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charnames.pm: Nits in pod
[perl5.git] / lib / charnames.pm
CommitLineData
423cee85 1package charnames;
b177ca84
JF
2use strict;
3use warnings;
51cf30b6 4use File::Spec;
03f95285 5our $VERSION = '1.15';
b75c8c73 6
52fb7278 7use bytes (); # for $bytes::hint_bits
423cee85 8
232cbbee 9my %system_aliases = (
16036bcd
KW
10 # Icky 3.2 names with parentheses.
11 'LINE FEED' => 0x0A, # LINE FEED (LF)
12 'FORM FEED' => 0x0C, # FORM FEED (FF)
13 'CARRIAGE RETURN' => 0x0D, # CARRIAGE RETURN (CR)
14 'NEXT LINE' => 0x85, # NEXT LINE (NEL)
15
16 # Some variant names from Wikipedia
17 'SINGLE-SHIFT 2' => 0x8E,
18 'SINGLE-SHIFT 3' => 0x8F,
19 'PRIVATE USE 1' => 0x91,
20 'PRIVATE USE 2' => 0x92,
21 'START OF PROTECTED AREA' => 0x96,
22 'END OF PROTECTED AREA' => 0x97,
23
24 # Convenience. Standard abbreviations for the controls
25 'NUL' => 0x00, # NULL
26 'SOH' => 0x01, # START OF HEADING
27 'STX' => 0x02, # START OF TEXT
28 'ETX' => 0x03, # END OF TEXT
29 'EOT' => 0x04, # END OF TRANSMISSION
30 'ENQ' => 0x05, # ENQUIRY
31 'ACK' => 0x06, # ACKNOWLEDGE
32 'BEL' => 0x07, # BELL
33 'BS' => 0x08, # BACKSPACE
34 'HT' => 0x09, # HORIZONTAL TABULATION
35 'LF' => 0x0A, # LINE FEED (LF)
36 'VT' => 0x0B, # VERTICAL TABULATION
37 'FF' => 0x0C, # FORM FEED (FF)
38 'CR' => 0x0D, # CARRIAGE RETURN (CR)
39 'SO' => 0x0E, # SHIFT OUT
40 'SI' => 0x0F, # SHIFT IN
41 'DLE' => 0x10, # DATA LINK ESCAPE
42 'DC1' => 0x11, # DEVICE CONTROL ONE
43 'DC2' => 0x12, # DEVICE CONTROL TWO
44 'DC3' => 0x13, # DEVICE CONTROL THREE
45 'DC4' => 0x14, # DEVICE CONTROL FOUR
46 'NAK' => 0x15, # NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE
47 'SYN' => 0x16, # SYNCHRONOUS IDLE
48 'ETB' => 0x17, # END OF TRANSMISSION BLOCK
49 'CAN' => 0x18, # CANCEL
50 'EOM' => 0x19, # END OF MEDIUM
51 'SUB' => 0x1A, # SUBSTITUTE
52 'ESC' => 0x1B, # ESCAPE
53 'FS' => 0x1C, # FILE SEPARATOR
54 'GS' => 0x1D, # GROUP SEPARATOR
55 'RS' => 0x1E, # RECORD SEPARATOR
56 'US' => 0x1F, # UNIT SEPARATOR
57 'DEL' => 0x7F, # DELETE
58 'BPH' => 0x82, # BREAK PERMITTED HERE
59 'NBH' => 0x83, # NO BREAK HERE
60 'NEL' => 0x85, # NEXT LINE (NEL)
61 'SSA' => 0x86, # START OF SELECTED AREA
62 'ESA' => 0x87, # END OF SELECTED AREA
63 'HTS' => 0x88, # CHARACTER TABULATION SET
64 'HTJ' => 0x89, # CHARACTER TABULATION WITH JUSTIFICATION
65 'VTS' => 0x8A, # LINE TABULATION SET
66 'PLD' => 0x8B, # PARTIAL LINE FORWARD
67 'PLU' => 0x8C, # PARTIAL LINE BACKWARD
68 'RI ' => 0x8D, # REVERSE LINE FEED
69 'SS2' => 0x8E, # SINGLE SHIFT TWO
70 'SS3' => 0x8F, # SINGLE SHIFT THREE
71 'DCS' => 0x90, # DEVICE CONTROL STRING
72 'PU1' => 0x91, # PRIVATE USE ONE
73 'PU2' => 0x92, # PRIVATE USE TWO
74 'STS' => 0x93, # SET TRANSMIT STATE
75 'CCH' => 0x94, # CANCEL CHARACTER
76 'MW ' => 0x95, # MESSAGE WAITING
77 'SPA' => 0x96, # START OF GUARDED AREA
78 'EPA' => 0x97, # END OF GUARDED AREA
79 'SOS' => 0x98, # START OF STRING
80 'SCI' => 0x9A, # SINGLE CHARACTER INTRODUCER
81 'CSI' => 0x9B, # CONTROL SEQUENCE INTRODUCER
82 'ST ' => 0x9C, # STRING TERMINATOR
83 'OSC' => 0x9D, # OPERATING SYSTEM COMMAND
84 'PM ' => 0x9E, # PRIVACY MESSAGE
85 'APC' => 0x9F, # APPLICATION PROGRAM COMMAND
86
87 # There are no names for these in the Unicode standard;
88 # perhaps should be deprecated, but then again there are
89 # no alternative names, so am not deprecating. And if
90 # did, the code would have to change to not recommend an
91 # alternative for these.
92 'PADDING CHARACTER' => 0x80,
93 'PAD' => 0x80,
94 'HIGH OCTET PRESET' => 0x81,
95 'HOP' => 0x81,
96 'INDEX' => 0x84,
97 'IND' => 0x84,
98 'SINGLE GRAPHIC CHARACTER INTRODUCER' => 0x99,
99 'SGC' => 0x99,
100
101 # More convenience. For further convenience,
102 # it is suggested some way of using the NamesList
103 # aliases be implemented, but there are ambiguities in
232cbbee 104 # NamesList.txt
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KW
105 'BOM' => 0xFEFF, # BYTE ORDER MARK
106 'BYTE ORDER MARK'=> 0xFEFF,
107 'CGJ' => 0x034F, # COMBINING GRAPHEME JOINER
108 'FVS1' => 0x180B, # MONGOLIAN FREE VARIATION SELECTOR ONE
109 'FVS2' => 0x180C, # MONGOLIAN FREE VARIATION SELECTOR TWO
110 'FVS3' => 0x180D, # MONGOLIAN FREE VARIATION SELECTOR THREE
111 'LRE' => 0x202A, # LEFT-TO-RIGHT EMBEDDING
112 'LRM' => 0x200E, # LEFT-TO-RIGHT MARK
113 'LRO' => 0x202D, # LEFT-TO-RIGHT OVERRIDE
114 'MMSP' => 0x205F, # MEDIUM MATHEMATICAL SPACE
115 'MVS' => 0x180E, # MONGOLIAN VOWEL SEPARATOR
116 'NBSP' => 0x00A0, # NO-BREAK SPACE
117 'NNBSP' => 0x202F, # NARROW NO-BREAK SPACE
118 'PDF' => 0x202C, # POP DIRECTIONAL FORMATTING
119 'RLE' => 0x202B, # RIGHT-TO-LEFT EMBEDDING
120 'RLM' => 0x200F, # RIGHT-TO-LEFT MARK
121 'RLO' => 0x202E, # RIGHT-TO-LEFT OVERRIDE
122 'SHY' => 0x00AD, # SOFT HYPHEN
123 'VS1' => 0xFE00, # VARIATION SELECTOR-1
124 'VS2' => 0xFE01, # VARIATION SELECTOR-2
125 'VS3' => 0xFE02, # VARIATION SELECTOR-3
126 'VS4' => 0xFE03, # VARIATION SELECTOR-4
127 'VS5' => 0xFE04, # VARIATION SELECTOR-5
128 'VS6' => 0xFE05, # VARIATION SELECTOR-6
129 'VS7' => 0xFE06, # VARIATION SELECTOR-7
130 'VS8' => 0xFE07, # VARIATION SELECTOR-8
131 'VS9' => 0xFE08, # VARIATION SELECTOR-9
132 'VS10' => 0xFE09, # VARIATION SELECTOR-10
133 'VS11' => 0xFE0A, # VARIATION SELECTOR-11
134 'VS12' => 0xFE0B, # VARIATION SELECTOR-12
135 'VS13' => 0xFE0C, # VARIATION SELECTOR-13
136 'VS14' => 0xFE0D, # VARIATION SELECTOR-14
137 'VS15' => 0xFE0E, # VARIATION SELECTOR-15
138 'VS16' => 0xFE0F, # VARIATION SELECTOR-16
139 'VS17' => 0xE0100, # VARIATION SELECTOR-17
140 'VS18' => 0xE0101, # VARIATION SELECTOR-18
141 'VS19' => 0xE0102, # VARIATION SELECTOR-19
142 'VS20' => 0xE0103, # VARIATION SELECTOR-20
143 'VS21' => 0xE0104, # VARIATION SELECTOR-21
144 'VS22' => 0xE0105, # VARIATION SELECTOR-22
145 'VS23' => 0xE0106, # VARIATION SELECTOR-23
146 'VS24' => 0xE0107, # VARIATION SELECTOR-24
147 'VS25' => 0xE0108, # VARIATION SELECTOR-25
148 'VS26' => 0xE0109, # VARIATION SELECTOR-26
149 'VS27' => 0xE010A, # VARIATION SELECTOR-27
150 'VS28' => 0xE010B, # VARIATION SELECTOR-28
151 'VS29' => 0xE010C, # VARIATION SELECTOR-29
152 'VS30' => 0xE010D, # VARIATION SELECTOR-30
153 'VS31' => 0xE010E, # VARIATION SELECTOR-31
154 'VS32' => 0xE010F, # VARIATION SELECTOR-32
155 'VS33' => 0xE0110, # VARIATION SELECTOR-33
156 'VS34' => 0xE0111, # VARIATION SELECTOR-34
157 'VS35' => 0xE0112, # VARIATION SELECTOR-35
158 'VS36' => 0xE0113, # VARIATION SELECTOR-36
159 'VS37' => 0xE0114, # VARIATION SELECTOR-37
160 'VS38' => 0xE0115, # VARIATION SELECTOR-38
161 'VS39' => 0xE0116, # VARIATION SELECTOR-39
162 'VS40' => 0xE0117, # VARIATION SELECTOR-40
163 'VS41' => 0xE0118, # VARIATION SELECTOR-41
164 'VS42' => 0xE0119, # VARIATION SELECTOR-42
165 'VS43' => 0xE011A, # VARIATION SELECTOR-43
166 'VS44' => 0xE011B, # VARIATION SELECTOR-44
167 'VS45' => 0xE011C, # VARIATION SELECTOR-45
168 'VS46' => 0xE011D, # VARIATION SELECTOR-46
169 'VS47' => 0xE011E, # VARIATION SELECTOR-47
170 'VS48' => 0xE011F, # VARIATION SELECTOR-48
171 'VS49' => 0xE0120, # VARIATION SELECTOR-49
172 'VS50' => 0xE0121, # VARIATION SELECTOR-50
173 'VS51' => 0xE0122, # VARIATION SELECTOR-51
174 'VS52' => 0xE0123, # VARIATION SELECTOR-52
175 'VS53' => 0xE0124, # VARIATION SELECTOR-53
176 'VS54' => 0xE0125, # VARIATION SELECTOR-54
177 'VS55' => 0xE0126, # VARIATION SELECTOR-55
178 'VS56' => 0xE0127, # VARIATION SELECTOR-56
179 'VS57' => 0xE0128, # VARIATION SELECTOR-57
180 'VS58' => 0xE0129, # VARIATION SELECTOR-58
181 'VS59' => 0xE012A, # VARIATION SELECTOR-59
182 'VS60' => 0xE012B, # VARIATION SELECTOR-60
183 'VS61' => 0xE012C, # VARIATION SELECTOR-61
184 'VS62' => 0xE012D, # VARIATION SELECTOR-62
185 'VS63' => 0xE012E, # VARIATION SELECTOR-63
186 'VS64' => 0xE012F, # VARIATION SELECTOR-64
187 'VS65' => 0xE0130, # VARIATION SELECTOR-65
188 'VS66' => 0xE0131, # VARIATION SELECTOR-66
189 'VS67' => 0xE0132, # VARIATION SELECTOR-67
190 'VS68' => 0xE0133, # VARIATION SELECTOR-68
191 'VS69' => 0xE0134, # VARIATION SELECTOR-69
192 'VS70' => 0xE0135, # VARIATION SELECTOR-70
193 'VS71' => 0xE0136, # VARIATION SELECTOR-71
194 'VS72' => 0xE0137, # VARIATION SELECTOR-72
195 'VS73' => 0xE0138, # VARIATION SELECTOR-73
196 'VS74' => 0xE0139, # VARIATION SELECTOR-74
197 'VS75' => 0xE013A, # VARIATION SELECTOR-75
198 'VS76' => 0xE013B, # VARIATION SELECTOR-76
199 'VS77' => 0xE013C, # VARIATION SELECTOR-77
200 'VS78' => 0xE013D, # VARIATION SELECTOR-78
201 'VS79' => 0xE013E, # VARIATION SELECTOR-79
202 'VS80' => 0xE013F, # VARIATION SELECTOR-80
203 'VS81' => 0xE0140, # VARIATION SELECTOR-81
204 'VS82' => 0xE0141, # VARIATION SELECTOR-82
205 'VS83' => 0xE0142, # VARIATION SELECTOR-83
206 'VS84' => 0xE0143, # VARIATION SELECTOR-84
207 'VS85' => 0xE0144, # VARIATION SELECTOR-85
208 'VS86' => 0xE0145, # VARIATION SELECTOR-86
209 'VS87' => 0xE0146, # VARIATION SELECTOR-87
210 'VS88' => 0xE0147, # VARIATION SELECTOR-88
211 'VS89' => 0xE0148, # VARIATION SELECTOR-89
212 'VS90' => 0xE0149, # VARIATION SELECTOR-90
213 'VS91' => 0xE014A, # VARIATION SELECTOR-91
214 'VS92' => 0xE014B, # VARIATION SELECTOR-92
215 'VS93' => 0xE014C, # VARIATION SELECTOR-93
216 'VS94' => 0xE014D, # VARIATION SELECTOR-94
217 'VS95' => 0xE014E, # VARIATION SELECTOR-95
218 'VS96' => 0xE014F, # VARIATION SELECTOR-96
219 'VS97' => 0xE0150, # VARIATION SELECTOR-97
220 'VS98' => 0xE0151, # VARIATION SELECTOR-98
221 'VS99' => 0xE0152, # VARIATION SELECTOR-99
222 'VS100' => 0xE0153, # VARIATION SELECTOR-100
223 'VS101' => 0xE0154, # VARIATION SELECTOR-101
224 'VS102' => 0xE0155, # VARIATION SELECTOR-102
225 'VS103' => 0xE0156, # VARIATION SELECTOR-103
226 'VS104' => 0xE0157, # VARIATION SELECTOR-104
227 'VS105' => 0xE0158, # VARIATION SELECTOR-105
228 'VS106' => 0xE0159, # VARIATION SELECTOR-106
229 'VS107' => 0xE015A, # VARIATION SELECTOR-107
230 'VS108' => 0xE015B, # VARIATION SELECTOR-108
231 'VS109' => 0xE015C, # VARIATION SELECTOR-109
232 'VS110' => 0xE015D, # VARIATION SELECTOR-110
233 'VS111' => 0xE015E, # VARIATION SELECTOR-111
234 'VS112' => 0xE015F, # VARIATION SELECTOR-112
235 'VS113' => 0xE0160, # VARIATION SELECTOR-113
236 'VS114' => 0xE0161, # VARIATION SELECTOR-114
237 'VS115' => 0xE0162, # VARIATION SELECTOR-115
238 'VS116' => 0xE0163, # VARIATION SELECTOR-116
239 'VS117' => 0xE0164, # VARIATION SELECTOR-117
240 'VS118' => 0xE0165, # VARIATION SELECTOR-118
241 'VS119' => 0xE0166, # VARIATION SELECTOR-119
242 'VS120' => 0xE0167, # VARIATION SELECTOR-120
243 'VS121' => 0xE0168, # VARIATION SELECTOR-121
244 'VS122' => 0xE0169, # VARIATION SELECTOR-122
245 'VS123' => 0xE016A, # VARIATION SELECTOR-123
246 'VS124' => 0xE016B, # VARIATION SELECTOR-124
247 'VS125' => 0xE016C, # VARIATION SELECTOR-125
248 'VS126' => 0xE016D, # VARIATION SELECTOR-126
249 'VS127' => 0xE016E, # VARIATION SELECTOR-127
250 'VS128' => 0xE016F, # VARIATION SELECTOR-128
251 'VS129' => 0xE0170, # VARIATION SELECTOR-129
252 'VS130' => 0xE0171, # VARIATION SELECTOR-130
253 'VS131' => 0xE0172, # VARIATION SELECTOR-131
254 'VS132' => 0xE0173, # VARIATION SELECTOR-132
255 'VS133' => 0xE0174, # VARIATION SELECTOR-133
256 'VS134' => 0xE0175, # VARIATION SELECTOR-134
257 'VS135' => 0xE0176, # VARIATION SELECTOR-135
258 'VS136' => 0xE0177, # VARIATION SELECTOR-136
259 'VS137' => 0xE0178, # VARIATION SELECTOR-137
260 'VS138' => 0xE0179, # VARIATION SELECTOR-138
261 'VS139' => 0xE017A, # VARIATION SELECTOR-139
262 'VS140' => 0xE017B, # VARIATION SELECTOR-140
263 'VS141' => 0xE017C, # VARIATION SELECTOR-141
264 'VS142' => 0xE017D, # VARIATION SELECTOR-142
265 'VS143' => 0xE017E, # VARIATION SELECTOR-143
266 'VS144' => 0xE017F, # VARIATION SELECTOR-144
267 'VS145' => 0xE0180, # VARIATION SELECTOR-145
268 'VS146' => 0xE0181, # VARIATION SELECTOR-146
269 'VS147' => 0xE0182, # VARIATION SELECTOR-147
270 'VS148' => 0xE0183, # VARIATION SELECTOR-148
271 'VS149' => 0xE0184, # VARIATION SELECTOR-149
272 'VS150' => 0xE0185, # VARIATION SELECTOR-150
273 'VS151' => 0xE0186, # VARIATION SELECTOR-151
274 'VS152' => 0xE0187, # VARIATION SELECTOR-152
275 'VS153' => 0xE0188, # VARIATION SELECTOR-153
276 'VS154' => 0xE0189, # VARIATION SELECTOR-154
277 'VS155' => 0xE018A, # VARIATION SELECTOR-155
278 'VS156' => 0xE018B, # VARIATION SELECTOR-156
279 'VS157' => 0xE018C, # VARIATION SELECTOR-157
280 'VS158' => 0xE018D, # VARIATION SELECTOR-158
281 'VS159' => 0xE018E, # VARIATION SELECTOR-159
282 'VS160' => 0xE018F, # VARIATION SELECTOR-160
283 'VS161' => 0xE0190, # VARIATION SELECTOR-161
284 'VS162' => 0xE0191, # VARIATION SELECTOR-162
285 'VS163' => 0xE0192, # VARIATION SELECTOR-163
286 'VS164' => 0xE0193, # VARIATION SELECTOR-164
287 'VS165' => 0xE0194, # VARIATION SELECTOR-165
288 'VS166' => 0xE0195, # VARIATION SELECTOR-166
289 'VS167' => 0xE0196, # VARIATION SELECTOR-167
290 'VS168' => 0xE0197, # VARIATION SELECTOR-168
291 'VS169' => 0xE0198, # VARIATION SELECTOR-169
292 'VS170' => 0xE0199, # VARIATION SELECTOR-170
293 'VS171' => 0xE019A, # VARIATION SELECTOR-171
294 'VS172' => 0xE019B, # VARIATION SELECTOR-172
295 'VS173' => 0xE019C, # VARIATION SELECTOR-173
296 'VS174' => 0xE019D, # VARIATION SELECTOR-174
297 'VS175' => 0xE019E, # VARIATION SELECTOR-175
298 'VS176' => 0xE019F, # VARIATION SELECTOR-176
299 'VS177' => 0xE01A0, # VARIATION SELECTOR-177
300 'VS178' => 0xE01A1, # VARIATION SELECTOR-178
301 'VS179' => 0xE01A2, # VARIATION SELECTOR-179
302 'VS180' => 0xE01A3, # VARIATION SELECTOR-180
303 'VS181' => 0xE01A4, # VARIATION SELECTOR-181
304 'VS182' => 0xE01A5, # VARIATION SELECTOR-182
305 'VS183' => 0xE01A6, # VARIATION SELECTOR-183
306 'VS184' => 0xE01A7, # VARIATION SELECTOR-184
307 'VS185' => 0xE01A8, # VARIATION SELECTOR-185
308 'VS186' => 0xE01A9, # VARIATION SELECTOR-186
309 'VS187' => 0xE01AA, # VARIATION SELECTOR-187
310 'VS188' => 0xE01AB, # VARIATION SELECTOR-188
311 'VS189' => 0xE01AC, # VARIATION SELECTOR-189
312 'VS190' => 0xE01AD, # VARIATION SELECTOR-190
313 'VS191' => 0xE01AE, # VARIATION SELECTOR-191
314 'VS192' => 0xE01AF, # VARIATION SELECTOR-192
315 'VS193' => 0xE01B0, # VARIATION SELECTOR-193
316 'VS194' => 0xE01B1, # VARIATION SELECTOR-194
317 'VS195' => 0xE01B2, # VARIATION SELECTOR-195
318 'VS196' => 0xE01B3, # VARIATION SELECTOR-196
319 'VS197' => 0xE01B4, # VARIATION SELECTOR-197
320 'VS198' => 0xE01B5, # VARIATION SELECTOR-198
321 'VS199' => 0xE01B6, # VARIATION SELECTOR-199
322 'VS200' => 0xE01B7, # VARIATION SELECTOR-200
323 'VS201' => 0xE01B8, # VARIATION SELECTOR-201
324 'VS202' => 0xE01B9, # VARIATION SELECTOR-202
325 'VS203' => 0xE01BA, # VARIATION SELECTOR-203
326 'VS204' => 0xE01BB, # VARIATION SELECTOR-204
327 'VS205' => 0xE01BC, # VARIATION SELECTOR-205
328 'VS206' => 0xE01BD, # VARIATION SELECTOR-206
329 'VS207' => 0xE01BE, # VARIATION SELECTOR-207
330 'VS208' => 0xE01BF, # VARIATION SELECTOR-208
331 'VS209' => 0xE01C0, # VARIATION SELECTOR-209
332 'VS210' => 0xE01C1, # VARIATION SELECTOR-210
333 'VS211' => 0xE01C2, # VARIATION SELECTOR-211
334 'VS212' => 0xE01C3, # VARIATION SELECTOR-212
335 'VS213' => 0xE01C4, # VARIATION SELECTOR-213
336 'VS214' => 0xE01C5, # VARIATION SELECTOR-214
337 'VS215' => 0xE01C6, # VARIATION SELECTOR-215
338 'VS216' => 0xE01C7, # VARIATION SELECTOR-216
339 'VS217' => 0xE01C8, # VARIATION SELECTOR-217
340 'VS218' => 0xE01C9, # VARIATION SELECTOR-218
341 'VS219' => 0xE01CA, # VARIATION SELECTOR-219
342 'VS220' => 0xE01CB, # VARIATION SELECTOR-220
343 'VS221' => 0xE01CC, # VARIATION SELECTOR-221
344 'VS222' => 0xE01CD, # VARIATION SELECTOR-222
345 'VS223' => 0xE01CE, # VARIATION SELECTOR-223
346 'VS224' => 0xE01CF, # VARIATION SELECTOR-224
347 'VS225' => 0xE01D0, # VARIATION SELECTOR-225
348 'VS226' => 0xE01D1, # VARIATION SELECTOR-226
349 'VS227' => 0xE01D2, # VARIATION SELECTOR-227
350 'VS228' => 0xE01D3, # VARIATION SELECTOR-228
351 'VS229' => 0xE01D4, # VARIATION SELECTOR-229
352 'VS230' => 0xE01D5, # VARIATION SELECTOR-230
353 'VS231' => 0xE01D6, # VARIATION SELECTOR-231
354 'VS232' => 0xE01D7, # VARIATION SELECTOR-232
355 'VS233' => 0xE01D8, # VARIATION SELECTOR-233
356 'VS234' => 0xE01D9, # VARIATION SELECTOR-234
357 'VS235' => 0xE01DA, # VARIATION SELECTOR-235
358 'VS236' => 0xE01DB, # VARIATION SELECTOR-236
359 'VS237' => 0xE01DC, # VARIATION SELECTOR-237
360 'VS238' => 0xE01DD, # VARIATION SELECTOR-238
361 'VS239' => 0xE01DE, # VARIATION SELECTOR-239
362 'VS240' => 0xE01DF, # VARIATION SELECTOR-240
363 'VS241' => 0xE01E0, # VARIATION SELECTOR-241
364 'VS242' => 0xE01E1, # VARIATION SELECTOR-242
365 'VS243' => 0xE01E2, # VARIATION SELECTOR-243
366 'VS244' => 0xE01E3, # VARIATION SELECTOR-244
367 'VS245' => 0xE01E4, # VARIATION SELECTOR-245
368 'VS246' => 0xE01E5, # VARIATION SELECTOR-246
369 'VS247' => 0xE01E6, # VARIATION SELECTOR-247
370 'VS248' => 0xE01E7, # VARIATION SELECTOR-248
371 'VS249' => 0xE01E8, # VARIATION SELECTOR-249
372 'VS250' => 0xE01E9, # VARIATION SELECTOR-250
373 'VS251' => 0xE01EA, # VARIATION SELECTOR-251
374 'VS252' => 0xE01EB, # VARIATION SELECTOR-252
375 'VS253' => 0xE01EC, # VARIATION SELECTOR-253
376 'VS254' => 0xE01ED, # VARIATION SELECTOR-254
377 'VS255' => 0xE01EE, # VARIATION SELECTOR-255
378 'VS256' => 0xE01EF, # VARIATION SELECTOR-256
379 'WJ' => 0x2060, # WORD JOINER
380 'ZWJ' => 0x200D, # ZERO WIDTH JOINER
381 'ZWNJ' => 0x200C, # ZERO WIDTH NON-JOINER
382 'ZWSP' => 0x200B, # ZERO WIDTH SPACE
383 );
52ea3e69 384
232cbbee 385my %deprecated_aliases = (
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386 # Pre-3.2 compatibility (only for the first 256 characters).
387 # Use of these gives deprecated message.
388 'HORIZONTAL TABULATION' => 0x09, # CHARACTER TABULATION
389 'VERTICAL TABULATION' => 0x0B, # LINE TABULATION
390 'FILE SEPARATOR' => 0x1C, # INFORMATION SEPARATOR FOUR
391 'GROUP SEPARATOR' => 0x1D, # INFORMATION SEPARATOR THREE
392 'RECORD SEPARATOR' => 0x1E, # INFORMATION SEPARATOR TWO
393 'UNIT SEPARATOR' => 0x1F, # INFORMATION SEPARATOR ONE
394 'HORIZONTAL TABULATION SET' => 0x88, # CHARACTER TABULATION SET
395 'HORIZONTAL TABULATION WITH JUSTIFICATION' => 0x89, # CHARACTER TABULATION WITH JUSTIFICATION
396 'PARTIAL LINE DOWN' => 0x8B, # PARTIAL LINE FORWARD
397 'PARTIAL LINE UP' => 0x8C, # PARTIAL LINE BACKWARD
398 'VERTICAL TABULATION SET' => 0x8A, # LINE TABULATION SET
399 'REVERSE INDEX' => 0x8D, # REVERSE LINE FEED
400 );
52ea3e69 401
84374e30 402
cc26ddeb 403my $txt; # The table of official character names
281aa49e 404
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KW
405my %full_names_cache; # Holds already-looked-up names, so don't have to
406# re-look them up again. The previous versions of charnames had scoping
407# bugs. For example if we use script A in one scope and find and cache
408# what Z resolves to, we can't use that cache in a different scope that
409# uses script B instead of A, as Z might be an entirely different letter
410# there; or there might be different aliases in effect in different
411# scopes, or :short may be in effect or not effect in different scopes,
412# or various combinations thereof. This was solved in this version
413# mostly by moving things to %^H. But some things couldn't be moved
414# there. One of them was the cache of runtime looked-up names, in part
415# because %^H is read-only at runtime. I (khw) don't know why the cache
416# was run-time only in the previous versions: perhaps oversight; perhaps
417# that compile time looking doesn't happen in a loop so didn't think it
418# was worthwhile; perhaps not wanting to make the cache too large. But
419# I decided to make it compile time as well; this could easily be
420# changed.
421# Anyway, this hash is not scoped, and is added to at runtime. It
422# doesn't have scoping problems because the data in it is restricted to
423# official names, which are always invariant, and we only set it and
424# look at it at during :full lookups, so is unaffected by any other
425# scoped options. I put this in to maintain parity with the older
426# version. If desired, a %short_names cache could also be made, as well
427# as one for each script, say in %script_names_cache, with each key
428# being a hash for a script named in a 'use charnames' statement. I
429# decided not to do that for now, just because it's added complication,
430# and because I'm just trying to maintain parity, not extend it.
431
281aa49e
KW
432# Designed so that test decimal first, and then hex. Leading zeros
433# imply non-decimal, as do non-[0-9]
232cbbee
KW
434my $decimal_qr = qr/^[1-9]\d*$/;
435
436# Returns the hex number in $1.
437my $hex_qr = qr/^(?:[Uu]\+|0[xX])?([[:xdigit:]]+)$/;
423cee85 438
8878f897
T
439sub croak
440{
441 require Carp; goto &Carp::croak;
442} # croak
443
444sub carp
445{
446 require Carp; goto &Carp::carp;
447} # carp
448
cc26ddeb 449sub alias (@) # Set up a single alias
35c0985d 450{
35c0985d 451 my $alias = ref $_[0] ? $_[0] : { @_ };
232cbbee
KW
452 foreach my $name (keys %$alias) {
453 my $value = $alias->{$name};
52fb7278 454 next unless defined $value; # Omit if screwed up.
84374e30
KW
455
456 # Is slightly slower to just after this statement see if it is
457 # decimal, since we already know it is after having converted from
458 # hex, but makes the code easier to maintain, and is called
459 # infrequently, only at compile-time
460 if ($value !~ $decimal_qr && $value =~ $hex_qr) {
461 $value = CORE::hex $1;
462 }
232cbbee 463 if ($value =~ $decimal_qr) {
52fb7278 464 $^H{charnames_ord_aliases}{$name} = $value;
232cbbee
KW
465
466 # Use a canonical form.
b1c167a3 467 $^H{charnames_inverse_ords}{sprintf("%05X", $value)} = $name;
232cbbee
KW
468 }
469 else {
52fb7278
KW
470 # XXX validate syntax when deprecation cycle complete. ie. start
471 # with an alpha only, etc.
472 $^H{charnames_name_aliases}{$name} = $value;
232cbbee
KW
473 }
474 }
35c0985d
MB
475} # alias
476
5a7fb30a
KW
477sub not_legal_use_bytes_msg {
478 my ($name, $ord) = @_;
479 return sprintf("Character 0x%04x with name '$name' is above 0xFF with 'use bytes' in effect", $ord);
480}
481
281aa49e 482sub alias_file ($) # Reads a file containing alias definitions
35c0985d 483{
51cf30b6
MB
484 my ($arg, $file) = @_;
485 if (-f $arg && File::Spec->file_name_is_absolute ($arg)) {
486 $file = $arg;
487 }
488 elsif ($arg =~ m/^\w+$/) {
489 $file = "unicore/${arg}_alias.pl";
490 }
491 else {
492 croak "Charnames alias files can only have identifier characters";
493 }
35c0985d 494 if (my @alias = do $file) {
51cf30b6
MB
495 @alias == 1 && !defined $alias[0] and
496 croak "$file cannot be used as alias file for charnames";
497 @alias % 2 and
498 croak "$file did not return a (valid) list of alias pairs";
35c0985d
MB
499 alias (@alias);
500 return (1);
501 }
502 0;
503} # alias_file
504
03f95285
KW
505# For use when don't import anything. This structure must be kept in
506# sync with the one that import() fills up.
507my %dummy_H = (
508 charnames_stringified_names => "",
509 charnames_stringified_ords => "",
510 charnames_scripts => "",
511 charnames_full => 1,
512 charnames_short => 0,
513 );
514
63098191 515
84374e30 516sub lookup_name ($;$) {
63098191
KW
517
518 # Finds the ordinal of a character name, first in the aliases, then in
bb679142
KW
519 # the large table. If not found, returns undef if runtime; if
520 # compile, complains and returns the Unicode replacement character.
63098191 521
84374e30
KW
522 my $runtime = (@_ > 1); # compile vs run time
523
e79869e1 524 my ($name, $hints_ref) = @_;
84374e30 525
9deebca3 526 my $utf8; # The string result
e79869e1 527 my $save_input;
b177ca84 528
84374e30 529 if ($runtime) {
03f95285
KW
530
531 # If we didn't import anything (which happens with 'use charnames ()',
532 # substitute a dummy structure.
533 $hints_ref = \%dummy_H if ! defined $hints_ref
534 || ! defined $hints_ref->{charnames_full};
535
84374e30
KW
536 # At runtime, but currently not at compile time, $^H gets
537 # stringified, so un-stringify back to the original data structures.
538 # These get thrown away by perl before the next invocation
539 # Also fill in the hash with the non-stringified data.
03f95285 540 # N.B. New fields must be also added to %dummy_H
84374e30 541
03f95285
KW
542 %{$^H{charnames_name_aliases}} = split ',',
543 $hints_ref->{charnames_stringified_names};
544 %{$^H{charnames_ord_aliases}} = split ',',
545 $hints_ref->{charnames_stringified_ords};
e79869e1 546 $^H{charnames_scripts} = $hints_ref->{charnames_scripts};
84374e30
KW
547 $^H{charnames_full} = $hints_ref->{charnames_full};
548 $^H{charnames_short} = $hints_ref->{charnames_short};
549 }
550
232cbbee 551 # User alias should be checked first or else can't override ours, and if we
9deebca3 552 # were to add any, could conflict with theirs.
84374e30 553 if (exists $^H{charnames_ord_aliases}{$name}) {
f1ccd77d 554 $utf8 = $^H{charnames_ord_aliases}{$name};
16036bcd 555 }
84374e30
KW
556 elsif (exists $^H{charnames_name_aliases}{$name}) {
557 $name = $^H{charnames_name_aliases}{$name};
e79869e1 558 $save_input = $name; # Cache the result for any error message
232cbbee
KW
559 }
560 elsif (exists $system_aliases{$name}) {
f1ccd77d 561 $utf8 = $system_aliases{$name};
52ea3e69 562 }
232cbbee 563 elsif (exists $deprecated_aliases{$name}) {
35c0985d 564 require warnings;
232cbbee 565 warnings::warnif('deprecated', "Unicode character name \"$name\" is deprecated, use \"" . viacode($deprecated_aliases{$name}) . "\" instead");
f1ccd77d 566 $utf8 = $deprecated_aliases{$name};
52ea3e69 567 }
b177ca84 568
423cee85 569 my @off;
52ea3e69 570
f1ccd77d 571 if (! defined $utf8) {
35c0985d 572
9deebca3 573 # See if has looked this input up earlier.
84374e30 574 if ($^H{charnames_full} && exists $full_names_cache{$name}) {
f1ccd77d 575 $utf8 = $full_names_cache{$name};
35c0985d 576 }
84374e30 577 else {
35c0985d 578
84374e30
KW
579 ## Suck in the code/name list as a big string.
580 ## Lines look like:
73d9566f 581 ## "00052\tLATIN CAPITAL LETTER R\n"
84374e30
KW
582 $txt = do "unicore/Name.pl" unless $txt;
583
584 ## @off will hold the index into the code/name string of the start and
585 ## end of the name as we find it.
586
587 ## If :full, look for the name exactly; runtime implies full
8a684a5b 588 my $found_full_in_table = 0; # Tells us if can cache the result
84374e30 589 if ($^H{charnames_full}) {
5bd59e57
KW
590
591 # See if the name is one which is algorithmically determinable.
592 # The subroutine is included in Name.pl. The table contained in
593 # $txt doesn't contain these. Experiments show that checking
594 # for these before checking for the regular names has no
595 # noticeable impact on performance for the regular names, but
596 # the other way around slows down finding these immensely.
597 # Algorithmically determinables are not placed in the cache (that
598 # $found_full_in_table indicates) because that uses up memory,
599 # and finding these again is fast.
f1ccd77d 600 if (! defined ($utf8 = name_to_code_point_special($name))) {
5bd59e57
KW
601
602 # Not algorthmically determinable; look up in the table.
73d9566f
KW
603 if ($txt =~ /\t\Q$name\E$/m) {
604 @off = ($-[0] + 1, $+[0]); # The 1 is for the tab
5bd59e57
KW
605 $found_full_in_table = 1;
606 }
52fb7278 607 }
423cee85 608 }
b177ca84 609
e79869e1 610 # If we didn't get it above, keep looking
f1ccd77d 611 if (! $found_full_in_table && ! defined $utf8) {
84374e30 612
dc023ef4 613 # If :short is allowed, see if input is like "greek:Sigma".
e79869e1 614 my $scripts_trie;
52fb7278 615 if (($^H{charnames_short})
dc023ef4
KW
616 && $name =~ /^ \s* (.+?) \s* : \s* (.+?) \s* $ /xs)
617 {
e79869e1
KW
618 $scripts_trie = "\U\Q$1";
619 $name = $2;
dc023ef4 620 }
9deebca3 621 else { # Otherwise look in allowed scripts
e79869e1 622 $scripts_trie = $^H{charnames_scripts};
dc023ef4
KW
623 }
624
e79869e1
KW
625 my $case = $name =~ /[[:upper:]]/ ? "CAPITAL" : "SMALL";
626 if ($txt !~
73d9566f 627 /\t (?: $scripts_trie ) \ (?:$case\ )? LETTER \ \U\Q$name\E $/xm)
e79869e1
KW
628 {
629 # Here we still don't have it, give up.
630 return if $runtime;
52fb7278 631
e79869e1
KW
632 # May have zapped input name, get it again.
633 $name = (defined $save_input) ? $save_input : $_[0];
634 carp "Unknown charname '$name'";
635 return 0xFFFD;
636 }
52fb7278 637
73d9566f 638 @off = ($-[0] + 1, $+[0]); # The 1 is for the tab
52ea3e69 639 }
35c0985d 640
f1ccd77d 641 if (! defined $utf8) {
b1c167a3
KW
642
643 # Now know where in the string the name starts.
73d9566f 644 # The code, 5 hex digits long (and a tab), is before that.
f1ccd77d 645 $utf8 = CORE::hex substr($txt, $off[0] - 6, 5);
5bd59e57 646 }
84374e30
KW
647
648 # Cache the input so as to not have to search the large table
649 # again, but only if it came from the one search that we cache.
f1ccd77d 650 $full_names_cache{$name} = $utf8 if $found_full_in_table;
35c0985d 651 }
423cee85 652 }
b177ca84 653
f1ccd77d 654 return $utf8 if $runtime || $utf8 <= 255 || ! ($^H & $bytes::hint_bits);
63098191
KW
655
656 # Here is compile time, "use bytes" is in effect, and the character
657 # won't fit in a byte
e85f9eed 658 # Prefer any official name over the input one.
e79869e1
KW
659 if (@off) {
660 $name = substr($txt, $off[0], $off[1] - $off[0]) if @off;
661 }
662 else {
663 $name = (defined $save_input) ? $save_input : $_[0];
664 }
f1ccd77d 665 croak not_legal_use_bytes_msg($name, $utf8);
63098191
KW
666} # lookup_name
667
668sub charnames {
669 my $name = shift;
670
9deebca3
KW
671 # For \N{...}. Looks up the character name and returns the string
672 # representation of it.
63098191 673
84374e30
KW
674 my $ord = lookup_name($name);
675 return if ! defined $ord;
63098191 676 return chr $ord if $^H & $bytes::hint_bits;
f0175764 677
52ea3e69 678 no warnings 'utf8'; # allow even illegal characters
bfa383d6 679 return pack "U", $ord;
63098191 680}
423cee85 681
b177ca84
JF
682sub import
683{
684 shift; ## ignore class name
685
35c0985d
MB
686 if (not @_) {
687 carp("`use charnames' needs explicit imports list");
b177ca84 688 }
423cee85 689 $^H{charnames} = \&charnames ;
84374e30
KW
690 $^H{charnames_ord_aliases} = {};
691 $^H{charnames_name_aliases} = {};
692 $^H{charnames_inverse_ords} = {};
03f95285
KW
693 # New fields must be added to %dummy_H, and the code in lookup_name()
694 # that copies fields from the runtime structure
b177ca84
JF
695
696 ##
697 ## fill %h keys with our @_ args.
698 ##
35c0985d 699 my ($promote, %h, @args) = (0);
e5c3f898
MG
700 while (my $arg = shift) {
701 if ($arg eq ":alias") {
51cf30b6 702 @_ or
52fb7278 703 croak ":alias needs an argument in charnames";
35c0985d
MB
704 my $alias = shift;
705 if (ref $alias) {
52fb7278
KW
706 ref $alias eq "HASH" or
707 croak "Only HASH reference supported as argument to :alias";
708 alias ($alias);
709 next;
35c0985d 710 }
51cf30b6 711 if ($alias =~ m{:(\w+)$}) {
52fb7278
KW
712 $1 eq "full" || $1 eq "short" and
713 croak ":alias cannot use existing pragma :$1 (reversed order?)";
714 alias_file ($1) and $promote = 1;
715 next;
35c0985d 716 }
51cf30b6
MB
717 alias_file ($alias);
718 next;
719 }
e5c3f898
MG
720 if (substr($arg, 0, 1) eq ':' and ! ($arg eq ":full" || $arg eq ":short")) {
721 warn "unsupported special '$arg' in charnames";
51cf30b6 722 next;
35c0985d 723 }
e5c3f898 724 push @args, $arg;
35c0985d
MB
725 }
726 @args == 0 && $promote and @args = (":full");
727 @h{@args} = (1) x @args;
b177ca84 728
03f95285
KW
729 $^H{charnames_full} = delete $h{':full'} || 0; # Don't leave undefined,
730 # as tested for in
731 # lookup_names
732 $^H{charnames_short} = delete $h{':short'} || 0;
e79869e1 733 my @scripts = map uc, keys %h;
b177ca84
JF
734
735 ##
736 ## If utf8? warnings are enabled, and some scripts were given,
281aa49e 737 ## see if at least we can find one letter from each script.
b177ca84 738 ##
e79869e1 739 if (warnings::enabled('utf8') && @scripts) {
35c0985d
MB
740 $txt = do "unicore/Name.pl" unless $txt;
741
e79869e1 742 for my $script (@scripts) {
73d9566f 743 if (not $txt =~ m/\t$script (?:CAPITAL |SMALL )?LETTER /) {
52fb7278 744 warnings::warn('utf8', "No such script: '$script'");
e79869e1 745 $script = quotemeta $script; # Escape it, for use in the re.
b177ca84 746 }
35c0985d 747 }
bd62941a 748 }
84374e30
KW
749
750 # %^H gets stringified, so serialize it ourselves so can extract the
751 # real data back later.
752 $^H{charnames_stringified_ords} = join ",", %{$^H{charnames_ord_aliases}};
753 $^H{charnames_stringified_names} = join ",", %{$^H{charnames_name_aliases}};
754 $^H{charnames_stringified_inverse_ords} = join ",", %{$^H{charnames_inverse_ords}};
e79869e1 755 $^H{charnames_scripts} = join "|", @scripts; # Stringifiy them as a trie
35c0985d 756} # import
423cee85 757
84374e30
KW
758# Cache of already looked-up values. This is set to only contain
759# official values, and user aliases can't override them, so scoping is
760# not an issue.
761my %viacode;
63098191
KW
762
763sub viacode {
764
765 # Returns the name of the code point argument
4e2cda5d 766
35c0985d
MB
767 if (@_ != 1) {
768 carp "charnames::viacode() expects one argument";
bd5c3bd9 769 return;
35c0985d 770 }
f0175764 771
35c0985d 772 my $arg = shift;
b177ca84 773
e5432b89
KW
774 # This is derived from Unicode::UCD, where it is nearly the same as the
775 # function _getcode(), but here it makes sure that even a hex argument
776 # has the proper number of leading zeros, which is critical in
777 # matching against $txt below
281aa49e 778 # Must check if decimal first; see comments at that definition
35c0985d 779 my $hex;
232cbbee 780 if ($arg =~ $decimal_qr) {
b1c167a3 781 $hex = sprintf "%05X", $arg;
232cbbee 782 } elsif ($arg =~ $hex_qr) {
e10d7780 783 # Below is the line that differs from the _getcode() source
b1c167a3 784 $hex = sprintf "%05X", hex $1;
35c0985d
MB
785 } else {
786 carp("unexpected arg \"$arg\" to charnames::viacode()");
787 return;
788 }
b177ca84 789
35c0985d 790 return $viacode{$hex} if exists $viacode{$hex};
4e2cda5d 791
ac046fe1
KW
792 # If the code point is above the max in the table, there's no point
793 # looking through it. Checking the length first is slightly faster
794 if (length($hex) <= 5 || CORE::hex($hex) <= 0x10FFFF) {
795 $txt = do "unicore/Name.pl" unless $txt;
b177ca84 796
5bd59e57
KW
797 # See if the name is algorithmically determinable.
798 my $algorithmic = code_point_to_name_special(CORE::hex $hex);
799 if (defined $algorithmic) {
800 $viacode{$hex} = $algorithmic;
801 return $algorithmic;
802 }
803
ac046fe1
KW
804 # Return the official name, if exists. It's unclear to me (khw) at
805 # this juncture if it is better to return a user-defined override, so
806 # leaving it as is for now.
73d9566f 807 if ($txt =~ m/^$hex\t/m) {
f3227b74 808
52fb7278
KW
809 # The name starts with the next character and goes up to the
810 # next new-line. Using capturing parentheses above instead of
811 # @+ more than doubles the execution time in Perl 5.13
f3227b74 812 $viacode{$hex} = substr($txt, $+[0], index($txt, "\n", $+[0]) - $+[0]);
52fb7278 813 return $viacode{$hex};
ac046fe1 814 }
232cbbee
KW
815 }
816
817 # See if there is a user name for it, before giving up completely.
03f95285
KW
818 # First get the scoped aliases, give up if have none.
819 my $H_ref = (caller(0))[10];
820 return if ! defined $H_ref
821 || ! exists $H_ref->{charnames_stringified_inverse_ords};
822
84374e30 823 my %code_point_aliases = split ',',
03f95285 824 $H_ref->{charnames_stringified_inverse_ords};
84374e30 825 if (! exists $code_point_aliases{$hex}) {
ac046fe1
KW
826 if (CORE::hex($hex) > 0x10FFFF) {
827 carp "Unicode characters only allocated up to U+10FFFF (you asked for U+$hex)";
828 }
829 return;
830 }
bd5c3bd9 831
84374e30 832 return $code_point_aliases{$hex};
35c0985d 833} # viacode
daf0d493
JH
834
835sub vianame
836{
35c0985d
MB
837 if (@_ != 1) {
838 carp "charnames::vianame() expects one name argument";
839 return ()
840 }
daf0d493 841
63098191
KW
842 # Looks up the character name and returns its ordinal if
843 # found, undef otherwise.
daf0d493 844
63098191 845 my $arg = shift;
dbc0d4f2 846
63098191 847 if ($arg =~ /^U\+([0-9a-fA-F]+)$/) {
4e2cda5d 848
63098191 849 # khw claims that this is bad. The function should return either a
bb679142 850 # an ord or a chr for all inputs; not be bipolar.
5a7fb30a
KW
851 my $ord = CORE::hex $1;
852 return chr $ord if $ord <= 255 || ! ((caller 0)[8] & $bytes::hint_bits);
853 carp not_legal_use_bytes_msg($arg, $ord);
854 return;
63098191 855 }
daf0d493 856
84374e30 857 return lookup_name($arg, (caller(0))[10]);
35c0985d 858} # vianame
b177ca84 859
423cee85
JH
860
8611;
862__END__
863
864=head1 NAME
865
f12d74c0 866charnames - access to Unicode character names; define character names for C<\N{named}> string literal escapes
423cee85
JH
867
868=head1 SYNOPSIS
869
870 use charnames ':full';
4a2d328f 871 print "\N{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA} is called sigma.\n";
423cee85
JH
872
873 use charnames ':short';
4a2d328f 874 print "\N{greek:Sigma} is an upper-case sigma.\n";
423cee85
JH
875
876 use charnames qw(cyrillic greek);
4a2d328f 877 print "\N{sigma} is Greek sigma, and \N{be} is Cyrillic b.\n";
423cee85 878
35c0985d
MB
879 use charnames ":full", ":alias" => {
880 e_ACUTE => "LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH ACUTE",
e5432b89 881 mychar => 0xE8000, # Private use area
76ae0c45 882 };
35c0985d 883 print "\N{e_ACUTE} is a small letter e with an acute.\n";
da9dec57 884 print "\\N{mychar} allows me to name private use characters.\n";
35c0985d 885
76ae0c45 886 use charnames ();
a23c04e4 887 print charnames::viacode(0x1234); # prints "ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SEE"
16036bcd
KW
888 printf "%04X", charnames::vianame("GOTHIC LETTER AHSA"); # prints
889 # "10330"
b177ca84 890
423cee85
JH
891=head1 DESCRIPTION
892
da9dec57
KW
893Pragma C<use charnames> is used to gain access to the names of the
894Unicode characters, and to allow you to define your own character names.
895
896All forms of the pragma enable use of the
897L</charnames::vianame(I<name>)> function for run-time lookup of a
898character name to get its ordinal (code point), and the inverse
899function, L</charnames::viacode(I<code>)>.
900
901Forms other than C<S<"use charnames ();">> enable the use of of
902C<\N{I<CHARNAME>}> sequences to compile a Unicode character into a
8ebef31d 903string, based on its name.
da9dec57
KW
904
905Note that C<\N{U+I<...>}>, where the I<...> is a hexadecimal number,
906also inserts a character into a string, but doesn't require the use of
907this pragma. The character it inserts is the one whose code point
908(ordinal value) is equal to the number. For example, C<"\N{U+263a}"> is
909the Unicode (white background, black foreground) smiley face; it doesn't
910require this pragma, whereas the equivalent, C<"\N{WHITE SMILING FACE}">
911does.
912Also, C<\N{I<...>}> can mean a regex quantifier instead of a character
8ebef31d
KW
913name, when the I<...> is a number (or comma separated pair of numbers
914(see L<perlreref/QUANTIFIERS>), and is not related to this pragma.
da9dec57
KW
915
916The C<charnames> pragma supports arguments C<:full>, C<:short>, script
917names and customized aliases. If C<:full> is present, for expansion of
918C<\N{I<CHARNAME>}>, the string I<CHARNAME> is first looked up in the list of
76ae0c45 919standard Unicode character names. If C<:short> is present, and
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920I<CHARNAME> has the form C<I<SCRIPT>:I<CNAME>>, then I<CNAME> is looked up
921as a letter in script I<SCRIPT>. If C<use charnames> is used
922with script name arguments, then for C<\N{I<CHARNAME>}> the name
923I<CHARNAME> is looked up as a letter in the given scripts (in the
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924specified order). Customized aliases can override these, and are explained in
925L</CUSTOM ALIASES>.
423cee85 926
da9dec57 927For lookup of I<CHARNAME> inside a given script I<SCRIPTNAME>
d5448623 928this pragma looks for the names
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929
930 SCRIPTNAME CAPITAL LETTER CHARNAME
931 SCRIPTNAME SMALL LETTER CHARNAME
932 SCRIPTNAME LETTER CHARNAME
933
da9dec57 934in the table of standard Unicode names. If I<CHARNAME> is lowercase,
daf0d493
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935then the C<CAPITAL> variant is ignored, otherwise the C<SMALL> variant
936is ignored.
937
da9dec57
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938Note that C<\N{...}> is compile-time; it's a special form of string
939constant used inside double-quotish strings; this means that you cannot
4e2cda5d 940use variables inside the C<\N{...}>. If you want similar run-time
da9dec57 941functionality, use L<charnames::vianame()|/charnames::vianame(I<name>)>.
423cee85 942
301a3cda 943For the C0 and C1 control characters (U+0000..U+001F, U+0080..U+009F)
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944there are no official Unicode names but you can use instead the ISO 6429
945names (LINE FEED, ESCAPE, and so forth, and their abbreviations, LF,
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946ESC, ...). In Unicode 3.2 (as of Perl 5.8) some naming changes took
947place, and ISO 6429 was updated, see L</ALIASES>.
301a3cda 948
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949If the input name is unknown, C<\N{NAME}> raises a warning and
950substitutes the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD).
951
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952For C<\N{NAME}>, it is a fatal error if C<use bytes> is in effect and the
953input name is that of a character that won't fit into a byte (i.e., whose
954ordinal is above 255).
e5432b89 955
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956Otherwise, any string that includes a C<\N{I<charname>}> or
957C<S<\N{U+I<code point>}>> will automatically have Unicode semantics (see
958L<perlunicode/Byte and Character Semantics>).
959
5ffe0e96 960=head1 ALIASES
423cee85 961
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962A few aliases have been defined for convenience: instead of having
963to use the official names
423cee85 964
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965 LINE FEED (LF)
966 FORM FEED (FF)
967 CARRIAGE RETURN (CR)
968 NEXT LINE (NEL)
423cee85 969
e5432b89 970(yes, with parentheses), one can use
d5448623 971
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972 LINE FEED
973 FORM FEED
974 CARRIAGE RETURN
975 NEXT LINE
976 LF
977 FF
978 CR
979 NEL
980
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981All the other standard abbreviations for the controls, such as C<ACK> for
982C<ACKNOWLEDGE> also can be used.
983
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984One can also use
985
986 BYTE ORDER MARK
987 BOM
988
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989and these abbreviations
990
991 Abbreviation Full Name
992
993 CGJ COMBINING GRAPHEME JOINER
994 FVS1 MONGOLIAN FREE VARIATION SELECTOR ONE
995 FVS2 MONGOLIAN FREE VARIATION SELECTOR TWO
996 FVS3 MONGOLIAN FREE VARIATION SELECTOR THREE
997 LRE LEFT-TO-RIGHT EMBEDDING
998 LRM LEFT-TO-RIGHT MARK
999 LRO LEFT-TO-RIGHT OVERRIDE
1000 MMSP MEDIUM MATHEMATICAL SPACE
1001 MVS MONGOLIAN VOWEL SEPARATOR
1002 NBSP NO-BREAK SPACE
1003 NNBSP NARROW NO-BREAK SPACE
1004 PDF POP DIRECTIONAL FORMATTING
1005 RLE RIGHT-TO-LEFT EMBEDDING
1006 RLM RIGHT-TO-LEFT MARK
1007 RLO RIGHT-TO-LEFT OVERRIDE
1008 SHY SOFT HYPHEN
1009 VS1 VARIATION SELECTOR-1
1010 .
1011 .
1012 .
1013 VS256 VARIATION SELECTOR-256
1014 WJ WORD JOINER
1015 ZWJ ZERO WIDTH JOINER
1016 ZWNJ ZERO WIDTH NON-JOINER
1017 ZWSP ZERO WIDTH SPACE
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1018
1019For backward compatibility one can use the old names for
1020certain C0 and C1 controls
1021
1022 old new
1023
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1024 FILE SEPARATOR INFORMATION SEPARATOR FOUR
1025 GROUP SEPARATOR INFORMATION SEPARATOR THREE
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1026 HORIZONTAL TABULATION CHARACTER TABULATION
1027 HORIZONTAL TABULATION SET CHARACTER TABULATION SET
1028 HORIZONTAL TABULATION WITH JUSTIFICATION CHARACTER TABULATION
1029 WITH JUSTIFICATION
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1030 PARTIAL LINE DOWN PARTIAL LINE FORWARD
1031 PARTIAL LINE UP PARTIAL LINE BACKWARD
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1032 RECORD SEPARATOR INFORMATION SEPARATOR TWO
1033 REVERSE INDEX REVERSE LINE FEED
1034 UNIT SEPARATOR INFORMATION SEPARATOR ONE
1035 VERTICAL TABULATION LINE TABULATION
1036 VERTICAL TABULATION SET LINE TABULATION SET
5ffe0e96
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1037
1038but the old names in addition to giving the character
1039will also give a warning about being deprecated.
423cee85 1040
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1041And finally, certain published variants are usable, including some for
1042controls that have no Unicode names:
1043
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1044 name character
1045
52fb7278 1046 END OF PROTECTED AREA END OF GUARDED AREA, U+0097
1f31fcd4
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1047 HIGH OCTET PRESET U+0081
1048 HOP U+0081
1049 IND U+0084
1050 INDEX U+0084
1051 PAD U+0080
1052 PADDING CHARACTER U+0080
1053 PRIVATE USE 1 PRIVATE USE ONE, U+0091
1054 PRIVATE USE 2 PRIVATE USE TWO, U+0092
1055 SGC U+0099
1056 SINGLE GRAPHIC CHARACTER INTRODUCER U+0099
1057 SINGLE-SHIFT 2 SINGLE SHIFT TWO, U+008E
1058 SINGLE-SHIFT 3 SINGLE SHIFT THREE, U+008F
1059 START OF PROTECTED AREA START OF GUARDED AREA, U+0096
16036bcd 1060
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1061=head1 CUSTOM ALIASES
1062
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1063You can add customized aliases to standard (C<:full>) Unicode naming
1064conventions. The aliases override any standard definitions, so, if
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1065you're twisted enough, you can change C<"\N{LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A}"> to
1066mean C<"B">, etc.
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1067
1068Note that an alias should not be something that is a legal curly
1069brace-enclosed quantifier (see L<perlreref/QUANTIFIERS>). For example
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1070C<\N{123}> means to match 123 non-newline characters, and is not treated as a
1071charnames alias. Aliases are discouraged from beginning with anything
1072other than an alphabetic character and from containing anything other
1073than alphanumerics, spaces, dashes, parentheses, and underscores.
1074Currently they must be ASCII.
1075
1076An alias can map to either an official Unicode character name or to a
1077numeric code point (ordinal). The latter is useful for assigning names
1078to code points in Unicode private use areas such as U+E800 through
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1079U+F8FF.
1080A numeric code point must be a non-negative integer or a string beginning
1081with C<"U+"> or C<"0x"> with the remainder considered to be a
1082hexadecimal integer. A literal numeric constant must be unsigned; it
1083will be interpreted as hex if it has a leading zero or contains
1084non-decimal hex digits; otherwise it will be interpreted as decimal.
232cbbee 1085
da9dec57 1086Aliases are added either by the use of anonymous hashes:
35c0985d 1087
da9dec57 1088 use charnames ":alias" => {
35c0985d 1089 e_ACUTE => "LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH ACUTE",
232cbbee 1090 mychar1 => 0xE8000,
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1091 };
1092 my $str = "\N{e_ACUTE}";
1093
da9dec57 1094or by using a file containing aliases:
35c0985d 1095
da9dec57 1096 use charnames ":alias" => "pro";
35c0985d 1097
8ebef31d 1098This will try to read C<"unicore/pro_alias.pl"> from the C<@INC> path. This
da9dec57 1099file should return a list in plain perl:
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1100
1101 (
1102 A_GRAVE => "LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH GRAVE",
1103 A_CIRCUM => "LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH CIRCUMFLEX",
1104 A_DIAERES => "LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS",
1105 A_TILDE => "LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH TILDE",
1106 A_BREVE => "LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH BREVE",
1107 A_RING => "LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH RING ABOVE",
1108 A_MACRON => "LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH MACRON",
f12d74c0 1109 mychar2 => "U+E8001",
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1110 );
1111
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1112Both these methods insert C<":full"> automatically as the first argument (if no
1113other argument is given), and you can give the C<":full"> explicitly as
1114well, like
35c0985d 1115
da9dec57 1116 use charnames ":full", ":alias" => "pro";
35c0985d 1117
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1118Also, both these methods currently allow only a single character to be named.
1119To name a sequence of characters, use a
1120L<custom translator|/CUSTOM TRANSLATORS> (described below).
1121
da9dec57 1122=head1 charnames::viacode(I<code>)
b177ca84
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1123
1124Returns the full name of the character indicated by the numeric code.
da9dec57 1125For example,
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1126
1127 print charnames::viacode(0x2722);
1128
1129prints "FOUR TEARDROP-SPOKED ASTERISK".
1130
232cbbee 1131The name returned is the official name for the code point, if
8ebef31d 1132available; otherwise your custom alias for it. This means that your
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1133alias will only be returned for code points that don't have an official
1134Unicode name (nor Unicode version 1 name), such as private use code
1135points, and the 4 control characters U+0080, U+0081, U+0084, and U+0099.
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1136If you define more than one name for the code point, it is indeterminate
1137which one will be returned.
1138
1139The function returns C<undef> if no name is known for the code point.
1140In Unicode the proper name of these is the empty string, which
1141C<undef> stringifies to. (If you ask for a code point past the legal
1142Unicode maximum of U+10FFFF that you haven't assigned an alias to, you
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1143get C<undef> plus a warning.)
1144
1145The input number must be a non-negative integer or a string beginning
1146with C<"U+"> or C<"0x"> with the remainder considered to be a
1147hexadecimal integer. A literal numeric constant must be unsigned; it
1148will be interpreted as hex if it has a leading zero or contains
1149non-decimal hex digits; otherwise it will be interpreted as decimal.
daf0d493 1150
274085e3
PN
1151Notice that the name returned for of U+FEFF is "ZERO WIDTH NO-BREAK
1152SPACE", not "BYTE ORDER MARK".
1153
da9dec57 1154=head1 charnames::vianame(I<name>)
daf0d493
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1155
1156Returns the code point indicated by the name.
1f31fcd4 1157For example,
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1158
1159 printf "%04X", charnames::vianame("FOUR TEARDROP-SPOKED ASTERISK");
1160
1161prints "2722".
1162
da9dec57 1163C<vianame> takes the identical inputs that C<\N{...}> does under the
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1164L<C<:full> option|/DESCRIPTION> to C<charnames>. In addition, any other
1165options for the controlling C<"use charnames"> in the same scope apply,
1166like any L<script list, C<:short> option|/DESCRIPTION>, or L<custom
1167aliases|/CUSTOM ALIASES> you may have defined.
b177ca84 1168
1f31fcd4 1169There are just a few differences. The main one is that under
84374e30 1170most (see L</BUGS> for the others) circumstances, vianame returns
1f31fcd4
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1171an ord, whereas C<\\N{...}> is seamlessly placed as a chr into the
1172string in which it appears. This leads to a second difference.
1173Since an ord is returned, it can be that of any character, even one
f12d74c0 1174that isn't legal under the C<S<use bytes>> pragma.
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1175
1176The final difference is that if the input name is unknown C<vianame>
1177returns C<undef> instead of the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, and it does not
1178raise a warning message.
b177ca84 1179
5ffe0e96 1180=head1 CUSTOM TRANSLATORS
52ea3e69 1181
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1182The mechanism of translation of C<\N{...}> escapes is general and not
1183hardwired into F<charnames.pm>. A module can install custom
1184translations (inside the scope which C<use>s the module) with the
1185following magic incantation:
52ea3e69 1186
5ffe0e96 1187 sub import {
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1188 shift;
1189 $^H{charnames} = \&translator;
5ffe0e96 1190 }
52ea3e69 1191
da9dec57 1192Here translator() is a subroutine which takes I<CHARNAME> as an
5ffe0e96 1193argument, and returns text to insert into the string instead of the
da9dec57 1194C<\N{I<CHARNAME>}> escape. Since the text to insert should be different
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1195in C<bytes> mode and out of it, the function should check the current
1196state of C<bytes>-flag as in:
52ea3e69 1197
52fb7278 1198 use bytes (); # for $bytes::hint_bits
5ffe0e96 1199 sub translator {
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1200 if ($^H & $bytes::hint_bits) {
1201 return bytes_translator(@_);
1202 }
1203 else {
1204 return utf8_translator(@_);
1205 }
5ffe0e96 1206 }
52ea3e69 1207
da9dec57 1208See L</CUSTOM ALIASES> above for restrictions on I<CHARNAME>.
f0175764 1209
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1210Of course, C<vianame> and C<viacode> would need to be overridden as
1211well.
1212
423cee85
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1213=head1 BUGS
1214
8ebef31d
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1215vianame normally returns an ordinal code point, but when the input name is of
1216the form C<U+...>, it returns a chr instead. In this case, if C<use bytes> is
1217in effect and the character won't fit into a byte, it returns C<undef> and
1218raises a warning.
55bc7d3c 1219
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1220Names must be ASCII characters only, which means that you are out of luck if
1221you want to create aliases in a language where some or all the characters of
1222the desired aliases are non-ASCII.
bee80e93 1223
fe749c9a
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1224Unicode standard named sequences are not recognized, such as
1225C<LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH MACRON AND GRAVE>
1226(which should mean C<LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH MACRON> with an additional
1227C<COMBINING GRAVE ACCENT>).
1228
f12d74c0
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1229Since evaluation of the translation function (see L</CUSTOM
1230TRANSLATORS>) happens in the middle of compilation (of a string
1231literal), the translation function should not do any C<eval>s or
1232C<require>s. This restriction should be lifted (but is low priority) in
1233a future version of Perl.
423cee85
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1234
1235=cut
0eacc33e 1236
52fb7278 1237# ex: set ts=8 sts=2 sw=2 et: