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2This document is written in pod format hence there are punctuation
3characters in odd places. Do not worry, you've apparently got
4the ASCII->EBCDIC translation worked out correctly. You can read
5more about pod in pod/perlpod.pod or the short summary in the
8fde188e 6INSTALL file.
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8=head1 NAME
9
10README.os390 - building and installing Perl for OS/390.
11
12=head1 SYNOPSIS
13
14This document will help you Configure, build, test and install Perl
15on OS/390 Unix System Services.
16
17=head1 DESCRIPTION
18
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19This is a fully ported Perl for OS/390 Version 2 Release 3, 5, 6, 7,
208, and 9. It may work on other versions or releases, but those are
eae55d03 21the ones we've tested it on.
8fde188e 22
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23You may need to carry out some system configuration tasks before
24running the Configure script for Perl.
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25
26=head2 Unpacking
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27
28Gunzip/gzip for OS/390 is discussed at:
29
30 http://www.s390.ibm.com/products/oe/bpxqp1.html
31
32to extract an ASCII tar archive on OS/390, try this:
33
34 pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r < latest.tar
35
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36=head2 Setup and utilities
37
38Be sure that your yacc installation is in place including any necessary
39parser template files. If you have not already done so then be sure to:
40
41 cp /samples/yyparse.c /etc
42
9133bbab 43This may also be a good time to ensure that your /etc/protocol file
8fde188e 44and either your /etc/resolv.conf or /etc/hosts files are in place.
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45The IBM document that described such USS system setup issues was
46SC28-1890-07 "OS/390 UNIX System Services Planning", in particular
47Chapter 6 on customizing the OE shell.
8fde188e 48
8dd596cc 49GNU make for OS/390, which is recommended for the build of perl (as well as
eae55d03 50building CPAN modules and extensions), is available from:
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51
52 http://www.mks.com/s390/gnu/index.htm
53
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54Some people have reported encountering "Out of memory!" errors while
55trying to build Perl using GNU make binaries. If you encounter such
56trouble then try to download the source code kit and build GNU make
57from source to eliminate any such trouble. You might also find GNU make
58(as well as Perl and Apache) in the red-piece/book "Open Source Software
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59for OS/390 UNIX", SG24-5944-00 from IBM.
60
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61If instead of the recommended GNU make you would like to use the system
62supplied make program then be sure to install the default rules file
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63properly via the shell command:
64
65 cp /samples/startup.mk /etc
66
67and be sure to also set the environment variable _C89_CCMODE=1 (exporting
68_C89_CCMODE=1 is also a good idea for users of GNU make).
69
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70You might also want to have GNU groff for OS/390 installed before
71running the `make install` step for Perl.
72
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73There is a syntax error in the /usr/include/sys/socket.h header file
74that IBM supplies with USS V2R7, V2R8, and possibly V2R9. The problem with
75the header file is that near the definition of the SO_REUSEPORT constant
76there is a spurious extra '/' character outside of a comment like so:
77
78 #define SO_REUSEPORT 0x0200 /* allow local address & port
79 reuse */ /
80
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81You could edit that header yourself to remove that last '/', or you might
82note that Language Environment (LE) APAR PQ39997 describes the problem
eae55d03 83and PTF's UQ46272 and UQ46271 are the (R8 at least) fixes and apply them.
9133bbab 84If left unattended that syntax error will turn up as an inability for Perl
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85to build its "Socket" extension.
86
9133bbab 87For successful testing you may need to turn on the sticky bit for your
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88world readable /tmp directory if you have not already done so (see man chmod).
89
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90=head2 Configure
91
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92Once you've unpacked the distribution, run "sh Configure" (see INSTALL
93for a full discussion of the Configure options). There is a "hints" file
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94for os390 that specifies the correct values for most things. Some things
95to watch out for include:
96
97=over 4
98
99=item *
100
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101A message of the form:
102
103 (I see you are using the Korn shell. Some ksh's blow up on Configure,
104 mainly on older exotic systems. If yours does, try the Bourne shell instead.)
105
106is nothing to worry about at all.
107
108=item *
109
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110Some of the parser default template files in /samples are needed in /etc.
111In particular be sure that you at least copy /samples/yyparse.c to /etc
eae55d03 112before running Perl's Configure. This step ensures successful extraction
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113of EBCDIC versions of parser files such as perly.c, perly.h, and x2p/a2p.c.
114This has to be done before running Configure the first time. If you failed
115to do so then the easiest way to re-Configure Perl is to delete your
116misconfigured build root and re-extract the source from the tar ball.
117Then you must ensure that /etc/yyparse.c is properly in place before
59c9e5d6 118attempting to re-run Configure.
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119
120=item *
121
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122This port will support dynamic loading, but it is not selected by
123default. If you would like to experiment with dynamic loading then
124be sure to specify -Dusedl in the arguments to the Configure script.
125See the comments in hints/os390.sh for more information on dynamic loading.
126If you build with dynamic loading then you will need to add the
127$archlibexp/CORE directory to your LIBPATH environment variable in order
128for perl to work. See the config.sh file for the value of $archlibexp.
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129If in trying to use Perl you see an error message similar to:
130
131 CEE3501S The module libperl.dll was not found.
132 From entry point __dllstaticinit at compile unit offset +00000194 at
133
9133bbab 134then your LIBPATH does not have the location of libperl.x and either
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135libperl.dll or libperl.so in it. Add that directory to your LIBPATH and
136proceed.
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137
138=item *
9d116dd7 139
eae55d03 140Do not turn on the compiler optimization flag "-O". There is
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141a bug in either the optimizer or perl that causes perl to
142not work correctly when the optimizer is on.
9d116dd7 143
8fde188e 144=item *
9d116dd7 145
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146Some of the configuration files in /etc used by the
147networking APIs are either missing or have the wrong
148names. In particular, make sure that there's either
eae55d03 149an /etc/resolv.conf or an /etc/hosts, so that
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150gethostbyname() works, and make sure that the file
151/etc/proto has been renamed to /etc/protocol (NOT
152/etc/protocols, as used by other Unix systems).
59c9e5d6 153You may have to look for things like HOSTNAME and DOMAINORIGIN
9133bbab 154in the "//'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCPDATA)'" PDS member in order to
59c9e5d6 155properly set up your /etc networking files.
9d116dd7 156
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157=back
158
159=head2 Build, test, install
160
161Simply put:
162
163 sh Configure
164 make
165 make test
166
eae55d03 167if everything looks ok (see the next section for test/IVP diagnosis) then:
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168
169 make install
170
171this last step may or may not require UID=0 privileges depending
172on how you answered the questions that Configure asked and whether
173or not you have write access to the directories you specified.
174
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175=head2 build anomalies
176
177"Out of memory!" messages during the build of Perl are most often fixed
178by re building the GNU make utility for OS/390 from a source code kit.
179
180Another memory limiting item to check is your MAXASSIZE parameter in your
181'SYS1.PARMLIB(BPXPRMxx)' data set (note too that as of V2R8 address space
9133bbab 182limits can be set on a per user ID basis in the USS segment of a RACF
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183profile). People have reported successful builds of Perl with MAXASSIZE
184parameters as small as 503316480 (and it may be possible to build Perl
185with a MAXASSIZE smaller than that).
186
9133bbab 187Within USS your /etc/profile or $HOME/.profile may limit your ulimit
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188settings. Check that the following command returns reasonable values:
189
190 ulimit -a
191
192To conserve memory you should have your compiler modules loaded into the
193Link Pack Area (LPA/ELPA) rather than in a link list or step lib.
194
195If the c89 compiler complains of syntax errors during the build of the
196Socket extension then be sure to fix the syntax error in the system
197header /usr/include/sys/socket.h.
198
199=head2 testing anomalies
200
201The `make test` step runs a Perl Verification Procedure, usually before
202installation. You might encounter STDERR messages even during a successful
203run of `make test`. Here is a guide to some of the more commonly seen
204anomalies:
205
206=over 4
207
208=item *
209
210A message of the form:
211
212 comp/cpp.............ERROR CBC3191 ./.301989890.c:1 The character $ is not a
213 valid C source character.
214 FSUM3065 The COMPILE step ended with return code 12.
215 FSUM3017 Could not compile .301989890.c. Correct the errors and try again.
216 ok
217
218indicates that the t/comp/cpp.t test of Perl's -P command line switch has
219passed but that the particular invocation of c89 -E in the cpp script does
220not suppress the C compiler check of source code validity.
221
222=item *
223
224A message of the form:
225
226 io/openpid...........CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
227 CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
228 CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
229 ok
230
231indicates that the t/io/openpid.t test of Perl has passed but done so
232with extraneous messages on stderr from CEE.
233
234=item *
235
236A message of the form:
237
238 lib/ftmp-security....File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/) is not safe
239 (sticky bit not set when world writable?) at lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
240 File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/) is not safe (sticky bit not
241 set when world writable?) at lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
242 ok
243
244indicates a problem with the permissions on your /tmp directory within the HFS.
245To correct that problem issue the command:
246
247 chmod a+t /tmp
248
249from an account with write access to the directory entry for /tmp.
250
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251=item *
252
253Out of Memory!
254
255Recent perl test suite is quite memory hunrgy. In addition to the comments
256above on memory limitations it is also worth checking for _CEE_RUNOPTS
257in your environment. Perl now has (in miniperlmain.c) a C #pragma
258to set CEE run options, but the enviroment variable wins.
259
260The C code ask for:
261
262 #pragma runopts(HEAP(2M,500K,ANYWHERE,KEEP,8K,4K) STACK(,,ANY,) ALL31(ON))
263
264The important parts of that are the second argument (the increment) to HEAP,
265and allowing the stack to be "Above the (16M) line". If the heap
266increment is too small then when perl (for example loading unicode/Name.pl) trys
267to create a "big" (400K+) string it cannot fit in a single segement
268and you get "Out of Memory!" - even if there is still plenty of memory
269available.
270
271A related issue is use with perl's malloc. Perl's malloc uses C<sbrk()>
272to get memory, and C<sbrk()> is limited to the first allocation so in this
273case something like:
274
275 HEAP(8M,500K,ANYWHERE,KEEP,8K,4K)
276
277is needed to get through the test suite.
278
279
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280=back
281
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282=head2 installation anomalies
283
284The installman script will try to run on OS/390. There will be fewer errors
9133bbab 285if you have a roff utility installed. You can obtain GNU groff from the
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286Redbook SG24-5944-00 ftp site.
287
8fde188e 288=head2 Usage Hints
64d55c8a 289
9d116dd7 290When using perl on OS/390 please keep in mind that the EBCDIC and ASCII
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291character sets are different. See perlebcdic.pod for more on such character
292set issues. Perl builtin functions that may behave differently under
eae55d03 293EBCDIC are also mentioned in the perlport.pod document.
9d116dd7 294
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295Open Edition (UNIX System Services) from V2R8 onward does support
296#!/path/to/perl script invocation. There is a PTF available from
eae55d03 297IBM for V2R7 that will allow shell/kernel support for #!. USS
9133bbab 298releases prior to V2R7 did not support the #! means of script invocation.
eae55d03 299If you are running V2R6 or earlier then see:
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300
301 head `whence perldoc`
302
303for an example of how to use the "eval exec" trick to ask the shell to
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304have Perl run your scripts on those older releases of Unix System Services.
305
59c9e5d6 306If you are having trouble with square brackets then consider switching your
9133bbab 307rlogin or telnet client. Try to avoid older 3270 emulators and ISHELL for
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308working with Perl on USS.
309
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310=head2 Floating point anomalies
311
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312There appears to be a bug in the floating point implementation on S/390
313systems such that calling int() on the product of a number and a small
314magnitude number is not the same as calling int() on the quotient of
315that number and a large magnitude number. For example, in the following
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316Perl code:
317
318 my $x = 100000.0;
319 my $y = int($x * 1e-5) * 1e5; # '0'
320 my $z = int($x / 1e+5) * 1e5; # '100000'
321 print "\$y is $y and \$z is $z\n"; # $y is 0 and $z is 100000
322
9133bbab 323Although one would expect the quantities $y and $z to be the same and equal
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324to 100000 they will differ and instead will be 0 and 100000 respectively.
325
326The problem can be further examined in a roughly equivalent C program:
327
328 #include <stdio.h>
329 #include <math.h>
330 main()
331 {
332 double r1,r2;
333 double x = 100000.0;
334 double y = 0.0;
335 double z = 0.0;
336 x = 100000.0 * 1e-5;
337 r1 = modf (x,&y);
338 x = 100000.0 / 1e+5;
339 r2 = modf (x,&z);
340 printf("y is %e and z is %e\n",y*1e5,z*1e5);
341 /* y is 0.000000e+00 and z is 1.000000e+05 (with c89) */
342 }
343
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344=head2 Modules and Extensions
345
346Pure pure (that is non xs) modules may be installed via the usual:
347
348 perl Makefile.PL
349 make
350 make test
351 make install
352
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353If you built perl with dynamic loading capability then that would also
354be the way to build xs based extensions. However, if you built perl with
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355the default static linking you can still build xs based extensions for OS/390
356but you will need to follow the instructions in ExtUtils::MakeMaker for
357building statically linked perl binaries. In the simplest configurations
59c9e5d6 358building a static perl + xs extension boils down to:
9d116dd7 359
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360 perl Makefile.PL
361 make
362 make perl
363 make test
364 make install
365 make -f Makefile.aperl inst_perl MAP_TARGET=perl
8fde188e 366
9133bbab 367In most cases people have reported better results with GNU make rather
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368than the system's /bin/make program, whether for plain modules or for
369xs based extensions.
8fde188e 370
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371If the make process encounters trouble with either compilation or
372linking then try setting the _C89_CCMODE to 1. Assuming sh is your
373login shell then run:
374
375 export _C89_CCMODE=1
376
377If tcsh is your login shell then use the setenv command.
378
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379=head1 AUTHORS
380
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381David Fiander and Peter Prymmer with thanks to Dennis Longnecker
382and William Raffloer for valuable reports, LPAR and PTF feedback.
383Thanks to Mike MacIsaac and Egon Terwedow for SG24-5944-00.
35a77668 384Thanks to Ignasi Roca for pointing out the floating point problems.
f2766b05 385Thanks to John Goodyear for dynamic loading help.
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386
387=head1 SEE ALSO
388
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389L<INSTALL>, L<perlport>, L<perlebcdic>, L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>.
390
391 http://www.mks.com/s390/gnu/index.htm
392
393 http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg245944.html
394
395 http://www.s390.ibm.com/products/oe/bpxa1ty1.html#opensrc
396
397 http://www.s390.ibm.com/products/oe/portbk/bpxacenv.html
398
399 http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/
8fde188e 400
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401 http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/ceea3030/
402
403 http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/CBCUG030/
404
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405=head2 Mailing list
406
9133bbab 407The Perl Institute (http://www.perl.org/) maintains a perl-mvs
8fde188e 408mailing list of interest to all folks building and/or
9133bbab 409using perl on all EBCDIC platforms (not just OS/390).
eae55d03 410To subscribe, send a message of:
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411
412 subscribe perl-mvs
413
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414to majordomo@perl.org. See also:
415
416 http://lists.perl.org/showlist.cgi?name=perl-mvs
417
418There are web archives of the mailing list at:
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419
420 http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/
35a77668 421 http://archive.develooper.com/perl-mvs@perl.org/
9d116dd7 422
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423=head1 HISTORY
424
425This document was originally written by David Fiander for the 5.005
426release of Perl.
427
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428This document was podified for the 5.005_03 release of Perl 11 March 1999.
429
430Updated 12 November 2000 for the 5.7.1 release of Perl.
8fde188e 431
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432Updated 15 January 2001 for the 5.7.1 release of Perl.
433
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434Updated 24 January 2001 to mention dynamic loading.
435
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436Updated 12 March 2001 to mention //'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCPDATA)'.
437
8fde188e 438=cut
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