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perl 5.003_04: Configure
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1=head1 NAME
2
3Install - Build and Installation guide for perl5.
4
5=head1 SYNOPSIS
6
7The basic steps to build and install perl5 are:
8
9 rm -f config.sh
10 sh Configure
11 make
12 make test
13 make install
14
15Each of these is explained in further detail below.
16
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17=head1 DESCRIPTION
18
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19You should probably at least skim through this entire document before
20proceeding. Special notes specific to this release are identified
21by B<NOTE>.
22
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23This document is written in pod format as an easy way to indicate its
24structure. The pod format is described in pod/perlpod.pod, but you can
25read it as is with any pager or editor.
26
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27If you're building Perl on a non-Unix system, you should also read
28the README file specific to your operating system, since this may
29provide additional or different instructions for building Perl.
30
c3edaffb 31=head1 Space Requirements.
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33The complete perl5 source tree takes up about 7 MB of disk space.
34The complete tree after completing C<make> takes roughly
3515 MB, though the actual total is likely to be quite
36system-dependent. The installation directories need something
37on the order of 7 MB, though again that value is system-dependent.
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38
39=head1 Start with a Fresh Distribution.
40
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41If you have built perl before, you should clean out the build directory
42with the command
43
44 make realclean
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46The results of a Configure run are stored in the config.sh file. If
47you are upgrading from a previous version of perl, or if you change
48systems or compilers or make other significant changes, or if you are
49experiencing difficulties building perl, you should probably I<not>
50re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or rename it, e.g.
51
52 mv config.sh config.sh.old
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54Then run Configure.
55
56=head1 Run Configure.
57
58Configure will figure out various things about your system. Some
59things Configure will figure out for itself, other things it will ask
60you about. To accept the default, just press C<RETURN>. The default
61is almost always ok.
62
63After it runs, Configure will perform variable substitution on all the
64F<*.SH> files and offer to run B<make depend>.
65
66Configure supports a number of useful options. Run B<Configure -h>
67to get a listing. To compile with gcc, for example, you can run
68
69 sh Configure -Dcc=gcc
70
71This is the preferred way to specify gcc (or another alternative
72compiler) so that the hints files can set appropriate defaults.
73
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74If you want to use your old config.sh but override some of the items
75with command line options, you need to use B<Configure -O>.
76
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77If you are willing to accept all the defaults, and you want terse
78output, you can run
79
80 sh Configure -des
81
82By default, for most systems, perl will be installed in
83/usr/local/{bin, lib, man}. You can specify a different 'prefix' for
84the default installation directory, when Configure prompts you or by
85using the Configure command line option -Dprefix='/some/directory',
86e.g.
87
25f94b33 88 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl
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89
90If your prefix contains the string "perl", then the directories
91are simplified. For example, if you use prefix=/opt/perl,
92then Configure will suggest /opt/perl/lib instead of
93/usr/local/lib/perl5/.
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94
95By default, Configure will compile perl to use dynamic loading, if
96your system supports it. If you want to force perl to be compiled
97statically, you can either choose this when Configure prompts you or by
98using the Configure command line option -Uusedl.
99
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100=head2 Extensions
101
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102By default, Configure will offer to build every extension which appears
103to be supported. For example, Configure will offer to build GDBM_File
104only if it is able to find the gdbm library. (See examples below.)
105DynaLoader, Fcntl and FileHandle are always built by default.
106Configure does not contain code to test for POSIX compliance, so POSIX
107is always built by default as well. If you wish to skip POSIX, you can
108set the Configure variable useposix=false either in a hint file or from
c3edaffb 109the Configure command line. Similarly, the Opcode extension is always
edb1cbcb 110built by default, but you can skip it by setting the Configure variable
c3edaffb 111useopcode=false either in a hint file for from the command line.
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112
113In summary, here are the Configure command-line variables you can set
114to turn off each extension:
115
116 DB_File i_db
117 DynaLoader (Must always be included)
118 Fcntl (Always included by default)
edb1cbcb 119 FileHandle (Always included by default)
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120 GDBM_File i_gdbm
121 NDBM_File i_ndbm
122 ODBM_File i_dbm
123 POSIX useposix
124 SDBM_File (Always included by default)
c3edaffb 125 Opcode useopcode
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126 Socket d_socket
127
128Thus to skip the NDBM_File extension, you can use
129
130 sh Configure -Ui_ndbm
131
132Again, this is taken care of automatically if you don't have the ndbm
133library.
134
135Of course, you may always run Configure interactively and select only
136the Extensions you want.
137
138Finally, if you have dynamic loading (most modern Unix systems do)
139remember that these extensions do not increase the size of your perl
140executable, nor do they impact start-up time, so you probably might as
141well build all the ones that will work on your system.
142
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143=head2 GNU-style configure
144
145If you prefer the GNU-style B<configure> command line interface, you can
146use the supplied B<configure> command, e.g.
147
148 CC=gcc ./configure
149
150The B<configure> script emulates several of the more common configure
151options. Try
152
153 ./configure --help
154
155for a listing.
156
157Cross compiling is currently not supported.
158
159=head2 Including locally-installed libraries
160
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161Perl5 comes with interfaces to number of database extensions, including
162dbm, ndbm, gdbm, and Berkeley db. For each extension, if
163Configure can find the appropriate header files and libraries, it will
164automatically include that extension. The gdbm and db libraries
165are B<not> included with perl. See the library documentation for
166how to obtain the libraries.
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167
168I<Note:> If your database header (.h) files are not in a
169directory normally searched by your C compiler, then you will need to
170include the appropriate B<-I/your/directory> option when prompted by
171Configure. If your database library (.a) files are not in a directory
172normally searched by your C compiler and linker, then you will need to
173include the appropriate B<-L/your/directory> option when prompted by
174Configure. See the examples below.
175
176=head2 Examples
177
178=over 4
179
180=item gdbm in /usr/local.
181
182Suppose you have gdbm and want Configure to find it and build the
183GDBM_File extension. This examples assumes you have F<gdbm.h>
184installed in F</usr/local/include/gdbm.h> and F<libgdbm.a> installed in
185F</usr/local/lib/libgdbm.a>. Configure should figure all the
186necessary steps out automatically.
187
188Specifically, when Configure prompts you for flags for
189your C compiler, you should include C<-I/usr/local/include>.
190
191When Configure prompts you for linker flags, you should include
192C<-L/usr/local/lib>.
193
194If you are using dynamic loading, then when Configure prompts you for
195linker flags for dynamic loading, you should again include
196C<-L/usr/local/lib>.
197
198Again, this should all happen automatically. If you want to accept the
199defaults for all the questions and have Configure print out only terse
200messages, then you can just run
201
202 sh Configure -des
203
204and Configure should include the GDBM_File extension automatically.
205
206This should actually work if you have gdbm installed in any of
207(/usr/local, /opt/local, /usr/gnu, /opt/gnu, /usr/GNU, or /opt/GNU).
208
209=item gdbm in /usr/you
210
211Suppose you have gdbm installed in some place other than /usr/local/,
212but you still want Configure to find it. To be specific, assume you
213have F</usr/you/include/gdbm.h> and F</usr/you/lib/libgdbm.a>. You
214still have to add B<-I/usr/you/include> to cc flags, but you have to take
215an extra step to help Configure find F<libgdbm.a>. Specifically, when
216Configure prompts you for library directories, you have to add
217F</usr/you/lib> to the list.
218
219It is possible to specify this from the command line too (all on one
220line):
221
222 sh Configure -des \
223 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include" \
224 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib"
225
226C<locincpth> is a space-separated list of include directories to search.
227Configure will automatically add the appropriate B<-I> directives.
228
229C<loclibpth> is a space-separated list of library directories to search.
230Configure will automatically add the appropriate B<-L> directives. If
231you have some libraries under F</usr/local/> and others under
232F</usr/you>, then you have to include both, namely
233
234 sh Configure -des \
235 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include /usr/local/include" \
236 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib /usr/local/lib"
237
238=back
239
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240=head2 Installation Directories.
241
242The installation directories can all be changed by answering the
243appropriate questions in Configure. For convenience, all the
244installation questions are near the beginning of Configure.
245
246By default, Configure uses the following directories for
247library files (archname is a string like sun4-sunos, determined
248by Configure)
249
250 /usr/local/lib/perl5/archname/5.002
251 /usr/local/lib/perl5/
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252 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/archname
253 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl
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254
255and the following directories for manual pages:
256
257 /usr/local/man/man1
258 /usr/local/lib/perl5/man/man3
259
260(Actually, Configure recognizes the SVR3-style
261/usr/local/man/l_man/man1 directories, if present, and uses those
262instead.) The module man pages are stuck in that strange spot so that
263they don't collide with other man pages stored in /usr/local/man/man3,
264and so that Perl's man pages don't hide system man pages. On some
265systems, B<man less> would end up calling up Perl's less.pm module man
266page, rather than the B<less> program.
267
268If you specify a prefix that contains the string "perl", then the
269directory structure is simplified. For example, if you Configure
270with -Dprefix=/opt/perl, then the defaults are
271
272 /opt/perl/lib/archname/5.002
273 /opt/perl/lib
274 /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/archname
275 /opt/perl/lib/site_perl
276
277 /opt/perl/man/man1
278 /opt/perl/man/man3
279
280The perl executable will search the libraries in the order given
281above.
282
283The directories site_perl and site_perl/archname are empty, but are
284intended to be used for installing local or site-wide extensions. Perl
285will automatically look in these directories. Previously, most sites
286just put their local extensions in with the standard distribution.
287
288In order to support using things like #!/usr/local/bin/perl5.002 after
289a later version is released, architecture-dependent libraries are
290stored in a version-specific directory, such as
291/usr/local/lib/perl5/archname/5.002/. In 5.000 and 5.001, these files
292were just stored in /usr/local/lib/perl5/archname/. If you will not be
293using 5.001 binaries, you can delete the standard extensions from the
294/usr/local/lib/perl5/archname/ directory. Locally-added extensions can
295be moved to the site_perl and site_perl/archname directories.
296
297Again, these are just the defaults, and can be changed as you run
298Configure.
299
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300=head2 Changing the installation directory
301
302Configure distinguishes between the directory in which perl (and its
303associated files) should be installed and the directory in which it
304will eventually reside. For most sites, these two are the same; for
305sites that use AFS, this distinction is handled automatically.
306However, sites that use software such as B<depot> to manage software
307packages may also wish to install perl into a different directory and
308use that management software to move perl to its final destination.
309This section describes how to do this. Someday, Configure may support
310an option C<-Dinstallprefix=/foo> to simplify this.
311
312Suppose you want to install perl under the F</tmp/perl5> directory.
313You can edit F<config.sh> and change all the install* variables to
314point to F</tmp/perl5> instead of F</usr/local/wherever>. You could
315also set them all from the Configure command line. Or, you can
316automate this process by placing the following lines in a file
317F<config.over> B<before> you run Configure (replace /tmp/perl5 by a
318directory of your choice):
319
320 installprefix=/tmp/perl5
321 test -d $installprefix || mkdir $installprefix
322 test -d $installprefix/bin || mkdir $installprefix/bin
323 installarchlib=`echo $installarchlib | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
324 installbin=`echo $installbin | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
325 installman1dir=`echo $installman1dir | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
326 installman3dir=`echo $installman3dir | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
327 installprivlib=`echo $installprivlib | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
328 installscript=`echo $installscript | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
329 installsitelib=`echo $installsitelib | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
4633a7c4 330 installsitearch=`echo $installsitearch | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
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331
332Then, you can Configure and install in the usual way:
333
25f94b33 334 sh Configure -des
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335 make
336 make test
337 make install
338
339=head2 Creating an installable tar archive
340
341If you need to install perl on many identical systems, it is
342convenient to compile it once and create an archive that can be
343installed on multiple systems. Here's one way to do that:
344
345 # Set up config.over to install perl into a different directory,
346 # e.g. /tmp/perl5 (see previous part).
25f94b33 347 sh Configure -des
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348 make
349 make test
350 make install
351 cd /tmp/perl5
352 tar cvf ../perl5-archive.tar .
353 # Then, on each machine where you want to install perl,
354 cd /usr/local # Or wherever you specified as $prefix
355 tar xvf perl5-archive.tar
356
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357=head2 Building a shared libperl5.so Perl library.
358
359Currently, for most systems, the main perl executable is built by
360linking the "perl library" libperl.a with perlmain.o, your static
361extensions (usually just DynaLoader.a) and various extra libraries,
362such as -lm.
363
364On systems that support dynamic loading, it may be possible to replace
365libperl.a with a shared libperl5.so. If you anticipate building
366several different perl binaries (e.g. by embedding libperl into
367different programs, or by using the optional compiler extension), then
368you might wish to build a shared libperl5.so so that all your binaries
369can share the same library.
370
371The disadvantages are that there may be a significant performance
372penalty associated with the shared libperl5.so, and that the overall
373meachanism is still rather fragile with respect to different versions
374and upgrades.
375
376In terms of performance, on my test system (Solaris 2.5_x86) the perl
377test suite took roughly 15% longer to run with the shared libperl5.so.
378Your system and typical applications may well give quite different
379results.
380
381The default name for the shared library is typically something like
382libperl5.so.3.2 (for perl5.003_02) or libperl5.so.302 or simply
383libperl5.so. Configure tries to guess a sensible naming convention
384based on your C library name. Since the library gets installed in a
385version-specific architecture-dependent directory, the exact name
386isn't very important anyway, as long as your linker is happy.
387
388For some systems (mostly SVR4), building a shared libperl is required
389for dynamic loading to work, and hence is already the default.
390
391You can elect to build a shared libperl by
392
393 sh Configure -Duseshrplib
394
395To actually build perl, you must add the current working directory to your
396LD_LIBRARY_PATH environtment variable before running make. You can do
397this with
398
399 LD_LIBRARY_PATH=`pwd`:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
400
401for Bourne-style shells, or
402
403 setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH `pwd`
404
405for Csh-style shells. You *MUST* do this before running make.
406Folks running NeXT OPENSTEP must substitute DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH for
407LD_LIBRARY_PATH above.
408
409=head2 Selecting File IO mechanisms
410
411Previous version of perl used the standard IO mechanisms as defined in
412<stdio.h>. Versions 5.003_02 and later of perl allow alternate IO
413mechanisms via a "PerlIO" abstraction, but the stdio mechanism is still
414the default and is the only supported mechanism.
415
416This PerlIO abstraction can be enabled either on the Configure command
417line with
418
419 sh Configure -Duseperlio
420
421or interactively at the appropriate Configure prompt.
422
423If you choose to use the PerlIO abstraction layer, there are two
424(experimental) possibilities for the underlying IO calls. These have been
425tested to some extent on some platforms, but are not guaranteed to work
426everywhere.
427
428=over 4
429
430=item 1.
431
432AT&T's "sfio". This has superior performance to <stdio.h> in many
433cases, and is extensible by the use of "disipline" modules. Sfio
434currently only builds on a subset of the UNIX platforms perl supports.
435Because the data structures are completely different from stdio, perl
436extension modules or external libraries may not work. This
437configuration exists to allow these issues to be worked on.
438
439This option requires the 'sfio' package to have been built and installed.
440A (fairly old) version of sfio is in CPAN, and work is in progress to make
441it more easily buildable by adding Configure support.
442
443You select this option by
444
445 sh Configure -Duseperlio -Dusesfio
446
447If you have already selected -Duseperlio, and if Configure detects
448that you have sfio, then sfio will be the default suggested by
449Configure.
450
451=item 2.
452
453Normal stdio IO, but with all IO going through calls to the PerlIO
454abstraction layer. This configuration can be used to check that perl and
455extension modules have been correctly converted to use the PerlIO
456abstraction.
457
458This configuration should work on all platforms (but currently does not).
459
460You select this option via :
461
462 sh Configure -Duseperlio -Uusesfio
463
464If you have already selected -Duseperlio, and if Configure does not
465detect sfio, then this will be the default suggested by Configure.
466
467=back
468
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469=head2 What if it doesn't work?
470
471=over 4
472
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473=item Running Configure Interactively
474
475If Configure runs into trouble, remember that you can always run
476Configure interactively so that you can check (and correct) its
477guesses.
478
479All the installation questions have been moved to the top, so you don't
480have to wait for them. Once you've handled them (and your C compiler &
c3edaffb 481flags) you can type C<&-d> at the next Configure prompt and Configure
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482will use the defaults from then on.
483
484If you find yourself trying obscure command line incantations and
485config.over tricks, I recommend you run Configure interactively
486instead. You'll probably save yourself time in the long run.
487
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488=item Hint files.
489
490The perl distribution includes a number of system-specific hints files
491in the hints/ directory. If one of them matches your system, Configure
492will offer to use that hint file.
493
494Several of the hint files contain additional important information.
495If you have any problems, it is a good idea to read the relevant hint
496file for further information. See F<hints/solaris_2.sh> for an
497extensive example.
498
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499=item *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
500
501Occasionally, Configure makes a wrong guess. For example, on SunOS
5024.1.3, Configure incorrectly concludes that tzname[] is in the
503standard C library. The hint file is set up to correct for this. You
504will see a message:
505
506 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
507 The recommended value for $d_tzname on this machine was "undef"!
508 Keep the recommended value? [y]
509
510You should always keep the recommended value unless, after reading the
511relevant section of the hint file, you are sure you want to try
512overriding it.
513
514If you are re-using an old config.sh, the word "previous" will be
515used instead of "recommended". Again, you will almost always want
516to keep the previous value, unless you have changed something on your
517system.
518
519For example, suppose you have added libgdbm.a to your system
520and you decide to reconfigure perl to use GDBM_File. When you run
521Configure again, you will need to add -lgdbm to the list of libraries.
522Now, Configure will find your gdbm library and will issue a message:
523
524 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
525 The previous value for $i_gdbm on this machine was "undef"!
526 Keep the previous value? [y]
527
528In this case, you do I<not> want to keep the previous value, so you
c3edaffb 529should answer 'n'. (You'll also have to manually add GDBM_File to
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530the list of dynamic extensions to build.)
531
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532=item Changing Compilers
533
534If you change compilers or make other significant changes, you should
535probably I<not> re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or
536rename it, e.g. mv config.sh config.sh.old. Then rerun Configure
537with the options you want to use.
538
539This is a common source of problems. If you change from B<cc> to
540B<gcc>, you should almost always remove your old config.sh.
541
c3edaffb 542=item Propagating your changes to config.sh
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543
544If you later make any changes to F<config.sh>, you should propagate
25f94b33 545them to all the .SH files by running B<sh Configure -S>.
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546
547=item config.over
548
549You can also supply a shell script config.over to over-ride Configure's
550guesses. It will get loaded up at the very end, just before config.sh
551is created. You have to be careful with this, however, as Configure
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552does no checking that your changes make sense. See the section on
553changing the installation directory for an example.
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554
555=item config.h
556
557Many of the system dependencies are contained in F<config.h>.
558F<Configure> builds F<config.h> by running the F<config_h.SH> script.
559The values for the variables are taken from F<config.sh>.
560
561If there are any problems, you can edit F<config.h> directly. Beware,
562though, that the next time you run B<Configure>, your changes will be
563lost.
564
565=item cflags
566
567If you have any additional changes to make to the C compiler command
568line, they can be made in F<cflags.SH>. For instance, to turn off the
569optimizer on F<toke.c>, find the line in the switch structure for
570F<toke.c> and put the command C<optimize='-g'> before the C<;;>. You
571can also edit F<cflags> directly, but beware that your changes will be
572lost the next time you run B<Configure>.
573
574To change the C flags for all the files, edit F<config.sh>
575and change either C<$ccflags> or C<$optimize>,
25f94b33 576and then re-run B<sh Configure -S ; make depend>.
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577
578=item No sh.
579
580If you don't have sh, you'll have to copy the sample file config_H to
581config.h and edit the config.h to reflect your system's peculiarities.
582You'll probably also have to extensively modify the extension building
583mechanism.
584
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585=item Porting information
586
587Specific information for the OS/2, Plan9, and VMS ports are in the
588corresponing subdirectories. Additional information, including
589a glossary of all those config.sh variables, is in the Porting
590subdirectory.
591
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592=back
593
594=head1 make depend
595
596This will look for all the includes.
597The output is stored in F<makefile>. The only difference between
598F<Makefile> and F<makefile> is the dependencies at the bottom of
599F<makefile>. If you have to make any changes, you should edit
600F<makefile>, not F<Makefile> since the Unix B<make> command reads
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601F<makefile> first. (On non-Unix systems, the output may be stored in
602a different file. Check the value of $firstmakefile in your config.sh
603if in doubt.)
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604
605Configure will offer to do this step for you, so it isn't listed
606explicitly above.
607
608=head1 make
609
610This will attempt to make perl in the current directory.
611
612If you can't compile successfully, try some of the following ideas.
613
614=over 4
615
616=item *
617
618If you used a hint file, try reading the comments in the hint file
619for further tips and information.
620
621=item *
622
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623If you can successfully build F<miniperl>, but the process crashes
624during the building of extensions, you should run
625
626 make minitest
627
628to test your version of miniperl.
629
630=item *
631
632If you get duplicates upon linking for malloc et al, say -DHIDEMYMALLOC.
633
634=item *
635
636If you get varargs problems with gcc, be sure that gcc is installed
637correctly. When using gcc, you should probably have i_stdarg='define'
638and i_varargs='undef' in config.sh. The problem is usually solved by
639running fixincludes correctly. If you do change config.sh, don't
640forget to propagate your changes with C<sh Configure -S>. See also the
641vsprintf item below.
642
643=item *
644
645If you get error messages such as the following (the exact line
646numbers will vary in different versions of perl):
647
648 util.c: In function `Perl_croak':
649 util.c:962: number of arguments doesn't match prototype
650 proto.h:45: prototype declaration
651
652it might well be a symptom of the gcc "varargs problem". See the
653previous item.
654
655=item *
656
657If you have problems with dynamic loading using gcc on SunOS or
658Solaris, and you are using GNU as and GNU ld, you may need to add
659B<-B/bin/> (for SunOS) or B<-B/usr/ccs/bin/> (for Solaris) to your
660$ccflags, $ldflags, and $lddlflags so that the system's versions of as
661and ld are used. Alternatively, you can use the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX
662environment variable to ensure that Sun's as and ld are used. Consult
663your gcc documentation for further information on the B<-B> option and
664the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX variable.
665
666=item *
667
668If you run into dynamic loading problems, check your setting of
669the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable. Perl should build
670fine with LD_LIBRARY_PATH unset, though that may depend on details
671of your local set-up.
672
673=item dlopen: stub interception failed
674
675The primary cause of the 'dlopen: stub interception failed' message is
676that the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable includes a directory
677which is a symlink to /usr/lib (such as /lib).
678
679The reason this causes a problem is quite subtle. The file libdl.so.1.0
680actually *only* contains functions which generate 'stub interception
681failed' errors! The runtime linker intercepts links to
682"/usr/lib/libdl.so.1.0" and links in internal implementation of those
683functions instead. [Thanks to Tim Bunce for this explanation.]
684
685=item *
686
687If Configure seems to be having trouble finding library functions,
688try not using nm extraction. You can do this from the command line
689with
690
691 sh Configure -Uusenm
692
693or by answering the nm extraction question interactively.
694If you have previously run Configure, you should I<not> reuse your old
695config.sh.
696
697=item *
698
699If you run into problems with vsprintf in compiling util.c, the
700problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
701version of vsprintf(). Check whether your system has vprintf().
702(Virtually all modern Unix systems do.) Then, check the variable
703d_vprintf in config.sh. If your system has vprintf, it should be:
704
705 d_vprintf='define'
706
707If Configure guessed wrong, it is likely that Configure guessed wrong
708on a number of other common functions too. You are probably better off
709re-running Configure without using nm extraction (see previous item).
710
711=item *
712
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713If you can't compile successfully, try adding a C<-DCRIPPLED_CC> flag.
714(Just because you get no errors doesn't mean it compiled right!)
715This simplifies some complicated expressions for compilers that
716get indigestion easily. If that has no effect, try turning off
717optimization. If you have missing routines, you probably need to
718add some library or other, or you need to undefine some feature that
719Configure thought was there but is defective or incomplete.
720
721=item *
722
723Some compilers will not compile or optimize the larger files without
724some extra switches to use larger jump offsets or allocate larger
725internal tables. You can customize the switches for each file in
726F<cflags>. It's okay to insert rules for specific files into
727F<makefile> since a default rule only takes effect in the absence of a
728specific rule.
729
730=item *
731
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732SCO prior to 3.2.4 may be missing dbmclose(). An upgrade to 3.2.4
733that includes libdbm.nfs (which includes dbmclose()) may be available.
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734
735=item *
736
737Some additional things that have been reported for either perl4 or perl5:
738
739Genix may need to use libc rather than libc_s, or #undef VARARGS.
740
741NCR Tower 32 (OS 2.01.01) may need -W2,-Sl,2000 and #undef MKDIR.
742
743UTS may need one or more of B<-DCRIPPLED_CC>, B<-K> or B<-g>, and undef LSTAT.
744
745If you get syntax errors on '(', try -DCRIPPLED_CC.
746
747Machines with half-implemented dbm routines will need to #undef I_ODBM
748
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749=back
750
751=head1 make test
752
753This will run the regression tests on the perl you just made. If it
754doesn't say "All tests successful" then something went wrong. See the
755file F<t/README> in the F<t> subdirectory. Note that you can't run it
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756in background if this disables opening of /dev/tty.
757
758If B<make test> bombs out, just B<cd> to the F<t> directory and run
759B<TEST> by hand to see if it makes any difference. If individual tests
760bomb, you can run them by hand, e.g.,
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761
762 ./perl op/groups.t
763
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764You can also read the individual tests to see if there are any helpful
765comments that apply to your system.
766
edb1cbcb 767B<Note>: one possible reason for errors is that some external programs
c07a80fd 768may be broken due to the combination of your environment and the way
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769C<make test> exercises them. For example, this may happen if you have
770one or more of these environment variables set: C<LC_ALL LC_CTYPE
771LANG>. In some versions of UNIX, the non-English locales are known to
772cause programs to exhibit mysterious errors. If you have any of the
773above environment variables set, please try C<setenv LC_ALL C> (for
774C shell) or <LC_ALL=C;export LC_ALL> (for Bourne or Korn shell) from the
775command line and then retry C<make test>. If the tests then succeed,
776you may have a broken program that is confusing the testing. Please run
777the troublesome test by hand as shown above and see whether you can
778locate the program. Look for things like:
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779C<exec, `backquoted command`, system, open("|...")> or C<open("...|")>.
780All these mean that Perl is trying to run some external program.
eed2e782 781
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782=head1 INSTALLING PERL5
783
784=head1 make install
785
786This will put perl into the public directory you specified to
787B<Configure>; by default this is F</usr/local/bin>. It will also try
788to put the man pages in a reasonable place. It will not nroff the man
789page, however. You may need to be root to run B<make install>. If you
790are not root, you must own the directories in question and you should
791ignore any messages about chown not working.
792
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793You may see some harmless error messages and warnings from pod2man.
794You may safely ignore them. (Yes, they should be fixed, but they
795didn't seem important enough to warrant holding up the entire release.)
a5f75d66 796
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797If you want to see exactly what will happen without installing
798anything, you can run
4633a7c4 799
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800 ./perl installperl -n
801 ./perl installman -n
802
803B<make install> will install the following:
804
805 perl,
806 perl5.nnn where nnn is the current release number. This
807 will be a link to perl.
808 suidperl,
809 sperl5.nnn If you requested setuid emulation.
810 a2p awk-to-perl translator
811 cppstdin This is used by perl -P, if your cc -E can't
812 read from stdin.
813 c2ph, pstruct Scripts for handling C structures in header files.
814 s2p sed-to-perl translator
815 find2perl find-to-perl translator
816 h2xs Converts C .h header files to Perl extensions.
24b3df7f 817 perlbug Tool to report bugs in Perl.
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818 perldoc Tool to read perl's pod documentation.
819 pod2html, Converters from perl's pod documentation format
820 pod2latex, and to other useful formats.
821 pod2man
822
823 library files in $privlib and $archlib specified to
824 Configure, usually under /usr/local/lib/perl5/.
825 man pages in the location specified to Configure, usually
826 something like /usr/local/man/man1.
827 module in the location specified to Configure, usually
828 man pages under /usr/local/lib/perl5/man/man3.
829 pod/*.pod in $privlib/pod/.
830
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831Installperl will also create the library directories $siteperl and
832$sitearch listed in config.sh. Usually, these are something like
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833 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
834 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$archname
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835where $archname is something like sun4-sunos. These directories
836will be used for installing extensions.
837
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838Perl's *.h header files and the libperl.a library are also
839installed under $archlib so that any user may later build new
840extensions even if the Perl source is no longer available.
841
842The libperl.a library is only needed for building new
843extensions and linking them statically into a new perl executable.
844If you will not be doing that, then you may safely delete
845$archlib/libperl.a after perl is installed.
846
847make install may also offer to install perl in a "standard" location.
848
849Most of the documentation in the pod/ directory is also available
850in HTML and LaTeX format. Type
851
852 cd pod; make html; cd ..
853
854to generate the html versions, and
855
856 cd pod; make tex; cd ..
857
858to generate the LaTeX versions.
859
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860=head1 cd /usr/include; h2ph *.h sys/*.h
861
862Some of the perl library files need to be able to obtain information from
863the system header files. This command will convert the most commonly used
864header files in F</usr/include> into files that can be easily interpreted
865by perl. These files will be placed in architectural library directory
866you specified to B<Configure>; by default this is
867F</usr/local/lib/perl5/ARCH/VERSION>, where B<ARCH> is your architecture
868(such as C<sun4-solaris>) and B<VERSION> is the version of perl you are
869building (for example, C<5.003>).
870
871B<NOTE:> Due to differences in the C and perl languages, the conversion of
c3edaffb 872the header files in not perfect. You may have to hand edit some of the
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873converted files to get them to parse correctly. For example, it breaks
874spectacularly on type casting and certain structures.
c3edaffb 875
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876=head1 Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5.
877
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878You can safely install the current version of perl5 and still run scripts
879under the old binaries for versions 5.002 and later ONLY. Instead of
880starting your script with #!/usr/local/bin/perl, just start it with
881#!/usr/local/bin/perl5.001 (or whatever version you want to run.)
882If you want to retain a version of perl5 prior to perl5.002, you'll
883need to install the current version in a separate directory tree,
884since some of the architecture-independent library files have changed
885in incompatible ways.
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886
887The architecture-dependent files are stored in a version-specific
888directory (such as F</usr/local/lib/perl5/sun4-sunos/5.002>) so that
889they are still accessible. I<Note:> perl5.000 and perl5.001 did not
890put their architecture-dependent libraries in a version-specific
891directory. They are simply in F</usr/local/lib/perl5/$archname>. If
892you will not be using 5.000 or 5.001, you may safely remove those
893files.
894
895The standard library files in F</usr/local/lib/perl5>
c3edaffb 896should be usable by all versions of perl5.
4633a7c4 897
d52d4e46 898Most extensions will probably not need to be recompiled to use with a newer
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899version of perl. If you do run into problems, and you want to continue
900to use the old version of perl along with your extension, simply move
901those extension files to the appropriate version directory, such as
902F</usr/local/lib/perl/archname/5.002>. Then perl5.002 will find your
903files in the 5.002 directory, and newer versions of perl will find your
904newer extension in the site_perl directory.
905
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906Some users may prefer to keep all versions of perl in completely
907separate directories. One convenient way to do this is by
908using a separate prefix for each version, such as
909
910 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl5.002
911
912and adding /opt/perl5.002/bin to the shell PATH variable. Such users
913may also wish to add a symbolic link /usr/local/bin/perl so that
914scripts can still start with #!/usr/local/bin/perl.
915
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916B<NOTE>: Starting with 5.002_01, all functions in the perl C source
917code are protected by default by the prefix Perl_ (or perl_) so that
918you may link with third-party libraries without fear of namespace
919collisons. This breaks compatability with the initially released
920version of 5.002, so once you install 5.002_01 (or higher) you will
921need to re-build and install all of your dynamically loadable
922extensions. (The standard extensions supplied with Perl are handled
923automatically). You can turn off this namespace protection by adding
924-DNO_EMBED to your ccflags variable in config.sh. This is a one-time
925change. In the future, we certainly hope that most extensions won't
926need to be recompiled for use with a newer version of perl.
927
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928=head1 Coexistence with perl4
929
930You can safely install perl5 even if you want to keep perl4 around.
931
932By default, the perl5 libraries go into F</usr/local/lib/perl5/>, so
933they don't override the perl4 libraries in F</usr/local/lib/perl/>.
934
935In your /usr/local/bin directory, you should have a binary named
936F<perl4.036>. That will not be touched by the perl5 installation
937process. Most perl4 scripts should run just fine under perl5.
938However, if you have any scripts that require perl4, you can replace
939the C<#!> line at the top of them by C<#!/usr/local/bin/perl4.036>
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940(or whatever the appropriate pathname is). See pod/perltrap.pod
941for possible problems running perl4 scripts under perl5.
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942
943=head1 DOCUMENTATION
944
945Read the manual entries before running perl. The main documentation is
946in the pod/ subdirectory and should have been installed during the
947build process. Type B<man perl> to get started. Alternatively, you
948can type B<perldoc perl> to use the supplied B<perldoc> script. This
949is sometimes useful for finding things in the library modules.
950
951=head1 AUTHOR
952
953Andy Dougherty <doughera@lafcol.lafayette.edu>, borrowing I<very> heavily
954from the original README by Larry Wall.
955
a5f75d66 956=head1 LAST MODIFIED
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c3edaffb 95821 August 1996