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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
2see. It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
3specially designed to be readable as is.
5aabfad6 4
8736538c 5=head1 NAME
5aabfad6 6
f8dbba82 7README.cygwin - Perl for Cygwin
5aabfad6 8
8736538c 9=head1 SYNOPSIS
5aabfad6 10
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11This document will help you configure, make, test and install Perl
12on Cygwin. This document also describes features of Cygwin that will
13affect how Perl behaves at runtime.
5aabfad6 14
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15B<NOTE:> There are pre-built Perl packages available for Cygwin and a
16version of Perl is provided on the Cygwin CD. If you have no need to
17customize the configuration, consider using one of these packages:
5aabfad6 18
f8dbba82 19 http://cygutils.netpedia.net/
5aabfad6 20
f8dbba82 21=head1 PREREQUISITES
8736538c 22
f8dbba82 23=head2 Cygwin = GNU+Cygnus+Windows (Don't leave UNIX without it)
8736538c 24
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25The Cygwin tools are ports of the popular GNU development tools for Win32
26platforms. They run thanks to the Cygwin library which provides the UNIX
27system calls and environment these programs expect. More information
28about this project can be found at:
8736538c 29
f8dbba82 30 http://sourceware.cygnus.com/cygwin/
1cab015a 31
f8dbba82 32A recent net or commercial release of Cygwin is required.
8736538c 33
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34At the time this document was written, the port required recent
35development snapshots that were expected to stabilize early in 2000 and
36be released to the net as B21 and commercially as v1.1.
8736538c 37
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38B<NOTE:> At this point, minimal effort has been made to provide
39compatibility with old (beta) Cygwin releases. The focus has been to
40provide a high quality release and not worry about working around old
41Cygwin bugs. If you wish to use Perl with Cygwin B20.1 or earlier,
42consider using either perl5.005_03 or perl5.005_62, which are available
43in source and binary form at C<http://cygutils.netpedia.net/> or on the
44Cygwin CD. If there is significant demand, a patch kit can be developed
45to port back to earlier Cygwin versions.
8736538c 46
f8dbba82 47=head2 Compiler
1cab015a 48
f8dbba82 49A recent net or commercial release of I<gcc> is required.
1cab015a 50
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51At the time this document was written, I<gcc-2.95.2> was current and
52could be downloaded from:
1cab015a 53
f8dbba82 54 ftp://ftp.xraylith.wisc.edu/pub/khan/gnu-win32/cygwin/gcc-2.95.2/
1cab015a 55
f8dbba82 56=head2 Cygwin Configuration
1cab015a 57
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58While building Perl some changes may be necessary to your Cygwin setup so
59that Perl builds cleanly. These changes are B<not> required for normal
60Perl usage.
1cab015a 61
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62B<NOTE:> The binaries that are built will run on all Win32 versions.
63They do not depend on your host system (Win9x, WinNT) or your Cygwin
64configuration (I<ntea>, I<ntsec>, binary/text mounts). The only
65dependencies come from hardcoded pathnames like C</usr/local>. However,
66your host system and Cygwin configuration will affect Perl's runtime
67behavior (see L</"TEST">). Some regression tests may fail in different
68ways depending on your setup. For now, the test suite does not skip
69tests that do not make sense given a particular setup. If a test can
70pass in some Cygwin setup, it is left in and explainable test failures
71are documented.
1cab015a 72
f8dbba82 73=over 4
1cab015a 74
f8dbba82 75=item * C<PATH>
1cab015a 76
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77Set the C<PATH> environment variable so that Configure finds the Cygwin
78versions of programs. Any Windows directories should be removed or
79moved to the end of your C<PATH>.
1cab015a 80
f8dbba82 81=item * F</bin/cat.exe>
1cab015a 82
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83There should be an instance of I<cat> in F</bin> (or F</usr/bin>).
84Configure tests C<#!/bin/cat> and if it is not found, you will see
85the error:
1cab015a 86
f8dbba82 87 Configure: ./try: No such file or directory
1cab015a 88
f8dbba82 89=item * F</usr/bin>
1cab015a 90
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91If you do not have a F</usr/bin> directory, Configure will B<not> prompt
92you to install I<perl> into F</usr/bin>.
1cab015a 93
f8dbba82 94=item * I<nroff>
1cab015a 95
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96If you do not have I<nroff> (which is part of the I<groff> package),
97Configure will B<not> prompt you to install man pages.
98
99=item * Permissions
100
101On WinNT with either the I<ntea> or I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> settings, directory
102and file permissions may not be set correctly. Since the build process
103creates files and directories, to be safe you may want to run a `C<chmod
104-R +w *>' on the entire Perl source tree.
105
106Also, it is a well known WinNT "feature" that files created by a login
107that is a member of the I<Administrators> group will be owned by the
108I<Administrators> group. Depending on your umask, you may find that you
109can not write to files that you just created (because you are no longer
110the owner). When using the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, this is not an
111issue because it "corrects" the ownership to what you would expect on
112a UNIX system.
1cab015a 113
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114=back
115
f8dbba82 116=head1 CONFIGURE
8736538c 117
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118The default options gathered by Configure with the assistance of
119F<hints/cygwin.sh> will build a Perl that supports dynamic loading
120(which requires a shared F<libperl.dll>).
f89d6eaa 121
f8dbba82 122This will run Configure and keep a record:
8736538c 123
f8dbba82 124 ./Configure 2>&1 | tee log.configure
8736538c 125
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126If you are willing to accept all the defaults add a B<-d> option.
127However, several useful customizations are available.
5aabfad6 128
f8dbba82 129=head2 Strip Binaries
5aabfad6 130
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131It is possible to strip the EXEs and DLLs created by the build process.
132The resulting binaries will be significantly smaller. If you want the
133binaries to be stripped, you can either add a B<-s> option when Configure
134prompts you,
8736538c 135
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136 Any additional ld flags (NOT including libraries)? [none] -s
137 Any special flags to pass to gcc to use dynamic loading? [none] -s
138 Any special flags to pass to ld2 to create a dynamically loaded library?
139 [none] -s
8736538c 140
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141or you can edit F<hints/cygwin.sh> and uncomment the relevant variables
142near the end of the file.
8736538c 143
f8dbba82 144=head2 Optional Libraries
8736538c 145
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146Several Perl functions and modules depend on the existence of
147some optional libraries. Configure will find them if they are
148installed in one of the directories listed as being used for library
149searches. Pre-built packages for most of these are available at
150C<http://cygutils.netpedia.net/>.
8736538c 151
f8dbba82 152=over 4
8736538c 153
f8dbba82 154=item * C<-lcrypt>
8736538c 155
f8dbba82 156The crypt libraries in GNU libc have been ported to Cygwin.
1cab015a 157
f8dbba82 158The DES based Ultra Fast Crypt port was done by Alexey Truhan
1cab015a 159
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160 http://dome.weeg.uiowa.edu/pub/domestic/sos/cw32crypt-dist-0.tgz
161
162NOTE: There are various export restrictions on DES implementations,
163see the glibc README for more details.
1cab015a 164
f8dbba82 165The MD5 port was done by Andy Piper:
1cab015a 166
f8dbba82 167 http://dome.weeg.uiowa.edu/pub/domestic/sos/libcrypt.tgz
1cab015a 168
f8dbba82 169More information can also be found at:
1cab015a 170
f8dbba82 171 http://miracle.geol.msu.ru/sos/
1cab015a 172
f8dbba82 173=item * C<-lgdbm> (C<use GDBM_File>)
1cab015a 174
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175GDBM is available for Cygwin. GDBM's ndbm/dbm compatibility feature
176also makes C<NDBM_File> and C<ODBM_File> possible (although they add
177little extra value).
1cab015a 178
f8dbba82 179=item * C<-ldb> (C<use DB_File>)
1cab015a 180
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181BerkeleyDB is available for Cygwin. Some details can be found in
182F<ext/DB_File/DB_File.pm>.
1cab015a 183
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184=item * C<-lcygipc> (C<use IPC::SysV>)
185
186A port of SysV IPC is available for Cygwin:
187
188 http://www.multione.capgemini.fr/tools/pack_ipc/
189
190The 1.3 release does not include ftok(), but code for ftok() can be
191borrowed from glibc.
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192
193=back
194
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195=head2 Configure-time Options
196
197The F<INSTALL> document describes several Configure-time options.
198Some of these will work with Cygwin, others are not yet possible. Also,
199some of these are experimental.
200
201=over 4
202
203=item * C<-Uusedl>
204
205If you want to force Perl to be compiled statically, you can either
206choose this when Configure prompts you or you can use the Configure
207command line option.
208
209=item * C<-Uusemymalloc>
1cab015a 210
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211By default Perl uses the malloc() included with the Perl source. If you
212want to force Perl to build with the system malloc(), you can either
213choose this when Configure prompts you or you can use the Configure
214command line option.
1cab015a 215
f8dbba82 216=item * C<-Dusemultiplicty>
1cab015a 217
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218Multiplicity is required when embedding Perl in a C program and using
219more than one interpreter instance. This works with the Cygwin port.
1cab015a 220
f8dbba82 221=item * C<-Duseperlio>
1cab015a 222
f8dbba82 223The PerlIO abstraction works with the Cygwin port.
1cab015a 224
f8dbba82 225=item * C<-Duse64bits -Duselonglong>
1cab015a 226
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227I<gcc> supports 64-bit integers. However, several additional long long
228functions are necessary to use them within Perl (I<{atol,strtoul}l>).
229These are B<not> yet available with Cygwin.
1cab015a 230
f8dbba82 231=item * C<-Duselongdouble>
1cab015a 232
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233I<gcc> supports long doubles (12 bytes). However, several additional
234long double math functions are necessary to use them within Perl
235(I<{sqrt,pow,atan2,exp,fmod,log,cos,frexp,sin,floor,modf,atof}l>).
236These are B<not> yet available with Cygwin.
1cab015a 237
f8dbba82 238=item * C<-Dusethreads>
1cab015a 239
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240POSIX threads are B<not> yet implemented in Cygwin.
241
242=item * C<-Duselargefiles>
243
244Although Win32 supports large files, Cygwin currently uses 32-bit ints
245for internal size and positional calculations.
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246
247=back
248
f8dbba82 249=head2 Suspicious Warnings
1cab015a 250
f8dbba82 251You may see some messages during Configure that seem suspicious.
8736538c 252
f8dbba82 253=over 4
8736538c 254
f8dbba82 255=item * Whoa There
8736538c 256
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257Cygwin does not yet implement chroot(), setegid() or seteuid()
258functionality, but has stub functions that return C<ENOSYS>. You will
259see a message when Configure detects that its guess conflicts with the
260hint file.
8736538c 261
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262 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
263 The recommended value for $d_chroot on this machine was "undef"!
264 Keep the recommended value? [y]
8736538c 265
f8dbba82 266You should keep the recommended value.
8736538c 267
f8dbba82 268=item * Checking how std your stdio is...
5aabfad6 269
f8dbba82 270Configure reports:
5aabfad6 271
f8dbba82 272 Your stdio doesn't appear very std.
5aabfad6 273
f8dbba82 274This is correct.
5aabfad6 275
f8dbba82 276=head1 MAKE
5aabfad6 277
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278Simply run make and wait:
279
280 make 2>&1 | tee log.make
281
282=head2 Warnings
283
284Warnings like these are normal:
285
286 warning: overriding commands for target <file>
287 warning: ignoring old commands for target <file>
288
289 Warning: no export definition file provided
290 dllwrap will create one, but may not be what you want
291
292=head2 ld2
293
294During `C<make>', I<ld2> will be created and installed in your $installbin
295directory (where you said to put public executables). It does not
296wait until the `C<make install>' process to install the I<ld2> script,
297this is because the remainder of the `C<make>' refers to I<ld2> without
298fully specifying its path and does this from multiple subdirectories.
299The assumption is that $installbin is in your current C<PATH>. If this
300is not the case or if you do not have an I<install> program, `C<make>'
301will fail at some point. If this happens, just manually copy I<ld2>
302from the source directory to someplace in your C<PATH>.
303
304=head1 TEST
305
306There are two steps to running the test suite:
307
308 make test 2>&1 | tee log.make-test
309
310 cd t;./perl harness 2>&1 | tee ../log.harness
311
312The same tests are run both times, but more information is provided when
313running as `C<./perl harness>'.
5aabfad6 314
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315Test results vary depending on your host system and your Cygwin
316configuration. It is possible that Cygwin will pass all the tests, but it
317is more likely that some tests will fail for one of the the reasons below.
1cab015a 318
f8dbba82 319=head2 File Permissions
1cab015a 320
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321UNIX file permissions are based on sets of mode bits for
322{read,write,execute} for each {user,group,other}. By default Cygwin only
323tracks the Win32 readonly attribute represented as the UNIX file user
324write bit (files are always readable, files are executable if they have
325a F<.{com,bat,exe}> extension or begin with C<#!>, directories are always
326readable and executable). On WinNT with the I<ntea> C<CYGWIN> setting,
327the remaining mode bits are stored as extended attributes. On WinNT
328with the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, permissions use the standard WinNT
329security descriptors and access control lists. Without one of these
330options, these tests will fail:
1cab015a 331
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332 Failed Test List of failed
333 ------------------------------------
334 io/fs.t 5, 7, 9-10
335 lib/anydbm.t 2
336 lib/db-btree.t 20
337 lib/db-hash.t 16
338 lib/db-recno.t 18
339 lib/gdbm.t 2
340 lib/glob-basic.t 9 (directory always readable)
341 lib/ndbm.t 2
342 lib/odbm.t 2
343 lib/sdbm.t 2
344 op/stat.t 9, 20 (.tmp not an executable extension)
1cab015a 345
f8dbba82 346=head2 Hard Links
1cab015a 347
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348FAT partitions do not support hard links (whereas NTFS does), in which
349case Cygwin implements link() by copying the file. These tests will fail:
1cab015a 350
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351 Failed Test List of failed
352 ------------------------------------
353 io/fs.t 4
354 op/stat.t 3
1cab015a 355
f8dbba82 356=head2 Filetime Granularity
1cab015a 357
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358On FAT partitions the filetime granularity is 2 seconds. The following
359test will fail:
1cab015a 360
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361 Failed Test List of failed
362 ------------------------------------
363 io/fs.t 18
1cab015a 364
f8dbba82 365=head2 Tainting Checks
1cab015a 366
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367When Perl is running in taint mode, C<$ENV{PATH}> is considered tainted
368and not used, so DLLs not in the default system directories will not
369be found. While the tests are running you will see warnings popup from
370the system with messages like:
1cab015a 371
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372 Win9x
373 Error Starting Program
374 A required .DLL file, CYGWIN1.DLL, was not found
1cab015a 375
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376 WinNT
377 perl.exe or sh.exe - Unable to Locate DLL
378 The dynamic link library cygwin1.dll could not be found in the
379 specified path ...
1cab015a 380
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381Just click OK and ignore them. When running `C<make test>', 2 popups
382occur. During `C<./perl harness>', 4 popups occur. Also, these tests
383will fail:
1cab015a 384
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385 Failed Test List of failed
386 ------------------------------------
387 op/taint.t 1, 3, 31, 37
1cab015a 388
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389Alternatively, you can copy F<cygwin1.dll> into one of the Windows system
390directories (although, this is B<not> recommended).
1cab015a 391
f8dbba82 392=head2 /etc/group
5aabfad6 393
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394Cygwin does not need F</etc/group>, in which case the F<op/grent.t>
395test will be skipped. The check performed by F<op/grent.t> expects to
396see entries that use the members field, otherwise this test will fail:
f89d6eaa 397
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398 Failed Test List of failed
399 ------------------------------------
400 op/grent.t 1
1cab015a 401
f8dbba82 402=head2 Unexplained Failures
1cab015a 403
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404Any additional tests that fail are likely due to bugs in Cygwin. It is
405expected that by the time of the next net release most of these will
406be solved so they are not described here. None of the current bugs are
407serious enough that workarounds are needed.
1cab015a 408
f8dbba82 409=head2 Script Portability
1cab015a 410
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411Cygwin does an outstanding job of providing UNIX-like semantics on top
412of Win32 systems. However, in addition to the items noted above, there
413are some differences that you should know about. This is only a very
414brief guide to portability, more information about Cygwin can be found
415in the Cygwin documentation.
1cab015a 416
f8dbba82 417=over 4
1cab015a 418
f8dbba82 419=item * Pathnames
1cab015a 420
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421Cygwin pathnames can be separated by forward (F</>) or backward (F<\>)
422slashes. They may also begin with drive letters (F<C:>) or Universal
423Naming Codes (F<//UNC>). DOS device names (F<aux>, F<con>, F<prn>,
424F<com*>, F<lpt?>) are invalid as base filenames. However, they can be
425used in extensions (e.g., F<hello.aux>). Names may not contain these
426characters:
1cab015a 427
f8dbba82 428 : * ? " < > |
1cab015a 429
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430File names are case insensitive, but case preserving. With the I<mixed>
431C<CYGWIN> setting, file names are mixed-case (although, directory names
432remain case insensitive).
1cab015a 433
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434The I<mixed> setting is only available with the "coolview" version of
435F<cygwin1.dll> provided by Sergey Okhapkin at:
436
437 ftp://ftp.franken.de/pub/win32/develop/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Okhapkin_Sergey/
438
439=item * Text/Binary
440
441When a file is opened it is in either text or binary mode. In text mode
442it is subject to CR/LF/Ctrl-Z translations. Perl provides a binmode()
443function to force binary mode on files that otherwise would be treated
444as text. With Cygwin, the default mode for an open() is determined by the
445mode of the mount that underlies a file. For binmode() to be effective,
446the underlying mount must be text. There is no way to force text mode
447on a file underneath a binary mount. The text/binary issue is covered
448at length in the Cygwin documentation.
449
450lseek() only works with files opened in binary mode.
451
452=item * F<.exe>
453
454The Cygwin stat() makes the F<.exe> extension transparent by looking for
455a F<foo.exe> when you ask for F<foo> (unless a F<foo> also exists).
456Cygwin does not require a F<.exe> extension, but I<gcc> adds it
457automatically when building a program. However, when accessing an
458executable as a normal file (e.g., I<install> or I<cp> in a makefile)
459the F<.exe> is not transparent.
460
461NOTE: There is a version of I<install> that understands F<.exe>, it can
462be found at:
463
464 ftp://ftp.franken.de/pub/win32/develop/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Humblet_Pierre_A/
465
466=item * chown()
467
468On WinNT with the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, chown() can change a file's
469user and group IDs. In all other configurations chown() is a no-op,
470although this is appropriate on Win9x since there is no security model.
471
472=item * Miscellaneous
473
474File locking using the C<F_GETLK> command to fcntl() is a stub that
475returns C<ENOSYS>.
476
477Win32 can not unlink() an open file (but this is emulated by Cygwin).
478
479Win9x can not rename() an open file (although WinNT can).
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480
481=back
482
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483=head1 INSTALL
484
485This will install Perl, including man pages.
486
487 make install 2>&1 | tee log.make-install
1cab015a 488
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489You may need to be I<Administrator> to run `C<make install>'. If you
490are not, you must have write access to the directories in question.
1cab015a 491
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492Information on installing the Perl documentation in HTML format can be
493found in the F<INSTALL> document.
1cab015a 494
f8dbba82 495=head1 MANIFEST
1cab015a 496
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497These are the files in the Perl release that contain references to Cygwin.
498These very brief notes attempt to explain the reason for all conditional
499code. Hopefully, keeping this up to date will allow the Cygwin port to
500be kept as clean as possible.
1cab015a 501
f8dbba82 502=over 4
1cab015a 503
f8dbba82 504=item Documentation
1cab015a 505
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506 INSTALL
507 Changes Changes5.005 Changes5.004
508 AUTHORS MAINTAIN MANIFEST
509 README.cygwin README.win32
510 pod/perl.pod pod/perlfaq3.pod pod/perlhist.pod pod/perlmodlib.pod
511 pod/perlport.pod pod/perltoc.pod pod/perl5004delta.pod
1cab015a 512
f8dbba82 513=item Build, Configure, Make, Install
1cab015a 514
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515 cygwin/Makefile.SHs
516 cygwin/ld2.in
517 cygwin/perlld.in
518 ext/IPC/SysV/hints/cygwin.pl
519 ext/NDBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
520 ext/ODBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
521 hints/cygwin.sh
522 Porting/patchls - cygwin in port list
523 Makefile.SH - linklibperl, cygwin/Makefile.SHs
524 makedepend.SH - uwinfix
525 Configure - help finding hints from uname,
526 shared libperl required for dynamic loading
527 installman - man pages with :: translated to .
528 installperl - install dll, install to pods
1cab015a 529
f8dbba82 530=item Tests
1cab015a 531
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532 t/io/tell.t - binmode
533 t/op/magic.t - $^X WORKAROUND, s/.exe//
534 t/op/stat.t - no /dev, no -u (setuid)
535
536=item Compiled Perl Source
537
538 doio.c - win9x can not rename a file when it is open
539 EXTERN.h - __declspec(dllimport)
540 XSUB.h - __declspec(dllexport)
541 perl.h - binmode
542 mg.c - environ WORKAROUND
543 util.c - environ WORKAROUND
544 unixish.h - environ WORKAROUND
545
546=item Compiled Module Source
547
548 ext/POSIX/POSIX.xs - tzname defined externally
549 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/pair.c
550 - EXTCONST needs to be redefined from EXTERN.h
551 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/sdbm.c
552 - binary open
553
554=item Perl Modules/Scripts
555
556 lib/perl5db.pl - use stdin not /dev/tty
557 utils/perlcc.PL - DynaLoader.a in compile, -DUSEIMPORTLIB
558 utils/perldoc.PL - version comment
559 lib/File/Spec/Unix.pm - preserve //unc
560 lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm
561 - require MM_Cygwin.pm
562 lib/ExtUtils/MM_Cygwin.pm
563 - canonpath, cflags, manifypods, perl_archive
564 lib/Cwd.pm - `pwd`
1cab015a
FE
565
566=back
f89d6eaa 567
f8dbba82
GS
568=head1 BUGS
569
570Upon each start, I<make> warns that a rule for F<perlmain.o> is overridden
571(but there seems to be no better solution than adding an explicit define).
572
573`C<make clean>' does not remove library F<.def> and F<.exe.stackdump>
574files.
575
576The I<ld2> script contains references to the source directory. You should
577change these to C</usr/local/bin> (or whatever) after install.
578
579=head1 AUTHORS
580
581Charles Wilson E<lt>cwilson@ece.gatech.eduE<gt>,
582Eric Fifer E<lt>efifer@sanwaint.comE<gt>,
583alexander smishlajev E<lt>als@turnhere.comE<gt>,
584Steven Morlock E<lt>newspost@morlock.netE<gt>,
585Sebastien Barre E<lt>Sebastien.Barre@utc.frE<gt>,
586Teun Burgers E<lt>burgers@ecn.nlE<gt>.
587
588=head1 HISTORY
589
590Last updated: 28 January 2000