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Remove unused, wrong #define in utf8.h
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1=encoding utf8
2
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3=head1 NAME
4
5perlebcdic - Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms
6
7=head1 DESCRIPTION
8
9An exploration of some of the issues facing Perl programmers
10on EBCDIC based computers. We do not cover localization,
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11internationalization, or multi byte character set issues other
12than some discussion of UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC.
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13
14Portions that are still incomplete are marked with XXX.
15
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16Perl used to work on EBCDIC machines, but there are now areas of the code where
17it doesn't. If you want to use Perl on an EBCDIC machine, please let us know
18by sending mail to perlbug@perl.org
19
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20=head1 COMMON CHARACTER CODE SETS
21
22=head2 ASCII
23
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24The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII or US-ASCII) is a
25set of
d396a558 26integers running from 0 to 127 (decimal) that imply character
2bbc8d55 27interpretation by the display and other systems of computers.
51b5cecb 28The range 0..127 can be covered by setting the bits in a 7-bit binary
d396a558 29digit, hence the set is sometimes referred to as a "7-bit ASCII".
51b5cecb 30ASCII was described by the American National Standards Institute
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31document ANSI X3.4-1986. It was also described by ISO 646:1991
32(with localization for currency symbols). The full ASCII set is
33given in the table below as the first 128 elements. Languages that
34can be written adequately with the characters in ASCII include
35English, Hawaiian, Indonesian, Swahili and some Native American
36languages.
37
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38There are many character sets that extend the range of integers
39from 0..2**7-1 up to 2**8-1, or 8 bit bytes (octets if you prefer).
40One common one is the ISO 8859-1 character set.
41
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42=head2 ISO 8859
43
44The ISO 8859-$n are a collection of character code sets from the
45International Organization for Standardization (ISO) each of which
46adds characters to the ASCII set that are typically found in European
47languages many of which are based on the Roman, or Latin, alphabet.
48
49=head2 Latin 1 (ISO 8859-1)
50
51A particular 8-bit extension to ASCII that includes grave and acute
52accented Latin characters. Languages that can employ ISO 8859-1
53include all the languages covered by ASCII as well as Afrikaans,
54Albanian, Basque, Catalan, Danish, Faroese, Finnish, Norwegian,
3958b146 55Portuguese, Spanish, and Swedish. Dutch is covered albeit without
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56the ij ligature. French is covered too but without the oe ligature.
57German can use ISO 8859-1 but must do so without German-style
58quotation marks. This set is based on Western European extensions
59to ASCII and is commonly encountered in world wide web work.
60In IBM character code set identification terminology ISO 8859-1 is
51b5cecb 61also known as CCSID 819 (or sometimes 0819 or even 00819).
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62
63=head2 EBCDIC
64
395f5a0c 65The Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code refers to a
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66large collection of single and multi byte coded character sets that are
67different from ASCII or ISO 8859-1 and are all slightly different from each
68other; they typically run on host computers. The EBCDIC encodings derive from
698 bit byte extensions of Hollerith punched card encodings. The layout on the
70cards was such that high bits were set for the upper and lower case alphabet
71characters [a-z] and [A-Z], but there were gaps within each Latin alphabet
72range.
d396a558 73
51b5cecb 74Some IBM EBCDIC character sets may be known by character code set
2c09a866 75identification numbers (CCSID numbers) or code page numbers.
51b5cecb 76
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77Perl can be compiled on platforms that run any of three commonly used EBCDIC
78character sets, listed below.
79
f4084e39 80=head2 The 13 variant characters
1e054b24 81
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82Among IBM EBCDIC character code sets there are 13 characters that
83are often mapped to different integer values. Those characters
84are known as the 13 "variant" characters and are:
d396a558 85
51b5cecb 86 \ [ ] { } ^ ~ ! # | $ @ `
d396a558 87
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88When Perl is compiled for a platform, it looks at some of these characters to
89guess which EBCDIC character set the platform uses, and adapts itself
90accordingly to that platform. If the platform uses a character set that is not
91one of the three Perl knows about, Perl will either fail to compile, or
92mistakenly and silently choose one of the three.
93They are:
94
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95=head2 0037
96
97Character code set ID 0037 is a mapping of the ASCII plus Latin-1
98characters (i.e. ISO 8859-1) to an EBCDIC set. 0037 is used
51b5cecb 99in North American English locales on the OS/400 operating system
2c09a866 100that runs on AS/400 computers. CCSID 0037 differs from ISO 8859-1
51b5cecb 101in 237 places, in other words they agree on only 19 code point values.
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102
103=head2 1047
104
105Character code set ID 1047 is also a mapping of the ASCII plus
106Latin-1 characters (i.e. ISO 8859-1) to an EBCDIC set. 1047 is
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107used under Unix System Services for OS/390 or z/OS, and OpenEdition
108for VM/ESA. CCSID 1047 differs from CCSID 0037 in eight places.
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109
110=head2 POSIX-BC
111
112The EBCDIC code page in use on Siemens' BS2000 system is distinct from
1131047 and 0037. It is identified below as the POSIX-BC set.
114
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115=head2 Unicode code points versus EBCDIC code points
116
117In Unicode terminology a I<code point> is the number assigned to a
118character: for example, in EBCDIC the character "A" is usually assigned
119the number 193. In Unicode the character "A" is assigned the number 65.
120This causes a problem with the semantics of the pack/unpack "U", which
121are supposed to pack Unicode code points to characters and back to numbers.
122The problem is: which code points to use for code points less than 256?
123(for 256 and over there's no problem: Unicode code points are used)
124In EBCDIC, for the low 256 the EBCDIC code points are used. This
125means that the equivalences
126
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127 pack("U", ord($character)) eq $character
128 unpack("U", $character) == ord $character
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129
130will hold. (If Unicode code points were applied consistently over
131all the possible code points, pack("U",ord("A")) would in EBCDIC
132equal I<A with acute> or chr(101), and unpack("U", "A") would equal
13365, or I<non-breaking space>, not 193, or ord "A".)
134
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135=head2 Remaining Perl Unicode problems in EBCDIC
136
137=over 4
138
139=item *
140
2bbc8d55 141Many of the remaining problems seem to be related to case-insensitive matching
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142
143=item *
144
145The extensions Unicode::Collate and Unicode::Normalized are not
146supported under EBCDIC, likewise for the encoding pragma.
147
148=back
149
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150=head2 Unicode and UTF
151
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152UTF stands for C<Unicode Transformation Format>.
153UTF-8 is an encoding of Unicode into a sequence of 8-bit byte chunks, based on
154ASCII and Latin-1.
155The length of a sequence required to represent a Unicode code point
156depends on the ordinal number of that code point,
157with larger numbers requiring more bytes.
158UTF-EBCDIC is like UTF-8, but based on EBCDIC.
159
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160You may see the term C<invariant> character or code point.
161This simply means that the character has the same numeric
162value when encoded as when not.
42bde815 163(Note that this is a very different concept from L</The 13 variant characters>
2bbc8d55 164mentioned above.)
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165For example, the ordinal value of 'A' is 193 in most EBCDIC code pages,
166and also is 193 when encoded in UTF-EBCDIC.
e1b711da 167All variant code points occupy at least two bytes when encoded.
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168In UTF-8, the code points corresponding to the lowest 128
169ordinal numbers (0 - 127: the ASCII characters) are invariant.
170In UTF-EBCDIC, there are 160 invariant characters.
2bbc8d55 171(If you care, the EBCDIC invariants are those characters
fe749c9a 172which have ASCII equivalents, plus those that correspond to
2bbc8d55 173the C1 controls (80..9f on ASCII platforms).)
fe749c9a 174
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175A string encoded in UTF-EBCDIC may be longer (but never shorter) than
176one encoded in UTF-8.
395f5a0c 177
8704cfd1 178=head2 Using Encode
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179
180Starting from Perl 5.8 you can use the standard new module Encode
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181to translate from EBCDIC to Latin-1 code points.
182Encode knows about more EBCDIC character sets than Perl can currently
183be compiled to run on.
8f94de01 184
c72e675e 185 use Encode 'from_to';
8f94de01 186
c72e675e 187 my %ebcdic = ( 176 => 'cp37', 95 => 'cp1047', 106 => 'posix-bc' );
8f94de01 188
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189 # $a is in EBCDIC code points
190 from_to($a, $ebcdic{ord '^'}, 'latin1');
191 # $a is ISO 8859-1 code points
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192
193and from Latin-1 code points to EBCDIC code points
194
c72e675e 195 use Encode 'from_to';
8f94de01 196
c72e675e 197 my %ebcdic = ( 176 => 'cp37', 95 => 'cp1047', 106 => 'posix-bc' );
8f94de01 198
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199 # $a is ISO 8859-1 code points
200 from_to($a, 'latin1', $ebcdic{ord '^'});
201 # $a is in EBCDIC code points
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202
203For doing I/O it is suggested that you use the autotranslating features
204of PerlIO, see L<perluniintro>.
205
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206Since version 5.8 Perl uses the new PerlIO I/O library. This enables
207you to use different encodings per IO channel. For example you may use
208
209 use Encode;
210 open($f, ">:encoding(ascii)", "test.ascii");
211 print $f "Hello World!\n";
212 open($f, ">:encoding(cp37)", "test.ebcdic");
213 print $f "Hello World!\n";
214 open($f, ">:encoding(latin1)", "test.latin1");
215 print $f "Hello World!\n";
216 open($f, ">:encoding(utf8)", "test.utf8");
217 print $f "Hello World!\n";
218
2c09a866 219to get four files containing "Hello World!\n" in ASCII, CP 0037 EBCDIC,
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220ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) (in this example identical to ASCII since only ASCII
221characters were printed), and
222UTF-EBCDIC (in this example identical to normal EBCDIC since only characters
223that don't differ between EBCDIC and UTF-EBCDIC were printed). See the
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224documentation of Encode::PerlIO for details.
225
226As the PerlIO layer uses raw IO (bytes) internally, all this totally
227ignores things like the type of your filesystem (ASCII or EBCDIC).
228
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229=head1 SINGLE OCTET TABLES
230
231The following tables list the ASCII and Latin 1 ordered sets including
232the subsets: C0 controls (0..31), ASCII graphics (32..7e), delete (7f),
233C1 controls (80..9f), and Latin-1 (a.k.a. ISO 8859-1) (a0..ff). In the
234table non-printing control character names as well as the Latin 1
235extensions to ASCII have been labelled with character names roughly
395f5a0c 236corresponding to I<The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0> albeit with
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237substitutions such as s/LATIN// and s/VULGAR// in all cases,
238s/CAPITAL LETTER// in some cases, and s/SMALL LETTER ([A-Z])/\l$1/
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239in some other cases. The "names" of the controls listed here are
240the Unicode Version 1 names, except for the few that don't have names, in which
241case the names in the Wikipedia article were used
242(L<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C0_and_C1_control_codes>.
243The differences between the 0037 and 1047 sets are
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244flagged with ***. The differences between the 1047 and POSIX-BC sets
245are flagged with ###. All ord() numbers listed are decimal. If you
246would rather see this table listing octal values then run the table
247(that is, the pod version of this document since this recipe may not
248work with a pod2_other_format translation) through:
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249
250=over 4
251
252=item recipe 0
253
254=back
255
2c09a866 256 perl -ne 'if(/(.{43})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/)' \
84f709e7 257 -e '{printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}' perlebcdic.pod
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258
259If you want to retain the UTF-x code points then in script form you
260might want to write:
261
262=over 4
263
264=item recipe 1
265
266=back
267
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268 open(FH,"<perlebcdic.pod") or die "Could not open perlebcdic.pod: $!";
269 while (<FH>) {
270 if (/(.{43})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)/) {
271 if ($7 ne '' && $9 ne '') {
272 printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%-3o.%-5o%-3o.%o\n",
273 $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8,$9);
274 }
275 elsif ($7 ne '') {
276 printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%-3o.%-5o%o\n",
277 $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8);
278 }
279 else {
280 printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$8);
281 }
282 }
283 }
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284
285If you would rather see this table listing hexadecimal values then
286run the table through:
287
288=over 4
289
395f5a0c 290=item recipe 2
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291
292=back
293
2c09a866 294 perl -ne 'if(/(.{43})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/)' \
84f709e7 295 -e '{printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}' perlebcdic.pod
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296
297Or, in order to retain the UTF-x code points in hexadecimal:
298
299=over 4
300
301=item recipe 3
302
303=back
304
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305 open(FH,"<perlebcdic.pod") or die "Could not open perlebcdic.pod: $!";
306 while (<FH>) {
307 if (/(.{43})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)/) {
308 if ($7 ne '' && $9 ne '') {
309 printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%-2X.%-6X%-2X.%X\n",
310 $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8,$9);
311 }
312 elsif ($7 ne '') {
313 printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%-2X.%-6X%X\n",
314 $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8);
315 }
316 else {
317 printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$8);
318 }
319 }
320 }
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321
322
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323 ISO 8859-1 CCSID CCSID CCSID 1047
324 chr CCSID 0819 0037 1047 POSIX-BC UTF-8 UTF-EBCDIC
325 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
326 <NULL> 0 0 0 0 0 0
327 <START OF HEADING> 1 1 1 1 1 1
328 <START OF TEXT> 2 2 2 2 2 2
329 <END OF TEXT> 3 3 3 3 3 3
330 <END OF TRANSMISSION> 4 55 55 55 4 55
331 <ENQUIRY> 5 45 45 45 5 45
332 <ACKNOWLEDGE> 6 46 46 46 6 46
333 <BELL> 7 47 47 47 7 47
334 <BACKSPACE> 8 22 22 22 8 22
335 <HORIZONTAL TABULATION> 9 5 5 5 9 5
336 <LINE FEED> 10 37 21 21 10 21 ***
337 <VERTICAL TABULATION> 11 11 11 11 11 11
338 <FORM FEED> 12 12 12 12 12 12
339 <CARRIAGE RETURN> 13 13 13 13 13 13
340 <SHIFT OUT> 14 14 14 14 14 14
341 <SHIFT IN> 15 15 15 15 15 15
342 <DATA LINK ESCAPE> 16 16 16 16 16 16
343 <DEVICE CONTROL ONE> 17 17 17 17 17 17
344 <DEVICE CONTROL TWO> 18 18 18 18 18 18
345 <DEVICE CONTROL THREE> 19 19 19 19 19 19
346 <DEVICE CONTROL FOUR> 20 60 60 60 20 60
347 <NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE> 21 61 61 61 21 61
348 <SYNCHRONOUS IDLE> 22 50 50 50 22 50
349 <END OF TRANSMISSION BLOCK> 23 38 38 38 23 38
350 <CANCEL> 24 24 24 24 24 24
351 <END OF MEDIUM> 25 25 25 25 25 25
352 <SUBSTITUTE> 26 63 63 63 26 63
353 <ESCAPE> 27 39 39 39 27 39
354 <FILE SEPARATOR> 28 28 28 28 28 28
355 <GROUP SEPARATOR> 29 29 29 29 29 29
356 <RECORD SEPARATOR> 30 30 30 30 30 30
357 <UNIT SEPARATOR> 31 31 31 31 31 31
358 <SPACE> 32 64 64 64 32 64
359 ! 33 90 90 90 33 90
360 " 34 127 127 127 34 127
361 # 35 123 123 123 35 123
362 $ 36 91 91 91 36 91
363 % 37 108 108 108 37 108
364 & 38 80 80 80 38 80
365 ' 39 125 125 125 39 125
366 ( 40 77 77 77 40 77
367 ) 41 93 93 93 41 93
368 * 42 92 92 92 42 92
369 + 43 78 78 78 43 78
370 , 44 107 107 107 44 107
371 - 45 96 96 96 45 96
372 . 46 75 75 75 46 75
373 / 47 97 97 97 47 97
374 0 48 240 240 240 48 240
375 1 49 241 241 241 49 241
376 2 50 242 242 242 50 242
377 3 51 243 243 243 51 243
378 4 52 244 244 244 52 244
379 5 53 245 245 245 53 245
380 6 54 246 246 246 54 246
381 7 55 247 247 247 55 247
382 8 56 248 248 248 56 248
383 9 57 249 249 249 57 249
384 : 58 122 122 122 58 122
385 ; 59 94 94 94 59 94
386 < 60 76 76 76 60 76
387 = 61 126 126 126 61 126
388 > 62 110 110 110 62 110
389 ? 63 111 111 111 63 111
390 @ 64 124 124 124 64 124
391 A 65 193 193 193 65 193
392 B 66 194 194 194 66 194
393 C 67 195 195 195 67 195
394 D 68 196 196 196 68 196
395 E 69 197 197 197 69 197
396 F 70 198 198 198 70 198
397 G 71 199 199 199 71 199
398 H 72 200 200 200 72 200
399 I 73 201 201 201 73 201
400 J 74 209 209 209 74 209
401 K 75 210 210 210 75 210
402 L 76 211 211 211 76 211
403 M 77 212 212 212 77 212
404 N 78 213 213 213 78 213
405 O 79 214 214 214 79 214
406 P 80 215 215 215 80 215
407 Q 81 216 216 216 81 216
408 R 82 217 217 217 82 217
409 S 83 226 226 226 83 226
410 T 84 227 227 227 84 227
411 U 85 228 228 228 85 228
412 V 86 229 229 229 86 229
413 W 87 230 230 230 87 230
414 X 88 231 231 231 88 231
415 Y 89 232 232 232 89 232
416 Z 90 233 233 233 90 233
417 [ 91 186 173 187 91 173 *** ###
418 \ 92 224 224 188 92 224 ###
419 ] 93 187 189 189 93 189 ***
420 ^ 94 176 95 106 94 95 *** ###
421 _ 95 109 109 109 95 109
422 ` 96 121 121 74 96 121 ###
423 a 97 129 129 129 97 129
424 b 98 130 130 130 98 130
425 c 99 131 131 131 99 131
426 d 100 132 132 132 100 132
427 e 101 133 133 133 101 133
428 f 102 134 134 134 102 134
429 g 103 135 135 135 103 135
430 h 104 136 136 136 104 136
431 i 105 137 137 137 105 137
432 j 106 145 145 145 106 145
433 k 107 146 146 146 107 146
434 l 108 147 147 147 108 147
435 m 109 148 148 148 109 148
436 n 110 149 149 149 110 149
437 o 111 150 150 150 111 150
438 p 112 151 151 151 112 151
439 q 113 152 152 152 113 152
440 r 114 153 153 153 114 153
441 s 115 162 162 162 115 162
442 t 116 163 163 163 116 163
443 u 117 164 164 164 117 164
444 v 118 165 165 165 118 165
445 w 119 166 166 166 119 166
446 x 120 167 167 167 120 167
447 y 121 168 168 168 121 168
448 z 122 169 169 169 122 169
449 { 123 192 192 251 123 192 ###
450 | 124 79 79 79 124 79
451 } 125 208 208 253 125 208 ###
452 ~ 126 161 161 255 126 161 ###
453 <DELETE> 127 7 7 7 127 7
454 <PADDING CHARACTER> 128 32 32 32 194.128 32
455 <HIGH OCTET PRESET> 129 33 33 33 194.129 33
456 <BREAK PERMITTED HERE> 130 34 34 34 194.130 34
457 <NO BREAK HERE> 131 35 35 35 194.131 35
458 <INDEX> 132 36 36 36 194.132 36
459 <NEXT LINE> 133 21 37 37 194.133 37 ***
460 <START OF SELECTED AREA> 134 6 6 6 194.134 6
461 <END OF SELECTED AREA> 135 23 23 23 194.135 23
462 <CHARACTER TABULATION SET> 136 40 40 40 194.136 40
463 <CHARACTER TABULATION WITH JUSTIFICATION> 137 41 41 41 194.137 41
464 <LINE TABULATION SET> 138 42 42 42 194.138 42
465 <PARTIAL LINE FORWARD> 139 43 43 43 194.139 43
466 <PARTIAL LINE BACKWARD> 140 44 44 44 194.140 44
467 <REVERSE LINE FEED> 141 9 9 9 194.141 9
468 <SINGLE SHIFT TWO> 142 10 10 10 194.142 10
469 <SINGLE SHIFT THREE> 143 27 27 27 194.143 27
470 <DEVICE CONTROL STRING> 144 48 48 48 194.144 48
471 <PRIVATE USE ONE> 145 49 49 49 194.145 49
472 <PRIVATE USE TWO> 146 26 26 26 194.146 26
473 <SET TRANSMIT STATE> 147 51 51 51 194.147 51
474 <CANCEL CHARACTER> 148 52 52 52 194.148 52
475 <MESSAGE WAITING> 149 53 53 53 194.149 53
476 <START OF GUARDED AREA> 150 54 54 54 194.150 54
477 <END OF GUARDED AREA> 151 8 8 8 194.151 8
478 <START OF STRING> 152 56 56 56 194.152 56
479 <SINGLE GRAPHIC CHARACTER INTRODUCER> 153 57 57 57 194.153 57
480 <SINGLE CHARACTER INTRODUCER> 154 58 58 58 194.154 58
481 <CONTROL SEQUENCE INTRODUCER> 155 59 59 59 194.155 59
482 <STRING TERMINATOR> 156 4 4 4 194.156 4
483 <OPERATING SYSTEM COMMAND> 157 20 20 20 194.157 20
484 <PRIVACY MESSAGE> 158 62 62 62 194.158 62
485 <APPLICATION PROGRAM COMMAND> 159 255 255 95 194.159 255 ###
486 <NON-BREAKING SPACE> 160 65 65 65 194.160 128.65
487 <INVERTED EXCLAMATION MARK> 161 170 170 170 194.161 128.66
488 <CENT SIGN> 162 74 74 176 194.162 128.67 ###
489 <POUND SIGN> 163 177 177 177 194.163 128.68
490 <CURRENCY SIGN> 164 159 159 159 194.164 128.69
491 <YEN SIGN> 165 178 178 178 194.165 128.70
492 <BROKEN BAR> 166 106 106 208 194.166 128.71 ###
493 <SECTION SIGN> 167 181 181 181 194.167 128.72
494 <DIAERESIS> 168 189 187 121 194.168 128.73 *** ###
495 <COPYRIGHT SIGN> 169 180 180 180 194.169 128.74
496 <FEMININE ORDINAL INDICATOR> 170 154 154 154 194.170 128.81
497 <LEFT POINTING GUILLEMET> 171 138 138 138 194.171 128.82
498 <NOT SIGN> 172 95 176 186 194.172 128.83 *** ###
499 <SOFT HYPHEN> 173 202 202 202 194.173 128.84
500 <REGISTERED TRADE MARK SIGN> 174 175 175 175 194.174 128.85
501 <MACRON> 175 188 188 161 194.175 128.86 ###
502 <DEGREE SIGN> 176 144 144 144 194.176 128.87
503 <PLUS-OR-MINUS SIGN> 177 143 143 143 194.177 128.88
504 <SUPERSCRIPT TWO> 178 234 234 234 194.178 128.89
505 <SUPERSCRIPT THREE> 179 250 250 250 194.179 128.98
506 <ACUTE ACCENT> 180 190 190 190 194.180 128.99
507 <MICRO SIGN> 181 160 160 160 194.181 128.100
508 <PARAGRAPH SIGN> 182 182 182 182 194.182 128.101
509 <MIDDLE DOT> 183 179 179 179 194.183 128.102
510 <CEDILLA> 184 157 157 157 194.184 128.103
511 <SUPERSCRIPT ONE> 185 218 218 218 194.185 128.104
512 <MASC. ORDINAL INDICATOR> 186 155 155 155 194.186 128.105
513 <RIGHT POINTING GUILLEMET> 187 139 139 139 194.187 128.106
514 <FRACTION ONE QUARTER> 188 183 183 183 194.188 128.112
515 <FRACTION ONE HALF> 189 184 184 184 194.189 128.113
516 <FRACTION THREE QUARTERS> 190 185 185 185 194.190 128.114
517 <INVERTED QUESTION MARK> 191 171 171 171 194.191 128.115
518 <A WITH GRAVE> 192 100 100 100 195.128 138.65
519 <A WITH ACUTE> 193 101 101 101 195.129 138.66
520 <A WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 194 98 98 98 195.130 138.67
521 <A WITH TILDE> 195 102 102 102 195.131 138.68
522 <A WITH DIAERESIS> 196 99 99 99 195.132 138.69
523 <A WITH RING ABOVE> 197 103 103 103 195.133 138.70
524 <CAPITAL LIGATURE AE> 198 158 158 158 195.134 138.71
525 <C WITH CEDILLA> 199 104 104 104 195.135 138.72
526 <E WITH GRAVE> 200 116 116 116 195.136 138.73
527 <E WITH ACUTE> 201 113 113 113 195.137 138.74
528 <E WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 202 114 114 114 195.138 138.81
529 <E WITH DIAERESIS> 203 115 115 115 195.139 138.82
530 <I WITH GRAVE> 204 120 120 120 195.140 138.83
531 <I WITH ACUTE> 205 117 117 117 195.141 138.84
532 <I WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 206 118 118 118 195.142 138.85
533 <I WITH DIAERESIS> 207 119 119 119 195.143 138.86
534 <CAPITAL LETTER ETH> 208 172 172 172 195.144 138.87
535 <N WITH TILDE> 209 105 105 105 195.145 138.88
536 <O WITH GRAVE> 210 237 237 237 195.146 138.89
537 <O WITH ACUTE> 211 238 238 238 195.147 138.98
538 <O WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 212 235 235 235 195.148 138.99
539 <O WITH TILDE> 213 239 239 239 195.149 138.100
540 <O WITH DIAERESIS> 214 236 236 236 195.150 138.101
541 <MULTIPLICATION SIGN> 215 191 191 191 195.151 138.102
542 <O WITH STROKE> 216 128 128 128 195.152 138.103
543 <U WITH GRAVE> 217 253 253 224 195.153 138.104 ###
544 <U WITH ACUTE> 218 254 254 254 195.154 138.105
545 <U WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 219 251 251 221 195.155 138.106 ###
546 <U WITH DIAERESIS> 220 252 252 252 195.156 138.112
547 <Y WITH ACUTE> 221 173 186 173 195.157 138.113 *** ###
548 <CAPITAL LETTER THORN> 222 174 174 174 195.158 138.114
549 <SMALL LETTER SHARP S> 223 89 89 89 195.159 138.115
550 <a WITH GRAVE> 224 68 68 68 195.160 139.65
551 <a WITH ACUTE> 225 69 69 69 195.161 139.66
552 <a WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 226 66 66 66 195.162 139.67
553 <a WITH TILDE> 227 70 70 70 195.163 139.68
554 <a WITH DIAERESIS> 228 67 67 67 195.164 139.69
555 <a WITH RING ABOVE> 229 71 71 71 195.165 139.70
556 <SMALL LIGATURE ae> 230 156 156 156 195.166 139.71
557 <c WITH CEDILLA> 231 72 72 72 195.167 139.72
558 <e WITH GRAVE> 232 84 84 84 195.168 139.73
559 <e WITH ACUTE> 233 81 81 81 195.169 139.74
560 <e WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 234 82 82 82 195.170 139.81
561 <e WITH DIAERESIS> 235 83 83 83 195.171 139.82
562 <i WITH GRAVE> 236 88 88 88 195.172 139.83
563 <i WITH ACUTE> 237 85 85 85 195.173 139.84
564 <i WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 238 86 86 86 195.174 139.85
565 <i WITH DIAERESIS> 239 87 87 87 195.175 139.86
566 <SMALL LETTER eth> 240 140 140 140 195.176 139.87
567 <n WITH TILDE> 241 73 73 73 195.177 139.88
568 <o WITH GRAVE> 242 205 205 205 195.178 139.89
569 <o WITH ACUTE> 243 206 206 206 195.179 139.98
570 <o WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 244 203 203 203 195.180 139.99
571 <o WITH TILDE> 245 207 207 207 195.181 139.100
572 <o WITH DIAERESIS> 246 204 204 204 195.182 139.101
573 <DIVISION SIGN> 247 225 225 225 195.183 139.102
574 <o WITH STROKE> 248 112 112 112 195.184 139.103
575 <u WITH GRAVE> 249 221 221 192 195.185 139.104 ###
576 <u WITH ACUTE> 250 222 222 222 195.186 139.105
577 <u WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 251 219 219 219 195.187 139.106
578 <u WITH DIAERESIS> 252 220 220 220 195.188 139.112
579 <y WITH ACUTE> 253 141 141 141 195.189 139.113
580 <SMALL LETTER thorn> 254 142 142 142 195.190 139.114
581 <y WITH DIAERESIS> 255 223 223 223 195.191 139.115
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582
583If you would rather see the above table in CCSID 0037 order rather than
584ASCII + Latin-1 order then run the table through:
585
586=over 4
587
395f5a0c 588=item recipe 4
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589
590=back
591
c72e675e 592 perl -ne 'if(/.{43}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
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593 -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
594 -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
595 -e ' sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
2c09a866 596 -e ' map{[$_,substr($_,52,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod
d396a558 597
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598If you would rather see it in CCSID 1047 order then change the number
59952 in the last line to 61, like this:
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600
601=over 4
602
395f5a0c 603=item recipe 5
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604
605=back
606
c72e675e 607 perl -ne 'if(/.{43}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
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608 -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
609 -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
610 -e ' sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
2c09a866 611 -e ' map{[$_,substr($_,61,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod
d396a558 612
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613If you would rather see it in POSIX-BC order then change the number
61461 in the last line to 70, like this:
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615
616=over 4
617
395f5a0c 618=item recipe 6
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619
620=back
621
c72e675e 622 perl -ne 'if(/.{43}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
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623 -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
624 -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
625 -e ' sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
2c09a866 626 -e ' map{[$_,substr($_,70,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod
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627
628
629=head1 IDENTIFYING CHARACTER CODE SETS
630
631To determine the character set you are running under from perl one
632could use the return value of ord() or chr() to test one or more
633character values. For example:
634
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635 $is_ascii = "A" eq chr(65);
636 $is_ebcdic = "A" eq chr(193);
d396a558 637
51b5cecb 638Also, "\t" is a C<HORIZONTAL TABULATION> character so that:
d396a558 639
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640 $is_ascii = ord("\t") == 9;
641 $is_ebcdic = ord("\t") == 5;
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642
643To distinguish EBCDIC code pages try looking at one or more of
644the characters that differ between them. For example:
645
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646 $is_ebcdic_37 = "\n" eq chr(37);
647 $is_ebcdic_1047 = "\n" eq chr(21);
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648
649Or better still choose a character that is uniquely encoded in any
650of the code sets, e.g.:
651
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652 $is_ascii = ord('[') == 91;
653 $is_ebcdic_37 = ord('[') == 186;
654 $is_ebcdic_1047 = ord('[') == 173;
655 $is_ebcdic_POSIX_BC = ord('[') == 187;
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656
657However, it would be unwise to write tests such as:
658
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659 $is_ascii = "\r" ne chr(13); # WRONG
660 $is_ascii = "\n" ne chr(10); # ILL ADVISED
d396a558 661
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662Obviously the first of these will fail to distinguish most ASCII platforms
663from either a CCSID 0037, a 1047, or a POSIX-BC EBCDIC platform since "\r" eq
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664chr(13) under all of those coded character sets. But note too that
665because "\n" is chr(13) and "\r" is chr(10) on the MacIntosh (which is an
2bbc8d55 666ASCII platform) the second C<$is_ascii> test will lead to trouble there.
d396a558 667
84f709e7 668To determine whether or not perl was built under an EBCDIC
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669code page you can use the Config module like so:
670
671 use Config;
84f709e7 672 $is_ebcdic = $Config{'ebcdic'} eq 'define';
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673
674=head1 CONVERSIONS
675
1e054b24
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676=head2 tr///
677
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678In order to convert a string of characters from one character set to
679another a simple list of numbers, such as in the right columns in the
680above table, along with perl's tr/// operator is all that is needed.
681The data in the table are in ASCII order hence the EBCDIC columns
682provide easy to use ASCII to EBCDIC operations that are also easily
683reversed.
684
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685For example, to convert ASCII to code page 037 take the output of the second
686column from the output of recipe 0 (modified to add \\ characters) and use
d5d9880c 687it in tr/// like so:
d396a558 688
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689 $cp_037 =
690 '\000\001\002\003\234\011\206\177\227\215\216\013\014\015\016\017' .
691 '\020\021\022\023\235\205\010\207\030\031\222\217\034\035\036\037' .
692 '\200\201\202\203\204\012\027\033\210\211\212\213\214\005\006\007' .
693 '\220\221\026\223\224\225\226\004\230\231\232\233\024\025\236\032' .
694 '\040\240\342\344\340\341\343\345\347\361\242\056\074\050\053\174' .
695 '\046\351\352\353\350\355\356\357\354\337\041\044\052\051\073\254' .
696 '\055\057\302\304\300\301\303\305\307\321\246\054\045\137\076\077' .
697 '\370\311\312\313\310\315\316\317\314\140\072\043\100\047\075\042' .
698 '\330\141\142\143\144\145\146\147\150\151\253\273\360\375\376\261' .
699 '\260\152\153\154\155\156\157\160\161\162\252\272\346\270\306\244' .
700 '\265\176\163\164\165\166\167\170\171\172\241\277\320\335\336\256' .
701 '\136\243\245\267\251\247\266\274\275\276\133\135\257\250\264\327' .
702 '\173\101\102\103\104\105\106\107\110\111\255\364\366\362\363\365' .
703 '\175\112\113\114\115\116\117\120\121\122\271\373\374\371\372\377' .
704 '\134\367\123\124\125\126\127\130\131\132\262\324\326\322\323\325' .
705 '\060\061\062\063\064\065\066\067\070\071\263\333\334\331\332\237' ;
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706
707 my $ebcdic_string = $ascii_string;
d7449b02 708 eval '$ebcdic_string =~ tr/' . $cp_037 . '/\000-\377/';
d396a558 709
0be03469 710To convert from EBCDIC 037 to ASCII just reverse the order of the tr///
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711arguments like so:
712
713 my $ascii_string = $ebcdic_string;
d7449b02 714 eval '$ascii_string =~ tr/\000-\377/' . $cp_037 . '/';
d5d9880c
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715
716Similarly one could take the output of the third column from recipe 0 to
717obtain a C<$cp_1047> table. The fourth column of the output from recipe
7180 could provide a C<$cp_posix_bc> table suitable for transcoding as well.
1e054b24
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719
720=head2 iconv
d396a558 721
d5d9880c 722XPG operability often implies the presence of an I<iconv> utility
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723available from the shell or from the C library. Consult your system's
724documentation for information on iconv.
725
3958b146 726On OS/390 or z/OS see the iconv(1) manpage. One way to invoke the iconv
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727shell utility from within perl would be to:
728
395f5a0c 729 # OS/390 or z/OS example
84f709e7 730 $ascii_data = `echo '$ebcdic_data'| iconv -f IBM-1047 -t ISO8859-1`
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731
732or the inverse map:
733
395f5a0c 734 # OS/390 or z/OS example
84f709e7 735 $ebcdic_data = `echo '$ascii_data'| iconv -f ISO8859-1 -t IBM-1047`
d396a558 736
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737For other perl based conversion options see the Convert::* modules on CPAN.
738
1e054b24
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739=head2 C RTL
740
395f5a0c 741The OS/390 and z/OS C run time libraries provide _atoe() and _etoa() functions.
1e054b24 742
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743=head1 OPERATOR DIFFERENCES
744
745The C<..> range operator treats certain character ranges with
2bbc8d55
SP
746care on EBCDIC platforms. For example the following array
747will have twenty six elements on either an EBCDIC platform
748or an ASCII platform:
d396a558 749
84f709e7 750 @alphabet = ('A'..'Z'); # $#alphabet == 25
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751
752The bitwise operators such as & ^ | may return different results
753when operating on string or character data in a perl program running
2bbc8d55 754on an EBCDIC platform than when run on an ASCII platform. Here is
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755an example adapted from the one in L<perlop>:
756
757 # EBCDIC-based examples
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758 print "j p \n" ^ " a h"; # prints "JAPH\n"
759 print "JA" | " ph\n"; # prints "japh\n"
760 print "JAPH\nJunk" & "\277\277\277\277\277"; # prints "japh\n";
761 print 'p N$' ^ " E<H\n"; # prints "Perl\n";
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762
763An interesting property of the 32 C0 control characters
764in the ASCII table is that they can "literally" be constructed
c72e675e
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765as control characters in perl, e.g. C<(chr(0)> eq C<\c@>)>
766C<(chr(1)> eq C<\cA>)>, and so on. Perl on EBCDIC platforms has been
2c09a866 767ported to take C<\c@> to chr(0) and C<\cA> to chr(1), etc. as well, but the
d396a558 768thirty three characters that result depend on which code page you are
2c09a866
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769using. The table below uses the standard acronyms for the controls.
770The POSIX-BC and 1047 sets are
d396a558 771identical throughout this range and differ from the 0037 set at only
51b5cecb 772one spot (21 decimal). Note that the C<LINE FEED> character
2c09a866 773may be generated by C<\cJ> on ASCII platforms but by C<\cU> on 1047 or POSIX-BC
2bbc8d55 774platforms and cannot be generated as a C<"\c.letter."> control character on
2c09a866
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7750037 platforms. Note also that C<\c\> cannot be the final element in a string
776or regex, as it will absorb the terminator. But C<\c\I<X>> is a C<FILE
777SEPARATOR> concatenated with I<X> for all I<X>.
778
779 chr ord 8859-1 0037 1047 && POSIX-BC
c72e675e 780 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
2c09a866
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781 \c? 127 <DEL> " "
782 \c@ 0 <NUL> <NUL> <NUL>
783 \cA 1 <SOH> <SOH> <SOH>
784 \cB 2 <STX> <STX> <STX>
785 \cC 3 <ETX> <ETX> <ETX>
786 \cD 4 <EOT> <ST> <ST>
787 \cE 5 <ENQ> <HT> <HT>
788 \cF 6 <ACK> <SSA> <SSA>
789 \cG 7 <BEL> <DEL> <DEL>
790 \cH 8 <BS> <EPA> <EPA>
791 \cI 9 <HT> <RI> <RI>
792 \cJ 10 <LF> <SS2> <SS2>
793 \cK 11 <VT> <VT> <VT>
794 \cL 12 <FF> <FF> <FF>
795 \cM 13 <CR> <CR> <CR>
796 \cN 14 <SO> <SO> <SO>
797 \cO 15 <SI> <SI> <SI>
798 \cP 16 <DLE> <DLE> <DLE>
799 \cQ 17 <DC1> <DC1> <DC1>
800 \cR 18 <DC2> <DC2> <DC2>
801 \cS 19 <DC3> <DC3> <DC3>
802 \cT 20 <DC4> <OSC> <OSC>
803 \cU 21 <NAK> <NEL> <LF> ***
804 \cV 22 <SYN> <BS> <BS>
805 \cW 23 <ETB> <ESA> <ESA>
806 \cX 24 <CAN> <CAN> <CAN>
807 \cY 25 <EOM> <EOM> <EOM>
808 \cZ 26 <SUB> <PU2> <PU2>
809 \c[ 27 <ESC> <SS3> <SS3>
810 \c\X 28 <FS>X <FS>X <FS>X
811 \c] 29 <GS> <GS> <GS>
812 \c^ 30 <RS> <RS> <RS>
813 \c_ 31 <US> <US> <US>
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814
815=head1 FUNCTION DIFFERENCES
816
817=over 8
818
819=item chr()
820
821chr() must be given an EBCDIC code number argument to yield a desired
2bbc8d55 822character return value on an EBCDIC platform. For example:
d396a558 823
84f709e7 824 $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = chr(193);
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825
826=item ord()
827
2bbc8d55 828ord() will return EBCDIC code number values on an EBCDIC platform.
d396a558
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829For example:
830
84f709e7 831 $the_number_193 = ord("A");
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832
833=item pack()
834
835The c and C templates for pack() are dependent upon character set
836encoding. Examples of usage on EBCDIC include:
837
838 $foo = pack("CCCC",193,194,195,196);
839 # $foo eq "ABCD"
84f709e7 840 $foo = pack("C4",193,194,195,196);
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841 # same thing
842
843 $foo = pack("ccxxcc",193,194,195,196);
844 # $foo eq "AB\0\0CD"
845
846=item print()
847
848One must be careful with scalars and strings that are passed to
849print that contain ASCII encodings. One common place
850for this to occur is in the output of the MIME type header for
851CGI script writing. For example, many perl programming guides
852recommend something similar to:
853
854 print "Content-type:\ttext/html\015\012\015\012";
855 # this may be wrong on EBCDIC
856
395f5a0c
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857Under the IBM OS/390 USS Web Server or WebSphere on z/OS for example
858you should instead write that as:
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859
860 print "Content-type:\ttext/html\r\n\r\n"; # OK for DGW et alia
861
862That is because the translation from EBCDIC to ASCII is done
863by the web server in this case (such code will not be appropriate for
864the Macintosh however). Consult your web server's documentation for
865further details.
866
867=item printf()
868
869The formats that can convert characters to numbers and vice versa
870will be different from their ASCII counterparts when executed
2bbc8d55 871on an EBCDIC platform. Examples include:
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872
873 printf("%c%c%c",193,194,195); # prints ABC
874
875=item sort()
876
877EBCDIC sort results may differ from ASCII sort results especially for
878mixed case strings. This is discussed in more detail below.
879
880=item sprintf()
881
882See the discussion of printf() above. An example of the use
883of sprintf would be:
884
84f709e7 885 $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = sprintf("%c",193);
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886
887=item unpack()
888
889See the discussion of pack() above.
890
891=back
892
893=head1 REGULAR EXPRESSION DIFFERENCES
894
895As of perl 5.005_03 the letter range regular expression such as
896[A-Z] and [a-z] have been especially coded to not pick up gap
b3b6085d
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897characters. For example, characters such as E<ocirc> C<o WITH CIRCUMFLEX>
898that lie between I and J would not be matched by the
1b2d223b
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899regular expression range C</[H-K]/>. This works in
900the other direction, too, if either of the range end points is
901explicitly numeric: C<[\x89-\x91]> will match C<\x8e>, even
902though C<\x89> is C<i> and C<\x91 > is C<j>, and C<\x8e>
903is a gap character from the alphabetic viewpoint.
51b5cecb
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904
905If you do want to match the alphabet gap characters in a single octet
d396a558 906regular expression try matching the hex or octal code such
2bbc8d55 907as C</\313/> on EBCDIC or C</\364/> on ASCII platforms to
51b5cecb 908have your regular expression match C<o WITH CIRCUMFLEX>.
d396a558 909
51b5cecb 910Another construct to be wary of is the inappropriate use of hex or
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911octal constants in regular expressions. Consider the following
912set of subs:
913
914 sub is_c0 {
915 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
916 $char =~ /[\000-\037]/;
917 }
918
919 sub is_print_ascii {
920 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
921 $char =~ /[\040-\176]/;
922 }
923
924 sub is_delete {
925 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
926 $char eq "\177";
927 }
928
929 sub is_c1 {
930 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
931 $char =~ /[\200-\237]/;
932 }
933
934 sub is_latin_1 {
935 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
936 $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
937 }
938
51b5cecb
PP
939The above would be adequate if the concern was only with numeric code points.
940However, the concern may be with characters rather than code points
2bbc8d55 941and on an EBCDIC platform it may be desirable for constructs such as
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942C<if (is_print_ascii("A")) {print "A is a printable character\n";}> to print
943out the expected message. One way to represent the above collection
944of character classification subs that is capable of working across the
945four coded character sets discussed in this document is as follows:
946
947 sub Is_c0 {
948 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
84f709e7 949 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
d396a558 950 return $char =~ /[\000-\037]/;
84f709e7 951 }
2c09a866 952 if (ord('^')==176) { # 0037
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953 return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\045\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
954 }
84f709e7 955 if (ord('^')==95 || ord('^')==106) { # 1047 || posix-bc
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956 return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\025\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
957 }
958 }
959
960 sub Is_print_ascii {
961 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
962 $char =~ /[ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<=>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~]/;
963 }
964
965 sub Is_delete {
966 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
84f709e7 967 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
d396a558 968 return $char eq "\177";
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969 }
970 else { # ebcdic
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971 return $char eq "\007";
972 }
973 }
974
975 sub Is_c1 {
976 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
84f709e7 977 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
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978 return $char =~ /[\200-\237]/;
979 }
2c09a866 980 if (ord('^')==176) { # 0037
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981 return $char =~ /[\040-\044\025\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\377]/;
982 }
84f709e7 983 if (ord('^')==95) { # 1047
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984 return $char =~ /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\377]/;
985 }
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986 if (ord('^')==106) { # posix-bc
987 return $char =~
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988 /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\137]/;
989 }
990 }
991
992 sub Is_latin_1 {
993 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
84f709e7 994 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
d396a558
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995 return $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
996 }
2c09a866 997 if (ord('^')==176) { # 0037
84f709e7 998 return $char =~
d396a558
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999 /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\275\264\232\212\137\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
1000 }
84f709e7 1001 if (ord('^')==95) { # 1047
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1002 return $char =~
1003 /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\273\264\232\212\260\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\272\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
1004 }
84f709e7
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1005 if (ord('^')==106) { # posix-bc
1006 return $char =~
d396a558
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1007 /[\101\252\260\261\237\262\320\265\171\264\232\212\272\312\257\241\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\340\376\335\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\300\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
1008 }
1009 }
1010
1011Note however that only the C<Is_ascii_print()> sub is really independent
1012of coded character set. Another way to write C<Is_latin_1()> would be
1013to use the characters in the range explicitly:
1014
1015 sub Is_latin_1 {
1016 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
aadc0e04 1017 $char =~ /[ ¡¢£¤¥¦§¨©ª«¬­®¯°±²³´µ¶·¸¹º»¼½¾¿ÀÁÂÃÄÅÆÇÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏÐÑÒÓÔÕÖ×ØÙÚÛÜÝÞßàáâãäåæçèéêëìíîïðñòóôõö÷øùúûüýþÿ]/;
d396a558
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1018 }
1019
1020Although that form may run into trouble in network transit (due to the
1021presence of 8 bit characters) or on non ISO-Latin character sets.
d396a558
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1022
1023=head1 SOCKETS
1024
1025Most socket programming assumes ASCII character encodings in network
1026byte order. Exceptions can include CGI script writing under a
1027host web server where the server may take care of translation for you.
1028Most host web servers convert EBCDIC data to ISO-8859-1 or Unicode on
1029output.
1030
1031=head1 SORTING
1032
1033One big difference between ASCII based character sets and EBCDIC ones
1034are the relative positions of upper and lower case letters and the
2bbc8d55 1035letters compared to the digits. If sorted on an ASCII based platform the
d396a558
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1036two letter abbreviation for a physician comes before the two letter
1037for drive, that is:
1038
c72e675e 1039 @sorted = sort(qw(Dr. dr.)); # @sorted holds ('Dr.','dr.') on ASCII,
84f709e7 1040 # but ('dr.','Dr.') on EBCDIC
d396a558
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1041
1042The property of lower case before uppercase letters in EBCDIC is
1043even carried to the Latin 1 EBCDIC pages such as 0037 and 1047.
b3b6085d 1044An example would be that E<Euml> C<E WITH DIAERESIS> (203) comes
2bbc8d55
SP
1045before E<euml> C<e WITH DIAERESIS> (235) on an ASCII platform, but
1046the latter (83) comes before the former (115) on an EBCDIC platform.
b3b6085d 1047(Astute readers will note that the upper case version of E<szlig>
51b5cecb 1048C<SMALL LETTER SHARP S> is simply "SS" and that the upper case version of
b3b6085d 1049E<yuml> C<y WITH DIAERESIS> is not in the 0..255 range but it is
51b5cecb 1050at U+x0178 in Unicode, or C<"\x{178}"> in a Unicode enabled Perl).
d396a558
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1051
1052The sort order will cause differences between results obtained on
2bbc8d55 1053ASCII platforms versus EBCDIC platforms. What follows are some suggestions
d396a558
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1054on how to deal with these differences.
1055
51b5cecb 1056=head2 Ignore ASCII vs. EBCDIC sort differences.
d396a558
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1057
1058This is the least computationally expensive strategy. It may require
1059some user education.
1060
51b5cecb 1061=head2 MONO CASE then sort data.
d396a558 1062
51b5cecb 1063In order to minimize the expense of mono casing mixed test try to
d396a558
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1064C<tr///> towards the character set case most employed within the data.
1065If the data are primarily UPPERCASE non Latin 1 then apply tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/
1066then sort(). If the data are primarily lowercase non Latin 1 then
1067apply tr/[A-Z]/[a-z]/ before sorting. If the data are primarily UPPERCASE
51b5cecb
PP
1068and include Latin-1 characters then apply:
1069
0be03469 1070 tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/;
aadc0e04 1071 tr/[àáâãäåæçèéêëìíîïðñòóôõöøùúûüýþ]/[ÀÁÂÃÄÅÆÇÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏÐÑÒÓÔÕÖØÙÚÛÜÝÞ/;
0be03469 1072 s/ß/SS/g;
d396a558 1073
51b5cecb 1074then sort(). Do note however that such Latin-1 manipulation does not
b3b6085d 1075address the E<yuml> C<y WITH DIAERESIS> character that will remain at
2bbc8d55 1076code point 255 on ASCII platforms, but 223 on most EBCDIC platforms
51b5cecb
PP
1077where it will sort to a place less than the EBCDIC numerals. With a
1078Unicode enabled Perl you might try:
d396a558 1079
51b5cecb
PP
1080 tr/^?/\x{178}/;
1081
1082The strategy of mono casing data before sorting does not preserve the case
1083of the data and may not be acceptable for that reason.
1084
1085=head2 Convert, sort data, then re convert.
d396a558
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1086
1087This is the most expensive proposition that does not employ a network
1088connection.
1089
2bbc8d55 1090=head2 Perform sorting on one type of platform only.
d396a558
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1091
1092This strategy can employ a network connection. As such
1093it would be computationally expensive.
1094
395f5a0c 1095=head1 TRANSFORMATION FORMATS
1e054b24
PP
1096
1097There are a variety of ways of transforming data with an intra character set
1098mapping that serve a variety of purposes. Sorting was discussed in the
1099previous section and a few of the other more popular mapping techniques are
1100discussed next.
1101
1102=head2 URL decoding and encoding
d396a558 1103
51b5cecb 1104Note that some URLs have hexadecimal ASCII code points in them in an
1e054b24
PP
1105attempt to overcome character or protocol limitation issues. For example
1106the tilde character is not on every keyboard hence a URL of the form:
d396a558
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1107
1108 http://www.pvhp.com/~pvhp/
1109
1110may also be expressed as either of:
1111
1112 http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/
1113
1114 http://www.pvhp.com/%7epvhp/
1115
51b5cecb 1116where 7E is the hexadecimal ASCII code point for '~'. Here is an example
d396a558
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1117of decoding such a URL under CCSID 1047:
1118
84f709e7 1119 $url = 'http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/';
d396a558
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1120 # this array assumes code page 1047
1121 my @a2e_1047 = (
1122 0, 1, 2, 3, 55, 45, 46, 47, 22, 5, 21, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
1123 16, 17, 18, 19, 60, 61, 50, 38, 24, 25, 63, 39, 28, 29, 30, 31,
1124 64, 90,127,123, 91,108, 80,125, 77, 93, 92, 78,107, 96, 75, 97,
1125 240,241,242,243,244,245,246,247,248,249,122, 94, 76,126,110,111,
1126 124,193,194,195,196,197,198,199,200,201,209,210,211,212,213,214,
1127 215,216,217,226,227,228,229,230,231,232,233,173,224,189, 95,109,
1128 121,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,145,146,147,148,149,150,
1129 151,152,153,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,192, 79,208,161, 7,
1130 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 6, 23, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 9, 10, 27,
1131 48, 49, 26, 51, 52, 53, 54, 8, 56, 57, 58, 59, 4, 20, 62,255,
1132 65,170, 74,177,159,178,106,181,187,180,154,138,176,202,175,188,
1133 144,143,234,250,190,160,182,179,157,218,155,139,183,184,185,171,
1134 100,101, 98,102, 99,103,158,104,116,113,114,115,120,117,118,119,
1135 172,105,237,238,235,239,236,191,128,253,254,251,252,186,174, 89,
1136 68, 69, 66, 70, 67, 71,156, 72, 84, 81, 82, 83, 88, 85, 86, 87,
1137 140, 73,205,206,203,207,204,225,112,221,222,219,220,141,142,223
1138 );
1139 $url =~ s/%([0-9a-fA-F]{2})/pack("c",$a2e_1047[hex($1)])/ge;
1140
1e054b24
PP
1141Conversely, here is a partial solution for the task of encoding such
1142a URL under the 1047 code page:
1143
84f709e7 1144 $url = 'http://www.pvhp.com/~pvhp/';
1e054b24
PP
1145 # this array assumes code page 1047
1146 my @e2a_1047 = (
1147 0, 1, 2, 3,156, 9,134,127,151,141,142, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
1148 16, 17, 18, 19,157, 10, 8,135, 24, 25,146,143, 28, 29, 30, 31,
1149 128,129,130,131,132,133, 23, 27,136,137,138,139,140, 5, 6, 7,
1150 144,145, 22,147,148,149,150, 4,152,153,154,155, 20, 21,158, 26,
1151 32,160,226,228,224,225,227,229,231,241,162, 46, 60, 40, 43,124,
1152 38,233,234,235,232,237,238,239,236,223, 33, 36, 42, 41, 59, 94,
1153 45, 47,194,196,192,193,195,197,199,209,166, 44, 37, 95, 62, 63,
1154 248,201,202,203,200,205,206,207,204, 96, 58, 35, 64, 39, 61, 34,
1155 216, 97, 98, 99,100,101,102,103,104,105,171,187,240,253,254,177,
1156 176,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,170,186,230,184,198,164,
1157 181,126,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,161,191,208, 91,222,174,
1158 172,163,165,183,169,167,182,188,189,190,221,168,175, 93,180,215,
1159 123, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73,173,244,246,242,243,245,
1160 125, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82,185,251,252,249,250,255,
1161 92,247, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90,178,212,214,210,211,213,
1162 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57,179,219,220,217,218,159
1163 );
84f709e7 1164 # The following regular expression does not address the
1e054b24
PP
1165 # mappings for: ('.' => '%2E', '/' => '%2F', ':' => '%3A')
1166 $url =~ s/([\t "#%&\(\),;<=>\?\@\[\\\]^`{|}~])/sprintf("%%%02X",$e2a_1047[ord($1)])/ge;
1167
1168where a more complete solution would split the URL into components
1169and apply a full s/// substitution only to the appropriate parts.
1170
1171In the remaining examples a @e2a or @a2e array may be employed
1172but the assignment will not be shown explicitly. For code page 1047
1173you could use the @a2e_1047 or @e2a_1047 arrays just shown.
1174
1175=head2 uu encoding and decoding
1176
1177The C<u> template to pack() or unpack() will render EBCDIC data in EBCDIC
1178characters equivalent to their ASCII counterparts. For example, the
1179following will print "Yes indeed\n" on either an ASCII or EBCDIC computer:
1180
84f709e7
JH
1181 $all_byte_chrs = '';
1182 for (0..255) { $all_byte_chrs .= chr($_); }
1183 $uuencode_byte_chrs = pack('u', $all_byte_chrs);
210b36aa 1184 ($uu = <<'ENDOFHEREDOC') =~ s/^\s*//gm;
1e054b24
PP
1185 M``$"`P0%!@<("0H+#`T.#Q`1$A,4%187&!D:&QP='A\@(2(C)"4F)R@I*BLL
1186 M+2XO,#$R,S0U-C<X.3H[/#T^/T!!0D-$149'2$E*2TQ-3D]045)35%565UA9
1187 M6EM<75Y?8&%B8V1E9F=H:6IK;&UN;W!Q<G-T=79W>'EZ>WQ]?G^`@8*#A(6&
1188 MAXB)BHN,C8Z/D)&2DY25EI>8F9J;G)V>GZ"AHJ.DI::GJ*FJJZRMKJ^PL;*S
1189 MM+6VM[BYNKN\O;Z_P,'"P\3%QL?(R<K+S,W.S]#1TM/4U=;7V-G:V]S=WM_@
1190 ?X>+CY.7FY^CIZNOL[>[O\/'R\_3U]O?X^?K[_/W^_P``
1191 ENDOFHEREDOC
84f709e7 1192 if ($uuencode_byte_chrs eq $uu) {
1e054b24
PP
1193 print "Yes ";
1194 }
1195 $uudecode_byte_chrs = unpack('u', $uuencode_byte_chrs);
84f709e7 1196 if ($uudecode_byte_chrs eq $all_byte_chrs) {
1e054b24
PP
1197 print "indeed\n";
1198 }
1199
1200Here is a very spartan uudecoder that will work on EBCDIC provided
1201that the @e2a array is filled in appropriately:
1202
84f709e7
JH
1203 #!/usr/local/bin/perl
1204 @e2a = ( # this must be filled in
1205 );
1206 $_ = <> until ($mode,$file) = /^begin\s*(\d*)\s*(\S*)/;
1e054b24
PP
1207 open(OUT, "> $file") if $file ne "";
1208 while(<>) {
1209 last if /^end/;
1210 next if /[a-z]/;
1211 next unless int(((($e2a[ord()] - 32 ) & 077) + 2) / 3) ==
1212 int(length() / 4);
1213 print OUT unpack("u", $_);
1214 }
1215 close(OUT);
1216 chmod oct($mode), $file;
1217
1218
1219=head2 Quoted-Printable encoding and decoding
1220
2bbc8d55 1221On ASCII encoded platforms it is possible to strip characters outside of
1e054b24
PP
1222the printable set using:
1223
1224 # This QP encoder works on ASCII only
84f709e7 1225 $qp_string =~ s/([=\x00-\x1F\x80-\xFF])/sprintf("=%02X",ord($1))/ge;
1e054b24 1226
2bbc8d55 1227Whereas a QP encoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC platforms
1e054b24
PP
1228would look somewhat like the following (where the EBCDIC branch @e2a
1229array is omitted for brevity):
1230
1231 if (ord('A') == 65) { # ASCII
1232 $delete = "\x7F"; # ASCII
1233 @e2a = (0 .. 255) # ASCII to ASCII identity map
84f709e7
JH
1234 }
1235 else { # EBCDIC
1e054b24 1236 $delete = "\x07"; # EBCDIC
84f709e7 1237 @e2a = # EBCDIC to ASCII map (as shown above)
1e054b24 1238 }
84f709e7 1239 $qp_string =~
1e054b24
PP
1240 s/([^ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~$delete])/sprintf("=%02X",$e2a[ord($1)])/ge;
1241
1242(although in production code the substitutions might be done
1243in the EBCDIC branch with the @e2a array and separately in the
1244ASCII branch without the expense of the identity map).
1245
1246Such QP strings can be decoded with:
1247
1248 # This QP decoder is limited to ASCII only
1249 $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr hex $1/ge;
1250 $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;
1251
2bbc8d55 1252Whereas a QP decoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC platforms
1e054b24
PP
1253would look somewhat like the following (where the @a2e array is
1254omitted for brevity):
1255
1256 $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr $a2e[hex $1]/ge;
1257 $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;
1258
395f5a0c 1259=head2 Caesarian ciphers
1e054b24
PP
1260
1261The practice of shifting an alphabet one or more characters for encipherment
1262dates back thousands of years and was explicitly detailed by Gaius Julius
1263Caesar in his B<Gallic Wars> text. A single alphabet shift is sometimes
1264referred to as a rotation and the shift amount is given as a number $n after
1265the string 'rot' or "rot$n". Rot0 and rot26 would designate identity maps
1266on the 26 letter English version of the Latin alphabet. Rot13 has the
1267interesting property that alternate subsequent invocations are identity maps
1268(thus rot13 is its own non-trivial inverse in the group of 26 alphabet
1269rotations). Hence the following is a rot13 encoder and decoder that will
2bbc8d55 1270work on ASCII and EBCDIC platforms:
1e054b24
PP
1271
1272 #!/usr/local/bin/perl
1273
84f709e7 1274 while(<>){
1e054b24
PP
1275 tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/;
1276 print;
1277 }
1278
1279In one-liner form:
1280
84f709e7 1281 perl -ne 'tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/;print'
1e054b24
PP
1282
1283
1284=head1 Hashing order and checksums
1285
395f5a0c
PK
1286To the extent that it is possible to write code that depends on
1287hashing order there may be differences between hashes as stored
2bbc8d55 1288on an ASCII based platform and hashes stored on an EBCDIC based platform.
1e054b24
PP
1289XXX
1290
d396a558
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1291=head1 I18N AND L10N
1292
1293Internationalization(I18N) and localization(L10N) are supported at least
2bbc8d55 1294in principle even on EBCDIC platforms. The details are system dependent
d396a558
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1295and discussed under the L<perlebcdic/OS ISSUES> section below.
1296
1297=head1 MULTI OCTET CHARACTER SETS
1298
395f5a0c
PK
1299Perl may work with an internal UTF-EBCDIC encoding form for wide characters
1300on EBCDIC platforms in a manner analogous to the way that it works with
1301the UTF-8 internal encoding form on ASCII based platforms.
1302
1303Legacy multi byte EBCDIC code pages XXX.
d396a558
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1304
1305=head1 OS ISSUES
1306
1307There may be a few system dependent issues
1308of concern to EBCDIC Perl programmers.
1309
522b859a 1310=head2 OS/400
51b5cecb 1311
d396a558
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1312=over 8
1313
522b859a
JH
1314=item PASE
1315
1316The PASE environment is runtime environment for OS/400 that can run
1317executables built for PowerPC AIX in OS/400, see L<perlos400>. PASE
1318is ASCII-based, not EBCDIC-based as the ILE.
1319
d396a558
JH
1320=item IFS access
1321
1322XXX.
1323
1324=back
1325
395f5a0c 1326=head2 OS/390, z/OS
d396a558 1327
51b5cecb
PP
1328Perl runs under Unix Systems Services or USS.
1329
d396a558
JH
1330=over 8
1331
51b5cecb
PP
1332=item chcp
1333
1e054b24
PP
1334B<chcp> is supported as a shell utility for displaying and changing
1335one's code page. See also L<chcp>.
51b5cecb 1336
d396a558
JH
1337=item dataset access
1338
1339For sequential data set access try:
1340
1341 my @ds_records = `cat //DSNAME`;
1342
1343or:
1344
1345 my @ds_records = `cat //'HLQ.DSNAME'`;
1346
1347See also the OS390::Stdio module on CPAN.
1348
395f5a0c 1349=item OS/390, z/OS iconv
51b5cecb 1350
1e054b24
PP
1351B<iconv> is supported as both a shell utility and a C RTL routine.
1352See also the iconv(1) and iconv(3) manual pages.
51b5cecb 1353
d396a558
JH
1354=item locales
1355
395f5a0c
PK
1356On OS/390 or z/OS see L<locale> for information on locales. The L10N files
1357are in F</usr/nls/locale>. $Config{d_setlocale} is 'define' on OS/390
1358or z/OS.
d396a558
JH
1359
1360=back
1361
1362=head2 VM/ESA?
1363
1364XXX.
1365
1366=head2 POSIX-BC?
1367
1368XXX.
1369
51b5cecb
PP
1370=head1 BUGS
1371
1372This pod document contains literal Latin 1 characters and may encounter
b1866b2d 1373translation difficulties. In particular one popular nroff implementation
51b5cecb
PP
1374was known to strip accented characters to their unaccented counterparts
1375while attempting to view this document through the B<pod2man> program
1376(for example, you may see a plain C<y> rather than one with a diaeresis
3958b146 1377as in E<yuml>). Another nroff truncated the resultant manpage at
395f5a0c 1378the first occurrence of 8 bit characters.
51b5cecb
PP
1379
1380Not all shells will allow multiple C<-e> string arguments to perl to
395f5a0c
PK
1381be concatenated together properly as recipes 0, 2, 4, 5, and 6 might
1382seem to imply.
51b5cecb 1383
b3b6085d
PP
1384=head1 SEE ALSO
1385
395f5a0c 1386L<perllocale>, L<perlfunc>, L<perlunicode>, L<utf8>.
b3b6085d 1387
d396a558
JH
1388=head1 REFERENCES
1389
2bbc8d55 1390L<http://anubis.dkuug.dk/i18n/charmaps>
d396a558 1391
2bbc8d55 1392L<http://www.unicode.org/>
d396a558 1393
2bbc8d55 1394L<http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr16/>
d396a558 1395
08d7a6b2 1396L<http://www.wps.com/projects/codes/>
51b5cecb
PP
1397B<ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Infiltration> Tom Jennings,
1398September 1999.
1399
395f5a0c 1400B<The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0> The Unicode Consortium, Lisa Moore ed.,
51b5cecb
PP
1401ISBN 0-201-61633-5, Addison Wesley Developers Press, February 2000.
1402
d396a558
JH
1403B<CDRA: IBM - Character Data Representation Architecture -
1404Reference and Registry>, IBM SC09-2190-00, December 1996.
1405
1406"Demystifying Character Sets", Andrea Vine, Multilingual Computing
1407& Technology, B<#26 Vol. 10 Issue 4>, August/September 1999;
1408ISSN 1523-0309; Multilingual Computing Inc. Sandpoint ID, USA.
1409
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1410B<Codes, Ciphers, and Other Cryptic and Clandestine Communication>
1411Fred B. Wrixon, ISBN 1-57912-040-7, Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers,
14121998.
1413
2bbc8d55 1414L<http://www.bobbemer.com/P-BIT.HTM>
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1415B<IBM - EBCDIC and the P-bit; The biggest Computer Goof Ever> Robert Bemer.
1416
1417=head1 HISTORY
1418
141915 April 2001: added UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC to main table, pvhp.
1420
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1421=head1 AUTHOR
1422
b3b6085d 1423Peter Prymmer pvhp@best.com wrote this in 1999 and 2000
d396a558 1424with CCSID 0819 and 0037 help from Chris Leach and
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1425AndrE<eacute> Pirard A.Pirard@ulg.ac.be as well as POSIX-BC
1426help from Thomas Dorner Thomas.Dorner@start.de.
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1427Thanks also to Vickie Cooper, Philip Newton, William Raffloer, and
1428Joe Smith. Trademarks, registered trademarks, service marks and
1429registered service marks used in this document are the property of
1430their respective owners.