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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
466416ed 23below. E.g. C<(W closed)> means a warning in the C<closed> category.
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24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
fa816bf3 26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
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27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
04f74579 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s in %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
7c7af292 88(S ambiguous) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
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89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
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92=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
93
94(S ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
95string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
96the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
97write C<-foo()>.
98
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99=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
100
7c7af292 101(S ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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102bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
103(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
104like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
105assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
106clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
107really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 108
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109=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
110
111(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
112asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
113named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 114the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
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115function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
116and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
117
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118=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
119
120=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 121
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122(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo represents
123the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for element number
1242 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write C<$foo[2]>, or you
125might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to the function named
126foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it returns. If you meant
127that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
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128
129In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
130to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
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131C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length> followed
132by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what you
133want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/> to the
134unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to something
135that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by simply turning
136off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 137
6df41af2 138=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 139
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140(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
141redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
142redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 143
6df41af2 144=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 145
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146(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
147redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
148into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
149though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
150which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 151
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152 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
153 while (<STDIN>) {
154 print;
155 print OUT;
156 }
157 close OUT;
c9f97d15 158
6df41af2 159=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 160
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161(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
162transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 163one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 164a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
165hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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166you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
167alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 168
6df41af2 169=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 170
6df41af2 171(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 172
f86702cc 173=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 174
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175(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
176that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
177will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 178
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179=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
180
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181(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O
182system you forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers
183take care of transforming data between external and internal
184representations.) Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this
185point and did not attempt to push this layer. If your program
186didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the
187result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
b4581f09 188
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189=item Argument "%s" treated as 0 in increment (++)
190
191(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to the C<++>
192operator which expects either a number or a string matching
193C</^[a-zA-Z]*[0-9]*\z/>. See L<perlop/Auto-increment and
194Auto-decrement> for details.
195
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196=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
197
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198(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
199spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 200
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201=item A sequence of multiple spaces in a charnames alias definition is deprecated
202
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203(D deprecated) You defined a character name which had multiple space
204characters in a row. Change them to single spaces. Usually these
205names are defined in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but
206they could be defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>.
207See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
bd299e29 208
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209=item assertion botched: %s
210
21b5e840 211(X) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
a0d0e21e 212
0eacef8e 213=item Assertion %s failed: file "%s", line %d
a0d0e21e 214
21b5e840 215(X) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
a0d0e21e 216
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217=item Assigning non-zero to $[ is no longer possible
218
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219(F) When the "array_base" feature is disabled (e.g., under C<use v5.16;>)
220the special variable C<$[>, which is deprecated, is now a fixed zero value.
82122228 221
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222=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
223
224(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
225must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
226know which context to supply to the right side.
227
2393f1b9 228=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 229
49293501 230(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 231the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 232
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233=item Attempt to bless into a freed package
234
235(F) You wrote C<bless $foo> with one argument after somehow causing
236the current package to be freed. Perl cannot figure out what to
237do, so it throws up in hands in despair.
238
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239=item Attempt to bless into a reference
240
241(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
57dedab9 242the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
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243supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
244
245 bless $self, $proto;
246
247when you intended
248
249 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
250
251If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
252of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
253example by:
254
255 bless $self, "$proto";
256
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257=item Attempt to clear deleted array
258
259(S debugging) An array was assigned to when it was being freed.
260Freed values are not supposed to be visible to Perl code. This
261can also happen if XS code calls C<av_clear> from a custom magic
262callback on the array.
263
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264=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
265
266(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
267which is not in its key set.
268
269=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
270
271(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
272declared readonly from a restricted hash.
273
de42a5a9 274=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 275
f84fe999 276(S internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
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277that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
278outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 279
12578ffb 280=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string '%s'%s
bbce6d69 281
f84fe999 282(S internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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283strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
284strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
285of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 286
7d5b40b4 287=item Attempt to free temp prematurely: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 288
f84fe999 289(S debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
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290free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
291SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
292free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
293try to free it.
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294
295=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
296
f84fe999 297(S internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
a0d0e21e 298
7d5b40b4 299=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 300
8f7e4d2c 301(S internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
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302see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
303earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
304This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
305that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
306mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
307corrupted.
a0d0e21e 308
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309=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
310
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311(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
312function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
313means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
314invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
315literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
316avoid this warning.
84902520 317
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318=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
319
320(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
321compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
322unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
323L<perlvar/%INC>.
324
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325=item Attempt to set length of freed array
326
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327(W misc) You tried to set the length of an array which has
328been freed. You can do this by storing a reference to the
329scalar representing the last index of an array and later
330assigning through that reference. For example
1b20cd17
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331
332 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
333 $$r = 503
334
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335=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
336
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337(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
338used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
339dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 340
c32124fe
NC
341=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
342
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343(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the
344"locked" attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is
345obsolete, has had no effect since 5005 threads were removed, and
346will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
c32124fe 347
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348=item Attribute prototype(%s) discards earlier prototype attribute in same sub
349
350(W misc) A sub was declared as sub foo : prototype(A) : prototype(B) {}, for
351example. Since each sub can only have one prototype, the earlier
352declaration(s) are discarded while the last one is applied.
353
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354=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
355
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356(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify
357the "unique" attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference.
358The :unique attribute has had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and
359will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 360
ccce04a4
FC
361=item av_reify called on tied array
362
363(S debugging) This indicates that something went wrong and Perl got I<very>
364confused about C<@_> or C<@DB::args> being tied.
365
de42a5a9 366=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 367
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368(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
369or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 370S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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371S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
372
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373=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
374
496a33f5 375(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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376substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
377most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
378
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379=item Bad filehandle: %s
380
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381(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
382symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
383open(), or did it in another package.
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384
385=item Bad free() ignored
386
be771a83 387(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
fa816bf3 388been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 389setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 390
9ea8bc6d 391This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
6903afa2 392dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
be771a83 393which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 394
aa689395
PP
395=item Bad hash
396
397(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
398
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399=item Badly placed ()'s
400
401(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
402of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
403Perl yourself.
404
a7cb8dae 405=item Bad name after %s
a0d0e21e 406
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407(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
408didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
409of quotes, so
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410
411 $var = 'myvar';
412 $sym = mypack::$var;
413
414is not the same as
415
416 $var = 'myvar';
417 $sym = "mypack::$var";
418
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419=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
420
421(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
422plugin API.
423
4ad56ec9
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424=item Bad realloc() ignored
425
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FC
426(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that
427had never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can
428be disabled by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 429
a0d0e21e
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430=item Bad symbol for array
431
432(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
433wasn't a symbol table entry.
434
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SP
435=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
436
437(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
438that wasn't a symbol table entry.
439
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440=item Bad symbol for filehandle
441
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442(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
443that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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444
445=item Bad symbol for hash
446
447(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
448wasn't a symbol table entry.
449
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450=item Bareword found in conditional
451
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452(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
453conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
454of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
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455
456 open FOO || die;
457
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458It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
459a bareword:
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460
461 use constant TYPO => 1;
462 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
463
464The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
465
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466=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
467
468(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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469subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
470symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
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471
472=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
473
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474(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
475compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
476you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 477
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478=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
479
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480(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
481subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
482exited.
a0d0e21e 483
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484=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
485
486(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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487implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
488occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
489be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
490depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 491
c782d7ee 492=item \%d better written as $%d
6df41af2 493
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494(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
495The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
496substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
497because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
498there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 499
252aa082
JH
500=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
501
e476b1b5 502(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
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JH
503(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
504L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 505
69282e91 506=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 507
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508(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
509check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 510
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JH
511=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
512
513(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 514Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 515
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FC
516=item "\b{" is deprecated; use "\b\{" or "\b[{]" instead in regex; marked
517by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
f866a7cd 518
e0e4a6e3
FC
519=item "\B{" is deprecated; use "\B\{" or "\B[{]" instead in regex; marked
520by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
f866a7cd 521
3c664d1a 522(D deprecated) Use of an unescaped "{" immediately following
a38411bc
FC
523a C<\b> or C<\B> is now deprecated so as to reserve its use for Perl
524itself in a future release. You can either precede the brace
525with a backslash, or enclose it in square brackets; the latter
526is the way to go if the pattern delimiters are C<{}>.
f866a7cd 527
c5a0f51a
JH
528=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
529
e476b1b5 530(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 531
043c750c 532=item Bizarre copy of %s
4633a7c4 533
be771a83 534(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
ab830aa0 535copiable.
4633a7c4 536
5a25739d
FC
537=item Bizarre SvTYPE [%d]
538
434f489b 539(P) When starting a new thread or returning values from a thread, Perl
5a25739d
FC
540encountered an invalid data type.
541
f675dbe5
CB
542=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
543
be771a83
GS
544(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
545iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
546which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 547
a0d0e21e
LW
548=item Callback called exit
549
4929bf7b 550(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
551exited by calling exit.
552
6df41af2 553=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 554
be771a83
GS
555(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
556parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
557that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
558early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
559subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
560checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
561function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
562the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 563
49704364 564=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
565
566(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
567compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
568attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
569See L<perlfunc/pack>.
570
49704364 571=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
572
573(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
574format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
575
5c1f4d79
NC
576=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
577
6903afa2
FC
578(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference
579in it, then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax.
580The access triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is
581no legal conversion from that type of reference to a typeglob.
5c1f4d79 582
4040665a 583=item Cannot copy to %s
ba2fdce6
NC
584
585(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 586be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 587
b5d97229
RGS
588=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
589
590(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
591either with open() or binmode().
592
7355df7e
FC
593=item Cannot set tied @DB::args
594
595(F) C<caller> tried to set C<@DB::args>, but found it tied. Tying C<@DB::args>
596is not supported. (Before this error was added, it used to crash.)
597
ce65bc73
FC
598=item Cannot tie unreifiable array
599
600(P) You somehow managed to call C<tie> on an array that does not
601keep a reference count on its arguments and cannot be made to
602do so. Such arrays are not even supposed to be accessible to
603Perl code, but are only used internally.
604
96ebfdd7
RK
605=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
606
607(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
608integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
609to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
610
a0d0e21e
LW
611=item Can't bless non-reference value
612
613(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
614encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
615
dc57907a
RGS
616=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
617
0d863452 618(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
6903afa2 619a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
0d863452
RH
620
621=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 622
0d863452
RH
623(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
624
6df41af2
GS
625=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
626
627(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
628object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
629like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
630
631 $BADREF = undef;
632 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
633 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
634
a0d0e21e
LW
635=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
636
54310121 637(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
638ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
639didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
640object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
641
642=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
643
644(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
645object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
646defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
647Something like this will reproduce the error:
648
649 $BADREF = 42;
650 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
651 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
652
dfe378f1
FC
653=item Can't call mro_isa_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
654
655(P) Perl got confused as to whether a hash was a plain hash or a
656symbol table hash when trying to update @ISA caches.
657
2bf7e7b2
FC
658=item Can't call mro_method_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
659
660(F) An XS module tried to call C<mro_method_changed_in> on a hash that was
661not attached to the symbol table.
662
a0d0e21e
LW
663=item Can't chdir to %s
664
f703fc96 665(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but F</foo/bar> is not a directory
a0d0e21e
LW
666that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
667
0545a864 668=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 669
be771a83
GS
670(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
671nosuid.
104d25b7 672
22e74366 673=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
674
675(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 676(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
677say things like:
678
679 *foo += 1;
680
681You CAN say
682
683 $foo = *foo;
684 $foo += 1;
685
686but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
687
0d863452 688=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 689
0d863452
RH
690(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
691or C<default> block.
692
a0d0e21e
LW
693=item Can't create pipe mailbox
694
be771a83
GS
695(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
696quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 697
eb64745e
GS
698=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
699
30c282f6
NC
700(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
701"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 702
fc7debfb
FC
703=item Can't "default" outside a topicalizer
704
705(F) You have used a C<default> block that is neither inside a
706C<foreach> loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is
707issued on exit from the C<default> block, so you won't get the
708error if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
709
6df41af2
GS
710=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
711
be771a83 712(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
df7075a8 713a file in /dev, a FIFO or an uneditable directory. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 714
a0d0e21e
LW
715=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
716
be771a83
GS
717(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
718reason.
a0d0e21e 719
54310121 720=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 721
be771a83
GS
722(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
723reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
724C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 725
10f9c03d 726=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 727
e476b1b5 728(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
729characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
730inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 731
a0d0e21e
LW
732=item Can't do waitpid with flags
733
be771a83
GS
734(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
735waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 736
a0d0e21e
LW
737=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
738
be771a83
GS
739(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
740point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
741line.
a0d0e21e 742
1109a392
MHM
743=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
744
745(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
746or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
747little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
748See L<perlfunc/pack>.
749
a0d0e21e
LW
750=item Can't exec "%s": %s
751
d1be9408 752(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
753named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
754permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
755C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
756architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
757can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
758#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
759
760=item Can't exec %s
761
be771a83
GS
762(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
763that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
764need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
765
766=item Can't execute %s
767
be771a83
GS
768(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
769found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 770
6df41af2 771=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 772
be771a83
GS
773(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
774is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 775
56ca2fc0
JH
776=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
777
778(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
6903afa2 779could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
e1b711da 780See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
9b73678d 781for a complete list of available official properties.
56ca2fc0 782
6df41af2
GS
783=item Can't find label %s
784
be771a83
GS
785(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
786possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
787
788=item Can't find %s on PATH
789
be771a83
GS
790(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
791found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 792
6df41af2 793=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 794
be771a83
GS
795(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
796found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
797script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
798
799=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
800
be771a83
GS
801(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
802that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
803nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 804
fb73857a
PP
805 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
806
97b3d10f 807If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
808included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
809may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
810a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
811L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 812
660a4616
ST
813=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
814
5f8ad6b6
FC
815(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode
816property (for example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase
fa816bf3 817letters). If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
e1b711da 818L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
6903afa2 819for a complete list of available properties. If you didn't
fa816bf3
FC
820mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either by
821C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
5f8ad6b6 822until C<\E>).
660a4616 823
b3647a36 824=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 825
be771a83
GS
826(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
827pipeline.
a0d0e21e 828
b3647a36
SR
829=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
830
c973c02e 831(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
832after five seconds.
833
748a9306
LW
834=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
835
be771a83
GS
836(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
837between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
838Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
839the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
840account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
841the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 842the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
843the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
844if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
845because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
846appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
847and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
848routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
849shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
850only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 851
a0d0e21e
LW
852=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
853
be771a83
GS
854(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
855pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
856
857=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
858
748a9306
LW
859(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
860mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 861
6df41af2 862=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 863
be771a83
GS
864(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
865loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
866
867=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
868
be771a83
GS
869(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
870a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
871you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
872See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 873
5a25739d
FC
874=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
875
876(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
877"string" or block.
878
9850bf21 879=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 880
9850bf21
RH
881(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
882comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
883as the reduce() function in List::Util).
884
6df41af2
GS
885=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
886
be771a83
GS
887(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
888subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
889cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
890routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 891
0b5b802d
GS
892=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
893
be771a83
GS
894(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
895signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
896signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
897processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
898situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
899may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 900
e2c0f81f
DG
901=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
902
903(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
904attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
905process identifier.
906
6df41af2 907=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 908
6df41af2 909(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
910except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
911block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
912block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
913usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
914inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
915L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 916
2c7d6b9c
RGS
917=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
918
919(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
920package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
921
b8170e59
JB
922=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
923
6903afa2
FC
924(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension.
925This may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one
926that is incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known
927to happen between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your
928dynamic extension was built against an older version of the library
929that is installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old
930dynamic extensions.
b8170e59 931
748a9306
LW
932=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
933
2ba9eb46 934(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
b7e4ecc1
FC
935lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you
936want to localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with
937the package name.
748a9306 938
6df41af2 939=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 940
6df41af2
GS
941(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
942handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 943pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 944that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 945
ea071790 946=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a 947
fa816bf3
FC
948(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be found.
949Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC, unless
950the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
951to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the
952extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
be771a83
GS
953to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
954L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 955
6df41af2
GS
956=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
957
be771a83
GS
958(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
959autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
960are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
961the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 962
b8170e59
JB
963=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
964
965(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
d70d8e57 966for example, F<foo.so> or F<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
b8170e59
JB
967unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
968
a0d0e21e
LW
969=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
970
971(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
972functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 973method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
974
975=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
976
be771a83
GS
977(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
978doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 979
2f7da168
RK
980=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
981
982(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
983e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
984
f4ad53f4 985=item Can't make list assignment to %ENV on this system
3e3baf6d 986
be771a83
GS
987(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
988VMS.
3e3baf6d 989
cd40cd58
NC
990=item Can't make loaded symbols global on this platform while loading %s
991
ff9c1ae8 992(S) A module passed the flag 0x01 to DynaLoader::dl_load_file() to request
cd40cd58
NC
993that symbols from the stated file are made available globally within the
994process, but that functionality is not available on this platform. Whilst
995the module likely will still work, this may prevent the perl interpreter
996from loading other XS-based extensions which need to link directly to
997functions defined in the C or XS code in the stated file.
998
a0d0e21e
LW
999=item Can't modify %s in %s
1000
be771a83
GS
1001(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
1002to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 1003
54310121 1004=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
1005
1006(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
1007a NULL.
1008
6df41af2
GS
1009=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
1010
1011(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 1012such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 1013
5f05dabc 1014=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 1015
5f05dabc 1016(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
1017buffer.
1018
6df41af2
GS
1019=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1020
1021(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1022there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1023count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1024grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1025though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1026once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1027
46fa9b26
FC
1028=item Can't open %s
1029
1030(F) You tried to run a perl built with MAD support with
1031the PERL_XMLDUMP environment variable set, but the file
1032named by that variable could not be opened.
1033
a0d0e21e
LW
1034=item Can't open %s: %s
1035
c47ff5f1 1036(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e 1037filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
46fa9b26
FC
1038switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually
1039this is because you don't have read permission for a file which
1040you named on the command line.
1041
1042(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-e> switch, but F</dev/null> (or
1043your operating system's equivalent) could not be opened.
a0d0e21e 1044
9a869a14
RGS
1045=item Can't open a reference
1046
1047(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1048using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1049
1050 open FH, '>', $ref;
1051
1052but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1053open is not supported.
1054
a0d0e21e
LW
1055=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1056
be771a83
GS
1057(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1058You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1059as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1060">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1061
748a9306
LW
1062=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1063
be771a83
GS
1064(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1065redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1066the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1067
1068=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1069
be771a83
GS
1070(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1071redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1072command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1073
1074=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1075
be771a83
GS
1076(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1077redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1078the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1079
1080=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1081
be771a83
GS
1082(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1083redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1084for stdout.
748a9306 1085
3b1cf97d 1086=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1087
1088(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1089
fa3aa65a
JC
1090If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1091shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1092you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1093
6df41af2
GS
1094=item Can't read CRTL environ
1095
1096(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1097from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1098missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1099or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1100searched.
6df41af2 1101
6df41af2
GS
1102=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1103
1104(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1105there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1106count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1107or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1108though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1109loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1110
64977eb6 1111=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1112
be771a83
GS
1113(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1114file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1115the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1116
a0d0e21e
LW
1117=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1118
e476b1b5 1119(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1120probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1121
748a9306
LW
1122=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1123
be771a83
GS
1124(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1125to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1126
4f12ec0e
FC
1127=item Can't reset %ENV on this system
1128
1129(F) You called C<reset('E')> or similar, which tried to reset
1130all variables in the current package beginning with "E". In
1131the main package, that includes %ENV. Resetting %ENV is not
1132supported on some systems, notably VMS.
1133
fe13d51d 1134=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1135
1fa582fa
FC
1136(F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1137opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1138package. If the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1139
cd06dffe
GS
1140=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1141
be771a83
GS
1142(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1143temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1144is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1145
96ebfdd7
RK
1146=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1147
1148(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1149there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1150
78f9721b
SM
1151=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1152
6903afa2
FC
1153(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue
1154subroutine, but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl
1155think you meant to return only one value. You probably meant to
1156write parentheses around the call to the subroutine, which tell
1157Perl that the call should be in list context.
78f9721b 1158
a0d0e21e
LW
1159=item Can't stat script "%s"
1160
be771a83
GS
1161(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1162open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1163
a0d0e21e
LW
1164=item Can't take log of %g
1165
fb73857a 1166(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
6903afa2 1167negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1168standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1169negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1170
1171=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1172
1173(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1174negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1175with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1176
1177=item Can't undef active subroutine
1178
1179(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1180however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1181redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1182
c81225bc 1183=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1184
be771a83
GS
1185(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1186into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1187specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1188indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1189
6651ba0b
FC
1190=item Can't use '%c' after -mname
1191
1192(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-m> switch, but you put something
1193other than "=" after the module name.
1194
1db89ea5
BS
1195=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1196
e27ad1f2 1197(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1198table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1199for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1200
96ebfdd7
RK
1201=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1202
1203(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1204be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1205
6df41af2
GS
1206=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1207
be771a83
GS
1208(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1209references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1210
90b75b61 1211=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63 1212
20561843 1213(F) The first time the C<%!> hash is used, perl automatically loads the
6903afa2 1214Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1d2dff63
GS
1215provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1216
1109a392
MHM
1217=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1218
1219(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1220byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1221allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1222
6df41af2
GS
1223=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1224
be771a83
GS
1225(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1226foreach.
6df41af2 1227
aab6a793 1228=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1229
be771a83
GS
1230(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1231is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1232(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1233have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1234weren't.
1235
6d3b25aa
RGS
1236=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1237
1238(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1239that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1240For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1241is inside a big-endian group.
1242
c07a80fd
PP
1243=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1244
1245(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1246You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1247and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1248Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1249lexical variable.
1250
a0d0e21e
LW
1251=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1252
1253(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1254reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1255test the type of the reference, if need be.
1256
748a9306 1257=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1258
5e634d20
FC
1259=item Can't use string ("%s"...) as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1260
b41bf23f
FC
1261(F) You've told Perl to dereference a string, something which
1262C<use strict> blocks to prevent it happening accidentally. See
1263L<perlref/"Symbolic references">. This can be triggered by an C<@> or C<$>
1264in a double-quoted string immediately before interpolating a variable,
1265for example in C<"user @$twitter_id">, which says to treat the contents
1266of C<$twitter_id> as an array reference; use a C<\> to have a literal C<@>
1267symbol followed by the contents of C<$twitter_id>: C<"user \@$twitter_id">.
a0d0e21e 1268
748a9306
LW
1269=item Can't use subscript on %s
1270
1271(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1272subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1273didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1274
6df41af2
GS
1275=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1276
75b44862
GS
1277(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1278creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1279backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1280expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1281value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1282instead.
6df41af2 1283
810b8aa5
GS
1284=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1285
1286(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1287references can be weakened.
1288
fc7debfb
FC
1289=item Can't "when" outside a topicalizer
1290
1291(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1292loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1293from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1294or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1295
5f05dabc 1296=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1297
be771a83
GS
1298(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1299with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1300Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1301
4a68bf9d 1302=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1303
3c664d1a 1304(F)(D deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
675fa9ff
FC
1305It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl v5.20. In
1306the cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
17a3df4c
KW
1307derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1308
c9faaf04
KW
1309Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well,
1310and using non-printable ones will be deprecated starting in v5.18.
f9d13529 1311
f337b084 1312=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1313
1314(W pack) You said
1315
1316 pack("C", $x)
1317
1318where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1319only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1320and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1321
1322 pack("C", $x & 255)
1323
1324If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1325instead.
1326
f337b084 1327=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1328
1329(W pack) You said
1330
1331 pack("c", $x)
1332
1333where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1334is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1335and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1336
1337 pack("c", $x & 255);
1338
1339If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1340instead.
1341
f337b084
TH
1342=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1343
1344(W unpack) You tried something like
1345
1346 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1347
1a147d38 1348where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
6903afa2
FC
1349below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the
1350value modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
f337b084
TH
1351
1352 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1353
5a25739d
FC
1354=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1355
1356(W pack) You said
1357
1358 pack("U0W", $x)
1359
1360where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode
1361expects all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved
1362as if you meant:
1363
1364 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1365
f337b084
TH
1366=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1367
1368(W pack) You tried something like
1369
1370 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1371
1a147d38 1372where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1373value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1374uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1375
1376 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1377
1378=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1379
1380(W unpack) You tried something like
1381
1382 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1383
1a147d38 1384where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1385value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1386uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1387
1388 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1389
f866a7cd
FC
1390=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1391
1392(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1393to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1394evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
c9faaf04 1395ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.20. Just use a
f866a7cd
FC
1396semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1397
1398=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1399
1400(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1401non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1402written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1403characters.
1404
6651ba0b
FC
1405=item Cloning substitution context is unimplemented
1406
1407(F) Creating a new thread inside the C<s///> operator is not supported.
1408
abc7ecad
SP
1409=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1410
1411(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1412a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1413
5a25739d
FC
1414=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1415
1416(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1417
541ed3a9
FC
1418=item Closure prototype called
1419
1420(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1421handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1422This subroutine cannot be called.
1423
49704364
LW
1424=item Code missing after '/'
1425
6903afa2
FC
1426(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be
1427another template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 1428
6fbc9859
MH
1429=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, all \p{} matches fail; all \P{} matches
1430succeed
9ae3ac1a 1431
5a25739d
FC
1432=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1433
e2f4a215 1434(S utf8, non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum
1b64326b
FC
1435of U+10FFFF.
1436
1437Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code points, up
1438to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on your system,
1439but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems. At one time,
1440it was legal in some standards to have code points up to 0x7FFF_FFFF,
1441but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require larger than a
144232 bit word.
0876b9a0 1443
9ae3ac1a
KW
1444None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1445code point. For example,
1446
1447 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1448
1449will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1450
1451 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1452
1453will match.
1454
94b42e47
KW
1455This may be counterintuitive at times, as both these fail:
1456
f9d4ccdc
FC
1457 chr(0x110000) =~ /\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True}/ # Fails.
1458 chr(0x110000) =~ /\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False}/ # Also fails!
94b42e47
KW
1459
1460and both these succeed:
1461
f9d4ccdc
FC
1462 chr(0x110000) =~ /\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True}/ # Succeeds.
1463 chr(0x110000) =~ /\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False}/ # Also succeeds!
94b42e47 1464
6df41af2
GS
1465=item %s: Command not found
1466
a892b81a
FC
1467(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> or another shell
1468shell instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
1469into Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
8f721816
MM
1470
1471 #!/usr/bin/perl -w
6df41af2 1472
7a2e2cd6
PP
1473=item Compilation failed in require
1474
1475(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1476Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1477encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1478
c3464db5
DD
1479=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1480
be771a83
GS
1481(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1482situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1483to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1484arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1485recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1486under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1487in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1488that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1489on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1490
69282e91 1491=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1492
be771a83
GS
1493(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1494to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1495L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1496
e21e7c6a
FC
1497=item Constant(%s): Call to &{$^H{%s}} did not return a defined value
1498
1499(F) The subroutine registered to handle constant overloading
1500(see L<overload>) or a custom charnames handler (see
1501L<charnames/CUSTOM TRANSLATORS>) returned an undefined value.
1502
1503=item Constant(%s): $^H{%s} is not defined
1504
1505(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to define an
1506overloaded constant. Perhaps you forgot to load the corresponding
1507L<overload> pragma?.
1508
779c5bc9
GS
1509=item Constant is not %s reference
1510
1511(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83 1512is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
6903afa2 1513The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
be771a83 1514usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1515See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1516
4cee8e80
CS
1517=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1518
aeb94125
FC
1519(W redefine)(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously
1520been eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions">
1521for commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1522
9607fc9c
PP
1523=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1524
be771a83
GS
1525(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1526for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1527workarounds.
9607fc9c 1528
5a25739d
FC
1529=item Constant(%s) unknown
1530
1531(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting
1532to define an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the
1533character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1534forgot to load the corresponding L<overload> pragma?.
1535
e7ea3e70
IZ
1536=item Copy method did not return a reference
1537
6903afa2 1538(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1539L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1540
4aaa4757
FC
1541=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1542
1543(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
8d605c0d 1544with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Some subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1545in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1546called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1547
1548 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1549 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1550
6798c92b
GS
1551=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1552
1553(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1554
675fa9ff
FC
1555=item Corrupted regexp opcode %d > %d
1556
1557(P) This is either an error in Perl, or, if you're using
1558one, your L<custom regular expression engine|perlreapi>. If not the
1559latter, report the problem through the L<perlbug> utility.
1560
a0d0e21e
LW
1561=item corrupted regexp pointers
1562
1563(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1564expression compiler gave it.
1565
1566=item corrupted regexp program
1567
be771a83
GS
1568(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1569valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1570
de42a5a9 1571=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1572
1573(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1574
49704364
LW
1575=item Count after length/code in unpack
1576
1577(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1578you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1579L<perlfunc/pack>.
1580
6651ba0b
FC
1581=item Deep recursion on anonymous subroutine
1582
a0d0e21e
LW
1583=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1584
be771a83
GS
1585(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1586100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1587infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1588which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1589
aad1d01f
NC
1590This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1591setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1592
f10b0346 1593=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1594
be771a83
GS
1595(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1596checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1597array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1598
f10b0346 1599=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1600
f0ec9725
KR
1601(D deprecated) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes and has been
1602discouraged since 5.004.
1603
1604Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1605becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1606weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1607These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice.
1608
1609If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1610context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
16546e45
KR
1611
1612 if (%hash) {
1613 # not empty
1614 }
1615
f0ec9725
KR
1616If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1617variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1618a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1619it's loaded, etc.
1620
69794302 1621
e0e4a6e3
FC
1622=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by
1623S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
bcb95744 1624
6903afa2 1625(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
bcb95744
FC
1626most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1627of the C<....> part.
1628
9e3ec65c 1629The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
bcb95744
FC
1630discovered.
1631
62658f4d
PM
1632=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1633
1634(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1635there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1636
36447869
FC
1637=item delete argument is index/value array slice, use array slice
1638
1639(F) You used index/value array slice syntax (C<%array[...]>) as
1640the argument to C<delete>. You probably meant C<@array[...]> with
1641an @ symbol instead.
1642
1643=item delete argument is key/value hash slice, use hash slice
1644
1645(F) You used key/value hash slice syntax (C<%hash{...}>) as the argument to
1646C<delete>. You probably meant C<@hash{...}> with an @ symbol instead.
1647
0ffcbc25
FC
1648=item delete argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
1649
4a0af295 1650(F) The argument to C<delete> must be either a hash or array element,
0ffcbc25
FC
1651such as:
1652
1653 $foo{$bar}
1654 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
1655
1656or a hash or array slice, such as:
1657
1658 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
1659 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
1660
fc36a67e
PP
1661=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1662
be771a83
GS
1663(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1664long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1665that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1666
6d3b25aa
RGS
1667=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1668
fa816bf3
FC
1669(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>. There
1670has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
6d3b25aa 1671not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
6903afa2 1672conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
fa816bf3 1673static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
6903afa2 1674relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
6d3b25aa 1675declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1676
6d3b25aa
RGS
1677 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1678
1679becomes
1680
1681 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1682
fa816bf3
FC
1683Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to have
1684lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
36fb85f3
RGS
1685
1686 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1687
500ab966
RGS
1688=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1689
1690(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
6903afa2
FC
1691just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather
1692than to create a dangling reference.
500ab966 1693
3cdd684c
TP
1694=item Did not produce a valid header
1695
1696See Server error.
1697
6df41af2
GS
1698=item %s did not return a true value
1699
1700(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1701it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1702traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1703do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1704
cc507455 1705=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1706
413ff9f6
FC
1707(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1708some such.
4633a7c4 1709
cc507455 1710=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1711
be771a83
GS
1712(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1713variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1714seems superfluous.
33633739 1715
cc507455 1716=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1717
be771a83
GS
1718(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1719@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1720carried away.
748a9306 1721
7e1af8bc 1722=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1723
1724(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 1725you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 1726
3cdd684c
TP
1727=item Document contains no data
1728
1729See Server error.
1730
62658f4d
PM
1731=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1732
1733(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
943fc58e 1734define a C<$VERSION>.
62658f4d 1735
49704364
LW
1736=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1737
1738(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1739See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1740
95cb0d72
FC
1741=item Don't know how to get file name
1742
1743(P) C<PerlIO_getname>, a perl internal I/O function specific to VMS, was
1744somehow called on another platform. This should not happen.
1745
4021c788 1746=item Don't know how to handle magic of type \%o
a0d0e21e
LW
1747
1748(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1749
1750=item do_study: out of memory
1751
1752(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1753
6df41af2
GS
1754=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1755
56da5a46
RGS
1756(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1757"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1758name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1759because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1760"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1761something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1762subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1763"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1764
ac206dc8
RGS
1765=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1766
1767(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1768qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1769
84d78eb7
YO
1770=item dump is not supported
1771
1772(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1773
a0d0e21e
LW
1774=item Duplicate free() ignored
1775
be771a83
GS
1776(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1777already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1778
1109a392
MHM
1779=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1780
35f0cd76
FC
1781(W unpack) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a
1782type in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1109a392 1783
4633a7c4
LW
1784=item elseif should be elsif
1785
fa816bf3
FC
1786(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks
1787it's ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1788named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1789unlikely to be what you want.
1790
e0e4a6e3 1791=item Empty \%c{} in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 1792
af6f566e 1793(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
6903afa2 1794described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
af6f566e 1795a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1796
85ab1d1d 1797=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1798
85ab1d1d 1799(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1800effective uids or gids failed.
1801
c038024b
RGS
1802=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1803
1804(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1805aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
6903afa2 1806program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
c038024b 1807
748a9306
LW
1808=item Error converting file specification %s
1809
5f05dabc 1810(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1811specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1812single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1813an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1814conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1815
ff56e4f1
KW
1816=item Escape literal pattern white space under /x
1817
1818(D deprecated) You compiled a regular expression pattern with C</x> to
1819ignore white space, and you used, as a literal, one of the characters
1820that Perl plans to eventually treat as white space. The character must
1821be escaped somehow, or it will work differently on a future Perl that
1822does treat it as white space. The easiest way is to insert a backslash
1823immediately before it, or to enclose it with square brackets. This
1824change is to bring Perl into conformance with Unicode recommendations.
1825Here are the five characters that generate this warning:
1826U+0085 NEXT LINE,
1827U+200E LEFT-TO-RIGHT MARK,
1828U+200F RIGHT-TO-LEFT MARK,
1829U+2028 LINE SEPARATOR,
1830and
1831U+2029 PARAGRAPH SEPARATOR.
1832
ad19ef22 1833=item Eval-group in insecure regular expression
e4d48cc9 1834
be771a83
GS
1835(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1836expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1837is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1838
ad19ef22 1839=item Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
e4d48cc9 1840
be771a83
GS
1841(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1842C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
1843pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
1844it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
1845C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
1846interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
1847L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1848
ad19ef22 1849=item Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
6df41af2 1850
be771a83
GS
1851(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1852assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1853pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1854
e0e4a6e3
FC
1855=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by
1856S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1a147d38
YO
1857
1858(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
6903afa2 1859any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1a147d38 1860
9e3ec65c 1861The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
1a147d38
YO
1862discovered.
1863
fc36a67e
PP
1864=item Excessively long <> operator
1865
1866(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1867Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1868filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1869variable and glob that.
1870
ed9aa3b7
SG
1871=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1872
af8bb25a 1873(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
6903afa2 1874OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 1875
fe13d51d 1876=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1877
1878(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1879
0ffcbc25
FC
1880=item exists argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
1881
4a0af295 1882(F) The argument to C<exists> must be a hash or array element or a
0ffcbc25
FC
1883subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
1884
1885 $foo{$bar}
1886 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
1887 &do_something
1888
1889=item exists argument is not a subroutine name
1890
ccfc2567
FC
1891(F) The argument to C<exists> for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine name,
1892and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this error.
0ffcbc25 1893
a0d0e21e
LW
1894=item Exiting eval via %s
1895
be771a83
GS
1896(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1897goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1898
1899=item Exiting format via %s
1900
9a2ff54b 1901(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1902goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1903
0a753a76
PP
1904=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1905
be771a83
GS
1906(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1907sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1908loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1909
a0d0e21e
LW
1910=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1911
be771a83
GS
1912(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1913as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1914
1915=item Exiting substitution via %s
1916
be771a83
GS
1917(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1918as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1919
e0e4a6e3 1920=item Expecting close bracket in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
c608e803 1921
675fa9ff 1922(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
1923
1924 (?13
1925
1926to denote a capturing group of the form
1927L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>,
1928but omitted the C<")">.
1929
e0e4a6e3 1930=item Expecting '(?flags:(?[...' in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
27350048 1931
8b6fbf55
FC
1932(F) The C<(?[...])> extended character class regular expression construct
1933only allows character classes (including character class escapes like
1934C<\d>), operators, and parentheses. The one exception is C<(?flags:...)>
1935containing at least one flag and exactly one C<(?[...])> construct.
27350048
FC
1936This allows a regular expression containing just C<(?[...])> to be
1937interpolated. If you see this error message, then you probably
1938have some other C<(?...)> construct inside your character class. See
1939L<perlrecharclass/Extended Bracketed Character Classes>.
1940
e7d0b801
FC
1941=item Experimental "%s" subs not enabled
1942
1943(F) To use lexical subs, you must first enable them:
1944
f1d34ca8 1945 no warnings 'experimental::lexical_subs';
e7d0b801
FC
1946 use feature 'lexical_subs';
1947 my sub foo { ... }
1948
7b8d334a
GS
1949=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1950
be771a83
GS
1951(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1952the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1953usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1954e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1955
6df41af2
GS
1956=item %s: Expression syntax
1957
be771a83
GS
1958(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1959Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1960
1961=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1962
3c10abe3
AG
1963(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1964CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1965queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1966
e0e4a6e3 1967=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
73b437c8 1968
4f2e2aa2 1969(W regexp)(F) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3 1970character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
3c6ca74a
FC
1971in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". In a C<(?[...])>
1972construct, this is an error, rather than a warning. Consider quoting
e0e4a6e3 1973the "-", "\-". The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression
3c6ca74a 1974the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1975
1b1ee2ef 1976=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1977
be771a83
GS
1978(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1979system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1980details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1981you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1982
1983=item fcntl is not implemented
1984
1985(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1986PDP-11 or something?
1987
22846ab4
AB
1988=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1989
1990(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1991is not possible.
1992
f337b084
TH
1993=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1994
d8b5cc61 1995(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string starts with a length indicator
6903afa2
FC
1996which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1997a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 1998C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 1999
af8c498a 2000=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 2001
6c8d78fb
HS
2002(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
2003it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
2004"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
2005write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 2006
af8c498a 2007=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 2008
6c8d78fb
HS
2009(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
2010you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
2011with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
2012read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
2013is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
2014output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
2015
2016=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
2017
2018(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
6903afa2 2019as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
2020previously.
2021
2022=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
2023
2024(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
fa816bf3 2025as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
2026
2027=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
2028
2029(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
2030a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
2031happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
2032name.
a0d0e21e 2033
56e90b21
GS
2034=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
2035
be771a83 2036(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 2037some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
2038filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
2039same name?
56e90b21 2040
6df41af2
GS
2041=item Format not terminated
2042
2043(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
2044to the end of your file without finding such a line.
2045
a0d0e21e
LW
2046=item Format %s redefined
2047
e476b1b5 2048(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
2049
2050 {
271595cc 2051 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
2052 eval "format NAME =...";
2053 }
2054
a0d0e21e
LW
2055=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
2056
e476b1b5 2057(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
2058
2059 if ($foo = 123)
2060
2061when you meant
2062
2063 if ($foo == 123)
2064
2065(or something like that).
2066
6df41af2
GS
2067=item %s found where operator expected
2068
56da5a46
RGS
2069(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
2070If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
2071operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
2072operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 2073
a0d0e21e
LW
2074=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
2075
2076(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
2077
2078=item gethostent not implemented
2079
2080(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
2081because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
2082on the Internet.
2083
69282e91 2084=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2085
be771a83
GS
2086(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
2087socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 2088
748a9306
LW
2089=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
2090
2091(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
2092C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
2093
6df41af2
GS
2094=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
2095
be771a83
GS
2096(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
2097forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
2098L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2099
0f539b13
BF
2100=item given is experimental
2101
675fa9ff
FC
2102(S experimental::smartmatch) C<given> depends on smartmatch, which
2103is experimental, so its behavior may change or even be removed
2104in any future release of perl. See the explanation under
2105L<perlsyn/Experimental Details on given and when>.
0f539b13 2106
6df41af2
GS
2107=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
2108
a4edf47d 2109(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 2110that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
2111declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
2112which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 2113
e476b1b5
GS
2114=item glob failed (%s)
2115
5ead438e 2116(S glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used
73c4e9dc
FC
2117for C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
2118pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
be771a83 2119nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
73c4e9dc
FC
2120resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell)
2121is broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables
2122in config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as
2123if it were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them
2124all empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
be771a83 2125think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 2126C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 2127
a0d0e21e
LW
2128=item Glob not terminated
2129
2130(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
2131a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
2132not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
2133earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 2134
bcd05b94 2135=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2136
e9200be3 2137(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 2138it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
6903afa2 2139date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2140not-a-number value).
2141
bcd05b94 2142=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2143
e9200be3 2144(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
e7a1a147 2145it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2146
6df41af2 2147=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 2148
6df41af2
GS
2149(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2150version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
2151
2152=item goto must have label
2153
2154(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
2155unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2156
6651ba0b
FC
2157=item Goto undefined subroutine%s
2158
2159(F) You tried to call a subroutine with C<goto &sub> syntax, but
2160the indicated subroutine hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2161has since been undefined.
2162
6fbc9859 2163=item Group name must start with a non-digit word character in regex; marked by
e0e4a6e3 2164S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
1f4f6bf1
YO
2165
2166(F) Group names must follow the rules for perl identifiers, meaning
f26c79ba
FC
2167they must start with a non-digit word character. A common cause of
2168this error is using (?&0) instead of (?0). See L<perlre>.
1f4f6bf1 2169
5a25739d
FC
2170=item ()-group starts with a count
2171
2172(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2173something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2174
fe13d51d 2175=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2176
2177(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2178
a0d0e21e
LW
2179=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2180
be771a83
GS
2181(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2182to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2183created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
2184
2185=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
2186
be771a83
GS
2187(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
2188spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 2189
6df41af2
GS
2190=item %s has too many errors
2191
2192(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2193Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2194
252aa082
JH
2195=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2196
e476b1b5 2197(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2198(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2199L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2200
8903cb82
PP
2201=item Identifier too long
2202
2203(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2204about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2205names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2206of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2207
e0e4a6e3
FC
2208=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class in regex; marked by
2209S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
fc8cd66c 2210
b5e3739b
FC
2211(W regexp) Named Unicode character escapes C<(\N{...})> may return a
2212zero-length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
2213its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2214been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2215
6df41af2 2216=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2217
6df41af2 2218(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2219
6df41af2 2220=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2221
be771a83
GS
2222(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2223binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2224offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2225
6597eb22
FC
2226=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2227
e4d150f1
FC
2228(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype
2229declaration. The '_' in a prototype must be followed by a ';',
2230indicating the rest of the parameters are optional, or one of '@'
2231or '%', since those two will accept 0 or more final parameters.
6597eb22 2232
78d0fecf 2233=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2234
d5898338 2235(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2236would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2237when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2238version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2239to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2240
d37a9538
ST
2241=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2242
197afce1 2243(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2244Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
d37a9538 2245
904d85c5
RGS
2246=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2247
2248(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
6903afa2 2249you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
904d85c5 2250
8e742a20
MHM
2251=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2252
6903afa2 2253(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
8e742a20 2254
a0d0e21e
LW
2255=item Illegal division by zero
2256
be771a83
GS
2257(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2258your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2259meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2260
6df41af2
GS
2261=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2262
be771a83
GS
2263(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2264A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2265number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2266
a0d0e21e
LW
2267=item Illegal modulus zero
2268
be771a83
GS
2269(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2270numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2271
6df41af2 2272=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2273
6df41af2
GS
2274(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2275two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2276
2277=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2278
d1be9408 2279(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2280
399388f4 2281=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2282
d1be9408 2283(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2284Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2285
e0e4a6e3 2286=item Illegal pattern in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
c608e803 2287
675fa9ff 2288(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
2289
2290 (?+foo)
2291
2292The C<"+"> is valid only when followed by digits, indicating a
2293capturing group. See
2294L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>.
2295
fe13d51d 2296=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2297
6df41af2 2298(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2299following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2300
6df41af2 2301=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2302
75b44862 2303(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2304internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2305delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2306
6df41af2 2307=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2308
be771a83
GS
2309(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2310name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2311didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2312ignored.
54310121 2313
6df41af2 2314=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2315
be771a83
GS
2316(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2317the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2318system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2319times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2320would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2321
be771a83
GS
2322Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2323also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2324
e0e4a6e3
FC
2325=item Incomplete expression within '(?[ ])' in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE>
2326in m/%s/
0d0b4b3b 2327
675fa9ff 2328(F) There was a syntax error within the C<(?[ ])>. This can happen if the
0d0b4b3b
KW
2329expression inside the construct was completely empty, or if there are
2330too many or few operands for the number of operators. Perl is not smart
2331enough to give you a more precise indication as to what is wrong.
2332
6fbc9859
MH
2333=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on
2334parent '%s'
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2335
2336(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2337C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2338documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2339
979699d9
JH
2340=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2341
2342(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2343Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2344encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2345
6a2ed79a 2346=item Infinite recursion in regex
1a147d38
YO
2347
2348(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
6903afa2 2349text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
1a147d38
YO
2350either consume text or fail.
2351
6dbe9451
NC
2352=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2353
6903afa2
FC
2354(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the
2355initialization of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write
2356C<state ($a) = 42> as C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar
2357context. Constructions such as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be
2358supported in a future perl release.
6dbe9451 2359
2186f873
FC
2360=item %%s[%s] in scalar context better written as $%s[%s]
2361
2362(W syntax) In scalar context, you've used an array index/value slice
2363(indicated by %) to select a single element of an array. Generally
2364it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $). The difference
2365is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both in the value it
2366returns and when evaluating its argument, while C<%foo[&bar]> provides
2367a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things if you're
2368expecting only one subscript. When called in list context, it also
2369returns the index (what C<&bar> returns) in addition to the value.
2370
2371=item %%s{%s} in scalar context better written as $%s{%s}
2372
2373(W syntax) In scalar context, you've used a hash key/value slice
2374(indicated by %) to select a single element of a hash. Generally it's
2375better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $). The difference
2376is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both in the value
2377it returns and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> and
2378provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
2379if you're expecting only one subscript. When called in list context,
2380it also returns the key in addition to the value.
2381
a0d0e21e
LW
2382=item Insecure dependency in %s
2383
8b1a09fc 2384(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2385The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2386setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2387tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2388from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2389such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2390L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2391
2392=item Insecure directory in %s
2393
be771a83
GS
2394(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2395setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2396the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2397See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2398
62f468fc 2399=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2400
2401(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2402setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2403C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2404supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2405the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2406
0e9be77f
DM
2407=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2408
2409(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2410expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2411function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2412See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2413
e0e4a6e3
FC
2414=item In '(?...)', splitting the initial '(?' is deprecated in regex;
2415marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
675fa9ff
FC
2416
2417(D regexp, deprecated) The two-character sequence C<"(?"> in
2418this context in a regular expression pattern should be an
2419indivisible token, with nothing intervening between the C<"(">
2420and the C<"?">, but you separated them. Due to an accident of
2421implementation, this prohibition was not enforced, but we do
2422plan to forbid it in a future Perl version. This message
2423serves as giving you fair warning of this pending change.
2424
b9ef414d
FC
2425=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2426
2427(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2428or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2429integers for your architecture.
2430
a7ae9550
GS
2431=item Integer overflow in %s number
2432
35928bc5 2433(S overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2434either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2435your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2436On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2437representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
24380b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2439transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2440internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2441operations.
bbce6d69 2442
fc89ca81
FC
2443=item Integer overflow in srand
2444
2445(S overflow) The number you have passed to srand is too big to fit
2446in your architecture's integer representation. The number has been
2447replaced with the largest integer supported (0xFFFFFFFF on 32-bit
2448architectures). This means you may be getting less randomness than
2449you expect, because different random seeds above the maximum will
2450return the same sequence of random numbers.
2451
46314c13
JP
2452=item Integer overflow in version
2453
18da5252
FC
2454=item Integer overflow in version %d
2455
784d71ed
FC
2456(W overflow) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for
2457the size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
f084e84f 2458because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use an
784d71ed
FC
2459element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by trying
2460to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like 100/9.
46314c13 2461
e0e4a6e3 2462=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2463
2464(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
e0e4a6e3 2465The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2466discovered.
2467
748a9306
LW
2468=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2469
be771a83
GS
2470(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2471you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2472to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2473L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2474Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2475terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2476
870978ae
FC
2477=item internal %<num>p might conflict with future printf extensions
2478
2479(S internal) Perl's internal routine that handles C<printf> and C<sprintf>
2480formatting follows a slightly different set of rules when called from
2481C or XS code. Specifically, formats consisting of digits followed
2482by "p" (e.g., "%7p") are reserved for future use. If you see this
2483message, then an XS module tried to call that routine with one such
2484reserved format.
2485
e0e4a6e3 2486=item Internal urp in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
b45f050a 2487
fa816bf3 2488(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
e0e4a6e3 2489S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
7253e4e3 2490discovered.
a0d0e21e 2491
6df41af2
GS
2492=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2493
75b44862 2494(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2495followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2496operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2497L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2498
09bef843
SB
2499=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2500
a4a4c9e2 2501(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2502by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2503
2504=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2505
a4a4c9e2 2506(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2507recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2508
e0e4a6e3
FC
2509=item Invalid character in charnames alias definition; marked by
2510S<<-- HERE> in '%s
225fb84f
KW
2511
2512(F) You tried to create a custom alias for a character name, with
2513the C<:alias> option to C<use charnames> and the specified character in
2514the indicated name isn't valid. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2515
c8028aa6
TC
2516=item Invalid \0 character in %s for %s: %s\0%s
2517
fa3234e3
FC
2518(W syscalls) Embedded \0 characters in pathnames or other system call
2519arguments produce a warning as of 5.20. The parts after the \0 were
2520formerly ignored by system calls.
c8028aa6 2521
e0e4a6e3 2522=item Invalid character in \N{...}; marked by S<<-- HERE> in \N{%s}
a690c7c4
FC
2523
2524(F) Only certain characters are valid for character names. The
2525indicated one isn't. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2526
c635e13b
PP
2527=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2528
be771a83
GS
2529(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2530L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2531
e0e4a6e3
FC
2532=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by
2533S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
9e08bc66
ST
2534
2535(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2536didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2537from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2538The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
e0e4a6e3 2539The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
9e08bc66
ST
2540escape was discovered.
2541
8149aa9f
FC
2542=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2543
e0e4a6e3
FC
2544=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...} in regex; marked by
2545S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
aec0ef10 2546
8149aa9f 2547(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2548number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
25490 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2550
6651ba0b
FC
2551=item Invalid module name %s with -%c option: contains single ':'
2552
2553(F) The module argument to perl's B<-m> and B<-M> command-line options
2554cannot contain single colons in the module name, but only in the
2555arguments after "=". In other words, B<-MFoo::Bar=:baz> is ok, but
2556B<-MFoo:Bar=baz> is not.
2557
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2558=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2559
162a3e34
FC
2560(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2561where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2562the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2563a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2564
40e4140b
FC
2565=item Invalid negative number (%s) in chr
2566
2567(W utf8) You passed a negative number to C<chr>. Negative numbers are
2568not valid characters numbers, so it return the Unicode replacement
2569character (U+FFFD).
2570
6651ba0b
FC
2571=item invalid option -D%c, use -D'' to see choices
2572
8ff21bfe
FC
2573(S debugging) Perl was called with invalid debugger flags. Call perl
2574with the B<-D> option with no flags to see the list of acceptable values.
982c4ecb 2575See also L<perlrun/-Dletters>.
6651ba0b 2576
e0e4a6e3 2577=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2578
2579(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2580greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2581C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
e0e4a6e3 2582up to C<ff>. The S<<-- HERE> shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
7253e4e3 2583problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2584
d1573ac7 2585=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2586
2587(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2588character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2589
09bef843
SB
2590=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2591
0120eecf 2592(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2593elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2594parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2595See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2596
b4581f09
JH
2597=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2598
2bfc5f71
FC
2599(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2600than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2601If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2602list was terminated too soon.
2603
2c86d456
DG
2604=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2605
fa816bf3 2606(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2607A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2608decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2609v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2610The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2611See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2612
49704364 2613=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2614
49704364
LW
2615(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2616See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6728c851 2617
49704364 2618(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2619silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2620
2c86d456
DG
2621=item Invalid version format (%s)
2622
fa816bf3 2623(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2624A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2625decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
fa816bf3
FC
2626v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it
2627must have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is
2628optional. Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a
2629trailing "alpha" component separated by an underscore character
2630after a fractional or dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized
2631text indicates which criteria were not met. See the L<version> module
2632for more details on allowed version formats.
46314c13 2633
798ae1b7
DG
2634=item Invalid version object
2635
fa816bf3
FC
2636(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid.
2637Perhaps the internals were modified directly in some way or
2638an arbitrary reference was blessed into the "version" class.
798ae1b7 2639
e0e4a6e3
FC
2640=item In '(*VERB...)', splitting the initial '(*' is deprecated in regex;
2641marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
675fa9ff
FC
2642
2643(D regexp, deprecated) The two-character sequence C<"(*"> in
2644this context in a regular expression pattern should be an
2645indivisible token, with nothing intervening between the C<"(">
f26c79ba 2646and the C<"*">, but you separated them. Due to an accident of
675fa9ff
FC
2647implementation, this prohibition was not enforced, but we do
2648plan to forbid it in a future Perl version. This message
2649serves as giving you fair warning of this pending change.
2650
a0d0e21e
LW
2651=item ioctl is not implemented
2652
2653(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2654strange for a machine that supports C.
2655
c289d2f7
JH
2656=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2657
2658(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2659Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2660
fe13d51d 2661=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2662
2663(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 2664you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
2665with 'useperlio'.
2666
80cbd5ad
JH
2667=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2668
2669(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 2670neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 2671
4f650b80 2672=item $* is no longer supported
b4581f09 2673
4f650b80
NC
2674(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
2675perls, has been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In
2676previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
2677matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
2678
2679Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
6903afa2
FC
2680modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
2681with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
570dedd4 2682then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2683
8ae1fe26
RGS
2684=item $# is no longer supported
2685
a58ac25e 2686(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
6903afa2 2687perls, has been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You
a58ac25e 2688should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 2689
ccf3535a 2690=item '%s' is not a code reference
6ad11d81 2691
6903afa2
FC
2692(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of
2693overload::constant needs to be a code reference. Either
2694an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.
6ad11d81 2695
ccf3535a 2696=item '%s' is not an overloadable type
6ad11d81 2697
04a80ee0
RGS
2698(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2699unaware of.
6ad11d81 2700
5a25739d
FC
2701=item -i used with no filenames on the command line, reading from STDIN
2702
2703(S inplace) The C<-i> option was passed on the command line, indicating
2704that the script is intended to edit files in place, but no files were
2705given. This is usually a mistake, since editing STDIN in place doesn't
2706make sense, and can be confusing because it can make perl look like
2707it is hanging when it is really just trying to read from STDIN. You
2708should either pass a filename to edit, or remove C<-i> from the command
2709line. See L<perlrun> for more details.
2710
aec0ef10 2711=item Junk on end of regexp in regex m/%s/
a0d0e21e
LW
2712
2713(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2714
2715=item Label not found for "last %s"
2716
be771a83
GS
2717(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2718of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2719L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2720
2721=item Label not found for "next %s"
2722
2723(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2724that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2725L<perlfunc/last>.
2726
2727=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2728
2729(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2730that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2731L<perlfunc/last>.
2732
85ab1d1d 2733=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2734
85ab1d1d 2735(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2736effective uids or gids failed.
2737
49704364
LW
2738=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2739
d7f8936a 2740(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
6903afa2
FC
2741length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2742an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 2743
25e26107 2744=item length() used on %s (did you mean "scalar(%s)"?)
e508c8a4 2745
0d46a4e7
FC
2746(W syntax) You used length() on either an array or a hash when you
2747probably wanted a count of the items.
e508c8a4
MH
2748
2749Array size can be obtained by doing:
2750
2751 scalar(@array);
2752
2753The number of items in a hash can be obtained by doing:
2754
2755 scalar(keys %hash);
2756
f0e67a1d
Z
2757=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2758
d4fe7078
RS
2759(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
2760(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character that
2761couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
2762of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where
6903afa2 2763it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
2764
2765=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2766
2767(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2768detectable way.
2769
69282e91 2770=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2771
be771a83
GS
2772(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2773to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2774L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2775
6651ba0b
FC
2776=item List form of piped open not implemented
2777
2778(F) On some platforms, notably Windows, the three-or-more-arguments
2779form of C<open> does not support pipes, such as C<open($pipe, '|-', @args)>.
2780Use the two-argument C<open($pipe, '|prog arg1 arg2...')> form instead.
2781
bcd05b94 2782=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2783
e9200be3 2784(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
fc003d4b 2785than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
6903afa2 2786wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2787not-a-number value).
2788
bcd05b94 2789=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2790
e9200be3 2791(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
fc003d4b 2792than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
e7a1a147 2793wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2794
58e23c8d 2795=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2796
2797(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
6903afa2 2798handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2799
b88df990
NC
2800=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2801
e63e8a91
FC
2802(W imprecision) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one
2803is too large for the underlying floating point representation to store
2804accurately, hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this
2805warning because it has already switched from integers to floating point
2806when values are too large for integers, and now even floating point is
2807insufficient. You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
b88df990 2808
93fad930 2809=item lstat() on filehandle%s
2f7da168
RK
2810
2811(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2812by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2813instead on the filehandle.)
2814
345d70e3 2815=item lvalue attribute %s already-defined subroutine
bb3abb05 2816
345d70e3
FC
2817(W misc) Although L<attributes.pm|attributes> allows this, turning the lvalue
2818attribute on or off on a Perl subroutine that is already defined
2819does not always work properly. It may or may not do what you
2820want, depending on what code is inside the subroutine, with exact
2821details subject to change between Perl versions. Only do this
2822if you really know what you are doing.
bb3abb05 2823
885ef6f5
GG
2824=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2825
345d70e3
FC
2826(W misc) Using the C<:lvalue> declarative syntax to make a Perl
2827subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined is
2828not permitted. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine,
2829add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the C<sub
2830foo :lvalue;> declaration before the definition.
2831
2832See also L<attributes.pm|attributes>.
885ef6f5 2833
6f1b3ab0
FC
2834=item Magical list constants are not supported
2835
2836(F) You assigned a magical array to a stash element, and then tried
2837to use the subroutine from the same slot. You are asking Perl to do
2838something it cannot do, details subject to change between Perl versions.
2839
2db62bbc 2840=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 2841
2db62bbc 2842(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2843are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2844
2845=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2846
2db62bbc 2847(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2848are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2849
6df41af2
GS
2850=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2851
2852(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2853
2854 prefix1;prefix2
2855
2856or
6df41af2
GS
2857 prefix1 prefix2
2858
be771a83
GS
2859with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2860a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2861appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2862"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2863
2f758a16
ST
2864=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2865
d37a9538
ST
2866(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2867syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2868obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2869when the function is called.
2f758a16 2870
ba210ebe
JH
2871=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2872
4d6f11e5 2873(S utf8)(F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2575c402 2874encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2875
2575c402
JW
2876One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2877you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
6903afa2 28788-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2575c402
JW
2879
2880If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2881sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2882set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2883message.
2884
2885See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2886
107160e2
KW
2887=item Malformed UTF-8 character immediately after '%s'
2888
2889(F) You said C<use utf8>, but the program file doesn't comply with UTF-8
2890encoding rules. The message prints out the properly encoded characters
2891just before the first bad one. If C<utf8> warnings are enabled, a
2892warning is generated that gives more details about the type of
2893malformation.
2894
bde9e88d 2895=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N{%s} immediately after '%s'
ff3f963a
KW
2896
2897(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2898
4a5d3a93
FC
2899=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2900
2901(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2902rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2903
f337b084
TH
2904=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2905
2906(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2907rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2908
2909=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2910
2911(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2912rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2913
4a5d3a93 2914=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 2915
4a5d3a93
FC
2916(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2917doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2918
e0e4a6e3
FC
2919=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in
2920m/%s/
4a5d3a93
FC
2921
2922(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
e0e4a6e3 2923regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The S<<-- HERE>
9e3ec65c 2924shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
4a5d3a93 2925See L<perlre>.
f337b084 2926
de42a5a9 2927=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2928
6903afa2 2929(F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2930usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2931too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2932resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
6903afa2 2933safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2563cec5 2934
25f58aea
PN
2935=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2936
2937(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2938interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2939"use" or "my".
2940
0d2487cd 2941=item '%' may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2942
2943(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2944checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2945See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2946
a0d0e21e
LW
2947=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2948
2949(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2950doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2951
3cdd684c
TP
2952=item Method %s not permitted
2953
2954See Server error.
2955
a0d0e21e
LW
2956=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2957
2958(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2959by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2960ended earlier on the current line.
2961
2962=item Misplaced _ in number
2963
d4ced10d
JH
2964(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2965separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2966
7baa4690
HS
2967=item Missing argument in %s
2968
2969(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2970supplied.
2971
9e81e6a1
RGS
2972=item Missing argument to -%c
2973
2974(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2975immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2976
ff3f963a 2977=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2978
e0e4a6e3 2979=item Missing braces on \N{} in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
aec0ef10 2980
4a2d328f 2981(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
532cb70d
FC
2982double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space
2983(or comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2984This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately
2985follow the C<\N>.
423cee85 2986
f0a2b745
KW
2987=item Missing braces on \o{}
2988
2989(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2990
a0d0e21e
LW
2991=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2992
2993(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2994"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2995
06eaf0bc
GS
2996=item Missing command in piped open
2997
be771a83
GS
2998(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2999C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
3000blank.
06eaf0bc 3001
961ce445
RGS
3002=item Missing control char name in \c
3003
3004(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
3005character name.
3006
591f5ca2
FC
3007=item Missing ']' in prototype for %s : %s
3008
bfe11873 3009(W illegalproto) A grouping was started with C<[> but never closed with C<]>.
591f5ca2 3010
8767b1ab 3011=item Missing name in "%s sub"
6df41af2 3012
87444db5 3013(F) The syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
be771a83 3014they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
3015
3016=item Missing $ on loop variable
3017
be771a83
GS
3018(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
3019are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
3020can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 3021
cc507455 3022=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 3023
56da5a46
RGS
3024(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
3025"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 3026
e0e4a6e3 3027=item Missing right brace on \%c{} in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 3028
ff3f963a
KW
3029(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
3030
4a68bf9d 3031=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 3032
d32207c9
FC
3033(F) C<\N> has two meanings.
3034
3035The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed in braces,
3036meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that
fa816bf3 3037name. Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
d32207c9
FC
3038double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns,
3039it doesn't have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
3040
3041Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only)
3042in patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short
3043for C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
3044
3045This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately
3046by a left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if the braces
3047form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes that this
3048means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
30493; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a
3050C<\N{> and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
3051
3052However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was
3053mistakenly omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and raises this error.
3054If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant the latter,
3055escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 3056
d98d5fff 3057=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 3058
be771a83
GS
3059(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
3060ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
3061were last editing.
a0d0e21e 3062
6df41af2
GS
3063=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
3064
56da5a46
RGS
3065(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
3066"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
3067the previous line just because you saw this message.
3068
a0d0e21e
LW
3069=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
3070
3071(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 3072constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
3073catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
3074
3075 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
3076 mod(2);
3077
3078Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
3079
c5674021
PDF
3080Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
3081is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
3082
b7e4ecc1
FC
3083 $x = 1;
3084 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
3085 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to
3086 } # modify the 2
c5674021 3087
7a4340ed 3088=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
3089
3090(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
3091subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
3092backwards.
3093
7a4340ed 3094=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 3095
be771a83
GS
3096(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
3097couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
3098
3099=item Module name must be constant
3100
3101(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
3102
be98fb35 3103=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 3104
be98fb35
GS
3105(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
3106you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
3107about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 3108
fe13d51d 3109=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7 3110
6903afa2 3111(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
ed9aa3b7
SG
3112can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
3113list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
3114See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
3115
92951bce
FC
3116=item mprotect for %p %u failed with %d
3117
3118=item mprotect RW for %p %u failed with %d
3119
3120(S) You compiled perl with B<-D>PERL_DEBUG_READONLY_OPS (see
3121L<perlhacktips>), but an op tree could not be made read-only, or a
3122read-only op tree could not be made mutable before freeing the ops.
3123
a0d0e21e
LW
3124=item msg%s not implemented
3125
3126(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
3127
3128=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
3129
75b44862
GS
3130(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
3131They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 3132
49704364 3133=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 3134
49704364
LW
3135(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
3136follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
3137See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
3138
3139=item "my sub" not yet implemented
3140
be771a83
GS
3141(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
3142that yet.
6df41af2 3143
5a25739d
FC
3144=item "my %s" used in sort comparison
3145
3146(W syntax) The package variables $a and $b are used for sort comparisons.
3147You used $a or $b in as an operand to the C<< <=> >> or C<cmp> operator inside a
3148sort comparison block, and the variable had earlier been declared as a
3149lexical variable. Either qualify the sort variable with the package
3150name, or rename the lexical variable.
3151
fd1b7234 3152=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 3153
be771a83
GS
3154(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
3155sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
3156local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 3157
8149aa9f
FC
3158=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
3159
c59aba6c
FC
3160(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable
3161names. If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then
3162just mention it again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our>
3163declaration is provided for this purpose.
3164
3165NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once
3166so $c, @c, %c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or
3167format) are considered the same; if a program uses $c only once
3168but also uses any of the others it will not trigger this warning.
3169Symbols beginning with an underscore and symbols using special
3170identifiers (q.v. L<perldata>) are exempt from this warning.
8149aa9f 3171
e0e4a6e3 3172=item Need exactly 3 octal digits in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
0d0b4b3b
KW
3173
3174(F) Within S<C<(?[ ])>>, all constants interpreted as octal need to be
3175exactly 3 digits long. This helps catch some ambiguities. If your
3176constant is too short, add leading zeros, like
3177
3178 (?[ [ \078 ] ]) # Syntax error!
3179 (?[ [ \0078 ] ]) # Works
3180 (?[ [ \007 8 ] ]) # Clearer
3181
3182The maximum number this construct can express is C<\777>. If you
675fa9ff
FC
3183need a larger one, you need to use L<\o{}|perlrebackslash/Octal escapes> instead. If you meant
3184two separate things, you need to separate them:
0d0b4b3b
KW
3185
3186 (?[ [ \7776 ] ]) # Syntax error!
3187 (?[ [ \o{7776} ] ]) # One meaning
3188 (?[ [ \777 6 ] ]) # Another meaning
3189 (?[ [ \777 \006 ] ]) # Still another
3190
49704364
LW
3191=item Negative '/' count in unpack
3192
3193(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
3194negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3195
a0d0e21e
LW
3196=item Negative length
3197
be771a83
GS
3198(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
3199length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 3200
ed9aa3b7
SG
3201=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
3202
3203(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
3204greater than or equal to zero.
3205
e0e4a6e3 3206=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 3207
6903afa2 3208(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses.
e0e4a6e3 3209So things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The S<<-- HERE> shows
9e3ec65c 3210whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 3211
7253e4e3 3212Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 3213C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3214
6df41af2 3215=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 3216
be771a83
GS
3217(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
3218scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 3219
2c7d6b9c
RGS
3220=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
3221
3222(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
3223real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
3224See L<mro>.
3225
5a25739d 3226=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...} in regex;
e0e4a6e3 3227marked by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
5a25739d 3228
32a77fbe
FC
3229(F) The new (as of Perl 5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a
3230bracketed character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character
3231class loses its specialness: it matches almost everything, which is
3232probably not what you want.
5a25739d 3233
0b4ce96d 3234=item \N{} in character class restricted to one character in regex; marked
e0e4a6e3 3235by S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
0b4ce96d
FC
3236
3237(F) Named Unicode character escapes C<(\N{...})> may return a
3238multi-character sequence. Such an escape may not be used in
3239a character class, because character classes always match one
3240character of input. Check that the correct escape has been used,
e0e4a6e3 3241and the correct charname handler is in scope. The S<<-- HERE> shows
0b4ce96d
FC
3242whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
3243
e0e4a6e3
FC
3244=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer in regex; marked by
3245S<<-- HERE> in m/%s/
5a25739d
FC
3246
3247(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or
3248sequence was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that
3249bypass the lexer, such as using single-quotish context, or an extra
3250backslash in double-quotish:
3251
3252 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
3253 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
3254 /$re/;
3255
3256Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
3257
3258 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
3259 /$re/;
3260
3261The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
3262components:
3263
3264 $re = '\N';
3265 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
3266
3267It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and
3268it doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
3269
3270Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
3271C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
3272
3273 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
3274 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
3275
a0d0e21e
LW
3276=item No %s allowed while running setuid
3277
be771a83
GS
3278(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
3279setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
3280will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
3281securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 3282
6651ba0b
FC
3283=item No code specified for -%c
3284
3285(F) Perl's B<-e> and B<-E> command-line options require an argument. If
3286you want to run an empty program, pass the empty string as a separate
3287argument or run a program consisting of a single 0 or 1:
3288
3289 perl -e ""
3290 perl -e0
3291 perl -e1
3292
a0d0e21e
LW
3293=item No comma allowed after %s
3294
6903afa2
FC
3295(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is
3296not allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
a0d0e21e
LW
3297Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
3298
6903afa2
FC
3299One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported
3300a constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
3301importing took place, it may for example be that your operating
3302system does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did
3303use an explicit import list for the constants you expect to see;
3304please see L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an
3305explicit import list would probably have caught this error earlier
3306it naturally does not remedy the fact that your operating system
3307still does not support that constant. Maybe you have a typo in
3308the constants of the symbol import list of B<use> or B<import> or in the
3309constant name at the line where this error was triggered?
0a753a76 3310
748a9306
LW
3311=item No command into which to pipe on command line
3312
be771a83
GS
3313(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3314redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
3315doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 3316