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1=for maintainers
2Generated by perlmodlib.PL -- DO NOT EDIT!
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4=head1 NAME
5
6perlmodlib - constructing new Perl modules and finding existing ones
7
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8=head1 THE PERL MODULE LIBRARY
9
7ef5744c 10Many modules are included in the Perl distribution. These are described
19799a22 11below, and all end in F<.pm>. You may discover compiled library
7ef5744c 12files (usually ending in F<.so>) or small pieces of modules to be
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13autoloaded (ending in F<.al>); these were automatically generated
14by the installation process. You may also discover files in the
15library directory that end in either F<.pl> or F<.ph>. These are
16old libraries supplied so that old programs that use them still
17run. The F<.pl> files will all eventually be converted into standard
18modules, and the F<.ph> files made by B<h2ph> will probably end up
19as extension modules made by B<h2xs>. (Some F<.ph> values may
20already be available through the POSIX, Errno, or Fcntl modules.)
21The B<pl2pm> file in the distribution may help in your conversion,
22but it's just a mechanical process and therefore far from bulletproof.
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23
24=head2 Pragmatic Modules
25
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26They work somewhat like compiler directives (pragmata) in that they
27tend to affect the compilation of your program, and thus will usually
28work well only when used within a C<use>, or C<no>. Most of these
29are lexically scoped, so an inner BLOCK may countermand them
30by saying:
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31
32 no integer;
33 no strict 'refs';
4438c4b7 34 no warnings;
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35
36which lasts until the end of that BLOCK.
37
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38Some pragmas are lexically scoped--typically those that affect the
39C<$^H> hints variable. Others affect the current package instead,
77ca0c92 40like C<use vars> and C<use subs>, which allow you to predeclare a
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41variables or subroutines within a particular I<file> rather than
42just a block. Such declarations are effective for the entire file
43for which they were declared. You cannot rescind them with C<no
44vars> or C<no subs>.
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45
46The following pragmas are defined (and have their own documentation).
47
48=over 12
49
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50=item assertions
51
52Selects assertions
53
54=item assertions::activate
55
56Assertions activation
57
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58=item attributes
59
9e107c59 60Get/set subroutine or variable attributes
09bef843 61
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62=item attrs
63
64Set/get attributes of a subroutine (deprecated)
65
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66=item autouse
67
9e107c59 68Postpone load of modules until a function is used
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69
70=item base
71
72Establish IS-A relationship with base class at compile time
f102b883 73
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74=item bigint
75
7ef5744c 76Transparent BigInteger support for Perl
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77
78=item bignum
79
80Transparent BigNumber support for Perl
81
82=item bigrat
83
7ef5744c 84Transparent BigNumber/BigRationale support for Perl
fa1c7b03 85
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86=item blib
87
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88Use MakeMaker's uninstalled version of a package
89
2e1d04bc 90=item bytes
9e107c59 91
2e1d04bc 92Force byte semantics rather than character semantics
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93
94=item charnames
95
ec90690f 96Define character names for C<\N{named}> string literal escapes
9e107c59 97
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98=item constant
99
9e107c59 100Declare constants
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101
102=item diagnostics
103
2e1d04bc 104Perl compiler pragma to force verbose warning diagnostics
19799a22 105
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106=item encoding
107
ec90690f 108Allows you to write your script in non-ascii or non-utf8
1bb908c3 109
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110=item fields
111
2e1d04bc 112Compile-time class fields
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113
114=item filetest
115
2e1d04bc 116Control the filetest permission operators
f102b883 117
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118=item if
119
120C<use> a Perl module if a condition holds
121
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122=item integer
123
4e860d0a 124Use integer arithmetic instead of floating point
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125
126=item less
127
2e1d04bc 128Request less of something from the compiler
f102b883 129
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130=item lib
131
132Manipulate @INC at compile time
133
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134=item locale
135
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136Use and avoid POSIX locales for built-in operations
137
138=item open
139
cb9c8b59 140Set default PerlIO layers for input and output
f102b883 141
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142=item ops
143
144Restrict unsafe operations when compiling
145
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146=item overload
147
2e1d04bc 148Package for overloading perl operations
f102b883 149
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150=item re
151
152Alter regular expression behaviour
153
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154=item sigtrap
155
9e107c59 156Enable simple signal handling
f102b883 157
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158=item sort
159
160Control sort() behaviour
161
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162=item strict
163
9e107c59 164Restrict unsafe constructs
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165
166=item subs
167
2e1d04bc 168Predeclare sub names
f102b883 169
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170=item threads
171
172Perl extension allowing use of interpreter based threads from perl
173
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174=item threads::shared
175
176Perl extension for sharing data structures between threads
177
19799a22 178=item utf8
f102b883 179
1fa7ca25 180Enable/disable UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC) in source code
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181
182=item vars
183
2e1d04bc 184Predeclare global variable names (obsolete)
f102b883 185
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186=item version
187
188Perl extension for Version Objects
189
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190=item vmsish
191
192Control VMS-specific language features
193
4438c4b7 194=item warnings
0453d815 195
9e107c59 196Control optional warnings
19799a22 197
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198=item warnings::register
199
200Warnings import function
201
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202=back
203
204=head2 Standard Modules
205
206Standard, bundled modules are all expected to behave in a well-defined
207manner with respect to namespace pollution because they use the
208Exporter module. See their own documentation for details.
209
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210It's possible that not all modules listed below are installed on your
211system. For example, the GDBM_File module will not be installed if you
212don't have the gdbm library.
213
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214=over 12
215
216=item AnyDBM_File
217
2e1d04bc 218Provide framework for multiple DBMs
f102b883 219
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220=item Attribute::Handlers
221
222Simpler definition of attribute handlers
223
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224=item AutoLoader
225
9e107c59 226Load subroutines only on demand
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227
228=item AutoSplit
229
9e107c59 230Split a package for autoloading
f102b883 231
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232=item B
233
234The Perl Compiler
235
236=item B::Asmdata
237
238Autogenerated data about Perl ops, used to generate bytecode
239
240=item B::Assembler
241
242Assemble Perl bytecode
243
244=item B::Bblock
245
246Walk basic blocks
247
248=item B::Bytecode
249
250Perl compiler's bytecode backend
251
252=item B::C
253
254Perl compiler's C backend
255
256=item B::CC
257
258Perl compiler's optimized C translation backend
259
260=item B::Concise
261
262Walk Perl syntax tree, printing concise info about ops
263
264=item B::Debug
265
266Walk Perl syntax tree, printing debug info about ops
267
268=item B::Deparse
269
270Perl compiler backend to produce perl code
271
272=item B::Disassembler
273
274Disassemble Perl bytecode
275
276=item B::Lint
277
278Perl lint
279
280=item B::Showlex
281
282Show lexical variables used in functions or files
283
284=item B::Stackobj
285
286Helper module for CC backend
287
288=item B::Stash
289
290Show what stashes are loaded
291
292=item B::Terse
293
294Walk Perl syntax tree, printing terse info about ops
295
296=item B::Xref
297
298Generates cross reference reports for Perl programs
299
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300=item Benchmark
301
2e1d04bc 302Benchmark running times of Perl code
9e107c59 303
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304=item ByteLoader
305
306Load byte compiled perl code
307
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308=item CGI
309
2e1d04bc 310Simple Common Gateway Interface Class
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311
312=item CGI::Apache
313
2e1d04bc 314Backward compatibility module for CGI.pm
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315
316=item CGI::Carp
317
318CGI routines for writing to the HTTPD (or other) error log
319
320=item CGI::Cookie
321
322Interface to Netscape Cookies
323
324=item CGI::Fast
325
326CGI Interface for Fast CGI
327
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328=item CGI::Pretty
329
330Module to produce nicely formatted HTML code
331
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332=item CGI::Push
333
334Simple Interface to Server Push
335
336=item CGI::Switch
337
2e1d04bc 338Backward compatibility module for defunct CGI::Switch
19799a22 339
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340=item CGI::Util
341
342Internal utilities used by CGI module
343
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344=item CPAN
345
2e1d04bc 346Query, download and build perl modules from CPAN sites
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347
348=item CPAN::FirstTime
349
2e1d04bc 350Utility for CPAN::Config file Initialization
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351
352=item CPAN::Nox
353
19799a22 354Wrapper around CPAN.pm without using any XS module
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355
356=item Carp
357
2e1d04bc 358Warn of errors (from perspective of caller)
9e107c59 359
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360=item Carp::Heavy
361
362No user serviceable parts inside
363
364=item Class::ISA
365
366Report the search path for a class's ISA tree
367
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368=item Class::Struct
369
9e107c59 370Declare struct-like datatypes as Perl classes
f102b883 371
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372=item Config
373
374Access Perl configuration information
375
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376=item Cwd
377
9e107c59 378Get pathname of current working directory
f102b883 379
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380=item DB
381
2e1d04bc 382Programmatic interface to the Perl debugging API (draft, subject to
19799a22 383
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384=item DB_File
385
386Perl5 access to Berkeley DB version 1.x
387
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388=item Data::Dumper
389
390Stringified perl data structures, suitable for both printing and C<eval>
391
392=item Devel::DProf
393
394A Perl code profiler
395
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396=item Devel::PPPort
397
398Perl/Pollution/Portability
399
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400=item Devel::Peek
401
402A data debugging tool for the XS programmer
403
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404=item Devel::SelfStubber
405
9e107c59 406Generate stubs for a SelfLoading module
f102b883 407
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408=item Digest
409
410Modules that calculate message digests
411
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412=item Digest::MD5
413
414Perl interface to the MD5 Algorithm
415
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416=item DirHandle
417
9e107c59 418Supply object methods for directory handles
f102b883 419
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420=item Dumpvalue
421
2e1d04bc 422Provides screen dump of Perl data.
f102b883 423
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424=item DynaLoader
425
426Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code
427
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428=item Encode
429
430Character encodings
431
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432=item Encode::Alias
433
434Alias definitions to encodings
435
436=item Encode::Byte
437
438Single Byte Encodings
439
440=item Encode::CJKConstants
441
442Internally used by Encode::??::ISO_2022_*
443
444=item Encode::CN
445
446China-based Chinese Encodings
447
448=item Encode::CN::HZ
449
450Internally used by Encode::CN
451
452=item Encode::Config
453
454Internally used by Encode
455
456=item Encode::EBCDIC
457
458EBCDIC Encodings
459
460=item Encode::Encoder
461
462Object Oriented Encoder
463
464=item Encode::Encoding
465
466Encode Implementation Base Class
467
468=item Encode::Guess
469
470Guesses encoding from data
471
472=item Encode::JP
473
474Japanese Encodings
475
476=item Encode::JP::H2Z
477
478Internally used by Encode::JP::2022_JP*
479
480=item Encode::JP::JIS7
481
482Internally used by Encode::JP
483
484=item Encode::KR
485
486Korean Encodings
487
488=item Encode::KR::2022_KR
489
490Internally used by Encode::KR
491
492=item Encode::MIME::Header
493
494MIME 'B' and 'Q' header encoding
495
496=item Encode::PerlIO
497
498A detailed document on Encode and PerlIO
499
500=item Encode::Supported
501
502Encodings supported by Encode
503
504=item Encode::Symbol
505
506Symbol Encodings
507
508=item Encode::TW
509
510Taiwan-based Chinese Encodings
511
512=item Encode::Unicode
513
514Various Unicode Transformation Formats
515
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516=item Encode::Unicode::UTF7
517
518UTF-7 encoding
519
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520=item English
521
2e1d04bc 522Use nice English (or awk) names for ugly punctuation variables
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523
524=item Env
525
2e1d04bc 526Perl module that imports environment variables as scalars or arrays
f102b883 527
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528=item Errno
529
530System errno constants
531
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532=item Exporter
533
2e1d04bc 534Implements default import method for modules
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535
536=item Exporter::Heavy
537
538Exporter guts
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539
540=item ExtUtils::Command
541
2e1d04bc 542Utilities to replace common UNIX commands in Makefiles etc.
f102b883 543
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544=item ExtUtils::Command::MM
545
546Commands for the MM's to use in Makefiles
547
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548=item ExtUtils::Constant
549
550Generate XS code to import C header constants
551
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552=item ExtUtils::Embed
553
2e1d04bc 554Utilities for embedding Perl in C/C++ applications
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555
556=item ExtUtils::Install
557
9e107c59 558Install files from here to there
f102b883 559
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560=item ExtUtils::Installed
561
562Inventory management of installed modules
563
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564=item ExtUtils::Liblist
565
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566Determine libraries to use and how to use them
567
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568=item ExtUtils::MM
569
570OS adjusted ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass
571
572=item ExtUtils::MM_Any
573
574Platform agnostic MM methods
575
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576=item ExtUtils::MM_BeOS
577
578Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
579
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580=item ExtUtils::MM_Cygwin
581
2e1d04bc 582Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
f102b883 583
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584=item ExtUtils::MM_DOS
585
586DOS specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix
587
588=item ExtUtils::MM_MacOS
589
590Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
591
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592=item ExtUtils::MM_NW5
593
594Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
595
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596=item ExtUtils::MM_OS2
597
2e1d04bc 598Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
f102b883 599
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600=item ExtUtils::MM_UWIN
601
602U/WIN specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix
603
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604=item ExtUtils::MM_Unix
605
9e107c59 606Methods used by ExtUtils::MakeMaker
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607
608=item ExtUtils::MM_VMS
609
2e1d04bc 610Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
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611
612=item ExtUtils::MM_Win32
613
2e1d04bc 614Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
f102b883 615
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616=item ExtUtils::MM_Win95
617
618Method to customize MakeMaker for Win9X
619
620=item ExtUtils::MY
621
622ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass for customization
623
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624=item ExtUtils::MakeMaker
625
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626Create a module Makefile
627
628=item ExtUtils::MakeMaker::FAQ
629
630Frequently Asked Questions About MakeMaker
631
632=item ExtUtils::MakeMaker::Tutorial
633
634Writing a module with MakeMaker
635
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636=item ExtUtils::MakeMaker::bytes
637
638Version agnostic bytes.pm
639
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640=item ExtUtils::MakeMaker::vmsish
641
642Platform agnostic vmsish.pm
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643
644=item ExtUtils::Manifest
645
9e107c59 646Utilities to write and check a MANIFEST file
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647
648=item ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap
649
9e107c59 650Make a bootstrap file for use by DynaLoader
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651
652=item ExtUtils::Mksymlists
653
9e107c59 654Write linker options files for dynamic extension
f102b883 655
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656=item ExtUtils::Packlist
657
9e107c59 658Manage .packlist files
19799a22 659
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660=item ExtUtils::testlib
661
9e107c59 662Add blib/* directories to @INC
f102b883 663
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664=item Fatal
665
9e107c59 666Replace functions with equivalents which succeed or die
b6c543e3 667
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668=item Fcntl
669
670Load the C Fcntl.h defines
671
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672=item File::Basename
673
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674Split a pathname into pieces
675
676=item File::CheckTree
677
678Run many filetest checks on a tree
f102b883 679
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680=item File::Compare
681
19799a22 682Compare files or filehandles
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683
684=item File::Copy
685
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686Copy files or filehandles
687
688=item File::DosGlob
689
2e1d04bc 690DOS like globbing and then some
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691
692=item File::Find
693
d63e6bb6 694Traverse a directory tree.
f102b883 695
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696=item File::Glob
697
698Perl extension for BSD glob routine
699
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700=item File::Path
701
2e1d04bc 702Create or remove directory trees
f102b883 703
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704=item File::Spec
705
9e107c59 706Portably perform operations on file names
f505c983 707
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708=item File::Spec::Cygwin
709
710Methods for Cygwin file specs
711
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712=item File::Spec::Epoc
713
714Methods for Epoc file specs
715
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716=item File::Spec::Functions
717
9e107c59 718Portably perform operations on file names
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719
720=item File::Spec::Mac
721
1bb908c3 722File::Spec for Mac OS (Classic)
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723
724=item File::Spec::OS2
725
9e107c59 726Methods for OS/2 file specs
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727
728=item File::Spec::Unix
729
e61ecf27 730File::Spec for Unix, base for other File::Spec modules
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731
732=item File::Spec::VMS
733
9e107c59 734Methods for VMS file specs
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735
736=item File::Spec::Win32
737
9e107c59 738Methods for Win32 file specs
f505c983 739
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740=item File::Temp
741
742Return name and handle of a temporary file safely
743
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744=item File::stat
745
9e107c59 746By-name interface to Perl's built-in stat() functions
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747
748=item FileCache
749
9e107c59 750Keep more files open than the system permits
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751
752=item FileHandle
753
9e107c59 754Supply object methods for filehandles
f102b883 755
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756=item Filter::Simple
757
758Simplified source filtering
759
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760=item Filter::Util::Call
761
762Perl Source Filter Utility Module
763
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764=item FindBin
765
2e1d04bc 766Locate directory of original perl script
f102b883 767
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768=item GDBM_File
769
770Perl5 access to the gdbm library.
771
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772=item Getopt::Long
773
9e107c59 774Extended processing of command line options
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775
776=item Getopt::Std
777
19799a22 778Process single-character switches with switch clustering
f102b883 779
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780=item Hash::Util
781
782A selection of general-utility hash subroutines
783
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784=item I18N::Collate
785
2e1d04bc 786Compare 8-bit scalar data according to the current locale
f102b883 787
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788=item I18N::LangTags
789
790Functions for dealing with RFC3066-style language tags
791
792=item I18N::LangTags::List
793
4f233aa4 794Tags and names for human languages
422a9aca 795
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796=item I18N::Langinfo
797
798Query locale information
799
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800=item IO
801
802Load various IO modules
803
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804=item IO::Dir
805
806Supply object methods for directory handles
807
808=item IO::File
809
810Supply object methods for filehandles
811
812=item IO::Handle
813
814Supply object methods for I/O handles
815
816=item IO::Pipe
817
818Supply object methods for pipes
819
820=item IO::Poll
821
822Object interface to system poll call
823
824=item IO::Seekable
825
826Supply seek based methods for I/O objects
827
828=item IO::Select
829
830OO interface to the select system call
831
832=item IO::Socket
833
834Object interface to socket communications
835
836=item IO::Socket::INET
837
838Object interface for AF_INET domain sockets
839
840=item IO::Socket::UNIX
841
842Object interface for AF_UNIX domain sockets
843
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844=item IPC::Open2
845
9e107c59 846Open a process for both reading and writing
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847
848=item IPC::Open3
849
9e107c59 850Open a process for reading, writing, and error handling
f102b883 851
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852=item IPC::SysV
853
854SysV IPC constants
855
856=item IPC::SysV::Msg
857
858SysV Msg IPC object class
859
860=item IPC::SysV::Semaphore
861
862SysV Semaphore IPC object class
863
864=item List::Util
865
866A selection of general-utility list subroutines
867
4e860d0a
JH
868=item Locale::Constants
869
870Constants for Locale codes
871
872=item Locale::Country
873
874ISO codes for country identification (ISO 3166)
875
876=item Locale::Currency
877
878ISO three letter codes for currency identification (ISO 4217)
879
880=item Locale::Language
881
882ISO two letter codes for language identification (ISO 639)
883
422a9aca
JH
884=item Locale::Maketext
885
886Framework for localization
887
888=item Locale::Maketext::TPJ13
889
890Article about software localization
891
d63e6bb6
JH
892=item Locale::Script
893
894ISO codes for script identification (ISO 15924)
895
7ef5744c
RGS
896=item MIME::Base64
897
898Encoding and decoding of base64 strings
899
900=item MIME::Base64::QuotedPrint
901
902Encoding and decoding of quoted-printable strings
903
f102b883
TC
904=item Math::BigFloat
905
5d80033a 906Arbitrary size floating point math package
f102b883
TC
907
908=item Math::BigInt
909
19799a22 910Arbitrary size integer math package
f102b883 911
d0363f02
JH
912=item Math::BigInt::Calc
913
914Pure Perl module to support Math::BigInt
915
7ef5744c
RGS
916=item Math::BigInt::Scalar
917
918Pure Perl module to test Math::BigInt with scalars
919
fa1c7b03
JH
920=item Math::BigRat
921
7ef5744c 922Arbitrarily big rationales
fa1c7b03 923
f102b883
TC
924=item Math::Complex
925
9e107c59 926Complex numbers and associated mathematical functions
f102b883 927
404b15a1
CS
928=item Math::Trig
929
9e107c59 930Trigonometric functions
f102b883 931
5d80033a
JH
932=item Memoize
933
ec90690f 934Make functions faster by trading space for time
5d80033a
JH
935
936=item Memoize::AnyDBM_File
937
938Glue to provide EXISTS for AnyDBM_File for Storable use
939
940=item Memoize::Expire
941
942Plug-in module for automatic expiration of memoized values
943
944=item Memoize::ExpireFile
945
946Test for Memoize expiration semantics
947
948=item Memoize::ExpireTest
949
950Test for Memoize expiration semantics
951
952=item Memoize::NDBM_File
953
954Glue to provide EXISTS for NDBM_File for Storable use
955
956=item Memoize::SDBM_File
957
958Glue to provide EXISTS for SDBM_File for Storable use
959
5d80033a
JH
960=item Memoize::Storable
961
962Store Memoized data in Storable database
963
ec90690f
ST
964=item NDBM_File
965
966Tied access to ndbm files
967
1fa7ca25
JH
968=item NEXT
969
970Provide a pseudo-class NEXT that allows method redispatch
971
5d80033a
JH
972=item Net::Cmd
973
974Network Command class (as used by FTP, SMTP etc)
975
976=item Net::Config
977
978Local configuration data for libnet
979
980=item Net::Domain
981
982Attempt to evaluate the current host's internet name and domain
983
5d80033a
JH
984=item Net::FTP
985
986FTP Client class
987
988=item Net::NNTP
989
990NNTP Client class
991
992=item Net::Netrc
993
994OO interface to users netrc file
995
5d80033a
JH
996=item Net::POP3
997
d63e6bb6 998Post Office Protocol 3 Client class (RFC1939)
5d80033a 999
f102b883
TC
1000=item Net::Ping
1001
9e107c59 1002Check a remote host for reachability
f102b883 1003
5d80033a
JH
1004=item Net::SMTP
1005
1006Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Client
1007
5d80033a
JH
1008=item Net::Time
1009
1010Time and daytime network client interface
1011
f102b883
TC
1012=item Net::hostent
1013
9e107c59 1014By-name interface to Perl's built-in gethost*() functions
f102b883 1015
5d80033a
JH
1016=item Net::libnetFAQ
1017
1018Libnet Frequently Asked Questions
1019
f102b883
TC
1020=item Net::netent
1021
9e107c59 1022By-name interface to Perl's built-in getnet*() functions
f102b883
TC
1023
1024=item Net::protoent
1025
9e107c59 1026By-name interface to Perl's built-in getproto*() functions
f102b883
TC
1027
1028=item Net::servent
1029
9e107c59 1030By-name interface to Perl's built-in getserv*() functions
f102b883 1031
ec90690f
ST
1032=item O
1033
1034Generic interface to Perl Compiler backends
1035
1036=item ODBM_File
1037
1038Tied access to odbm files
1039
1040=item Opcode
1041
1042Disable named opcodes when compiling perl code
1043
1044=item POSIX
1045
1046Perl interface to IEEE Std 1003.1
1047
4e860d0a
JH
1048=item PerlIO
1049
1050On demand loader for PerlIO layers and root of PerlIO::* name space
1051
7ef5744c
RGS
1052=item PerlIO::encoding
1053
1054Encoding layer
1055
1056=item PerlIO::scalar
1057
1058Support module for in-memory IO.
1059
1060=item PerlIO::via
1061
1062Helper class for PerlIO layers implemented in perl
1063
c40f6c4a
JH
1064=item PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint
1065
1066PerlIO layer for quoted-printable strings
1067
9e107c59
GS
1068=item Pod::Checker
1069
1070Check pod documents for syntax errors
1071
2e1d04bc
JH
1072=item Pod::Find
1073
1074Find POD documents in directory trees
1075
06a5f41f
JH
1076=item Pod::Functions
1077
1078Group Perl's functions a la perlfunc.pod
1079
19799a22
GS
1080=item Pod::Html
1081
9e107c59
GS
1082Module to convert pod files to HTML
1083
1084=item Pod::InputObjects
1085
2e1d04bc 1086Objects representing POD input paragraphs, commands, etc.
9e107c59 1087
13a2d996
SP
1088=item Pod::LaTeX
1089
1090Convert Pod data to formatted Latex
1091
9e107c59
GS
1092=item Pod::Man
1093
1094Convert POD data to formatted *roff input
1095
1bb908c3
JH
1096=item Pod::ParseLink
1097
248e172a 1098Parse an LE<lt>E<gt> formatting code in POD text
1bb908c3 1099
2e1d04bc
JH
1100=item Pod::ParseUtils
1101
1102Helpers for POD parsing and conversion
1103
9e107c59
GS
1104=item Pod::Parser
1105
1106Base class for creating POD filters and translators
1107
a4373870
CW
1108=item Pod::Perldoc::ToChecker
1109
1110Let Perldoc check Pod for errors
1111
1112=item Pod::Perldoc::ToMan
1113
1114Let Perldoc render Pod as man pages
1115
1116=item Pod::Perldoc::ToNroff
1117
1118Let Perldoc convert Pod to nroff
1119
1120=item Pod::Perldoc::ToPod
1121
1122Let Perldoc render Pod as ... Pod!
1123
1124=item Pod::Perldoc::ToRtf
1125
1126Let Perldoc render Pod as RTF
1127
1128=item Pod::Perldoc::ToText
1129
1130Let Perldoc render Pod as plaintext
1131
1132=item Pod::Perldoc::ToTk
1133
1134Let Perldoc use Tk::Pod to render Pod
1135
1136=item Pod::Perldoc::ToXml
1137
1138Let Perldoc render Pod as XML
1139
1140=item Pod::PlainText
1141
1142Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text
1143
2e1d04bc
JH
1144=item Pod::Plainer
1145
1146Perl extension for converting Pod to old style Pod.
1147
9e107c59
GS
1148=item Pod::Select
1149
1150Extract selected sections of POD from input
19799a22
GS
1151
1152=item Pod::Text
1153
9e107c59
GS
1154Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text
1155
1156=item Pod::Text::Color
1157
1158Convert POD data to formatted color ASCII text
1159
4e860d0a
JH
1160=item Pod::Text::Overstrike
1161
1162Convert POD data to formatted overstrike text
1163
2e1d04bc
JH
1164=item Pod::Text::Termcap
1165
1166Convert POD data to ASCII text with format escapes
1167
9e107c59
GS
1168=item Pod::Usage
1169
1170Print a usage message from embedded pod documentation
f102b883 1171
ec90690f
ST
1172=item SDBM_File
1173
1174Tied access to sdbm files
1175
1176=item Safe
1177
1178Compile and execute code in restricted compartments
1179
7ef5744c
RGS
1180=item Scalar::Util
1181
1182A selection of general-utility scalar subroutines
1183
f102b883
TC
1184=item Search::Dict
1185
9e107c59 1186Search for key in dictionary file
f102b883
TC
1187
1188=item SelectSaver
1189
9e107c59 1190Save and restore selected file handle
f102b883
TC
1191
1192=item SelfLoader
1193
9e107c59 1194Load functions only on demand
f102b883
TC
1195
1196=item Shell
1197
2e1d04bc 1198Run shell commands transparently within perl
f102b883 1199
ec90690f
ST
1200=item Socket
1201
1202Load the C socket.h defines and structure manipulators
1203
1204=item Storable
1205
1206Persistence for Perl data structures
1207
4e860d0a
JH
1208=item Switch
1209
1210A switch statement for Perl
1211
f102b883
TC
1212=item Symbol
1213
9e107c59 1214Manipulate Perl symbols and their names
f102b883 1215
7ef5744c
RGS
1216=item Sys::Hostname
1217
1218Try every conceivable way to get hostname
1219
1220=item Sys::Syslog
1221
1222Perl interface to the UNIX syslog(3) calls
1223
2e1d04bc 1224=item Term::ANSIColor
f102b883 1225
2e1d04bc 1226Color screen output using ANSI escape sequences
f102b883
TC
1227
1228=item Term::Cap
1229
2e1d04bc 1230Perl termcap interface
f102b883
TC
1231
1232=item Term::Complete
1233
2e1d04bc 1234Perl word completion module
f102b883
TC
1235
1236=item Term::ReadLine
1237
7ef5744c 1238Perl interface to various C<readline> packages.
19799a22
GS
1239
1240=item Test
1241
9e107c59 1242Provides a simple framework for writing test scripts
f102b883 1243
1bb908c3
JH
1244=item Test::Builder
1245
1246Backend for building test libraries
1247
f102b883
TC
1248=item Test::Harness
1249
2e1d04bc 1250Run perl standard test scripts with statistics
f102b883 1251
d63e6bb6
JH
1252=item Test::Harness::Assert
1253
1254Simple assert
1255
1256=item Test::Harness::Iterator
1257
1258Internal Test::Harness Iterator
1259
1260=item Test::Harness::Straps
1261
1262Detailed analysis of test results
1263
7a49b635
JH
1264=item Test::More
1265
1266Yet another framework for writing test scripts
1267
1268=item Test::Simple
1269
1270Basic utilities for writing tests.
1271
e61ecf27
JH
1272=item Test::Tutorial
1273
1274A tutorial about writing really basic tests
1275
f102b883
TC
1276=item Text::Abbrev
1277
9e107c59 1278Create an abbreviation table from a list
f102b883 1279
4e860d0a
JH
1280=item Text::Balanced
1281
1282Extract delimited text sequences from strings.
1283
f102b883
TC
1284=item Text::ParseWords
1285
2e1d04bc 1286Parse text into an array of tokens or array of arrays
f102b883
TC
1287
1288=item Text::Soundex
1289
2e1d04bc 1290Implementation of the Soundex Algorithm as Described by Knuth
f102b883 1291
4e860d0a
JH
1292=item Text::Tabs
1293
1294Expand and unexpand tabs per the unix expand(1) and unexpand(1)
1295
f102b883
TC
1296=item Text::Wrap
1297
9e107c59 1298Line wrapping to form simple paragraphs
19799a22 1299
1bb908c3
JH
1300=item Thread
1301
416e7255 1302Manipulate threads in Perl (for old code only)
1bb908c3 1303
ec90690f
ST
1304=item Thread::Queue
1305
83272a45 1306Thread-safe queues
ec90690f
ST
1307
1308=item Thread::Semaphore
1309
83272a45 1310Thread-safe semaphores
ec90690f 1311
7ef5744c
RGS
1312=item Thread::Signal
1313
1314Start a thread which runs signal handlers reliably (for old code)
1315
1316=item Thread::Specific
1317
1318Thread-specific keys
1319
19799a22
GS
1320=item Tie::Array
1321
9e107c59 1322Base class for tied arrays
19799a22 1323
d63e6bb6
JH
1324=item Tie::File
1325
1326Access the lines of a disk file via a Perl array
1327
19799a22
GS
1328=item Tie::Handle
1329
9e107c59 1330Base class definitions for tied handles
19799a22 1331
9e107c59 1332=item Tie::Hash
f102b883 1333
9e107c59 1334Base class definitions for tied hashes
f102b883 1335
d63e6bb6
JH
1336=item Tie::Memoize
1337
1338Add data to hash when needed
1339
f102b883
TC
1340=item Tie::RefHash
1341
9e107c59 1342Use references as hash keys
f102b883 1343
9e107c59 1344=item Tie::Scalar
f102b883 1345
9e107c59 1346Base class definitions for tied scalars
f102b883
TC
1347
1348=item Tie::SubstrHash
1349
19799a22 1350Fixed-table-size, fixed-key-length hashing
f102b883 1351
7ef5744c
RGS
1352=item Time::HiRes
1353
1354High resolution alarm, sleep, gettimeofday, interval timers
1355
f102b883
TC
1356=item Time::Local
1357
9e107c59 1358Efficiently compute time from local and GMT time
f102b883
TC
1359
1360=item Time::gmtime
1361
9e107c59 1362By-name interface to Perl's built-in gmtime() function
f102b883
TC
1363
1364=item Time::localtime
1365
9e107c59 1366By-name interface to Perl's built-in localtime() function
f102b883
TC
1367
1368=item Time::tm
1369
9e107c59 1370Internal object used by Time::gmtime and Time::localtime
f102b883
TC
1371
1372=item UNIVERSAL
1373
9e107c59 1374Base class for ALL classes (blessed references)
f102b883 1375
e61ecf27
JH
1376=item Unicode::Collate
1377
ec90690f 1378Unicode Collation Algorithm
e61ecf27 1379
7ef5744c
RGS
1380=item Unicode::Normalize
1381
1382Unicode Normalization Forms
1383
e61ecf27 1384=item Unicode::UCD
fbe3d936
JH
1385
1386Unicode character database
1387
f102b883
TC
1388=item User::grent
1389
9e107c59 1390By-name interface to Perl's built-in getgr*() functions
f102b883
TC
1391
1392=item User::pwent
1393
9e107c59 1394By-name interface to Perl's built-in getpw*() functions
f102b883 1395
4e860d0a
JH
1396=item Win32
1397
1398Interfaces to some Win32 API Functions
1399
7ef5744c
RGS
1400=item XS::APItest
1401
1402Test the perl C API
1403
1404=item XS::Typemap
1405
1406Module to test the XS typemaps distributed with perl
1407
1408=item XSLoader
1409
1410Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code
1411
f102b883
TC
1412=back
1413
19799a22 1414To find out I<all> modules installed on your system, including
2e1d04bc 1415those without documentation or outside the standard release,
a4373870
CW
1416just use the following command (under the default win32 shell,
1417double quotes should be used instead of single quotes).
f102b883 1418
a4373870
CW
1419 % perl -MFile::Find=find -MFile::Spec::Functions -Tlwe \
1420 'find { wanted => sub { print canonpath $_ if /\.pm\z/ },
1421 no_chdir => 1 }, @INC'
f102b883 1422
8518420c 1423(The -T is here to prevent '.' from being listed in @INC.)
2e1d04bc
JH
1424They should all have their own documentation installed and accessible
1425via your system man(1) command. If you do not have a B<find>
19799a22
GS
1426program, you can use the Perl B<find2perl> program instead, which
1427generates Perl code as output you can run through perl. If you
1428have a B<man> program but it doesn't find your modules, you'll have
2e1d04bc
JH
1429to fix your manpath. See L<perl> for details. If you have no
1430system B<man> command, you might try the B<perldoc> program.
f102b883 1431
8518420c
RGS
1432Note also that the command C<perldoc perllocal> gives you a (possibly
1433incomplete) list of the modules that have been further installed on
1434your system. (The perllocal.pod file is updated by the standard MakeMaker
1435install process.)
1436
f102b883
TC
1437=head2 Extension Modules
1438
19799a22
GS
1439Extension modules are written in C (or a mix of Perl and C). They
1440are usually dynamically loaded into Perl if and when you need them,
d1be9408 1441but may also be linked in statically. Supported extension modules
19799a22 1442include Socket, Fcntl, and POSIX.
f102b883
TC
1443
1444Many popular C extension modules do not come bundled (at least, not
19799a22
GS
1445completely) due to their sizes, volatility, or simply lack of time
1446for adequate testing and configuration across the multitude of
1447platforms on which Perl was beta-tested. You are encouraged to
1448look for them on CPAN (described below), or using web search engines
7ef5744c 1449like Alta Vista or Google.
f102b883
TC
1450
1451=head1 CPAN
1452
19799a22
GS
1453CPAN stands for Comprehensive Perl Archive Network; it's a globally
1454replicated trove of Perl materials, including documentation, style
2e1d04bc 1455guides, tricks and traps, alternate ports to non-Unix systems and
19799a22 1456occasional binary distributions for these. Search engines for
1577cd80 1457CPAN can be found at http://www.cpan.org/
19799a22
GS
1458
1459Most importantly, CPAN includes around a thousand unbundled modules,
1460some of which require a C compiler to build. Major categories of
1461modules are:
f102b883 1462
4e860d0a 1463=over
f102b883
TC
1464
1465=item *
551e1d92 1466
f102b883
TC
1467Language Extensions and Documentation Tools
1468
1469=item *
551e1d92 1470
f102b883
TC
1471Development Support
1472
1473=item *
551e1d92 1474
f102b883
TC
1475Operating System Interfaces
1476
1477=item *
551e1d92 1478
f102b883
TC
1479Networking, Device Control (modems) and InterProcess Communication
1480
1481=item *
551e1d92 1482
f102b883
TC
1483Data Types and Data Type Utilities
1484
1485=item *
551e1d92 1486
f102b883
TC
1487Database Interfaces
1488
1489=item *
551e1d92 1490
f102b883
TC
1491User Interfaces
1492
1493=item *
551e1d92 1494
f102b883
TC
1495Interfaces to / Emulations of Other Programming Languages
1496
1497=item *
551e1d92 1498
f102b883
TC
1499File Names, File Systems and File Locking (see also File Handles)
1500
1501=item *
551e1d92 1502
f102b883
TC
1503String Processing, Language Text Processing, Parsing, and Searching
1504
1505=item *
551e1d92 1506
f102b883
TC
1507Option, Argument, Parameter, and Configuration File Processing
1508
1509=item *
551e1d92 1510
f102b883
TC
1511Internationalization and Locale
1512
1513=item *
551e1d92 1514
f102b883
TC
1515Authentication, Security, and Encryption
1516
1517=item *
551e1d92 1518
f102b883
TC
1519World Wide Web, HTML, HTTP, CGI, MIME
1520
1521=item *
551e1d92 1522
f102b883
TC
1523Server and Daemon Utilities
1524
1525=item *
551e1d92 1526
f102b883
TC
1527Archiving and Compression
1528
1529=item *
551e1d92 1530
f102b883
TC
1531Images, Pixmap and Bitmap Manipulation, Drawing, and Graphing
1532
1533=item *
551e1d92 1534
f102b883
TC
1535Mail and Usenet News
1536
1537=item *
551e1d92 1538
f102b883
TC
1539Control Flow Utilities (callbacks and exceptions etc)
1540
1541=item *
551e1d92 1542
f102b883
TC
1543File Handle and Input/Output Stream Utilities
1544
1545=item *
551e1d92 1546
f102b883
TC
1547Miscellaneous Modules
1548
1549=back
1550
5df44211
JH
1551The list of the registered CPAN sites as of this writing follows.
1552Please note that the sorting order is alphabetical on fields:
1553
1554Continent
1555 |
1556 |-->Country
1557 |
1558 |-->[state/province]
1559 |
1560 |-->ftp
1561 |
1562 |-->[http]
1563
1564and thus the North American servers happen to be listed between the
1565European and the South American sites.
1566
1567You should try to choose one close to you.
f102b883 1568
4e860d0a
JH
1569=head2 Africa
1570
cea6626f 1571=over 4
f102b883 1572
5df44211 1573=item South Africa
4e860d0a 1574
5df44211
JH
1575 ftp://ftp.is.co.za/programming/perl/CPAN/
1576 ftp://ftp.mweb.co.za/pub/mirrors/cpan/
1577 ftp://ftp.saix.net/pub/CPAN/
1578 ftp://ftp.sun.ac.za/CPAN/CPAN/
4e860d0a
JH
1579
1580=back
1581
1582=head2 Asia
1583
1584=over 4
1585
5df44211 1586=item China
4e860d0a 1587
5df44211
JH
1588 ftp://freesoft.cei.gov.cn/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
1589 http://www2.linuxforum.net/mirror/CPAN/
1590 http://cpan.shellhung.org/
1591 ftp://ftp.shellhung.org/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 1592
5df44211 1593=item India
4e860d0a 1594
5df44211
JH
1595 http://cpan.in.freeos.com
1596 ftp://cpan.in.freeos.com/pub/CPAN/
37a78d01 1597
5df44211 1598=item Indonesia
37a78d01 1599
5df44211
JH
1600 http://cpan.itb.web.id/
1601 ftp://mirrors.piksi.itb.ac.id/CPAN/
1602 http://cpan.cbn.net.id/
1603 ftp://ftp.cbn.net.id/mirror/CPAN
1604 http://CPAN.mweb.co.id/
1605 ftp://ftp.mweb.co.id/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
37a78d01 1606
5df44211 1607=item Israel
37a78d01 1608
5df44211
JH
1609 http://www.iglu.org.il:/pub/CPAN/
1610 ftp://ftp.iglu.org.il/pub/CPAN/
1611 http://cpan.lerner.co.il/
1612 http://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/pub/software/perl/CPAN/
1613 ftp://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/pub/software/perl/CPAN/
37a78d01 1614
5df44211 1615=item Japan
37a78d01 1616
5df44211
JH
1617 ftp://ftp.u-aizu.ac.jp/pub/CPAN
1618 ftp://ftp.kddlabs.co.jp/CPAN/
1619 http://mirror.nucba.ac.jp/mirror/Perl/
1620 ftp://mirror.nucba.ac.jp/mirror/Perl/
1621 ftp://ftp.meisei-u.ac.jp/pub/CPAN/
1622 ftp://ftp.ayamura.org/pub/CPAN/
1623 ftp://ftp.jaist.ac.jp/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
1624 ftp://ftp.dti.ad.jp/pub/lang/CPAN/
1625 ftp://ftp.ring.gr.jp/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
37a78d01 1626
5df44211 1627=item Korea
37a78d01 1628
5df44211
JH
1629 http://mirror.Mazic.org/pub/CPAN
1630 ftp://mirror.Mazic.org/pub/CPAN
37a78d01 1631
5df44211 1632=item Philippines
4e860d0a 1633
5df44211 1634 http://www.adzu.edu.ph/CPAN
4e860d0a 1635
5df44211 1636=item Russian Federation
4e860d0a 1637
5df44211
JH
1638 http://cpan.tomsk.ru
1639 ftp://cpan.tomsk.ru/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 1640
5df44211 1641=item Saudi Arabia
4e860d0a 1642
5df44211 1643 ftp://ftp.isu.net.sa/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1644
5df44211 1645=item Singapore
4e860d0a 1646
5df44211
JH
1647 http://cpan.hjc.edu.sg
1648 http://mirror.averse.net/pub/CPAN
1649 ftp://mirror.averse.net/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 1650
5df44211 1651=item South Korea
4e860d0a 1652
5df44211
JH
1653 http://CPAN.bora.net/
1654 ftp://ftp.bora.net/pub/CPAN/
1655 http://ftp.kornet.net/pub/CPAN/
1656 ftp://ftp.kornet.net/pub/CPAN/
1657 ftp://ftp.nuri.net/pub/CPAN/
1658 http://ftp.xgate.co.kr/cpan/
1659 ftp://ftp.xgate.co.kr/pub/mirror/CPAN
4e860d0a 1660
5df44211 1661=item Taiwan
4e860d0a 1662
5df44211
JH
1663 ftp://ftp.nctu.edu.tw/UNIX/perl/CPAN
1664 ftp://ftp.ee.ncku.edu.tw/pub/perl/CPAN/
1665 ftp://ftp1.sinica.edu.tw/pub1/perl/CPAN/
1666 http://ftp.tku.edu.tw/pub/CPAN/
1667 ftp://ftp.tku.edu.tw/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1668
5df44211 1669=item Thailand
4e860d0a 1670
5df44211
JH
1671 ftp://ftp.loxinfo.co.th/pub/cpan/
1672 ftp://ftp.cs.riubon.ac.th/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
4e860d0a
JH
1673
1674=back
1675
1676=head2 Central America
1677
1678=over 4
1679
5df44211 1680=item Costa Rica
4e860d0a 1681
5df44211
JH
1682 ftp://ftp.linux.co.cr/mirrors/CPAN/
1683 http://ftp.ucr.ac.cr/Unix/CPAN/
1684 ftp://ftp.ucr.ac.cr/pub/Unix/CPAN/
4e860d0a
JH
1685
1686=back
1687
1688=head2 Europe
1689
1690=over 4
1691
5df44211 1692=item Austria
4e860d0a 1693
5df44211 1694 ftp://ftp.tuwien.ac.at/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1695
5df44211 1696=item Belgium
4e860d0a 1697
5df44211
JH
1698 http://ftp.easynet.be/pub/CPAN/
1699 ftp://ftp.easynet.be/pub/CPAN/
1700 http://cpan.skynet.be
1701 ftp://ftp.skynet.be/pub/CPAN
1702 ftp://ftp.kulnet.kuleuven.ac.be/pub/mirror/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1703
5df44211 1704=item Bulgaria
4e860d0a 1705
5df44211
JH
1706 http://cpan.lirex.net/
1707 ftp://ftp.lirex.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN
4e860d0a 1708
5df44211 1709=item Croatia
4e860d0a 1710
5df44211
JH
1711 http://ftp.linux.hr/pub/CPAN/
1712 ftp://ftp.linux.hr/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1713
5df44211 1714=item Czech Republic
4e860d0a 1715
5df44211
JH
1716 http://ftp.fi.muni.cz/pub/CPAN/
1717 ftp://ftp.fi.muni.cz/pub/CPAN/
1718 ftp://sunsite.mff.cuni.cz/MIRRORS/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1719
5df44211 1720=item Denmark
4e860d0a 1721
5df44211
JH
1722 http://mirrors.sunsite.dk/cpan/
1723 ftp://sunsite.dk/mirrors/cpan/
1724 http://cpan.cybercity.dk
1725 http://www.cpan.dk/CPAN/
1726 ftp://www.cpan.dk/ftp.cpan.org/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1727
5df44211 1728=item Estonia
4e860d0a 1729
5df44211 1730 ftp://ftp.ut.ee/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1731
5df44211 1732=item Finland
4e860d0a 1733
5df44211
JH
1734 ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
1735 http://cpan.kpnqwest.fi/
4e860d0a 1736
5df44211 1737=item France
37a78d01 1738
5df44211
JH
1739 http://ftp.u-paris10.fr/perl/CPAN
1740 ftp://ftp.u-paris10.fr/perl/CPAN
1741 http://cpan.mirrors.easynet.fr/
1742 ftp://cpan.mirrors.easynet.fr/pub/ftp.cpan.org/
1743 ftp://ftp.club-internet.fr/pub/perl/CPAN/
1744 http://fr.cpan.org/
1745 ftp://ftp.lip6.fr/pub/perl/CPAN/
1746 ftp://ftp.oleane.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
1747 ftp://ftp.pasteur.fr/pub/computing/CPAN/
1748 http://mir2.ovh.net/ftp.cpan.org
1749 ftp://mir1.ovh.net/ftp.cpan.org
1750 http://ftp.u-strasbg.fr/CPAN
1751 ftp://ftp.u-strasbg.fr/CPAN
1752 http://cpan.cict.fr/
1753 ftp://cpan.cict.fr/pub/CPAN/
1754 ftp://ftp.uvsq.fr/pub/perl/CPAN/
37a78d01 1755
5df44211 1756=item Germany
37a78d01 1757
5df44211
JH
1758 ftp://ftp.rz.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pub/CPAN/
1759 ftp://ftp.freenet.de/pub/ftp.cpan.org/pub/CPAN/
1760 ftp://ftp.uni-erlangen.de/pub/source/CPAN/
1761 ftp://ftp-stud.fht-esslingen.de/pub/Mirrors/CPAN
1762 http://pandemonium.tiscali.de/pub/CPAN/
1763 ftp://pandemonium.tiscali.de/pub/CPAN/
1764 http://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
1765 ftp://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
1766 ftp://ftp.uni-hamburg.de/pub/soft/lang/perl/CPAN/
1767 ftp://ftp.leo.org/pub/CPAN/
1768 http://cpan.noris.de/
1769 ftp://cpan.noris.de/pub/CPAN/
1770 ftp://ftp.mpi-sb.mpg.de/pub/perl/CPAN/
1771 ftp://ftp.gmd.de/mirrors/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1772
5df44211 1773=item Greece
4e860d0a 1774
5df44211
JH
1775 ftp://ftp.acn.gr/pub/lang/perl/CPAN
1776 ftp://ftp.forthnet.gr/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
1777 ftp://ftp.ntua.gr/pub/lang/perl/
4e860d0a 1778
5df44211 1779=item Hungary
4e860d0a 1780
5df44211
JH
1781 http://cpan.artifact.hu/
1782 ftp://cpan.artifact.hu/CPAN/
1783 http://ftp.kfki.hu/packages/perl/CPAN/
1784 ftp://ftp.kfki.hu/pub/packages/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1785
5df44211 1786=item Iceland
4e860d0a 1787
5df44211
JH
1788 http://ftp.rhnet.is/pub/CPAN/
1789 ftp://ftp.rhnet.is/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1790
5df44211 1791=item Ireland
4e860d0a 1792
5df44211
JH
1793 http://cpan.indigo.ie/
1794 ftp://cpan.indigo.ie/pub/CPAN/
1795 http://sunsite.compapp.dcu.ie/pub/perl/
1796 ftp://sunsite.compapp.dcu.ie/pub/perl/
4e860d0a 1797
5df44211 1798=item Italy
4e860d0a 1799
5df44211
JH
1800 http://cpan.nettuno.it/
1801 http://gusp.dyndns.org/CPAN/
1802 ftp://gusp.dyndns.org/pub/CPAN
1803 http://softcity.iol.it/cpan
1804 ftp://softcity.iol.it/pub/cpan
1805 ftp://ftp.unina.it/pub/Other/CPAN/CPAN/
1806 ftp://ftp.unipi.it/pub/mirror/perl/CPAN/
1807 ftp://cis.uniRoma2.it/CPAN/
1808 ftp://ftp.edisontel.it/pub/CPAN_Mirror/
1809 ftp://ftp.flashnet.it/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1810
5df44211 1811=item Latvia
4e860d0a 1812
5df44211 1813 http://kvin.lv/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1814
5df44211 1815=item Lithuania
4e860d0a 1816
5df44211 1817 ftp://ftp.unix.lt/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1818
5df44211 1819=item Netherlands
4e860d0a 1820
5df44211
JH
1821 ftp://download.xs4all.nl/pub/mirror/CPAN/
1822 ftp://ftp.nl.uu.net/pub/CPAN/
1823 ftp://ftp.nluug.nl/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
1824 http://cpan.cybercomm.nl/
1825 ftp://mirror.cybercomm.nl/pub/CPAN
1826 ftp://ftp.cpan.nl/pub/CPAN/
1827 http://ftp.easynet.nl/mirror/CPAN
1828 ftp://ftp.easynet.nl/mirror/CPAN
1829 http://archive.cs.uu.nl/mirror/CPAN/
1830 ftp://ftp.cs.uu.nl/mirror/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1831
5df44211
JH
1832=item Norway
1833
1834 ftp://ftp.uninett.no/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
1835 ftp://ftp.uit.no/pub/languages/perl/cpan/
1836
1837=item Poland
1838
1839 ftp://ftp.pk.edu.pl/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
1840 ftp://ftp.mega.net.pl/pub/mirrors/ftp.perl.com/
1841 ftp://ftp.man.torun.pl/pub/doc/CPAN/
1842 ftp://sunsite.icm.edu.pl/pub/CPAN/
1843
1844=item Portugal
1845
1846 ftp://ftp.ua.pt/pub/CPAN/
1847 ftp://perl.di.uminho.pt/pub/CPAN/
1848 http://cpan.dei.uc.pt/
1849 ftp://ftp.dei.uc.pt/pub/CPAN
1850 ftp://ftp.ist.utl.pt/pub/CPAN/
1851 http://cpan.ip.pt/
1852 ftp://cpan.ip.pt/pub/cpan/
1853 ftp://ftp.netc.pt/pub/CPAN/
1854 ftp://ftp.up.pt/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 1855
5df44211 1856=item Romania
4e860d0a 1857
5df44211
JH
1858 ftp://ftp.kappa.ro/pub/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN/
1859 ftp://ftp.dntis.ro/pub/cpan/
1860 ftp://ftp.dnttm.ro/pub/CPAN/
1861 ftp://ftp.lasting.ro/pub/CPAN
1862 ftp://ftp.timisoara.roedu.net/mirrors/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1863
5df44211 1864=item Russia
4e860d0a 1865
5df44211
JH
1866 ftp://ftp.chg.ru/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
1867 http://cpan.rinet.ru/
1868 ftp://cpan.rinet.ru/pub/mirror/CPAN/
1869 ftp://ftp.aha.ru/pub/CPAN/
1870 http://cpan.sai.msu.ru/
1871 ftp://ftp.sai.msu.su/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1872
5df44211 1873=item Slovakia
4e860d0a 1874
5df44211
JH
1875 http://ftp.cvt.stuba.sk/pub/CPAN/
1876 ftp://ftp.cvt.stuba.sk/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1877
5df44211 1878=item Slovenia
4e860d0a 1879
5df44211 1880 ftp://ftp.arnes.si/software/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1881
5df44211 1882=item Spain
4e860d0a 1883
5df44211
JH
1884 http://cpan.imasd.elmundo.es/
1885 ftp://ftp.rediris.es/mirror/CPAN/
1886 ftp://ftp.etse.urv.es/pub/perl/
4e860d0a 1887
5df44211 1888=item Sweden
4e860d0a 1889
5df44211
JH
1890 http://ftp.du.se/CPAN/
1891 ftp://ftp.du.se/pub/CPAN/
1892 ftp://mirror.dataphone.se/pub/CPAN
1893 ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1894
5df44211 1895=item Switzerland
4e860d0a 1896
5df44211
JH
1897 ftp://ftp.danyk.ch/CPAN/
1898 ftp://sunsite.cnlab-switch.ch/mirror/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1899
5df44211 1900=item Turkey
4e860d0a 1901
5df44211
JH
1902 http://ftp.ulak.net.tr/perl/CPAN/
1903 ftp://ftp.ulak.net.tr/perl/CPAN
1904 ftp://sunsite.bilkent.edu.tr/pub/languages/CPAN/
37a78d01 1905
5df44211 1906=item Ukraine
37a78d01 1907
5df44211
JH
1908 http://cpan.org.ua/
1909 ftp://cpan.org.ua/
1910 ftp://ftp.perl.org.ua/pub/CPAN/
37a78d01 1911
5df44211 1912=item United Kingdom
556e28cf 1913
5df44211
JH
1914 http://www.mirror.ac.uk/sites/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
1915 ftp://ftp.mirror.ac.uk/sites/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
1916 http://cpan.teleglobe.net/
1917 ftp://cpan.teleglobe.net/pub/CPAN
1918 http://cpan.crazygreek.co.uk
1919 ftp://ftp.demon.co.uk/pub/CPAN/
1920 http://cpan.m.flirble.org/
1921 ftp://ftp.flirble.org/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
1922 ftp://ftp.plig.org/pub/CPAN/
1923 http://mirror.uklinux.net/CPAN/
1924 ftp://mirror.uklinux.net/pub/CPAN/
1925 http://cpan.mirrors.clockerz.net/
1926 ftp://ftp.clockerz.net/pub/CPAN/
1927 ftp://usit.shef.ac.uk/pub/packages/CPAN/
556e28cf 1928
4e860d0a
JH
1929=back
1930
1931=head2 North America
1932
1933=over 4
1934
5df44211 1935=item Alberta
4e860d0a 1936
5df44211
JH
1937 http://sunsite.ualberta.ca/pub/Mirror/CPAN/
1938 ftp://sunsite.ualberta.ca/pub/Mirror/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1939
5df44211 1940=item Manitoba
4e860d0a 1941
5df44211
JH
1942 http://theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca/pub/CPAN/
1943 ftp://theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1944
5df44211 1945=item Nova Scotia
4e860d0a 1946
5df44211 1947 ftp://cpan.chebucto.ns.ca/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1948
5df44211 1949=item Ontario
4e860d0a 1950
5df44211 1951 ftp://ftp.crc.ca/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1952
5df44211 1953=item Quebec
4e860d0a 1954
5df44211 1955 http://cpan.mirror.smartworker.org/
37a78d01 1956
5df44211 1957=item Mexico
37a78d01 1958
5df44211
JH
1959 http://cpan.azc.uam.mx
1960 ftp://cpan.azc.uam.mx/mirrors/CPAN
1961 http://cpan.unam.mx/
1962 ftp://cpan.unam.mx/pub/CPAN
1963 http://www.msg.com.mx/CPAN/
1964 ftp://ftp.msg.com.mx/pub/CPAN/
37a78d01
JH
1965
1966=back
4e860d0a 1967
5df44211 1968=head2 United States
556e28cf 1969
5df44211 1970=over 4
4e860d0a 1971
5df44211 1972=item Alabama
4e860d0a 1973
5df44211
JH
1974 http://mirror.hiwaay.net/CPAN/
1975 ftp://mirror.hiwaay.net/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1976
5df44211 1977=item California
4e860d0a 1978
5df44211
JH
1979 http://cpan.develooper.com/
1980 http://www.cpan.org/
1981 ftp://cpan.valueclick.com/pub/CPAN/
1982 http://mirrors.gossamer-threads.com/CPAN
1983 ftp://cpan.nas.nasa.gov/pub/perl/CPAN/
1984 http://mirrors.kernel.org/cpan/
1985 ftp://mirrors.kernel.org/pub/CPAN
1986 http://cpan.digisle.net/
1987 ftp://cpan.digisle.net/pub/CPAN
1988 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/
1989 http://download.sourceforge.net/mirrors/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1990
5df44211 1991=item Colorado
4e860d0a 1992
5df44211 1993 ftp://ftp.cs.colorado.edu/pub/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 1994
5df44211 1995=item Delaware
4e860d0a 1996
5df44211
JH
1997 http://ftp.lug.udel.edu/pub/CPAN
1998 ftp://ftp.lug.udel.edu/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 1999
5df44211 2000=item District of Columbia
4e860d0a 2001
5df44211 2002 ftp://ftp.dc.aleron.net/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2003
5df44211 2004=item Florida
37a78d01 2005
5df44211
JH
2006 ftp://ftp.cise.ufl.edu/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
2007 http://mirror.csit.fsu.edu/pub/CPAN/
2008 ftp://mirror.csit.fsu.edu/pub/CPAN/
2009 http://cpan.mirrors.nks.net/
37a78d01 2010
5df44211 2011=item Illinois
4e860d0a 2012
5df44211
JH
2013 http://uiarchive.uiuc.edu/mirrors/ftp/cpan.cse.msu.edu/
2014 ftp://uiarchive.uiuc.edu/mirrors/ftp/cpan.cse.msu.edu/
4e860d0a 2015
5df44211 2016=item Indiana
4e860d0a 2017
5df44211
JH
2018 ftp://ftp.uwsg.iu.edu/pub/perl/CPAN/
2019 http://cpan.netnitco.net/
2020 ftp://cpan.netnitco.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
2021 http://archive.progeny.com/CPAN/
2022 ftp://archive.progeny.com/CPAN/
2023 ftp://cpan.in-span.net/
2024 http://csociety-ftp.ecn.purdue.edu/pub/CPAN
2025 ftp://csociety-ftp.ecn.purdue.edu/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 2026
5df44211 2027=item Kentucky
4e860d0a 2028
5df44211
JH
2029 http://cpan.uky.edu/
2030 ftp://cpan.uky.edu/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2031
5df44211 2032=item Massachusetts
4e860d0a 2033
5df44211
JH
2034 ftp://ftp.ccs.neu.edu/net/mirrors/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
2035 http://cpan.mirrors.netnumina.com/
2036 ftp://mirrors.netnumina.com/cpan/
4e860d0a 2037
5df44211 2038=item Michigan
4e860d0a 2039
5df44211 2040 ftp://cpan.cse.msu.edu/
4e860d0a 2041
5df44211 2042=item New Jersey
4e860d0a 2043
5df44211
JH
2044 ftp://ftp.cpanel.net/pub/CPAN/
2045 http://cpan.teleglobe.net/
2046 ftp://cpan.teleglobe.net/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 2047
5df44211 2048=item New York
4e860d0a 2049
5df44211
JH
2050 ftp://ftp.exobit.org/pub/perl/CPAN
2051 http://cpan.belfry.net/
2052 http://cpan.thepirtgroup.com/
2053 ftp://cpan.thepirtgroup.com/
2054 ftp://ftp.stealth.net/pub/CPAN/
2055 http://www.rge.com/pub/languages/perl/
2056 ftp://ftp.rge.com/pub/languages/perl/
2057 ftp://mirrors.cloud9.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2058
5df44211 2059=item North Carolina
4e860d0a 2060
5df44211 2061 ftp://ftp.duke.edu/pub/perl/
4e860d0a 2062
5df44211 2063=item Ohio
4e860d0a 2064
5df44211 2065 ftp://ftp.loaded.net/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2066
5df44211 2067=item Oklahoma
4e860d0a 2068
5df44211 2069 ftp://ftp.ou.edu/mirrors/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2070
5df44211 2071=item Oregon
4e860d0a 2072
5df44211 2073 ftp://ftp.orst.edu/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 2074
5df44211 2075=item Pennsylvania
4e860d0a 2076
5df44211
JH
2077 http://ftp.epix.net/CPAN/
2078 ftp://ftp.epix.net/pub/languages/perl/
2079 http://mirrors.phenominet.com/pub/CPAN/
2080 ftp://mirrors.phenominet.com/pub/CPAN/
2081 http://cpan.pair.com/
2082 ftp://cpan.pair.com/pub/CPAN/
2083 ftp://carroll.cac.psu.edu/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2084
5df44211 2085=item Tennessee
4e860d0a 2086
5df44211 2087 ftp://ftp.sunsite.utk.edu/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2088
5df44211 2089=item Texas
4e860d0a 2090
5df44211
JH
2091 http://ftp.sedl.org/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
2092 ftp://mirror.telentente.com/pub/CPAN
4e860d0a 2093
5df44211 2094=item Utah
4e860d0a 2095
5df44211 2096 ftp://mirror.xmission.com/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2097
5df44211 2098=item Virginia
4e860d0a 2099
5df44211
JH
2100 http://mirrors.rcn.net/pub/lang/CPAN/
2101 ftp://mirrors.rcn.net/pub/lang/CPAN/
2102 http://perl.secsup.org/
2103 ftp://perl.secsup.org/pub/perl/
2104 http://mirrors.phihost.com/CPAN/
2105 ftp://mirrors.phihost.com/CPAN/
2106 ftp://ruff.cs.jmu.edu/pub/CPAN/
2107 http://perl.Liquidation.com/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2108
5df44211 2109=item ashington
4e860d0a 2110
5df44211
JH
2111 http://cpan.llarian.net/
2112 ftp://cpan.llarian.net/pub/CPAN/
2113 http://cpan.mirrorcentral.com/
2114 ftp://ftp.mirrorcentral.com/pub/CPAN/
2115 ftp://ftp-mirror.internap.com/pub/CPAN/
556e28cf 2116
5df44211 2117=item Wisconsin
556e28cf 2118
5df44211
JH
2119 http://mirror.sit.wisc.edu/pub/CPAN/
2120 ftp://mirror.sit.wisc.edu/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a
JH
2121
2122=back
2123
2124=head2 Oceania
2125
2126=over 4
2127
5df44211 2128=item Australia
4e860d0a 2129
5df44211
JH
2130 http://ftp.planetmirror.com/pub/CPAN/
2131 ftp://ftp.planetmirror.com/pub/CPAN/
2132 ftp://mirror.aarnet.edu.au/pub/perl/CPAN/
2133 ftp://cpan.topend.com.au/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2134
5df44211 2135=item New Zealand
556e28cf 2136
5df44211
JH
2137 ftp://ftp.auckland.ac.nz/pub/perl/CPAN/
2138 http://cpan.soa.co.nz/CPAN/
4e860d0a
JH
2139
2140=back
2141
2142=head2 South America
2143
2144=over 4
2145
5df44211 2146=item Argentina
4e860d0a 2147
5df44211
JH
2148 ftp://mirrors.bannerlandia.com.ar/mirrors/CPAN/
2149 http://ftp.fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar/pub/CPAN/
2150 ftp://ftp.fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar/pub/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2151
5df44211 2152=item Brazil
4e860d0a 2153
5df44211
JH
2154 ftp://cpan.pop-mg.com.br/pub/CPAN/
2155 ftp://ftp.matrix.com.br/pub/perl/CPAN/
4e860d0a 2156
5df44211 2157=item Chile
4e860d0a 2158
5df44211
JH
2159 http://cpan.netglobalis.net/
2160 ftp://cpan.netglobalis.net/pub/CPAN/
f102b883
TC
2161
2162=back
2163
5df44211
JH
2164=head2 RSYNC Mirrors
2165
2166 ftp.fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar::CPAN
2167 cpan.mirror.smartworker.org::CPAN
2168 theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca::CPAN
2169 ftp.shellhung.org::CPAN
2170 ftp.funet.fi::CPAN
2171 ftp.u-paris10.fr::CPAN
2172 mir1.ovh.net::CPAN
2173 ftp.gwdg.de::FTP/languages/perl/CPAN/
2174 ftp.leo.org::CPAN
2175 CPAN.piksi.itb.ac.id::CPAN
2176 ftp.cbn.net.id::CPAN
2177 ftp.iglu.org.il::CPAN
2178 gusp.dyndns.org::cpan
2179 ftp.kddlabs.co.jp::cpan
2180 ftp.ayamura.org::pub/CPAN/
2181 mirror.averse.net::cpan
2182 cpan.teleglobe.net::CPAN
2183 ftp.sedl.org::cpan
2184 archive.progeny.com::CPAN
2185 cpan.teleglobe.net::CPAN
2186 ftp.lug.udel.edu::cpan
2187 mirrors.kernel.org::mirrors/CPAN
2188 mirrors.phenominet.com::CPAN
2189 mirror.csit.fsu.edu::CPAN
2190 csociety-ftp.ecn.purdue.edu::CPAN
2191
f102b883 2192For an up-to-date listing of CPAN sites,
4e860d0a 2193see http://www.cpan.org/SITES or ftp://www.cpan.org/SITES .
f102b883
TC
2194
2195=head1 Modules: Creation, Use, and Abuse
2196
2197(The following section is borrowed directly from Tim Bunce's modules
2198file, available at your nearest CPAN site.)
2199
2200Perl implements a class using a package, but the presence of a
2201package doesn't imply the presence of a class. A package is just a
2202namespace. A class is a package that provides subroutines that can be
2203used as methods. A method is just a subroutine that expects, as its
2204first argument, either the name of a package (for "static" methods),
2205or a reference to something (for "virtual" methods).
2206
2207A module is a file that (by convention) provides a class of the same
2208name (sans the .pm), plus an import method in that class that can be
2209called to fetch exported symbols. This module may implement some of
2210its methods by loading dynamic C or C++ objects, but that should be
2211totally transparent to the user of the module. Likewise, the module
2212might set up an AUTOLOAD function to slurp in subroutine definitions on
2213demand, but this is also transparent. Only the F<.pm> file is required to
2e1d04bc 2214exist. See L<perlsub>, L<perltoot>, and L<AutoLoader> for details about
f102b883
TC
2215the AUTOLOAD mechanism.
2216
2217=head2 Guidelines for Module Creation
2218
2219=over 4
2220
4e860d0a
JH
2221=item *
2222
2223Do similar modules already exist in some form?
f102b883
TC
2224
2225If so, please try to reuse the existing modules either in whole or
2226by inheriting useful features into a new class. If this is not
2227practical try to get together with the module authors to work on
2228extending or enhancing the functionality of the existing modules.
2229A perfect example is the plethora of packages in perl4 for dealing
2230with command line options.
2231
2232If you are writing a module to expand an already existing set of
2233modules, please coordinate with the author of the package. It
2234helps if you follow the same naming scheme and module interaction
2235scheme as the original author.
2236
4e860d0a
JH
2237=item *
2238
2239Try to design the new module to be easy to extend and reuse.
f102b883 2240
9f1b1f2d
GS
2241Try to C<use warnings;> (or C<use warnings qw(...);>).
2242Remember that you can add C<no warnings qw(...);> to individual blocks
2e1d04bc 2243of code that need less warnings.
19799a22 2244
f102b883
TC
2245Use blessed references. Use the two argument form of bless to bless
2246into the class name given as the first parameter of the constructor,
2247e.g.,:
2248
2249 sub new {
2e1d04bc
JH
2250 my $class = shift;
2251 return bless {}, $class;
f102b883
TC
2252 }
2253
2254or even this if you'd like it to be used as either a static
2255or a virtual method.
2256
2257 sub new {
2e1d04bc
JH
2258 my $self = shift;
2259 my $class = ref($self) || $self;
2260 return bless {}, $class;
f102b883
TC
2261 }
2262
2263Pass arrays as references so more parameters can be added later
2264(it's also faster). Convert functions into methods where
2265appropriate. Split large methods into smaller more flexible ones.
2266Inherit methods from other modules if appropriate.
2267
2268Avoid class name tests like: C<die "Invalid" unless ref $ref eq 'FOO'>.
19799a22 2269Generally you can delete the C<eq 'FOO'> part with no harm at all.
f102b883
TC
2270Let the objects look after themselves! Generally, avoid hard-wired
2271class names as far as possible.
2272
c47ff5f1
GS
2273Avoid C<< $r->Class::func() >> where using C<@ISA=qw(... Class ...)> and
2274C<< $r->func() >> would work (see L<perlbot> for more details).
f102b883
TC
2275
2276Use autosplit so little used or newly added functions won't be a
5a964f20 2277burden to programs that don't use them. Add test functions to
f102b883
TC
2278the module after __END__ either using AutoSplit or by saying:
2279
2280 eval join('',<main::DATA>) || die $@ unless caller();
2281
2282Does your module pass the 'empty subclass' test? If you say
19799a22 2283C<@SUBCLASS::ISA = qw(YOURCLASS);> your applications should be able
f102b883
TC
2284to use SUBCLASS in exactly the same way as YOURCLASS. For example,
2285does your application still work if you change: C<$obj = new YOURCLASS;>
2286into: C<$obj = new SUBCLASS;> ?
2287
2288Avoid keeping any state information in your packages. It makes it
2289difficult for multiple other packages to use yours. Keep state
2290information in objects.
2291
2e1d04bc 2292Always use B<-w>.
19799a22
GS
2293
2294Try to C<use strict;> (or C<use strict qw(...);>).
f102b883 2295Remember that you can add C<no strict qw(...);> to individual blocks
2e1d04bc 2296of code that need less strictness.
19799a22 2297
2e1d04bc 2298Always use B<-w>.
19799a22 2299
f102b883
TC
2300Follow the guidelines in the perlstyle(1) manual.
2301
19799a22
GS
2302Always use B<-w>.
2303
4e860d0a
JH
2304=item *
2305
2306Some simple style guidelines
f102b883 2307
5a964f20 2308The perlstyle manual supplied with Perl has many helpful points.
f102b883
TC
2309
2310Coding style is a matter of personal taste. Many people evolve their
2311style over several years as they learn what helps them write and
2312maintain good code. Here's one set of assorted suggestions that
2313seem to be widely used by experienced developers:
2314
2315Use underscores to separate words. It is generally easier to read
2316$var_names_like_this than $VarNamesLikeThis, especially for
2317non-native speakers of English. It's also a simple rule that works
2318consistently with VAR_NAMES_LIKE_THIS.
2319
2320Package/Module names are an exception to this rule. Perl informally
2321reserves lowercase module names for 'pragma' modules like integer
2322and strict. Other modules normally begin with a capital letter and
2323use mixed case with no underscores (need to be short and portable).
2324
2325You may find it helpful to use letter case to indicate the scope
2326or nature of a variable. For example:
2327
5a964f20 2328 $ALL_CAPS_HERE constants only (beware clashes with Perl vars)
f102b883
TC
2329 $Some_Caps_Here package-wide global/static
2330 $no_caps_here function scope my() or local() variables
2331
2332Function and method names seem to work best as all lowercase.
c47ff5f1 2333e.g., C<< $obj->as_string() >>.
f102b883
TC
2334
2335You can use a leading underscore to indicate that a variable or
2336function should not be used outside the package that defined it.
2337
4e860d0a
JH
2338=item *
2339
2340Select what to export.
f102b883
TC
2341
2342Do NOT export method names!
2343
2344Do NOT export anything else by default without a good reason!
2345
2346Exports pollute the namespace of the module user. If you must
2347export try to use @EXPORT_OK in preference to @EXPORT and avoid
2348short or common names to reduce the risk of name clashes.
2349
2350Generally anything not exported is still accessible from outside the
c47ff5f1 2351module using the ModuleName::item_name (or C<< $blessed_ref->method >>)
f102b883
TC
2352syntax. By convention you can use a leading underscore on names to
2353indicate informally that they are 'internal' and not for public use.
2354
2355(It is actually possible to get private functions by saying:
2356C<my $subref = sub { ... }; &$subref;>. But there's no way to call that
2357directly as a method, because a method must have a name in the symbol
2358table.)
2359
2360As a general rule, if the module is trying to be object oriented
2361then export nothing. If it's just a collection of functions then
2362@EXPORT_OK anything but use @EXPORT with caution.
2363
4e860d0a
JH
2364=item *
2365
2366Select a name for the module.
f102b883
TC
2367
2368This name should be as descriptive, accurate, and complete as
2369possible. Avoid any risk of ambiguity. Always try to use two or
2370more whole words. Generally the name should reflect what is special
2371about what the module does rather than how it does it. Please use
2372nested module names to group informally or categorize a module.
2373There should be a very good reason for a module not to have a nested name.
2374Module names should begin with a capital letter.
2375
2376Having 57 modules all called Sort will not make life easy for anyone
2377(though having 23 called Sort::Quick is only marginally better :-).
2378Imagine someone trying to install your module alongside many others.
2379If in any doubt ask for suggestions in comp.lang.perl.misc.
2380
2381If you are developing a suite of related modules/classes it's good
2382practice to use nested classes with a common prefix as this will
2383avoid namespace clashes. For example: Xyz::Control, Xyz::View,
2384Xyz::Model etc. Use the modules in this list as a naming guide.
2385
2386If adding a new module to a set, follow the original author's
2387standards for naming modules and the interface to methods in
2388those modules.
2389
165c0277
JH
2390If developing modules for private internal or project specific use,
2391that will never be released to the public, then you should ensure
2392that their names will not clash with any future public module. You
2393can do this either by using the reserved Local::* category or by
2394using a category name that includes an underscore like Foo_Corp::*.
2395
f102b883
TC
2396To be portable each component of a module name should be limited to
239711 characters. If it might be used on MS-DOS then try to ensure each is
2398unique in the first 8 characters. Nested modules make this easier.
2399
4e860d0a
JH
2400=item *
2401
2402Have you got it right?
f102b883
TC
2403
2404How do you know that you've made the right decisions? Have you
2405picked an interface design that will cause problems later? Have
2406you picked the most appropriate name? Do you have any questions?
2407
2408The best way to know for sure, and pick up many helpful suggestions,
2409is to ask someone who knows. Comp.lang.perl.misc is read by just about
2410all the people who develop modules and it's the best place to ask.
2411
2412All you need to do is post a short summary of the module, its
2413purpose and interfaces. A few lines on each of the main methods is
2414probably enough. (If you post the whole module it might be ignored
2415by busy people - generally the very people you want to read it!)
2416
2417Don't worry about posting if you can't say when the module will be
2418ready - just say so in the message. It might be worth inviting
2419others to help you, they may be able to complete it for you!
2420
4e860d0a
JH
2421=item *
2422
2423README and other Additional Files.
f102b883
TC
2424
2425It's well known that software developers usually fully document the
2426software they write. If, however, the world is in urgent need of
2427your software and there is not enough time to write the full
2428documentation please at least provide a README file containing:
2429
2430=over 10
2431
2432=item *
4e860d0a 2433
f102b883
TC
2434A description of the module/package/extension etc.
2435
2436=item *
4e860d0a 2437
f102b883
TC
2438A copyright notice - see below.
2439
2440=item *
4e860d0a 2441
f102b883
TC
2442Prerequisites - what else you may need to have.
2443
2444=item *
4e860d0a 2445
f102b883
TC
2446How to build it - possible changes to Makefile.PL etc.
2447
2448=item *
4e860d0a 2449
f102b883
TC
2450How to install it.
2451
2452=item *
4e860d0a 2453
f102b883
TC
2454Recent changes in this release, especially incompatibilities
2455
2456=item *
4e860d0a 2457
f102b883
TC
2458Changes / enhancements you plan to make in the future.
2459
2460=back
2461
2462If the README file seems to be getting too large you may wish to
2463split out some of the sections into separate files: INSTALL,
2464Copying, ToDo etc.
2465
2466=over 4
2467
37a78d01 2468=item *
f102b883 2469
37a78d01 2470Adding a Copyright Notice.
4e860d0a 2471
f102b883
TC
2472How you choose to license your work is a personal decision.
2473The general mechanism is to assert your Copyright and then make
2474a declaration of how others may copy/use/modify your work.
2475
2a551100
JH
2476Perl, for example, is supplied with two types of licence: The GNU GPL
2477and The Artistic Licence (see the files README, Copying, and Artistic,
2478or L<perlgpl> and L<perlartistic>). Larry has good reasons for NOT
2479just using the GNU GPL.
f102b883
TC
2480
2481My personal recommendation, out of respect for Larry, Perl, and the
5a964f20 2482Perl community at large is to state something simply like:
f102b883
TC
2483
2484 Copyright (c) 1995 Your Name. All rights reserved.
2485 This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
2486 modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.
2487
2488This statement should at least appear in the README file. You may
2489also wish to include it in a Copying file and your source files.
2490Remember to include the other words in addition to the Copyright.
2491
4e860d0a
JH
2492=item *
2493
2494Give the module a version/issue/release number.
f102b883
TC
2495
2496To be fully compatible with the Exporter and MakeMaker modules you
2497should store your module's version number in a non-my package
2498variable called $VERSION. This should be a floating point
2499number with at least two digits after the decimal (i.e., hundredths,
2500e.g, C<$VERSION = "0.01">). Don't use a "1.3.2" style version.
19799a22 2501See L<Exporter> for details.
f102b883
TC
2502
2503It may be handy to add a function or method to retrieve the number.
2504Use the number in announcements and archive file names when
2505releasing the module (ModuleName-1.02.tar.Z).
2506See perldoc ExtUtils::MakeMaker.pm for details.
2507
4e860d0a
JH
2508=item *
2509
2510How to release and distribute a module.
f102b883
TC
2511
2512It's good idea to post an announcement of the availability of your
2513module (or the module itself if small) to the comp.lang.perl.announce
2514Usenet newsgroup. This will at least ensure very wide once-off
2515distribution.
2516
2e1d04bc 2517If possible, register the module with CPAN. You should
f102b883
TC
2518include details of its location in your announcement.
2519
2520Some notes about ftp archives: Please use a long descriptive file
5a964f20 2521name that includes the version number. Most incoming directories
f102b883
TC
2522will not be readable/listable, i.e., you won't be able to see your
2523file after uploading it. Remember to send your email notification
2524message as soon as possible after uploading else your file may get
2525deleted automatically. Allow time for the file to be processed
2526and/or check the file has been processed before announcing its
2527location.
2528
2529FTP Archives for Perl Modules:
2530
6cecdcac 2531Follow the instructions and links on:
f102b883 2532
4e860d0a
JH
2533 http://www.cpan.org/modules/00modlist.long.html
2534 http://www.cpan.org/modules/04pause.html
f102b883
TC
2535
2536or upload to one of these sites:
2537
6cecdcac
GS
2538 https://pause.kbx.de/pause/
2539 http://pause.perl.org/pause/
f102b883 2540
6cecdcac 2541and notify <modules@perl.org>.
f102b883
TC
2542
2543By using the WWW interface you can ask the Upload Server to mirror
2544your modules from your ftp or WWW site into your own directory on
2545CPAN!
2546
2547Please remember to send me an updated entry for the Module list!
2548
4e860d0a
JH
2549=item *
2550
2551Take care when changing a released module.
f102b883 2552
7b8d334a
GS
2553Always strive to remain compatible with previous released versions.
2554Otherwise try to add a mechanism to revert to the
19799a22 2555old behavior if people rely on it. Document incompatible changes.
f102b883
TC
2556
2557=back
2558
2559=back
2560
2561=head2 Guidelines for Converting Perl 4 Library Scripts into Modules
2562
2563=over 4
2564
4e860d0a
JH
2565=item *
2566
2567There is no requirement to convert anything.
f102b883
TC
2568
2569If it ain't broke, don't fix it! Perl 4 library scripts should
2570continue to work with no problems. You may need to make some minor
2571changes (like escaping non-array @'s in double quoted strings) but
2572there is no need to convert a .pl file into a Module for just that.
2573
4e860d0a
JH
2574=item *
2575
2576Consider the implications.
f102b883 2577
5a964f20 2578All Perl applications that make use of the script will need to
f102b883
TC
2579be changed (slightly) if the script is converted into a module. Is
2580it worth it unless you plan to make other changes at the same time?
2581
4e860d0a
JH
2582=item *
2583
2584Make the most of the opportunity.
f102b883
TC
2585
2586If you are going to convert the script to a module you can use the
19799a22
GS
2587opportunity to redesign the interface. The guidelines for module
2588creation above include many of the issues you should consider.
f102b883 2589
4e860d0a
JH
2590=item *
2591
2592The pl2pm utility will get you started.
f102b883
TC
2593
2594This utility will read *.pl files (given as parameters) and write
2595corresponding *.pm files. The pl2pm utilities does the following:
2596
2597=over 10
2598
2599=item *
4e860d0a 2600
f102b883
TC
2601Adds the standard Module prologue lines
2602
2603=item *
4e860d0a 2604
f102b883
TC
2605Converts package specifiers from ' to ::
2606
2607=item *
4e860d0a 2608
f102b883
TC
2609Converts die(...) to croak(...)
2610
2611=item *
4e860d0a 2612
f102b883
TC
2613Several other minor changes
2614
2615=back
2616
2617Being a mechanical process pl2pm is not bullet proof. The converted
2618code will need careful checking, especially any package statements.
2619Don't delete the original .pl file till the new .pm one works!
2620
2621=back
2622
2623=head2 Guidelines for Reusing Application Code
2624
2625=over 4
2626
4e860d0a 2627=item *
551e1d92
RB
2628
2629Complete applications rarely belong in the Perl Module Library.
f102b883 2630
4e860d0a 2631=item *
551e1d92
RB
2632
2633Many applications contain some Perl code that could be reused.
f102b883
TC
2634
2635Help save the world! Share your code in a form that makes it easy
2636to reuse.
2637
4e860d0a 2638=item *
551e1d92
RB
2639
2640Break-out the reusable code into one or more separate module files.
f102b883 2641
4e860d0a 2642=item *
551e1d92
RB
2643
2644Take the opportunity to reconsider and redesign the interfaces.
2645
4e860d0a 2646=item *
f102b883 2647
551e1d92 2648In some cases the 'application' can then be reduced to a small
f102b883
TC
2649
2650fragment of code built on top of the reusable modules. In these cases
2651the application could invoked as:
2652
5a964f20 2653 % perl -e 'use Module::Name; method(@ARGV)' ...
f102b883 2654or
5a964f20 2655 % perl -mModule::Name ... (in perl5.002 or higher)
f102b883
TC
2656
2657=back
2658
2659=head1 NOTE
2660
2661Perl does not enforce private and public parts of its modules as you may
2662have been used to in other languages like C++, Ada, or Modula-17. Perl
2663doesn't have an infatuation with enforced privacy. It would prefer
2664that you stayed out of its living room because you weren't invited, not
2665because it has a shotgun.
2666
2667The module and its user have a contract, part of which is common law,
2668and part of which is "written". Part of the common law contract is
2669that a module doesn't pollute any namespace it wasn't asked to. The
2670written contract for the module (A.K.A. documentation) may make other
2671provisions. But then you know when you C<use RedefineTheWorld> that
2672you're redefining the world and willing to take the consequences.