578becomes
1579
1580 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1581
36fb85f3
RGS
1582Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1583have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1584
1585 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1586
500ab966
RGS
1587=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1588
1589(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1590just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1591to create a dangling reference.
1592
3cdd684c
TP
1593=item Did not produce a valid header
1594
1595See Server error.
1596
6df41af2
GS
1597=item %s did not return a true value
1598
1599(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1600it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1601traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1602do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1603
cc507455 1604=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1605
413ff9f6
FC
1606(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1607some such.
4633a7c4 1608
cc507455 1609=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1610
be771a83
GS
1611(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1612variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1613seems superfluous.
33633739 1614
cc507455 1615=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1616
be771a83
GS
1617(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1618@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1619carried away.
748a9306 1620
7e1af8bc 1621=item Died
5f05dabc 1622
1623(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1624you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1625
3cdd684c
TP
1626=item Document contains no data
1627
1628See Server error.
1629
62658f4d
PM
1630=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1631
1632(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1633define a C<$VERSION.>
1634
49704364
WL
1635=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1636
1637(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1638See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1639
a0d0e21e
LW
1640=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1641
1642(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1643
1644=item do_study: out of memory
1645
1646(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1647
6df41af2
GS
1648=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1649
56da5a46
RGS
1650(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1651"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1652name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1653because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1654"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1655something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1656subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1657"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1658
ac206dc8
RGS
1659=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1660
1661(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1662qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1663
84d78eb7
YO
1664=item dump is not supported
1665
1666(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1667
a0d0e21e
LW
1668=item Duplicate free() ignored
1669
be771a83
GS
1670(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1671already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1672
1109a392
MHM
1673=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1674
1675(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1676in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1677
4633a7c4
LW
1678=item elseif should be elsif
1679
56da5a46
RGS
1680(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1681ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1682"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1683unlikely to be what you want.
1684
ab13f0c7
JH
1685=item Empty %s
1686
af6f566e
HS
1687(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1688described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1689a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1690
85ab1d1d 1691=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1692
85ab1d1d 1693(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1694effective uids or gids failed.
1695
c038024b
RGS
1696=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1697
1698(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1699aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1700program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1701
748a9306
LW
1702=item Error converting file specification %s
1703
5f05dabc 1704(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1705specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1706single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1707an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1708conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1709
e4d48cc9
GS
1710=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1711
be771a83
GS
1712(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1713expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1714is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1715
fc8f615e 1716=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1717
be771a83
GS
1718(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1719C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1720pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1721is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1722building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1723that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1724
6df41af2
GS
1725=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1726
be771a83
GS
1727(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1728assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1729pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1730
1a147d38
YO
1731=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1732
1733(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1734any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1735
1736The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1737discovered.
1738
fc36a67e 1739=item Excessively long <> operator
1740
1741(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1742Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1743filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1744variable and glob that.
1745
ed9aa3b7
SG
1746=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1747
1748(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented in MacPerl. See L<perlport>.
1749
fe13d51d 1750=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1751
1752(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1753
1754=item Exiting eval via %s
1755
be771a83
GS
1756(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1757goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1758
1759=item Exiting format via %s
1760
9a2ff54b 1761(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1762goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1763
0a753a76 1764=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1765
be771a83
GS
1766(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1767sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1768loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1769
a0d0e21e
LW
1770=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1771
be771a83
GS
1772(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1773as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1774
1775=item Exiting substitution via %s
1776
be771a83
GS
1777(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1778as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1779
7b8d334a
GS
1780=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1781
be771a83
GS
1782(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1783the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1784usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1785e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1786
6df41af2
GS
1787=item %s: Expression syntax
1788
be771a83
GS
1789(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1790Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1791
1792=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1793
3c10abe3
AG
1794(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1795CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1796queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1797
7253e4e3 1798=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1799
be771a83 1800(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1801character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1802in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1803"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1804problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1805
1b1ee2ef 1806=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1807
be771a83
GS
1808(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1809system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1810details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1811you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1812
1813=item fcntl is not implemented
1814
1815(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1816PDP-11 or something?
1817
22846ab4
AB
1818=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1819
1820(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1821is not possible.
1822
f337b084
TH
1823=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1824
1825(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1826which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1827a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
1828C<u63> as format.
1829
af8c498a 1830=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1831
6c8d78fb
HS
1832(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1833it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1834"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1835write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1836
af8c498a 1837=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1838
6c8d78fb
HS
1839(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1840you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
be771a83
GS
1841with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1842intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
6c8d78fb
HS
1843Another possibility is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0
1844(also known as STDIN) for output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1845
1846=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1847
1848(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1849as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1850previously.
1851
1852=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1853
1854(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1855as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1856
1857=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1858
1859(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1860a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1861happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1862name.
a0d0e21e 1863
56e90b21
GS
1864=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1865
be771a83 1866(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1867some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1868filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1869same name?
56e90b21 1870
6df41af2
GS
1871=item Format not terminated
1872
1873(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1874to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1875
a0d0e21e
LW
1876=item Format %s redefined
1877
e476b1b5 1878(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1879
1880 {
271595cc 1881 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1882 eval "format NAME =...";
1883 }
1884
a0d0e21e
LW
1885=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1886
e476b1b5 1887(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1888
1889 if ($foo = 123)
1890
1891when you meant
1892
1893 if ($foo == 123)
1894
1895(or something like that).
1896
6df41af2
GS
1897=item %s found where operator expected
1898
56da5a46
RGS
1899(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1900If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1901operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1902operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1903
a0d0e21e
LW
1904=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1905
1906(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1907
1908=item gethostent not implemented
1909
1910(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1911because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1912on the Internet.
1913
69282e91 1914=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1915
be771a83
GS
1916(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1917socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1918
748a9306
LW
1919=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1920
1921(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1922C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1923
6df41af2
GS
1924=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1925
be771a83
GS
1926(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1927forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1928L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1929
1930=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1931
a4edf47d 1932(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1933that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1934declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1935which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1936
e476b1b5
GS
1937=item glob failed (%s)
1938
be771a83
GS
1939(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1940C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1941C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1942nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1943resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1944broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1945config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1946were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1947empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1948think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1949C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1950
a0d0e21e
LW
1951=item Glob not terminated
1952
1953(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1954a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1955not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1956earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1957
bcd05b94 1958=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 1959
fc003d4b
MS
1960(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was larger than
1961it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1962date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1963not-a-number value).
1964
bcd05b94 1965=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b
MS
1966
1967(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was smaller than
1968it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1969date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1970not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 1971
6df41af2 1972=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1973
6df41af2
GS
1974(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1975version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1976
1977=item goto must have label
1978
1979(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1980unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1981
49704364 1982=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1983
49704364 1984(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is
18529408 1985supposed to follow something: a template character or a ()-group.
49704364 1986 See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 1987
fe13d51d 1988=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
1989
1990(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1991
a0d0e21e
LW
1992=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1993
be771a83
GS
1994(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1995to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1996created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1997
1998=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1999
be771a83
GS
2000(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
2001spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 2002
6df41af2
GS
2003=item %s has too many errors
2004
2005(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2006Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2007
e6897b1a
KW
2008=item Having no space between pattern and following word is deprecated
2009
2010(D syntax)
2011
2012You had a word that isn't a regex modifier immediately following a pattern
2013without an intervening space. For example, the two constructs:
2014
2015 $a =~ m/$foo/sand $bar
2016 $a =~ m/$foo/s and $bar
2017
2018both currently mean the same thing, but it is planned to disallow the first form
2019in Perl 5.16. And,
2020
2021 $a =~ m/$foo/and $bar
2022
2023will be disallowed too.
2024
252aa082
JH
2025=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2026
e476b1b5 2027(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2028(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2029L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2030
8903cb82 2031=item Identifier too long
2032
2033(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2034about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2035names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2036of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2037
c3c41406 2038=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 2039
ff3f963a
KW
2040(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return a
2041zero length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 2042its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2043been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2044
6df41af2 2045=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2046
6df41af2 2047(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2048
6df41af2 2049=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2050
be771a83
GS
2051(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2052binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2053offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2054
78d0fecf 2055=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2056
d5898338 2057(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2058would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2059when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2060version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2061to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2062
d37a9538
ST
2063=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2064
197afce1
MT
2065(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2066Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, and \.
d37a9538 2067
904d85c5
RGS
2068=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2069
2070(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
2071you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
2072
8e742a20
MHM
2073=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2074
2075(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
2076
a0d0e21e
LW
2077=item Illegal division by zero
2078
be771a83
GS
2079(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2080your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2081meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2082
6df41af2
GS
2083=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2084
be771a83
GS
2085(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2086A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2087number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2088
a0d0e21e
LW
2089=item Illegal modulus zero
2090
be771a83
GS
2091(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2092numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2093
6df41af2 2094=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2095
6df41af2
GS
2096(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2097two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2098
2099=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2100
d1be9408 2101(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2102
399388f4 2103=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2104
d1be9408 2105(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2106Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2107
fe13d51d 2108=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2109
6df41af2 2110(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2111following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2112
6df41af2 2113=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2114
75b44862 2115(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2116internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2117delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2118
6df41af2 2119=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2120
be771a83
GS
2121(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2122name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2123didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2124ignored.
54310121 2125
6df41af2 2126=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2127
be771a83
GS
2128(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2129the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2130system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2131times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2132would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2133
be771a83
GS
2134Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2135also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2136
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2137=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2138
2139(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2140C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2141documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2142
979699d9
JH
2143=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2144
2145(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2146Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2147encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2148
1a147d38
YO
2149=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2150
2151(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
2152text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
2153either consume text or fail.
2154
2155The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2156discovered.
2157
6dbe9451
NC
2158=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2159
2160(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2161of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2162C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2163as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2164
a0d0e21e
LW
2165=item Insecure dependency in %s
2166
8b1a09fc 2167(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2168The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2169setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2170tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2171from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2172such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2173L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2174
2175=item Insecure directory in %s
2176
be771a83
GS
2177(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2178setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2179the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2180See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2181
62f468fc 2182=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2183
2184(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2185setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2186C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2187supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2188the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2189
a7ae9550
GS
2190=item Integer overflow in %s number
2191
75b44862 2192(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2193either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2194your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2195On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2196representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
21970b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2198transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2199internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2200operations.
bbce6d69 2201
2fba7546
GA
2202=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2203
0be96356
AL
2204(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2205or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2fba7546
GA
2206integers for your architecture.
2207
46314c13
JP
2208=item Integer overflow in version
2209
2210(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2211size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2212because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2213element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2214trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2215100/9.
2216
7253e4e3 2217=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2218
2219(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2220The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2221discovered.
2222
748a9306
LW
2223=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2224
be771a83
GS
2225(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2226you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2227to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2228L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2229Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2230terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2231
7253e4e3 2232=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2233
7253e4e3
RK
2234(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2235<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2236discovered.
a0d0e21e 2237
6df41af2
GS
2238=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2239
75b44862 2240(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2241followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2242operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2243L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2244
09bef843
SB
2245=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2246
a4a4c9e2 2247(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2248by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2249
2250=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2251
a4a4c9e2 2252(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2253recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2254
c635e13b 2255=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2256
be771a83
GS
2257(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2258L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2259
9e08bc66
TS
2260=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2261
2262(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2263didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2264from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2265The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2266The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2267escape was discovered.
2268
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2269=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2270
2271(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")>
2272or C<use mro 'foo'>, where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO).
2273(Currently, the only valid ones are C<dfs> and C<c3>). See L<mro>.
2274
7253e4e3 2275=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2276
2277(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2278greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2279C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2280up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2281problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2282
d1573ac7 2283=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2284
2285(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2286character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2287
09bef843
SB
2288=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2289
0120eecf 2290(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2291elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2292parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2293See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2294
b4581f09
JH
2295=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2296
2297(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
2298colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
2299If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2300list was terminated too soon.
2301
2c86d456
DG
2302=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2303
2304(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2305A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2306decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2307v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2308The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2309See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2310
49704364 2311=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2312
49704364
WL
2313(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2314See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2315(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2316silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2317
2c86d456
DG
2318=item Invalid version format (%s)
2319
2320(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2321A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2322decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2323v-string. If the v-string has less than three components, it must have a
2324leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is optional. Both
2325decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a trailing "alpha"
2326component separated by an underscore character after a fractional or
2327dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized text indicates which
a6485a24 2328criteria were not met. See the L<version> module for more details on
2c86d456 2329allowed version formats.
46314c13 2330
798ae1b7
DG
2331=item Invalid version object
2332
2333(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid. Perhaps
2334the internals were modified directly in some way or an arbitrary reference
2335was blessed into the "version" class.
2336
a0d0e21e
LW
2337=item ioctl is not implemented
2338
2339(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2340strange for a machine that supports C.
2341
c289d2f7
JH
2342=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2343
2344(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
2345Check you control flow and number of arguments.
2346
fe13d51d 2347=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2348
2349(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
2350you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO Perl must be configured
2351with 'useperlio'.
2352
80cbd5ad
JH
2353=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2354
2355(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
2356neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
2357
b4581f09
JH
2358=item $* is no longer supported
2359
d1d15184 2360(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older perls, has
4fd19576
B
2361been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In previous versions of perl the use of
2362C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line matching within a string.
2363
2364Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
2365modifiers. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value then all regular
2366expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2367
8ae1fe26
RGS
2368=item $# is no longer supported
2369
d1d15184 2370(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older perls, has
8ae1fe26
RGS
2371been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You should use the
2372printf/sprintf functions instead.
2373
6ad11d81
JH
2374=item `%s' is not a code reference
2375
04a80ee0
RGS
2376(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2377needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2378to a subroutine.
2379
2380=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2381
04a80ee0
RGS
2382(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2383unaware of.
6ad11d81 2384
a0d0e21e
LW
2385=item junk on end of regexp
2386
2387(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2388
2389=item Label not found for "last %s"
2390
be771a83
GS
2391(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2392of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2393L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2394
2395=item Label not found for "next %s"
2396
2397(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2398that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2399L<perlfunc/last>.
2400
2401=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2402
2403(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2404that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2405L<perlfunc/last>.
2406
85ab1d1d 2407=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2408
85ab1d1d 2409(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2410effective uids or gids failed.
2411
49704364
WL
2412=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2413
d7f8936a 2414(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
WL
2415length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2416an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2417
f0e67a1d
Z
2418=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2419
2420(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
2421(using L<lex_stuff_pvn_flags|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn_flags> or similar), but
2422tried to insert a character that couldn't be part of the current input.
2423This is an inherent pitfall of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the
2424reasons to avoid it. Where it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only
2425plain ASCII is recommended.
2426
2427=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2428
2429(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2430detectable way.
2431
69282e91 2432=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2433
be771a83
GS
2434(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2435to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2436L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2437
bcd05b94 2438=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2439
fc003d4b
MS
2440(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was larger
2441than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2442wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2443not-a-number value).
2444
bcd05b94 2445=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b
MS
2446
2447(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was smaller
2448than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2449wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2450not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 2451
58e23c8d 2452=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2453
2454(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2455handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2456
b88df990
NC
2457=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2458
2459(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2460for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2461hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2462because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2463are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2464You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2465
2f7da168
RK
2466=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2467
2468(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2469by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2470instead on the filehandle.)
2471
885ef6f5
GG
2472=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2473
963d9ce9 2474(W misc) Making a subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined
d9159685
RS
2475by declaring the subroutine with an lvalue attribute is not
2476possible. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine add the
e2bd2e2b 2477lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the declaration before
885ef6f5
GG
2478the definition.
2479
96ebfdd7
RK
2480=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
2481
2482(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
2483values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
2484L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
2485
49704364
WL
2486=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
2487
2488(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2489are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2490
2491=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2492
2493(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2494are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2495
6df41af2
GS
2496=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2497
2498(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2499
2500 prefix1;prefix2
2501
2502or
6df41af2
GS
2503 prefix1 prefix2
2504
be771a83
GS
2505with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2506a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2507appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2508"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2509
2f758a16
ST
2510=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2511
d37a9538
ST
2512(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2513syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2514obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2515when the function is called.
2f758a16 2516
ba210ebe
JH
2517=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2518
2575c402
JW
2519(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2520encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2521
2575c402
JW
2522One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2523you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
25248-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2525
2526If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2527sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2528set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2529message.
2530
2531See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2532
dea0fc0b
JH
2533=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
2534
183097aa 2535(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
dea0fc0b
JH
2536doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2537
ff3f963a
KW
2538=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N
2539
2540(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2541
f337b084
TH
2542=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2543
2544(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2545rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2546
2547=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2548
2549(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2550rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2551
2552=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2553
2554(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2555rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2556
de42a5a9 2557=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2558
fe13d51d 2559(F) Perl aborted due to a too high number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2560usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2561too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2562resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2563safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2564
49704364 2565=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2566
2567(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
7253e4e3
RK
2568regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2569shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2570See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2571
25f58aea
PN
2572=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2573
2574(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2575interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2576"use" or "my".
2577
49704364 2578=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2579
2580(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2581checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2582See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2583
a0d0e21e
LW
2584=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2585
2586(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2587doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2588
3cdd684c
TP
2589=item Method %s not permitted
2590
2591See Server error.
2592
a0d0e21e
LW
2593=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2594
2595(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2596by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2597ended earlier on the current line.
2598
2599=item Misplaced _ in number
2600
d4ced10d
JH
2601(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2602separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2603
7baa4690
HS
2604=item Missing argument in %s
2605
2606(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2607supplied.
2608
9e81e6a1
RGS
2609=item Missing argument to -%c
2610
2611(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2612immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2613
ff3f963a 2614=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2615
4a2d328f 2616(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
c3c41406
KW
2617double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space (or
2618comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2619This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately follow
2620the C<\N>.
423cee85 2621
f0a2b745
KW
2622=item Missing braces on \o{}
2623
2624(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2625
a0d0e21e
LW
2626=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2627
2628(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2629"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2630
06eaf0bc
GS
2631=item Missing command in piped open
2632
be771a83
GS
2633(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2634C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2635blank.
06eaf0bc 2636
961ce445
RGS
2637=item Missing control char name in \c
2638
2639(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2640character name.
2641
6df41af2
GS
2642=item Missing name in "my sub"
2643
be771a83
GS
2644(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2645they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2646
2647=item Missing $ on loop variable
2648
be771a83
GS
2649(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2650are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2651can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2652
cc507455 2653=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2654
56da5a46
RGS
2655(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2656"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2657
ab13f0c7
JH
2658=item Missing right brace on %s
2659
ff3f963a
KW
2660(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2661
4a68bf9d 2662=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2663
0a96133f
KW
2664(F)
2665C<\N> has two meanings.
2666
2667The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed
2668in braces, meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that name.
ff3f963a 2669Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
0a96133f
KW
2670double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns, it doesn't
2671have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
ff3f963a 2672
0a96133f 2673Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only) in
c3c41406
KW
2674patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short for
2675C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
ff3f963a
KW
2676
2677This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately by a
c3c41406 2678left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if
ff3f963a
KW
2679the braces form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes
2680that this means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
0a96133f 26813; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a C<\N{>
ff3f963a
KW
2682and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2683
2684However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was mistakenly
c3c41406 2685omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and
0a96133f
KW
2686raises this error. If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant
2687the latter, escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2688
d98d5fff 2689=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2690
be771a83
GS
2691(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2692ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2693were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2694
6df41af2
GS
2695=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2696
56da5a46
RGS
2697(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2698"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2699the previous line just because you saw this message.
2700
a0d0e21e
LW
2701=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2702
2703(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2704constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2705catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2706
2707 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2708 mod(2);
2709
2710Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2711
c5674021
PDF
2712Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2713is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2714
2715 $x = 1;
2716 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2717 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2718 }
c5674021 2719
7a4340ed 2720=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2721
2722(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2723subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2724backwards.
2725
7a4340ed 2726=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2727
be771a83
GS
2728(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2729couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2730
2731=item Module name must be constant
2732
2733(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2734
be98fb35 2735=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2736
be98fb35
GS
2737(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2738you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2739about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2740
fe13d51d 2741=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7
SG
2742
2743(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2744can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2745list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2746See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2747
a0d0e21e
LW
2748=item msg%s not implemented
2749
2750(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2751
2752=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2753
75b44862
GS
2754(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2755They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2756
49704364 2757=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2758
49704364
WL
2759(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2760follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2761See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2762
2763=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2764
be771a83
GS
2765(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2766that yet.
6df41af2 2767
30c282f6 2768=item "%s" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2769
be771a83
GS
2770(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2771sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2772local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2773
4a68bf9d 2774=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...}
ff3f963a 2775
c3c41406
KW
2776(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
2777character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses its
2778specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not what you want.
2779
4a68bf9d 2780=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer
c3c41406
KW
2781
2782(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or sequence
2783was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that bypass the lexer,
b09c05e6 2784such as using single-quotish context, or an extra backslash in double quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2785
2786 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2787 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2788 /$re/;
2789
b09c05e6 2790Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2791
2792 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2793 /$re/;
2794
2795The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2796components:
2797
2798 $re = '\N';
2799 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2800
2801It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2802doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2803
2804Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
2805C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
2806
2807 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
2808 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 2809
8b1a09fc 2810=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2811
e476b1b5 2812(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
2813If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2814again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 2815provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e 2816
64b374f4
FD
2817NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2818%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2819the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2820will not trigger this warning.
2821
4a68bf9d 2822=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
ff3f963a
KW
2823
2824(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
c3c41406
KW
2825number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than 0 - 9
2826or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
ff3f963a 2827
49704364
WL
2828=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2829
2830(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2831negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2832
a0d0e21e
LW
2833=item Negative length
2834
be771a83
GS
2835(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2836length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2837
ed9aa3b7
SG
2838=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2839
2840(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2841greater than or equal to zero.
2842
7253e4e3 2843=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2844
b45f050a 2845(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2846things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2847expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2848
7253e4e3 2849Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2850C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2851
6df41af2 2852=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2853
be771a83
GS
2854(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2855scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2856
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2857=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2858
2859(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2860real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2861See L<mro>.
2862
a0d0e21e
LW
2863=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2864
be771a83
GS
2865(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2866setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2867will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2868securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2869
a0d0e21e
LW
2870=item No comma allowed after %s
2871
2872(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2873allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2874Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2875
0a753a76 2876One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2877constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2878importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2879does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2880explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2881L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2882would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2883remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2884constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2885list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2886this error was triggered?
2887
748a9306
LW
2888=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2889
be771a83
GS
2890(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2891redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2892doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2893
a0d0e21e
LW
2894=item No DB::DB routine defined
2895
be771a83 2896(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
ccafdc96
RGS
2897for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2898module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2899statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2900
2901=item No dbm on this machine
2902
2903(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2904supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2905
ccafdc96 2906=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2907
ccafdc96
RGS
2908(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2909for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2910module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2911of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2912
96ebfdd7
RK
2913=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2914
2915(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2916
c47ff5f1 2917=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2918
be771a83
GS
2919(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2920redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2921find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2922
49704364
WL
2923=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2924
2925(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2926matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2927
c47ff5f1 2928=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2929
be771a83
GS
2930(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2931redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2932name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2933
6df41af2
GS
2934=item No #! line
2935
2936(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2937even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2938
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2939=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2940
2941(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2942in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2943it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2944or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2945
6df41af2
GS
2946=item "no" not allowed in expression
2947
be771a83
GS
2948(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2949returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2950
c47ff5f1 2951=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2952
be771a83
GS
2953(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2954redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2955doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2956
c47ff5f1 2957=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2958
be771a83
GS
2959(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2960redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2961find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2962
1ec3e8de
GS
2963=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2964
be771a83
GS
2965(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2966declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2967semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2968
a0d0e21e
LW
2969=item No Perl script found in input
2970
2971(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2972with #! and containing the word "perl".
2973
2974=item No setregid available
2975
2976(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2977your system.
2978
2979=item No setreuid available
2980
2981(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2982your system.
2983
6df41af2
GS
2984=item No %s specified for -%c
2985
2986(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2987you haven't specified one.
e75d1f10
RD
2988=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
2989
2990(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
2991but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
2992package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
2993
2c692339
RGS
2994=item No such class %s
2995
30c282f6 2996(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration, but
2c692339
RGS
2997this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2998
3c20a832
SP
2999=item No such hook: %s
3000
3001(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl. Currently, Perl
3002accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks
3003
6df41af2
GS
3004=item No such pipe open
3005
3006(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
3007close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
3008earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 3009
a0d0e21e
LW
3010=item No such signal: SIG%s
3011
be771a83
GS
3012(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
3013not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
3014names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
3015
3016=item Not a CODE reference
3017
3018(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3019subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3020use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3021also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3022
3023=item Not a format reference
3024
3025(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
3026format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
3027
3028=item Not a GLOB reference
3029
be771a83
GS
3030(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
3031symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
3032something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
3033kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3034
3035=item Not a HASH reference
3036
be771a83
GS
3037(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
3038reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
3039find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3040
6df41af2
GS
3041=item Not an ARRAY reference
3042
be771a83
GS
3043(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
3044a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3045to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 3046
a0d0e21e
LW
3047=item Not a perl script
3048
3049(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
3050even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
3051mention perl.
3052
3053=item Not a SCALAR reference
3054
be771a83
GS
3055(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
3056a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3057to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3058
3059=item Not a subroutine reference
3060
3061(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3062subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3063use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3064also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3065
e7ea3e70 3066=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
3067
3068(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 3069doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3070
a0d0e21e
LW
3071=item Not enough arguments for %s
3072
3073(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
3074
6df41af2
GS
3075=item Not enough format arguments
3076
be771a83
GS
3077(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3078supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3079
3080=item %s: not found
3081
be771a83
GS
3082(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3083of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3084yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3085
3086=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3087
6df41af2
GS
3088(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3089timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3090to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3091F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3092need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 3093
f0a2b745
KW
3094=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3095
3096(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was unexpectedly
3097encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value is as indicated.
3098
4ef2275c
GA
3099=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3100
3101(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3102Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
3103select. See L<perlfunc/select>
3104
a0d0e21e
LW
3105=item Null filename used
3106
be771a83
GS
3107(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
3108machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 3109
6df41af2
GS
3110=item NULL OP IN RUN
3111
be771a83
GS
3112(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
3113pointer.
6df41af2 3114
55497cff 3115=item Null picture in formline
3116
3117(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
3118specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
3119supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
3120
a0d0e21e
LW
3121=item Null realloc
3122
3123(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
3124
3125=item NULL regexp argument
3126
5f05dabc 3127(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
3128
3129=item NULL regexp parameter
3130
3131(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
3132
fc36a67e 3133=item Number too long
3134
be771a83 3135(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 3136about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
3137versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
3138the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
3139"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 3140
f0a2b745
KW
3141=item Number with no digits
3142
3143(F) Perl was looking for a number but found nothing that looked like a number.
3144This happens, for example with C<\o{}>, with no number between the braces.
3145
6df41af2
GS
3146=item Octal number in vector unsupported
3147
be771a83
GS
3148(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
3149The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
3150future version.
6df41af2 3151
252aa082
JH
3152=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
3153
75b44862 3154(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
3155(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
3156L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
3157
3158See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
3159
6ad11d81
JH
3160=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
3161
04a80ee0
RGS
3162(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
3163arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 3164
b21befc1
MG
3165=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
3166
3167(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3168which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
3169
1930e939 3170=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 3171
be771a83
GS
3172(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3173which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 3174
bbce6d69 3175=item Offset outside string
3176
a4a4c9e2 3177(F|W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
42bc49da 3178with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
3179imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
3180take place when going past the end of the string when either
3181C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
3182for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
3183with real files).
bbce6d69 3184
c289d2f7 3185=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
3186
3187(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
3188never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
3189call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
3190
96ebfdd7
RK
3191=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
3192
3193(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
3194that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
3195
a0d0e21e
LW
3196=item oops: oopsAV
3197
e476b1b5 3198(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
3199
3200=item oops: oopsHV
3201
e476b1b5 3202(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 3203
abc718f2
RGS
3204=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
3205
a4a4c9e2 3206(W io, deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3207a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
3208Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3209and is deprecated.
3210
3211=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
3212
a4a4c9e2 3213(W io, deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3214a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
3215Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3216and is deprecated.
3217
a0288114 3218=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 3219
be771a83
GS
3220(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
3221handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
3222of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
3223C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 3224
9ae3ac1a
KW
3225=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for UTF-16 surrogate U+%X
3226
3227(W) You performed an operation requiring Unicode semantics on a Unicode
3228surrogate. Unicode frowns upon the use of surrogates for anything but
3229storing strings in UTF-16, but semantics are (reluctantly) defined for
3230the surrogates, and they are to do nothing for this operation. Because
3231the use of surrogates can be dangerous, Perl warns.
3232
3233If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3234matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3235
3236If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
3237C<no warnings 'utf8';>.
3238
3239=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for non-Unicode code point 0x%X
3240
3241(W) You performed an operation requiring Unicode semantics on a code
3242point that is not in Unicode, so what it should do is not defined. Perl
3243has chosen to have it do nothing, and warn you.
3244
3245If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3246matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3247
3248If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
3249C<no warnings 'utf8';>.
3250
748a9306
LW
3251=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
3252
be771a83
GS
3253(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
3254was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
3255use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
3256example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
3257"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 3258
6df41af2
GS
3259=item "our" variable %s redeclared
3260
be771a83
GS
3261(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
3262in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 3263
a80b8354
GS
3264=item Out of memory!
3265
3266(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
3267remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
3268no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 3269
19a52907
JH
3270At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
3271process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
3272C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
3273the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
3274and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
3275
6d3b25aa
RGS
3276=item Out of memory during %s extend
3277
3278(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
3279the largest possible memory allocation.
3280
6df41af2 3281=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 3282
6df41af2
GS
3283(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
3284remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
3285the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
3286possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 3287
1b979e0a 3288=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 3289
be771a83
GS
3290(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
3291insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
3292request.
eff9c6e2
CS
3293
3294The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
3295depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
3296However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
3297emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
3298is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
3299where the failed request happened.
55497cff 3300
1b979e0a
IZ
3301=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
3302
3303(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
3304is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
3305C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 3306
6df41af2
GS
3307=item Out of memory for yacc stack
3308
be771a83
GS
3309(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
3310parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
3311otherwise.
6df41af2 3312
28be1210
TH
3313=item '.' outside of string in pack
3314
3315(F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working
3316position to before the start of the packed string being built.
3317
49704364 3318=item '@' outside of string in unpack
6df41af2 3319
49704364 3320(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
6df41af2
GS
3321the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3322
f337b084
TH
3323=item '@' outside of string with malformed UTF-8 in unpack
3324
3325(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
3326the string being unpacked. The string being unpacked was also invalid
3327UTF-8. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3328
7cb0cfe6
BM
3329=item Overloaded dereference did not return a reference
3330
3331(F) An object with an overloaded dereference operator was dereferenced,
3332but the overloaded operation did not return a reference. See
3333L<overload>.
3334
3335=item Overloaded qr did not return a REGEXP
3336
3337(F) An object with a C<qr> overload was used as part of a match, but the
3338overloaded operation didn't return a compiled regexp. See L<overload>.
3339
6df41af2
GS
3340=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
3341
be771a83
GS
3342(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
3343package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
3344some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
3345mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 3346
fb2e24cd
KW
3347=item \p{} uses Unicode rules, not locale rules
3348
3349(W) You compiled a regular expression that contained a Unicode property
3350match (C<\p> or C<\P>), but the regular expression is also being told to
f7f5e97b
KW
3351use the run-time locale, not Unicode. Instead, use a POSIX character
3352class, which should know about the locale's rules.
3353(See L<perlrecharclass/POSIX Character Classes>.)
3354
3355Even if the run-time locale is ISO 8859-1 (Latin1), which is a subset of
3356Unicode, some properties will give results that are not valid for that
3357subset.
3358
3359Here are a couple of examples to help you see what's going on. If the
3360locale is ISO 8859-7, the character at code point 0xD7 is the "GREEK
3361CAPITAL LETTER CHI". But in Unicode that code point means the
3362"MULTIPLICATION SIGN" instead, and C<\p> always uses the Unicode
3363meaning. That means that C<\p{Alpha}> won't match, but C<[[:alpha:]]>
3364should. Only in the Latin1 locale are all the characters in the same
3365positions as they are in Unicode. But, even here, some properties give
3366incorrect results. An example is C<\p{Changes_When_Uppercased}> which
3367is true for "LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH DIAERESIS", but since the upper
3368case of that character is not in Latin1, in that locale it doesn't
3369change when upper cased.
fb2e24cd 3370
96ebfdd7
RK
3371=item pack/unpack repeat count overflow
3372
3373(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
3374signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3375
a0d0e21e
LW
3376=item page overflow
3377
be771a83
GS
3378(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
3379page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 3380
6df41af2
GS
3381=item panic: %s
3382