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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
2see. It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
3specially designed to be readable as is.
4
5=head1 NAME
6
7perlwin32 - Perl under Windows
8
9=head1 SYNOPSIS
10
b906aaa5 11These are instructions for building Perl under Windows 2000 and later.
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12
13=head1 DESCRIPTION
14
15Before you start, you should glance through the README file
16found in the top-level directory to which the Perl distribution
17was extracted. Make sure you read and understand the terms under
18which this software is being distributed.
19
20Also make sure you read L<BUGS AND CAVEATS> below for the
21known limitations of this port.
22
23The INSTALL file in the perl top-level has much information that is
24only relevant to people building Perl on Unix-like systems. In
25particular, you can safely ignore any information that talks about
26"Configure".
27
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28You may also want to look at one other option for building a perl that
29will work on Windows: the README.cygwin file, which give a different
30set of rules to build a perl for Windows. This method will probably
31enable you to build a more Unix-compatible perl, but you will also
32need to download and use various other build-time and run-time support
33software described in that file.
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34
35This set of instructions is meant to describe a so-called "native"
b906aaa5 36port of Perl to the Windows platform. This includes both 32-bit and
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3764-bit Windows operating systems. The resulting Perl requires no
38additional software to run (other than what came with your operating
39system). Currently, this port is capable of using one of the
40following compilers on the Intel x86 architecture:
41
912c63ed 42 Microsoft Visual C++ version 6.0 or later
a2b08671 43 Intel C++ Compiler (experimental)
bf537ce6 44 Gcc by mingw.org gcc version 3.4.5 or later
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45 Gcc by mingw-w64.sf.net gcc version 4.4.3 or later
46
47Note that the last two of these are actually competing projects both
48delivering complete gcc toolchain for MS Windows:
b906aaa5 49
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50=over 4
51
52=item L<http://mingw.org>
53
54Delivers gcc toolchain targeting 32-bit Windows platform.
b906aaa5 55
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56=item L<http://mingw-w64.sf.net>
57
58Delivers gcc toolchain targeting both 64-bit Windows and 32-bit Windows
59platforms (despite the project name "mingw-w64" they are not only 64-bit
60oriented). They deliver the native gcc compilers and cross-compilers
61that are also supported by perl's makefile.
62
63=back
9baed986 64
378eeda7 65The Microsoft Visual C++ compilers are also now being given away free. They are
3e7c2d43 66available as "Visual C++ Toolkit 2003" or "Visual C++ 2005-2013 Express
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67Edition" (and also as part of the ".NET Framework SDK") and are the same
68compilers that ship with "Visual C++ .NET 2003 Professional" or "Visual C++
3e7c2d43 692005-2013 Professional" respectively.
7241fd28 70
fa58a56f 71This port can also be built on IA64/AMD64 using:
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72
73 Microsoft Platform SDK Nov 2001 (64-bit compiler and tools)
fa58a56f 74 MinGW64 compiler (gcc version 4.4.3 or later)
9baed986 75
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76The Windows SDK can be downloaded from L<http://www.microsoft.com/>.
77The MinGW64 compiler is available at L<http://sourceforge.net/projects/mingw-w64>.
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78The latter is actually a cross-compiler targeting Win64. There's also a trimmed
79down compiler (no java, or gfortran) suitable for building perl available at:
4cef65c2 80L<http://strawberryperl.com/package/kmx/64_gcctoolchain/>
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81
82NOTE: If you're using a 32-bit compiler to build perl on a 64-bit Windows
83operating system, then you should set the WIN64 environment variable to "undef".
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84Also, the trimmed down compiler only passes tests when USE_ITHREADS *= define
85(as opposed to undef) and when the CFG *= Debug line is commented out.
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86
87This port fully supports MakeMaker (the set of modules that
88is used to build extensions to perl). Therefore, you should be
89able to build and install most extensions found in the CPAN sites.
b906aaa5 90See L<Usage Hints for Perl on Windows> below for general hints about this.
9baed986 91
b906aaa5 92=head2 Setting Up Perl on Windows
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93
94=over 4
95
96=item Make
97
98You need a "make" program to build the sources. If you are using
b906aaa5 99Visual C++ or the Windows SDK tools, nmake will work. Builds using
378eeda7 100the gcc need dmake.
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101
102dmake is a freely available make that has very nice macro features
103and parallelability.
104
105A port of dmake for Windows is available from:
106
42d76a89 107L<http://search.cpan.org/dist/dmake/>
9baed986 108
13e18e90 109Fetch and install dmake somewhere on your path.
9baed986 110
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111=item Command Shell
112
8cbe99e5 113Use the default "cmd" shell that comes with Windows. Some versions of the
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114popular 4DOS/NT shell have incompatibilities that may cause you trouble.
115If the build fails under that shell, try building again with the cmd
116shell.
117
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118Make sure the path to the build directory does not contain spaces. The
119build usually works in this circumstance, but some tests will fail.
120
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121=item Microsoft Visual C++
122
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123The nmake that comes with Visual C++ will suffice for building. Visual C
124requires that certain things be set up in the console before Visual C will
125sucessfully run. To make a console box be able to run the C compiler, you will
126need to beforehand, run the C<vcvars32.bat> file to compile for x86-32 and for
127x86-64 C<vcvarsall.bat x64> or C<vcvarsamd64.bat>. On a typical install of a
128Microsoft C compiler product, these batch files will already be in your C<PATH>
129environment variable so you may just type them without an absolute path into
130your console. If you need to find the absolute path to the batch file, it is
131usually found somewhere like C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio\VC98\Bin.
132With some newer Micrsoft C products (released after ~2004), the installer will
133put a shortcut in the start menu to launch a new console window with the
134console already set up for your target architecture (x86-32 or x86-64 or IA64).
135With the newer compilers, you may also use the older batch files if you choose
136so.
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137
138You can also use dmake to build using Visual C++; provided, however,
139you set OSRELEASE to "microsft" (or whatever the directory name
140under which the Visual C dmake configuration lives) in your environment
141and edit win32/config.vc to change "make=nmake" into "make=dmake". The
142latter step is only essential if you want to use dmake as your default
143make for building extensions using MakeMaker.
144
3e7c2d43 145=item Microsoft Visual C++ 2008-2013 Express Edition
4a3cf07b 146
3e7c2d43 147These free versions of Visual C++ 2008-2013 Professional contain the same
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148compilers and linkers that ship with the full versions, and also contain
149everything necessary to build Perl, rather than requiring a separate download
150of the Windows SDK like previous versions did.
4a3cf07b 151
2a46176f 152These packages can be downloaded by searching in the Download Center at
42d76a89 153L<http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/search.aspx?displaylang=en>. (Providing exact
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154links to these packages has proven a pointless task because the links keep on
155changing so often.)
4a3cf07b 156
3e7c2d43 157Install Visual C++ 2008-2013 Express, then setup your environment using, e.g.
4a3cf07b 158
3e7c2d43 159 C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 12.0\Common7\Tools\vsvars32.bat
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160
161(assuming the default installation location was chosen).
162
163Perl should now build using the win32/Makefile. You will need to edit that
3e7c2d43 164file to set CCTYPE to one of MSVC90FREE-MSVC120FREE first.
4a3cf07b 165
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166=item Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 Express Edition
167
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168This free version of Visual C++ 2005 Professional contains the same compiler
169and linker that ship with the full version, but doesn't contain everything
170necessary to build Perl.
171
b906aaa5 172You will also need to download the "Windows SDK" (the "Core SDK" and "MDAC
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173SDK" components are required) for more header files and libraries.
174
175These packages can both be downloaded by searching in the Download Center at
42d76a89 176L<http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/search.aspx?displaylang=en>. (Providing exact
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177links to these packages has proven a pointless task because the links keep on
178changing so often.)
179
b906aaa5 180Try to obtain the latest version of the Windows SDK. Sometimes these packages
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181contain a particular Windows OS version in their name, but actually work on
182other OS versions too. For example, the "Windows Server 2003 R2 Platform SDK"
183also runs on Windows XP SP2 and Windows 2000.
184
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185Install Visual C++ 2005 first, then the Platform SDK. Setup your environment
186as follows (assuming default installation locations were chosen):
187
4246aec1 188 SET PlatformSDKDir=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Platform SDK
1c847d4b 189
4246aec1 190 SET PATH=%SystemRoot%\system32;%SystemRoot%;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\Common7\IDE;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\VC\BIN;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\Common7\Tools;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\SDK\v2.0\bin;C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\VC\VCPackages;%PlatformSDKDir%\Bin
1c847d4b 191
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192 SET INCLUDE=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\VC\INCLUDE;%PlatformSDKDir%\include
193
194 SET LIB=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\VC\LIB;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\SDK\v2.0\lib;%PlatformSDKDir%\lib
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195
196 SET LIBPATH=C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727
197
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198(The PlatformSDKDir might need to be set differently depending on which version
199you are using. Earlier versions installed into "C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDK",
200while the latest versions install into version-specific locations such as
201"C:\Program Files\Microsoft Platform SDK for Windows Server 2003 R2".)
202
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203Perl should now build using the win32/Makefile. You will need to edit that
204file to set
205
206 CCTYPE = MSVC80FREE
207
208and to set CCHOME, CCINCDIR and CCLIBDIR as per the environment setup above.
209
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210=item Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003
211
212This free toolkit contains the same compiler and linker that ship with
1c847d4b 213Visual C++ .NET 2003 Professional, but doesn't contain everything
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214necessary to build Perl.
215
216You will also need to download the "Platform SDK" (the "Core SDK" and "MDAC
217SDK" components are required) for header files, libraries and rc.exe, and
218".NET Framework SDK" for more libraries and nmake.exe. Note that the latter
219(which also includes the free compiler and linker) requires the ".NET
220Framework Redistributable" to be installed first. This can be downloaded and
221installed separately, but is included in the "Visual C++ Toolkit 2003" anyway.
222
223These packages can all be downloaded by searching in the Download Center at
42d76a89 224L<http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/search.aspx?displaylang=en>. (Providing exact
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225links to these packages has proven a pointless task because the links keep on
226changing so often.)
227
b906aaa5 228Try to obtain the latest version of the Windows SDK. Sometimes these packages
1b4f0359 229contain a particular Windows OS version in their name, but actually work on
1c847d4b 230other OS versions too. For example, the "Windows Server 2003 R2 Platform SDK"
1b4f0359 231also runs on Windows XP SP2 and Windows 2000.
7241fd28 232
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233Install the Toolkit first, then the Platform SDK, then the .NET Framework SDK.
234Setup your environment as follows (assuming default installation locations
235were chosen):
236
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237 SET PlatformSDKDir=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Platform SDK
238
239 SET PATH=%SystemRoot%\system32;%SystemRoot%;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\bin;%PlatformSDKDir%\Bin;C:\Program Files\Microsoft.NET\SDK\v1.1\Bin
240
241 SET INCLUDE=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\include;%PlatformSDKDir%\include;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003\Vc7\include
1c847d4b 242
4246aec1 243 SET LIB=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\lib;%PlatformSDKDir%\lib;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003\Vc7\lib
1c847d4b 244
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245(The PlatformSDKDir might need to be set differently depending on which version
246you are using. Earlier versions installed into "C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDK",
247while the latest versions install into version-specific locations such as
248"C:\Program Files\Microsoft Platform SDK for Windows Server 2003 R2".)
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249
250Several required files will still be missing:
251
252=over 4
253
254=item *
255
256cvtres.exe is required by link.exe when using a .res file. It is actually
257installed by the .NET Framework SDK, but into a location such as the
258following:
259
260 C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v1.1.4322
261
4246aec1 262Copy it from there to %PlatformSDKDir%\Bin
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263
264=item *
265
266lib.exe is normally used to build libraries, but link.exe with the /lib
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267option also works, so change win32/config.vc to use it instead:
268
269Change the line reading:
270
271 ar='lib'
272
273to:
274
275 ar='link /lib'
276
277It may also be useful to create a batch file called lib.bat in
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278C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\bin containing:
279
280 @echo off
281 link /lib %*
282
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283for the benefit of any naughty C extension modules that you might want to build
284later which explicitly reference "lib" rather than taking their value from
285$Config{ar}.
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286
287=item *
288
289setargv.obj is required to build perlglob.exe (and perl.exe if the USE_SETARGV
290option is enabled). The Platform SDK supplies this object file in source form
4246aec1 291in %PlatformSDKDir%\src\crt. Copy setargv.c, cruntime.h and
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292internal.h from there to some temporary location and build setargv.obj using
293
294 cl.exe /c /I. /D_CRTBLD setargv.c
295
4246aec1 296Then copy setargv.obj to %PlatformSDKDir%\lib
7241fd28 297
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298Alternatively, if you don't need perlglob.exe and don't need to enable the
299USE_SETARGV option then you can safely just remove all mention of $(GLOBEXE)
300from win32/Makefile and setargv.obj won't be required anyway.
301
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302=back
303
304Perl should now build using the win32/Makefile. You will need to edit that
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305file to set
306
307 CCTYPE = MSVC70FREE
308
309and to set CCHOME, CCINCDIR and CCLIBDIR as per the environment setup above.
7241fd28 310
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311=item Microsoft Platform SDK 64-bit Compiler
312
313The nmake that comes with the Platform SDK will suffice for building
314Perl. Make sure you are building within one of the "Build Environment"
315shells available after you install the Platform SDK from the Start Menu.
316
e2736246 317=item MinGW release 3 with gcc
9baed986 318
bf537ce6 319Perl can be compiled with gcc from MinGW release 3 and later (using gcc 3.4.5
ceb0c681 320and later). It can be downloaded here:
9baed986 321
42d76a89 322L<http://www.mingw.org/>
7c5b6093 323
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324You also need dmake. See L</"Make"> above on how to get it.
325
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326=item Intel C++ Compiler
327
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328Experimental support for using Intel C++ Compiler has been added. Edit
329win32/Makefile and pick the correct CCTYPE for the Visual C that Intel C was
330installed into. Also uncomment __ICC to enable Intel C on Visual C support.
331To set up the build enviroment, from the Start Menu run
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332IA-32 Visual Studio 20__ mode or Intel 64 Visual Studio 20__ mode as
333appropriate. Then run nmake as usually in that prompt box.
334
335Only Intel C++ Compiler v12.1 has been tested. Other versions probably will
336work.
337
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338=back
339
340=head2 Building
341
342=over 4
343
344=item *
345
346Make sure you are in the "win32" subdirectory under the perl toplevel.
347This directory contains a "Makefile" that will work with
b906aaa5 348versions of nmake that come with Visual C++ or the Windows SDK, and
9baed986 349a dmake "makefile.mk" that will work for all supported compilers. The
00808b83 350defaults in the dmake makefile are setup to build using MinGW/gcc.
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351
352=item *
353
dbd54a9f 354Edit the makefile.mk (or Makefile, if you're using nmake) and change
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355the values of INST_DRV and INST_TOP. You can also enable various
356build flags. These are explained in the makefiles.
357
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358Note that it is generally not a good idea to try to build a perl with
359INST_DRV and INST_TOP set to a path that already exists from a previous
360build. In particular, this may cause problems with the
361lib/ExtUtils/t/Embed.t test, which attempts to build a test program and
362may end up building against the installed perl's lib/CORE directory rather
363than the one being tested.
364
dbd54a9f 365You will have to make sure that CCTYPE is set correctly and that
4cef65c2 366CCHOME points to wherever you installed your compiler.
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367
368If building with the cross-compiler provided by
369mingw-w64.sourceforge.net you'll need to uncomment the line that sets
370GCCCROSS in the makefile.mk. Do this only if it's the cross-compiler - ie
371only if the bin folder doesn't contain a gcc.exe. (The cross-compiler
372does not provide a gcc.exe, g++.exe, ar.exe, etc. Instead, all of these
373executables are prefixed with 'x86_64-w64-mingw32-'.)
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374
375The default value for CCHOME in the makefiles for Visual C++
376may not be correct for some versions. Make sure the default exists
377and is valid.
378
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379You may also need to comment out the C<DELAYLOAD = ...> line in the
380Makefile if you're using VC++ 6.0 without the latest service pack and
381the linker reports an internal error.
dbd54a9f 382
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383If you want build some core extensions statically into perl's dll, specify
384them in the STATIC_EXT macro.
385
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386NOTE: The USE_64_BIT_INT build option is not supported with the 32-bit
387Visual C++ 6.0 compiler.
388
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389Be sure to read the instructions near the top of the makefiles carefully.
390
391=item *
392
393Type "dmake" (or "nmake" if you are using that make).
394
395This should build everything. Specifically, it will create perl.exe,
46f5adf9 396perl521.dll at the perl toplevel, and various other extension dll's
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397under the lib\auto directory. If the build fails for any reason, make
398sure you have done the previous steps correctly.
399
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400If you are advanced enough with building C code, here is a suggestion to speed
401up building perl, and the later C<make test>. Try to keep your PATH enviromental
402variable with the least number of folders possible (remember to keep your C
403compiler's folders there). C<C:\WINDOWS\system32> or C<C:\WINNT\system32>
404depending on your OS version should be first folder in PATH, since "cmd.exe"
405is the most commonly launched program during the build and later testing.
406
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407=back
408
b906aaa5 409=head2 Testing Perl on Windows
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410
411Type "dmake test" (or "nmake test"). This will run most of the tests from
412the testsuite (many tests will be skipped).
413
b906aaa5 414There should be no test failures.
9baed986 415
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416If you build with Visual C++ 2013 then three tests currently may fail with
417Daylight Saving Time related problems: F<t/io/fs.t>,
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418F<cpan/HTTP-Tiny/t/110_mirror.t> and F<lib/File.Copy.t>. The failures are
419caused by bugs in the CRT in VC++ 2013 which will be fixed in future releases
420of VC++, as explained by Microsoft here:
421L<https://connect.microsoft.com/VisualStudio/feedback/details/811534/utime-sometimes-fails-to-set-the-correct-file-times-in-visual-c-2013>. In the meantime,
422if you need fixed C<stat> and C<utime> functions then have a look at the
423CPAN distribution Win32::UTCFileTime.
3e7c2d43 424
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425If you build with certain versions (e.g. 4.8.1) of gcc from www.mingw.org then
426F<ext/POSIX/t/time.t> may fail test 17 due to a known bug in those gcc builds:
427see L<http://sourceforge.net/p/mingw/bugs/2152/>.
428
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429Some test failures may occur if you use a command shell other than the
430native "cmd.exe", or if you are building from a path that contains
431spaces. So don't do that.
432
433If you are running the tests from a emacs shell window, you may see
434failures in op/stat.t. Run "dmake test-notty" in that case.
435
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436Furthermore, you should make sure that during C<make test> you do not
437have any GNU tool packages in your path: some toolkits like Unixutils
438include some tools (C<type> for instance) which override the Windows
439ones and makes tests fail. Remove them from your path while testing to
440avoid these errors.
441
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442Please report any other failures as described under L<BUGS AND CAVEATS>.
443
b906aaa5 444=head2 Installation of Perl on Windows
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445
446Type "dmake install" (or "nmake install"). This will put the newly
447built perl and the libraries under whatever C<INST_TOP> points to in the
448Makefile. It will also install the pod documentation under
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449C<$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\lib\pod> and HTML versions of the same under
450C<$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\lib\pod\html>.
9baed986 451
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452To use the Perl you just installed you will need to add a new entry to
453your PATH environment variable: C<$INST_TOP\bin>, e.g.
9baed986 454
00808b83 455 set PATH=c:\perl\bin;%PATH%
9baed986 456
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457If you opted to uncomment C<INST_VER> and C<INST_ARCH> in the makefile
458then the installation structure is a little more complicated and you will
459need to add two new PATH components instead: C<$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\bin> and
460C<$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\bin\$ARCHNAME>, e.g.
461
462 set PATH=c:\perl\5.6.0\bin;c:\perl\5.6.0\bin\MSWin32-x86;%PATH%
9baed986 463
b906aaa5 464=head2 Usage Hints for Perl on Windows
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465
466=over 4
467
468=item Environment Variables
469
470The installation paths that you set during the build get compiled
471into perl, so you don't have to do anything additional to start
472using that perl (except add its location to your PATH variable).
473
474If you put extensions in unusual places, you can set PERL5LIB
475to a list of paths separated by semicolons where you want perl
476to look for libraries. Look for descriptions of other environment
477variables you can set in L<perlrun>.
478
479You can also control the shell that perl uses to run system() and
480backtick commands via PERL5SHELL. See L<perlrun>.
481
482Perl does not depend on the registry, but it can look up certain default
483values if you choose to put them there. Perl attempts to read entries from
484C<HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Perl> and C<HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Perl>.
485Entries in the former override entries in the latter. One or more of the
486following entries (of type REG_SZ or REG_EXPAND_SZ) may be set:
487
488 lib-$] version-specific standard library path to add to @INC
489 lib standard library path to add to @INC
490 sitelib-$] version-specific site library path to add to @INC
491 sitelib site library path to add to @INC
492 vendorlib-$] version-specific vendor library path to add to @INC
493 vendorlib vendor library path to add to @INC
494 PERL* fallback for all %ENV lookups that begin with "PERL"
495
496Note the C<$]> in the above is not literal. Substitute whatever version
497of perl you want to honor that entry, e.g. C<5.6.0>. Paths must be
b906aaa5 498separated with semicolons, as usual on Windows.
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499
500=item File Globbing
501
502By default, perl handles file globbing using the File::Glob extension,
503which provides portable globbing.
504
505If you want perl to use globbing that emulates the quirks of DOS
506filename conventions, you might want to consider using File::DosGlob
507to override the internal glob() implementation. See L<File::DosGlob> for
508details.
509
510=item Using perl from the command line
511
512If you are accustomed to using perl from various command-line
513shells found in UNIX environments, you will be less than pleased
514with what Windows offers by way of a command shell.
515
516The crucial thing to understand about the Windows environment is that
517the command line you type in is processed twice before Perl sees it.
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518First, your command shell (usually CMD.EXE) preprocesses the command
519line, to handle redirection, environment variable expansion, and
520location of the executable to run. Then, the perl executable splits
521the remaining command line into individual arguments, using the
522C runtime library upon which Perl was built.
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523
524It is particularly important to note that neither the shell nor the C
525runtime do any wildcard expansions of command-line arguments (so
526wildcards need not be quoted). Also, the quoting behaviours of the
527shell and the C runtime are rudimentary at best (and may, if you are
528using a non-standard shell, be inconsistent). The only (useful) quote
529character is the double quote ("). It can be used to protect spaces
530and other special characters in arguments.
531
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532The Windows documentation describes the shell parsing rules here:
533L<http://www.microsoft.com/resources/documentation/windows/xp/all/proddocs/en-us/cmd.mspx?mfr=true>
534and the C runtime parsing rules here:
535L<http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/17w5ykft%28v=VS.100%29.aspx>.
536
537Here are some further observations based on experiments: The C runtime
538breaks arguments at spaces and passes them to programs in argc/argv.
539Double quotes can be used to prevent arguments with spaces in them from
540being split up. You can put a double quote in an argument by escaping
541it with a backslash and enclosing the whole argument within double quotes.
542The backslash and the pair of double quotes surrounding the argument will
543be stripped by the C runtime.
9baed986 544
00808b83 545The file redirection characters "E<lt>", "E<gt>", and "|" can be quoted by
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546double quotes (although there are suggestions that this may not always
547be true). Single quotes are not treated as quotes by the shell or
548the C runtime, they don't get stripped by the shell (just to make
549this type of quoting completely useless). The caret "^" has also
550been observed to behave as a quoting character, but this appears
551to be a shell feature, and the caret is not stripped from the command
552line, so Perl still sees it (and the C runtime phase does not treat
553the caret as a quote character).
554
555Here are some examples of usage of the "cmd" shell:
556
557This prints two doublequotes:
558
559 perl -e "print '\"\"' "
560
561This does the same:
562
563 perl -e "print \"\\\"\\\"\" "
564
565This prints "bar" and writes "foo" to the file "blurch":
566
567 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" > blurch
568
569This prints "foo" ("bar" disappears into nowhereland):
570
571 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 2> nul
572
573This prints "bar" and writes "foo" into the file "blurch":
574
575 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 1> blurch
576
577This pipes "foo" to the "less" pager and prints "bar" on the console:
578
579 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" | less
580
581This pipes "foo\nbar\n" to the less pager:
582
583 perl -le "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 2>&1 | less
584
585This pipes "foo" to the pager and writes "bar" in the file "blurch":
586
587 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 2> blurch | less
588
589
590Discovering the usefulness of the "command.com" shell on Windows 9x
591is left as an exercise to the reader :)
592
593One particularly pernicious problem with the 4NT command shell for
8cbe99e5 594Windows is that it (nearly) always treats a % character as indicating
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595that environment variable expansion is needed. Under this shell, it is
596therefore important to always double any % characters which you want
597Perl to see (for example, for hash variables), even when they are
598quoted.
599
600=item Building Extensions
601
602The Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN) offers a wealth
603of extensions, some of which require a C compiler to build.
42d76a89 604Look in L<http://www.cpan.org/> for more information on CPAN.
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605
606Note that not all of the extensions available from CPAN may work
b906aaa5 607in the Windows environment; you should check the information at
8f5839a9 608L<http://www.cpantesters.org/> before investing too much effort into
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609porting modules that don't readily build.
610
611Most extensions (whether they require a C compiler or not) can
612be built, tested and installed with the standard mantra:
613
614 perl Makefile.PL
615 $MAKE
616 $MAKE test
617 $MAKE install
618
619where $MAKE is whatever 'make' program you have configured perl to
620use. Use "perl -V:make" to find out what this is. Some extensions
621may not provide a testsuite (so "$MAKE test" may not do anything or
622fail), but most serious ones do.
623
624It is important that you use a supported 'make' program, and
625ensure Config.pm knows about it. If you don't have nmake, you can
626either get dmake from the location mentioned earlier or get an
627old version of nmake reportedly available from:
628
42d76a89 629L<http://download.microsoft.com/download/vc15/Patch/1.52/W95/EN-US/nmake15.exe>
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630
631Another option is to use the make written in Perl, available from
632CPAN.
633
42d76a89 634L<http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/Make/>
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635
636You may also use dmake. See L</"Make"> above on how to get it.
637
638Note that MakeMaker actually emits makefiles with different syntax
639depending on what 'make' it thinks you are using. Therefore, it is
640important that one of the following values appears in Config.pm:
641
642 make='nmake' # MakeMaker emits nmake syntax
643 make='dmake' # MakeMaker emits dmake syntax
644 any other value # MakeMaker emits generic make syntax
645 (e.g GNU make, or Perl make)
646
647If the value doesn't match the 'make' program you want to use,
648edit Config.pm to fix it.
649
650If a module implements XSUBs, you will need one of the supported
651C compilers. You must make sure you have set up the environment for
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652the compiler for command-line compilation before running C<perl Makefile.PL>
653or any invocation of make.
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654
655If a module does not build for some reason, look carefully for
656why it failed, and report problems to the module author. If
657it looks like the extension building support is at fault, report
658that with full details of how the build failed using the perlbug
659utility.
660
661=item Command-line Wildcard Expansion
662
663The default command shells on DOS descendant operating systems (such
664as they are) usually do not expand wildcard arguments supplied to
665programs. They consider it the application's job to handle that.
666This is commonly achieved by linking the application (in our case,
667perl) with startup code that the C runtime libraries usually provide.
668However, doing that results in incompatible perl versions (since the
669behavior of the argv expansion code differs depending on the
670compiler, and it is even buggy on some compilers). Besides, it may
671be a source of frustration if you use such a perl binary with an
672alternate shell that *does* expand wildcards.
673
674Instead, the following solution works rather well. The nice things
dbd54a9f 675about it are 1) you can start using it right away; 2) it is more
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676powerful, because it will do the right thing with a pattern like
677*/*/*.c; 3) you can decide whether you do/don't want to use it; and
dbd54a9f 6784) you can extend the method to add any customizations (or even
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679entirely different kinds of wildcard expansion).
680
681 C:\> copy con c:\perl\lib\Wild.pm
682 # Wild.pm - emulate shell @ARGV expansion on shells that don't
683 use File::DosGlob;
684 @ARGV = map {
685 my @g = File::DosGlob::glob($_) if /[*?]/;
686 @g ? @g : $_;
687 } @ARGV;
688 1;
689 ^Z
690 C:\> set PERL5OPT=-MWild
691 C:\> perl -le "for (@ARGV) { print }" */*/perl*.c
692 p4view/perl/perl.c
693 p4view/perl/perlio.c
694 p4view/perl/perly.c
695 perl5.005/win32/perlglob.c
696 perl5.005/win32/perllib.c
697 perl5.005/win32/perlglob.c
698 perl5.005/win32/perllib.c
699 perl5.005/win32/perlglob.c
700 perl5.005/win32/perllib.c
701
702Note there are two distinct steps there: 1) You'll have to create
703Wild.pm and put it in your perl lib directory. 2) You'll need to
704set the PERL5OPT environment variable. If you want argv expansion
705to be the default, just set PERL5OPT in your default startup
706environment.
707
708If you are using the Visual C compiler, you can get the C runtime's
709command line wildcard expansion built into perl binary. The resulting
710binary will always expand unquoted command lines, which may not be
711what you want if you use a shell that does that for you. The expansion
712done is also somewhat less powerful than the approach suggested above.
713
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714=item Notes on 64-bit Windows
715
716Windows .NET Server supports the LLP64 data model on the Intel Itanium
717architecture.
718
719The LLP64 data model is different from the LP64 data model that is the
720norm on 64-bit Unix platforms. In the former, C<int> and C<long> are
721both 32-bit data types, while pointers are 64 bits wide. In addition,
722there is a separate 64-bit wide integral type, C<__int64>. In contrast,
723the LP64 data model that is pervasive on Unix platforms provides C<int>
724as the 32-bit type, while both the C<long> type and pointers are of
72564-bit precision. Note that both models provide for 64-bits of
726addressability.
727
72864-bit Windows running on Itanium is capable of running 32-bit x86
729binaries transparently. This means that you could use a 32-bit build
730of Perl on a 64-bit system. Given this, why would one want to build
731a 64-bit build of Perl? Here are some reasons why you would bother:
732
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733=over
734
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735=item *
736
737A 64-bit native application will run much more efficiently on
738Itanium hardware.
739
740=item *
741
742There is no 2GB limit on process size.
743
744=item *
745
746Perl automatically provides large file support when built under
74764-bit Windows.
748
749=item *
750
751Embedding Perl inside a 64-bit application.
752
753=back
754
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755=back
756
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757=head2 Running Perl Scripts
758
759Perl scripts on UNIX use the "#!" (a.k.a "shebang") line to
760indicate to the OS that it should execute the file using perl.
b906aaa5 761Windows has no comparable means to indicate arbitrary files are
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762executables.
763
764Instead, all available methods to execute plain text files on
b906aaa5 765Windows rely on the file "extension". There are three methods
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766to use this to execute perl scripts:
767
768=over 8
769
770=item 1
771
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772There is a facility called "file extension associations". This can be
773manipulated via the two commands "assoc" and "ftype" that come
774standard with Windows. Type "ftype /?" for a complete example of how
775to set this up for perl scripts (Say what? You thought Windows
776wasn't perl-ready? :).
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777
778=item 2
779
780Since file associations don't work everywhere, and there are
781reportedly bugs with file associations where it does work, the
782old method of wrapping the perl script to make it look like a
783regular batch file to the OS, may be used. The install process
784makes available the "pl2bat.bat" script which can be used to wrap
785perl scripts into batch files. For example:
786
787 pl2bat foo.pl
788
789will create the file "FOO.BAT". Note "pl2bat" strips any
790.pl suffix and adds a .bat suffix to the generated file.
791
792If you use the 4DOS/NT or similar command shell, note that
793"pl2bat" uses the "%*" variable in the generated batch file to
794refer to all the command line arguments, so you may need to make
795sure that construct works in batch files. As of this writing,
7964DOS/NT users will need a "ParameterChar = *" statement in their
7974NT.INI file or will need to execute "setdos /p*" in the 4DOS/NT
798startup file to enable this to work.
799
800=item 3
801
802Using "pl2bat" has a few problems: the file name gets changed,
803so scripts that rely on C<$0> to find what they must do may not
804run properly; running "pl2bat" replicates the contents of the
805original script, and so this process can be maintenance intensive
806if the originals get updated often. A different approach that
807avoids both problems is possible.
808
809A script called "runperl.bat" is available that can be copied
810to any filename (along with the .bat suffix). For example,
811if you call it "foo.bat", it will run the file "foo" when it is
b906aaa5 812executed. Since you can run batch files on Windows platforms simply
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813by typing the name (without the extension), this effectively
814runs the file "foo", when you type either "foo" or "foo.bat".
815With this method, "foo.bat" can even be in a different location
816than the file "foo", as long as "foo" is available somewhere on
817the PATH. If your scripts are on a filesystem that allows symbolic
818links, you can even avoid copying "runperl.bat".
819
820Here's a diversion: copy "runperl.bat" to "runperl", and type
821"runperl". Explain the observed behavior, or lack thereof. :)
822Hint: .gnidnats llits er'uoy fi ,"lrepnur" eteled :tniH
823
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824=back
825
826=head2 Miscellaneous Things
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827
828A full set of HTML documentation is installed, so you should be
829able to use it if you have a web browser installed on your
830system.
831
832C<perldoc> is also a useful tool for browsing information contained
833in the documentation, especially in conjunction with a pager
b906aaa5 834like C<less> (recent versions of which have Windows support). You may
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835have to set the PAGER environment variable to use a specific pager.
836"perldoc -f foo" will print information about the perl operator
837"foo".
838
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839One common mistake when using this port with a GUI library like C<Tk>
840is assuming that Perl's normal behavior of opening a command-line
841window will go away. This isn't the case. If you want to start a copy
842of C<perl> without opening a command-line window, use the C<wperl>
843executable built during the installation process. Usage is exactly
b906aaa5 844the same as normal C<perl> on Windows, except that options like C<-h>
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845don't work (since they need a command-line window to print to).
846
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847If you find bugs in perl, you can run C<perlbug> to create a
848bug report (you may have to send it manually if C<perlbug> cannot
849find a mailer on your system).
850
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851=head1 BUGS AND CAVEATS
852
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853Norton AntiVirus interferes with the build process, particularly if
854set to "AutoProtect, All Files, when Opened". Unlike large applications
855the perl build process opens and modifies a lot of files. Having the
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856the AntiVirus scan each and every one slows build the process significantly.
857Worse, with PERLIO=stdio the build process fails with peculiar messages
dbd54a9f 858as the virus checker interacts badly with miniperl.exe writing configure
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859files (it seems to either catch file part written and treat it as suspicious,
860or virus checker may have it "locked" in a way which inhibits miniperl
dbd54a9f 861updating it). The build does complete with
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862
863 set PERLIO=perlio
864
865but that may be just luck. Other AntiVirus software may have similar issues.
866
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867A git GUI shell extension for Windows such as TortoiseGit will cause the build
868and later C<make test> to run much slower since every file is checked for its
869git status as soon as it is created and/or modified. TortoiseGit doesn't cause
870any test failures or build problems unlike the antivirus software described
871above, but it does cause similar slowness. It is suggested to use Task Manager
872to look for background processes which use high CPU amounts during the building
873process.
874
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875Some of the built-in functions do not act exactly as documented in
876L<perlfunc>, and a few are not implemented at all. To avoid
877surprises, particularly if you have had prior exposure to Perl
878in other operating environments or if you intend to write code
00808b83 879that will be portable to other environments, see L<perlport>
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880for a reasonably definitive list of these differences.
881
882Not all extensions available from CPAN may build or work properly
b906aaa5 883in the Windows environment. See L</"Building Extensions">.
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884
885Most C<socket()> related calls are supported, but they may not
886behave as on Unix platforms. See L<perlport> for the full list.
887
888Signal handling may not behave as on Unix platforms (where it
889doesn't exactly "behave", either :). For instance, calling C<die()>
890or C<exit()> from signal handlers will cause an exception, since most
b906aaa5 891implementations of C<signal()> on Windows are severely crippled.
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892Thus, signals may work only for simple things like setting a flag
893variable in the handler. Using signals under this port should
894currently be considered unsupported.
895
dbd54a9f 896Please send detailed descriptions of any problems and solutions that
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897you may find to E<lt>F<perlbug@perl.org>E<gt>, along with the output
898produced by C<perl -V>.
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900=head1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
901
902The use of a camel with the topic of Perl is a trademark
903of O'Reilly and Associates, Inc. Used with permission.
904
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905=head1 AUTHORS
906
907=over 4
908
909=item Gary Ng E<lt>71564.1743@CompuServe.COME<gt>
910
911=item Gurusamy Sarathy E<lt>gsar@activestate.comE<gt>
912
913=item Nick Ing-Simmons E<lt>nick@ing-simmons.netE<gt>
914
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915=item Jan Dubois E<lt>jand@activestate.comE<gt>
916
2a46176f 917=item Steve Hay E<lt>steve.m.hay@googlemail.comE<gt>
2bfd3252 918
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919=back
920
2bfd3252 921This document is maintained by Jan Dubois.
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922
923=head1 SEE ALSO
924
925L<perl>
926
927=head1 HISTORY
928
929This port was originally contributed by Gary Ng around 5.003_24,
930and borrowed from the Hip Communications port that was available
931at the time. Various people have made numerous and sundry hacks
932since then.
933
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934GCC/mingw32 support was added in 5.005 (Nick Ing-Simmons).
935
936Support for PERL_OBJECT was added in 5.005 (ActiveState Tool Corp).
937
938Support for fork() emulation was added in 5.6 (ActiveState Tool Corp).
939
940Win9x support was added in 5.6 (Benjamin Stuhl).
941
942Support for 64-bit Windows added in 5.8 (ActiveState Corp).
943
8f5839a9 944Last updated: 07 October 2014
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945
946=cut