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Some deprecated warnings were also in the syntax category
[perl5.git] / pod / perldiag.pod
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
6df41af2 53=item Allocation too large: %lx
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
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88(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
6df41af2 92=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 93
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94(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
95redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
96redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 97
6df41af2 98=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 99
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100(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
101redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
102into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
103though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
104which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 105
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106 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
107 while (<STDIN>) {
108 print;
109 print OUT;
110 }
111 close OUT;
c9f97d15 112
6df41af2 113=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 114
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115(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
116transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
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117one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
118a scalar value -- the length of an array, or the population info of a
119hash -- and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
120you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
121alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 122
6df41af2 123=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 124
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125(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
126with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
127impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
128for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 129
6df41af2 130=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 131
6df41af2 132(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 133
b0fdf69e 134=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 135
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136(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
137subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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138
139 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 140 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 141 &do_something
a0d0e21e 142
8ea97a1e 143=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 144
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145(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
146such as:
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147
148 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 149 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 150
8ea97a1e 151or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 152
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153 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
154 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 155
6df41af2 156=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 157
6df41af2 158(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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159name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
160error.
a0d0e21e 161
f86702cc 162=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 163
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164(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
165that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
166will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 167
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168=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
169
170(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
171forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
172data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
173the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
174If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
175the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
176
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177=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
178
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179(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
180spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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181
182=item assertion botched: %s
183
184(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
185
186=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
187
188(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
189
190=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
191
192(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
193must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
194know which context to supply to the right side.
195
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196=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
197
4447dfc1 198(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
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199thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
200Usually it's a good idea to first collect the return values of the
201created threads by joining them, and only then exit from the main
202thread. See L<threads>.
203
2393f1b9 204=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 205
49293501 206(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 207the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 208
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209=item Attempt to bless into a reference
210
211(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
212the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
213supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
214
215 bless $self, $proto;
216
217when you intended
218
219 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
220
221If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
222of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
223example by:
224
225 bless $self, "$proto";
226
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227=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
228
229(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
230which is not in its key set.
231
232=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
233
234(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
235declared readonly from a restricted hash.
236
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237=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
238
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239(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
240that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
241outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 242
54310121 243=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 244
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245(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of
246strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
247strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
248of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 249
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250=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
251
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252(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
253free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
254SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
255free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
256try to free it.
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257
258=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
259
e476b1b5 260(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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261
262=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
263
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264(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
265see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
266earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
267This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
268that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
269mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
270corrupted.
a0d0e21e 271
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272=item Attempt to join self
273
274(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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275impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
276to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 277
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278=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
279
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280(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
281function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
282means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
283invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
284literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
285avoid this warning.
84902520 286
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287=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
288
289(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
290compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
291unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
292L<perlvar/%INC>.
293
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294=item Attempt to set length of freed array
295
296(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
297can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
298of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
299
300 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
301 $$r = 503
302
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303=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
304
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305(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
306used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
307dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 308
dc26df50 309=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %s
a0d0e21e 310
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311(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
312or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 313S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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314S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
315
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316=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
317
496a33f5 318(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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319substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
320most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
321
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322=item Bad filehandle: %s
323
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324(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
325symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
326open(), or did it in another package.
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327
328=item Bad free() ignored
329
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330(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
331been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 332setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 333
9ea8bc6d 334This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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335dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
336which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 337
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338=item Bad hash
339
340(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
341
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342=item Badly placed ()'s
343
344(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
345of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
346Perl yourself.
347
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348=item Bad name after %s::
349
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350(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
351didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
352of quotes, so
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353
354 $var = 'myvar';
355 $sym = mypack::$var;
356
357is not the same as
358
359 $var = 'myvar';
360 $sym = "mypack::$var";
361
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362=item Bad realloc() ignored
363
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364(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
365never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
366by setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 367
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368=item Bad symbol for array
369
370(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
371wasn't a symbol table entry.
372
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373=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
374
375(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
376that wasn't a symbol table entry.
377
378
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379=item Bad symbol for filehandle
380
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381(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
382that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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383
384=item Bad symbol for hash
385
386(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
387wasn't a symbol table entry.
388
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389=item Bareword found in conditional
390
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391(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
392conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
393of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
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394
395 open FOO || die;
396
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397It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
398a bareword:
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399
400 use constant TYPO => 1;
401 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
402
403The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
404
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405=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
406
407(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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408subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
409symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
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410
411=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
412
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413(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
414compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
415you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 416
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417=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
418
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419(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
420subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
421exited.
a0d0e21e 422
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423=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
424
425(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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426implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
427occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
428be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
429depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 430
6df41af2
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431=item \1 better written as $1
432
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433(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
434The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
435substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
436because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
437there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 438
252aa082
JH
439=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
440
e476b1b5 441(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
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JH
442(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
443L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 444
69282e91 445=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 446
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447(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
448check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 449
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450=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
451
452(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
453Check you control flow and number of arguments.
454
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455=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
456
e476b1b5 457(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 458
4633a7c4
LW
459=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
460
be771a83 461(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
b45f050a 462copyable.
4633a7c4 463
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464=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
465
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466(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
467iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
468which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 469
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470=item Callback called exit
471
4929bf7b 472(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
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473exited by calling exit.
474
6df41af2 475=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 476
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477(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
478parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
479that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
480early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
481subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
482checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
483function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
484the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 485
49704364 486=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
487
488(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
489compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
490attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
491See L<perlfunc/pack>.
492
49704364 493=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
494
495(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
496format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
497
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NC
498=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
499
500(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
501then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
502triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
503from that type of reference to a typeglob.
504
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505=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
506
507(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
508be directly assigned not.
509
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510=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
511
512(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
513integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
514to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
515
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516=item Can't bless non-reference value
517
518(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
519encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
520
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521=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
522
0d863452
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523(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
524a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
525
526=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 527
0d863452
RH
528(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
529
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530=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
531
532(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
533functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
534in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
535
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536=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
537
538(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
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539object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
540like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
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541
542 $BADREF = undef;
543 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
544 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
545
a0d0e21e
LW
546=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
547
54310121 548(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
549ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
550didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
551object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
552
553=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
554
555(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
556object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
557defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
558Something like this will reproduce the error:
559
560 $BADREF = 42;
561 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
562 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
563
a0d0e21e
LW
564=item Can't chdir to %s
565
566(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
567that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
568
0545a864 569=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 570
be771a83
GS
571(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
572nosuid.
104d25b7 573
6df41af2
GS
574=item Can't coerce array into hash
575
576(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
577information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
578only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
579
a0d0e21e
LW
580=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
581
582(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 583(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
584say things like:
585
586 *foo += 1;
587
588You CAN say
589
590 $foo = *foo;
591 $foo += 1;
592
593but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
594
595=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
596
597(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 598(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
599
600=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
601
602(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 603(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 604
0d863452 605=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 606
0d863452
RH
607(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
608or C<default> block.
609
a0d0e21e
LW
610=item Can't create pipe mailbox
611
be771a83
GS
612(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
613quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 614
eb64745e 615=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 616
2f7e735d 617(F) Currently, only scalar variables can be declared with a specific
30c282f6 618class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration. The semantics may be
2f7e735d 619extended for other types of variables in future.
eb64745e
GS
620
621=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
622
30c282f6
NC
623(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
624"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 625
6df41af2
GS
626=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
627
be771a83
GS
628(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
629a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 630
a0d0e21e
LW
631=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
632
be771a83
GS
633(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
634reason.
a0d0e21e 635
54310121 636=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 637
be771a83
GS
638(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
639reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
640C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 641
10f9c03d 642=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 643
e476b1b5 644(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
645characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
646inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 647
7253e4e3 648=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 649
b45f050a 650(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 651regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 652regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
653
654=item Can't do setegid!
655
be771a83
GS
656(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
657suidperl.
a0d0e21e
LW
658
659=item Can't do seteuid!
660
661(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
662
663=item Can't do setuid
664
be771a83
GS
665(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to do
666setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the form
667sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides under
668the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines. If the
669file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask your
670sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
a0d0e21e
LW
671
672=item Can't do waitpid with flags
673
be771a83
GS
674(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
675waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 676
a0d0e21e
LW
677=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
678
be771a83
GS
679(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
680point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
681line.
a0d0e21e 682
1109a392
MHM
683=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
684
685(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
686or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
687little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
688See L<perlfunc/pack>.
689
a0d0e21e
LW
690=item Can't exec "%s": %s
691
d1be9408 692(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
693named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
694permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
695C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
696architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
697can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
698#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
699
700=item Can't exec %s
701
be771a83
GS
702(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
703that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
704need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
705
706=item Can't execute %s
707
be771a83
GS
708(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
709found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 710
6df41af2 711=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 712
be771a83
GS
713(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
714is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 715
56ca2fc0
JH
716=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
717
718(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
89d60977 719could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property
56ca2fc0
JH
720(remember that the names of character properties consist only of
721alphanumeric characters), or maybe you forgot the C<Is> or C<In> prefix?
722
6df41af2
GS
723=item Can't find label %s
724
be771a83
GS
725(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
726possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
727
728=item Can't find %s on PATH
729
be771a83
GS
730(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
731found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 732
6df41af2 733=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 734
be771a83
GS
735(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
736found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
737script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
738
739=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
740
be771a83
GS
741(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
742that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
743nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 744
fb73857a
PP
745 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
746
be771a83
GS
747If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
748unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
749editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 750
660a4616
ST
751=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
752
753(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode property (for
754example C<\p{Lu}> is all uppercase letters). If you did mean to use a
755Unicode property, see L<perlunicode> for the list of known properties.
756If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
757by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, until
758possible C<\E>).
759
a0d0e21e
LW
760=item Can't fork
761
be771a83
GS
762(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
763pipeline.
a0d0e21e 764
748a9306
LW
765=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
766
be771a83
GS
767(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
768between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
769Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
770the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
771account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
772the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
773the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
774the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
775if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
776because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
777appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
778and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
779routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
780shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
781only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 782
a0d0e21e
LW
783=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
784
be771a83
GS
785(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
786pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
787
788=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
789
748a9306
LW
790(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
791mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 792
6df41af2 793=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 794
be771a83
GS
795(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
796loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
797
798=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
799
be771a83
GS
800(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
801a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
802you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
803See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 804
9850bf21 805=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 806
9850bf21
RH
807(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
808comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
809as the reduce() function in List::Util).
810
c74ace89 811=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 812
be771a83 813(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 814"string" or block.
b150fb22 815
6df41af2
GS
816=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
817
be771a83
GS
818(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
819subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
820cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
821routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 822
0b5b802d
GS
823=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
824
be771a83
GS
825(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
826signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
827signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
828processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
829situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
830may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 831
6df41af2 832=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 833
6df41af2 834(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
835except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
836block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
837block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
838usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
839inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
840L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 841
2c7d6b9c
RGS
842=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
843
844(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
845package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
846
b8170e59
JB
847=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
848
849(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
850may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
851incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
852between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 853extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
854installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
855extensions.
856
748a9306
LW
857=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
858
2ba9eb46 859(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 860lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
861localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
862package name.
863
6df41af2 864=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 865
6df41af2
GS
866(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
867handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 868pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 869that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 870
ea071790 871=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
872
873(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
874found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
875unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
876need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
877the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
878to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
879L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 880
6df41af2
GS
881=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
882
be771a83
GS
883(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
884autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
885are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
886the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 887
b8170e59
JB
888=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
889
890(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
891for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
892unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
893
a0d0e21e
LW
894=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
895
896(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
897functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 898method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
899
900=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
901
be771a83
GS
902(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
903doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 904
2f7da168
RK
905=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
906
907(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
908e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
909
3e3baf6d
TB
910=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
911
be771a83
GS
912(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
913VMS.
3e3baf6d 914
a0d0e21e
LW
915=item Can't modify %s in %s
916
be771a83
GS
917(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
918to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 919
54310121 920=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
921
922(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
923a NULL.
924
6df41af2
GS
925=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
926
927(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
928such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
929
5f05dabc 930=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 931
5f05dabc 932(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
933buffer.
934
6df41af2
GS
935=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
936
937(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
938there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
939count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
940grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
941though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
942once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 943
a0d0e21e
LW
944=item Can't open %s: %s
945
c47ff5f1 946(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
947filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
948switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
949is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
950the command line.
a0d0e21e 951
9a869a14
RGS
952=item Can't open a reference
953
954(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
955using the 3-arg open() syntax :
956
957 open FH, '>', $ref;
958
959but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
960open is not supported.
961
a0d0e21e
LW
962=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
963
be771a83
GS
964(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
965You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
966as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
967">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 968
748a9306
LW
969=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
970
be771a83
GS
971(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
972redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
973the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
974
975=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
976
be771a83
GS
977(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
978redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
979command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
980
981=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
982
be771a83
GS
983(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
984redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
985the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
986
987=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
988
be771a83
GS
989(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
990redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
991for stdout.
748a9306 992
2b8ca739 993=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
994
995(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
996
fa3aa65a
JC
997If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
998shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
999you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1000
6df41af2
GS
1001=item Can't read CRTL environ
1002
1003(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1004from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1005missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1006or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1007searched.
6df41af2 1008
6df41af2
GS
1009=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1010
1011(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1012there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1013count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1014or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1015though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1016loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1017
64977eb6 1018=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1019
be771a83
GS
1020(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1021file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1022the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1023
a0d0e21e
LW
1024=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1025
e476b1b5 1026(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1027probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1028
748a9306
LW
1029=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1030
be771a83
GS
1031(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1032to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1033
6df41af2
GS
1034=item Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
1035
be771a83
GS
1036(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
1037to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
1038method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1039
a0d0e21e
LW
1040=item Can't reswap uid and euid
1041
be771a83
GS
1042(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
1043suidperl.
a0d0e21e 1044
cd06dffe
GS
1045=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1046
be771a83
GS
1047(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1048temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1049is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1050
96ebfdd7
RK
1051=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1052
1053(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1054there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1055
78f9721b
SM
1056=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1057
1058(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1059but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1060to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1061the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1062list context.
1063
a0d0e21e
LW
1064=item Can't stat script "%s"
1065
be771a83
GS
1066(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1067open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e
LW
1068
1069=item Can't swap uid and euid
1070
be771a83
GS
1071(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
1072suidperl.
a0d0e21e
LW
1073
1074=item Can't take log of %g
1075
fb73857a
PP
1076(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1077negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1078standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1079negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1080
1081=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1082
1083(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1084negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1085with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1086
1087=item Can't undef active subroutine
1088
1089(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1090however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1091redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1092
1093=item Can't unshift
1094
1095(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1096as the main Perl stack.
1097
c81225bc 1098=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1099
be771a83
GS
1100(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1101into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1102specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1103indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1104
1db89ea5
BS
1105=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1106
e27ad1f2 1107(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1108table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1109for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1110
96ebfdd7
RK
1111=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1112
1113(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1114be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1115
6df41af2
GS
1116=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1117
be771a83
GS
1118(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1119references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1120
90b75b61 1121=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1122
1123(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1124Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1125provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1126
1109a392
MHM
1127=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1128
1129(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1130byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1131allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1132
6df41af2
GS
1133=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1134
be771a83
GS
1135(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1136foreach.
6df41af2 1137
aab6a793 1138=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1139
be771a83
GS
1140(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1141is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1142(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1143have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1144weren't.
1145
6d3b25aa
RGS
1146=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1147
1148(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1149that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1150For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1151is inside a big-endian group.
1152
c07a80fd
PP
1153=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1154
1155(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1156You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1157and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1158Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1159lexical variable.
1160
a0d0e21e
LW
1161=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1162
1163(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1164reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1165test the type of the reference, if need be.
1166
748a9306 1167=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1168
be771a83
GS
1169(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1170references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1171
748a9306
LW
1172=item Can't use subscript on %s
1173
1174(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1175subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1176didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1177
6df41af2
GS
1178=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1179
75b44862
GS
1180(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1181creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1182backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1183expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1184value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1185instead.
6df41af2 1186
0d863452 1187=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1188
0d863452
RH
1189(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1190loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1191from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1192or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1193
810b8aa5
GS
1194=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1195
1196(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1197references can be weakened.
1198
5f05dabc 1199=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1200
be771a83
GS
1201(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1202with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1203Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1204
f337b084 1205=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1206
1207(W pack) You said
1208
1209 pack("C", $x)
1210
1211where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1212only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1213and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1214
1215 pack("C", $x & 255)
1216
1217If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1218instead.
1219
f337b084
TH
1220=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1221
1222(W pack) You said
1223
1224 pack("U0W", $x)
1225
1226where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1227all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1228meant:
1229
1230 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1231
1232=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1233
1234(W pack) You said
1235
1236 pack("c", $x)
1237
1238where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1239is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1240and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1241
1242 pack("c", $x & 255);
1243
1244If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1245instead.
1246
f337b084
TH
1247=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1248
1249(W unpack) You tried something like
1250
1251 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1252
1a147d38 1253where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1254below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1255modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1256
1257 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1258
1259=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1260
1261(W pack) You tried something like
1262
1263 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1264
1a147d38
YO
1265where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1266value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1267uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1268
1269 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1270
1271=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1272
1273(W unpack) You tried something like
1274
1275 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1276
1a147d38
YO
1277where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1278value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1279uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1280
1281 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1282
96ebfdd7
RK
1283=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1284
1285(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1286
abc7ecad
SP
1287=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1288
1289(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1290a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1291
49704364
LW
1292=item Code missing after '/'
1293
1294(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1295template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1296
6df41af2
GS
1297=item %s: Command not found
1298
be771a83
GS
1299(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1300Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1301
7a2e2cd6
PP
1302=item Compilation failed in require
1303
1304(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1305Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1306encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1307
c3464db5
DD
1308=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1309
be771a83
GS
1310(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1311situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1312to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1313arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1314recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1315under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1316in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1317that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1318on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1319
38875929
DM
1320=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1321
1322(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1323cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
1324function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1325cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1326has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1327first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1328after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1329lock.
1330
38875929
DM
1331=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1332
1333(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1334cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
1335function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1336cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1337has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1338first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1339after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1340lock.
1341
69282e91 1342=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1343
be771a83
GS
1344(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1345to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1346L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1347
41ab332f 1348=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1349
be771a83
GS
1350(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1351an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1352specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1353corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1354L<overload>.
6df41af2 1355
fc8cd66c
YO
1356=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1357
1a147d38
YO
1358(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1359the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1360forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1361See L<charnames>.
1362
1363
779c5bc9
GS
1364=item Constant is not %s reference
1365
1366(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1367is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1368The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1369usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1370See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1371
4cee8e80
CS
1372=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1373
bb028877 1374(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1375eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1376commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1377
9607fc9c
PP
1378=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1379
be771a83
GS
1380(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1381for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1382workarounds.
9607fc9c 1383
e7ea3e70
IZ
1384=item Copy method did not return a reference
1385
64977eb6 1386(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1387L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1388
6798c92b
GS
1389=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1390
1391(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1392
a0d0e21e
LW
1393=item corrupted regexp pointers
1394
1395(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1396expression compiler gave it.
1397
1398=item corrupted regexp program
1399
be771a83
GS
1400(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1401valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1402
6df41af2
GS
1403=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1404
1405(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1406
49704364
LW
1407=item Count after length/code in unpack
1408
1409(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1410you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1411L<perlfunc/pack>.
1412
a0d0e21e
LW
1413=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1414
be771a83
GS
1415(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1416100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1417infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1418which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1419
f10b0346 1420=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1421
be771a83
GS
1422(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1423checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1424array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1425
f10b0346 1426=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1427
be771a83
GS
1428(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1429checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1430is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1431
62658f4d
PM
1432=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1433
1434(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1435there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1436
fc36a67e
PP
1437=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1438
be771a83
GS
1439(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1440long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1441that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1442
6d3b25aa
RGS
1443=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1444
1445(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1446There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1447not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1448conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1449static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1450relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1451declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1452
6d3b25aa
RGS
1453 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1454
1455becomes
1456
1457 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1458
36fb85f3
RGS
1459Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1460have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1461
1462 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1463
500ab966
RGS
1464=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1465
1466(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1467just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1468to create a dangling reference.
1469
3cdd684c
TP
1470=item Did not produce a valid header
1471
1472See Server error.
1473
6df41af2
GS
1474=item %s did not return a true value
1475
1476(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1477it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1478traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1479do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1480
cc507455 1481=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1482
be771a83
GS
1483(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some
1484such.
4633a7c4 1485
cc507455 1486=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1487
be771a83
GS
1488(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1489variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1490seems superfluous.
33633739 1491
cc507455 1492=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1493
be771a83
GS
1494(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1495@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1496carried away.
748a9306 1497
7e1af8bc 1498=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1499
1500(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1501you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1502
3cdd684c
TP
1503=item Document contains no data
1504
1505See Server error.
1506
62658f4d
PM
1507=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1508
1509(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1510define a C<$VERSION.>
1511
49704364
LW
1512=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1513
1514(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1515See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1516
a0d0e21e
LW
1517=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1518
1519(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1520
1521=item do_study: out of memory
1522
1523(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1524
6df41af2
GS
1525=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1526
56da5a46
RGS
1527(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1528"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1529name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1530because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1531"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1532something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1533subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1534"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1535
ac206dc8
RGS
1536=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1537
1538(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1539qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1540
84d78eb7
YO
1541=item dump is not supported
1542
1543(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1544
a0d0e21e
LW
1545=item Duplicate free() ignored
1546
be771a83
GS
1547(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1548already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1549
1109a392
MHM
1550=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1551
1552(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1553in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1554
4633a7c4
LW
1555=item elseif should be elsif
1556
56da5a46
RGS
1557(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1558ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1559"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1560unlikely to be what you want.
1561
ab13f0c7
JH
1562=item Empty %s
1563
af6f566e
HS
1564(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1565described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1566a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1567
85ab1d1d 1568=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1569
85ab1d1d 1570(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1571effective uids or gids failed.
1572
c038024b
RGS
1573=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1574
1575(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1576aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1577program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1578
748a9306
LW
1579=item Error converting file specification %s
1580
5f05dabc 1581(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1582specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1583single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1584an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1585conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1586
e4d48cc9
GS
1587=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1588
be771a83
GS
1589(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1590expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1591is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1592
e4d48cc9
GS
1593=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1594
be771a83
GS
1595(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1596C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1597pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1598is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1599building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1600that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1601
6df41af2
GS
1602=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1603
be771a83
GS
1604(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1605assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1606pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1607
1a147d38
YO
1608=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1609
1610(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1611any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1612
1613The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1614discovered.
1615
fc36a67e
PP
1616=item Excessively long <> operator
1617
1618(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1619Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1620filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1621variable and glob that.
1622
ed9aa3b7
SG
1623=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1624
1625(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented in MacPerl. See L<perlport>.
1626
f86702cc 1627=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1628
1629(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1630
1631=item Exiting eval via %s
1632
be771a83
GS
1633(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1634goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1635
1636=item Exiting format via %s
1637
9a2ff54b 1638(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1639goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1640
0a753a76
PP
1641=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1642
be771a83
GS
1643(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1644sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1645loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1646
a0d0e21e
LW
1647=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1648
be771a83
GS
1649(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1650as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1651
1652=item Exiting substitution via %s
1653
be771a83
GS
1654(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1655as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1656
7b8d334a
GS
1657=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1658
be771a83
GS
1659(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1660the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1661usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1662e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1663
6df41af2
GS
1664=item %s: Expression syntax
1665
be771a83
GS
1666(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1667Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1668
1669=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1670
3c10abe3
AG
1671(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1672CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1673queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1674
7253e4e3 1675=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1676
be771a83 1677(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1678character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1679in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1680"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1681problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1682
748a9306 1683=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1684
be771a83
GS
1685(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1686system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1687details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1688you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1689
1690=item fcntl is not implemented
1691
1692(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1693PDP-11 or something?
1694
22846ab4
AB
1695=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1696
1697(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1698is not possible.
1699
f337b084
TH
1700=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1701
1702(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1703which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1704a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
1705C<u63> as format.
1706
af8c498a 1707=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1708
6c8d78fb
HS
1709(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1710it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1711"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1712write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1713
af8c498a 1714=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1715
6c8d78fb
HS
1716(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1717you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
be771a83
GS
1718with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1719intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
6c8d78fb
HS
1720Another possibility is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0
1721(also known as STDIN) for output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1722
1723=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1724
1725(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1726as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1727previously.
1728
1729=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1730
1731(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1732as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1733
1734=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1735
1736(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1737a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1738happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1739name.
a0d0e21e 1740
56e90b21
GS
1741=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1742
be771a83 1743(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1744some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1745filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1746same name?
56e90b21 1747
6df41af2
GS
1748=item Format not terminated
1749
1750(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1751to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1752
a0d0e21e
LW
1753=item Format %s redefined
1754
e476b1b5 1755(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1756
1757 {
271595cc 1758 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1759 eval "format NAME =...";
1760 }
1761
a0d0e21e
LW
1762=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1763
e476b1b5 1764(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1765
1766 if ($foo = 123)
1767
1768when you meant
1769
1770 if ($foo == 123)
1771
1772(or something like that).
1773
6df41af2
GS
1774=item %s found where operator expected
1775
56da5a46
RGS
1776(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1777If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1778operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1779operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1780
a0d0e21e
LW
1781=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1782
1783(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1784
1785=item gethostent not implemented
1786
1787(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1788because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1789on the Internet.
1790
69282e91 1791=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1792
be771a83
GS
1793(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1794socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1795
748a9306
LW
1796=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1797
1798(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1799C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1800
6df41af2
GS
1801=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1802
be771a83
GS
1803(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1804forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1805L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1806
1807=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1808
a4edf47d 1809(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1810that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1811declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1812which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1813
e476b1b5
GS
1814=item glob failed (%s)
1815
be771a83
GS
1816(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1817C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1818C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1819nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1820resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1821broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1822config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1823were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1824empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1825think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1826C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1827
a0d0e21e
LW
1828=item Glob not terminated
1829
1830(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1831a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1832not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1833earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1834
6df41af2 1835=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1836
6df41af2
GS
1837(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1838version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1839
1840=item goto must have label
1841
1842(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1843unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1844
49704364 1845=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1846
49704364 1847(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is
18529408 1848supposed to follow something: a template character or a ()-group.
49704364 1849 See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 1850
6df41af2
GS
1851=item %s had compilation errors
1852
1853(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1854
a0d0e21e
LW
1855=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1856
be771a83
GS
1857(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1858to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1859created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1860
1861=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1862
be771a83
GS
1863(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1864spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1865
6df41af2
GS
1866=item %s has too many errors
1867
1868(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1869Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1870
252aa082
JH
1871=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1872
e476b1b5 1873(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
1874(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1875L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1876
8903cb82
PP
1877=item Identifier too long
1878
1879(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 1880about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
1881names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
1882of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1883
fc8cd66c
YO
1884=item Ignoring %s in character class in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1885
38a44b82 1886(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return multi-char
fc8cd66c 1887or zero length sequences. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 1888its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
1889been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
1890
6df41af2 1891=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 1892
6df41af2 1893(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 1894
6df41af2 1895=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 1896
be771a83
GS
1897(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
1898binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
1899offending digit.
a0d0e21e 1900
4fdae800
PP
1901=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1902
d5898338 1903(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
1904would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
1905when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
1906version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
1907to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 1908
d37a9538
ST
1909=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
1910
420cdfc1 1911(W syntax) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration. Legal
d37a9538
ST
1912characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, and \.
1913
904d85c5
RGS
1914=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
1915
1916(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
1917you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
1918
8e742a20
MHM
1919=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
1920
1921(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
1922
a0d0e21e
LW
1923=item Illegal division by zero
1924
be771a83
GS
1925(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
1926your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
1927meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 1928
6df41af2
GS
1929=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
1930
be771a83
GS
1931(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
1932A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
1933number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 1934
a0d0e21e
LW
1935=item Illegal modulus zero
1936
be771a83
GS
1937(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
1938numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 1939
6df41af2 1940=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 1941
6df41af2
GS
1942(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
1943two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
1944
1945=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 1946
d1be9408 1947(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 1948
399388f4 1949=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 1950
d1be9408 1951(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 1952Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 1953
6df41af2 1954=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
6ff81951 1955
6df41af2 1956(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 1957following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 1958
6df41af2 1959=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 1960
75b44862 1961(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
1962internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
1963delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 1964
6df41af2 1965=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 1966
be771a83
GS
1967(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
1968name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1969didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
1970ignored.
54310121 1971
6df41af2 1972=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 1973
be771a83
GS
1974(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
1975the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
1976system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
1977times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
1978would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 1979
be771a83
GS
1980Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
1981also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 1982
2c7d6b9c
RGS
1983=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
1984
1985(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
1986C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
1987documentation in L<mro> for more information.
1988
979699d9
JH
1989=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
1990
1991(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
1992Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
1993encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
1994
1a147d38
YO
1995=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1996
1997(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
1998text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
1999either consume text or fail.
2000
2001The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2002discovered.
2003
6dbe9451
NC
2004=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2005
2006(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2007of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2008C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2009as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2010
a0d0e21e
LW
2011=item Insecure dependency in %s
2012
8b1a09fc 2013(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2014The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2015setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2016tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2017from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2018such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2019L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2020
2021=item Insecure directory in %s
2022
be771a83
GS
2023(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2024setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2025the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2026See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2027
62f468fc 2028=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2029
2030(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2031setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2032C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2033supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2034the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2035
a7ae9550
GS
2036=item Integer overflow in %s number
2037
75b44862 2038(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2039either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2040your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2041On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2042representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
20430b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2044transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2045internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2046operations.
bbce6d69 2047
2fba7546
GA
2048=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2049
0be96356
AL
2050(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2051or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2fba7546
GA
2052integers for your architecture.
2053
46314c13
JP
2054=item Integer overflow in version
2055
2056(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2057size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2058because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2059element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2060trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2061100/9.
2062
7253e4e3 2063=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2064
2065(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2066The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2067discovered.
2068
748a9306
LW
2069=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2070
be771a83
GS
2071(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2072you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2073to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2074L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2075Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2076terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2077
7253e4e3 2078=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2079
7253e4e3
RK
2080(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2081<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2082discovered.
a0d0e21e 2083
6df41af2
GS
2084=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2085
75b44862 2086(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2087followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2088operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2089L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2090
09bef843
SB
2091=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2092
2093The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
2094by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2095
2096=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2097
be771a83
GS
2098The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
2099recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2100
c635e13b
PP
2101=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2102
be771a83
GS
2103(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2104L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2105
9e08bc66
ST
2106=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2107
2108(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2109didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2110from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2111The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2112The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2113escape was discovered.
2114
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2115=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2116
2117(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")>
2118or C<use mro 'foo'>, where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO).
2119(Currently, the only valid ones are C<dfs> and C<c3>). See L<mro>.
2120
7253e4e3 2121=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2122
2123(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2124greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2125C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2126up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2127problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2128
d1573ac7 2129=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2130
2131(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2132character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2133
09bef843
SB
2134=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2135
0120eecf 2136(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2137elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2138parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2139See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2140
b4581f09
JH
2141=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2142
2143(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
2144colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
2145If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2146list was terminated too soon.
2147
49704364 2148=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2149
49704364
LW
2150(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2151See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2152(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2153silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2154
46314c13
JP
2155=item Invalid version format (multiple underscores)
2156
2157(F) Versions may contain at most a single underscore, which signals
2158that the version is a beta release. See L<version> for the allowed
2159version formats.
2160
2161=item Invalid version format (underscores before decimal)
2162
2163(F) Versions may not contain decimals after the optional underscore.
2164See L<version> for the allowed version formats.
2165
a0d0e21e
LW
2166=item ioctl is not implemented
2167
2168(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2169strange for a machine that supports C.
2170
c289d2f7
JH
2171=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2172
2173(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
2174Check you control flow and number of arguments.
2175
363c40c4
SB
2176=item IO layers (like "%s") unavailable
2177
2178(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
2179you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO Perl must be configured
2180with 'useperlio'.
2181
80cbd5ad
JH
2182=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2183
2184(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
2185neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
2186
b4581f09
JH
2187=item $* is no longer supported
2188
fafcdf9e 2189(S deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older perls, has
b4581f09
JH
2190been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. You should use the
2191C<//m> and C<//s> regexp modifiers instead.
2192
8ae1fe26
RGS
2193=item $# is no longer supported
2194
fafcdf9e 2195(S deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older perls, has
8ae1fe26
RGS
2196been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You should use the
2197printf/sprintf functions instead.
2198
6ad11d81
JH
2199=item `%s' is not a code reference
2200
04a80ee0
RGS
2201(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2202needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2203to a subroutine.
2204
2205=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2206
04a80ee0
RGS
2207(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2208unaware of.
6ad11d81 2209
a0d0e21e
LW
2210=item junk on end of regexp
2211
2212(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2213
2214=item Label not found for "last %s"
2215
be771a83
GS
2216(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2217of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2218L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2219
2220=item Label not found for "next %s"
2221
2222(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2223that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2224L<perlfunc/last>.
2225
2226=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2227
2228(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2229that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2230L<perlfunc/last>.
2231
85ab1d1d 2232=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2233
85ab1d1d 2234(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2235effective uids or gids failed.
2236
49704364
LW
2237=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2238
d7f8936a 2239(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
LW
2240length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2241an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2242
69282e91 2243=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2244
be771a83
GS
2245(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2246to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2247L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2248
58e23c8d 2249=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2250
2251(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2252handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2253
b88df990
NC
2254=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2255
2256(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2257for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2258hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2259because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2260are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2261You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2262
2f7da168
RK
2263=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2264
2265(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2266by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2267instead on the filehandle.)
2268
96ebfdd7
RK
2269=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
2270
2271(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
2272values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
2273L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
2274
49704364
LW
2275=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
2276
2277(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2278are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2279
2280=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2281
2282(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2283are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2284
6df41af2
GS
2285=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2286
2287(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2288
2289 prefix1;prefix2
2290
2291or
6df41af2
GS
2292 prefix1 prefix2
2293
be771a83
GS
2294with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2295a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2296appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2297"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2298
2f758a16
ST
2299=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2300
d37a9538
ST
2301(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2302syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2303obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2304when the function is called.
2f758a16 2305
ba210ebe
JH
2306=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2307
2575c402
JW
2308(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2309encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2310
2575c402
JW
2311One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2312you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
23138-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2314
2315If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2316sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2317set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2318message.
2319
2320See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2321
dea0fc0b
JH
2322=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
2323
2324Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2325doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2326
f337b084
TH
2327=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2328
2329(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2330rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2331
2332=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2333
2334(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2335rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2336
2337=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2338
2339(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2340rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2341
2563cec5
IZ
2342=item Maximal count of pending signals (%s) exceeded
2343
2344(F) Perl aborted due to a too important number of signals pending. This
2345usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2346too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2347resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2348safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2349
49704364 2350=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2351
2352(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
7253e4e3
RK
2353regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2354shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2355See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2356
25f58aea
PN
2357=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2358
2359(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2360interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2361"use" or "my".
2362
49704364 2363=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2364
2365(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2366checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2367See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2368
a0d0e21e
LW
2369=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2370
2371(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2372doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2373
3cdd684c
TP
2374=item Method %s not permitted
2375
2376See Server error.
2377
a0d0e21e
LW
2378=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2379
2380(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2381by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2382ended earlier on the current line.
2383
2384=item Misplaced _ in number
2385
d4ced10d
JH
2386(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2387separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2388
9e81e6a1
RGS
2389=item Missing argument to -%c
2390
2391(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2392immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2393
4a2d328f 2394=item Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
423cee85 2395
4a2d328f 2396(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
423cee85
JH
2397double-quotish context.
2398
a0d0e21e
LW
2399=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2400
2401(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2402"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2403
06eaf0bc
GS
2404=item Missing command in piped open
2405
be771a83
GS
2406(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2407C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2408blank.
06eaf0bc 2409
961ce445
RGS
2410=item Missing control char name in \c
2411
2412(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2413character name.
2414
6df41af2
GS
2415=item Missing name in "my sub"
2416
be771a83
GS
2417(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2418they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2419
2420=item Missing $ on loop variable
2421
be771a83
GS
2422(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2423are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2424can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2425
cc507455 2426=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2427
56da5a46
RGS
2428(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2429"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2430
ab13f0c7
JH
2431=item Missing right brace on %s
2432
2433(F) Missing right brace in C<\p{...}> or C<\P{...}>.
2434
d98d5fff 2435=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2436
be771a83
GS
2437(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2438ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2439were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2440
6df41af2
GS
2441=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2442
56da5a46
RGS
2443(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2444"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2445the previous line just because you saw this message.
2446
a0d0e21e
LW
2447=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2448
2449(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2450constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2451catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2452
2453 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2454 mod(2);
2455
2456Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2457
c5674021
PDF
2458Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2459is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2460
2461 $x = 1;
2462 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2463 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2464 }
c5674021 2465
7a4340ed 2466=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2467
2468(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2469subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2470backwards.
2471
7a4340ed 2472=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2473
be771a83
GS
2474(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2475couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2476
2477=item Module name must be constant
2478
2479(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2480
be98fb35 2481=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2482
be98fb35
GS
2483(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2484you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2485about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2486
ed9aa3b7
SG
2487=item More than one argument to open
2488
2489(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2490can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2491list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2492See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2493
a0d0e21e
LW
2494=item msg%s not implemented
2495
2496(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2497
2498=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2499
75b44862
GS
2500(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2501They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2502
49704364 2503=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2504
49704364
LW
2505(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2506follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2507See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2508
2509=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2510
be771a83
GS
2511(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2512that yet.
6df41af2 2513
30c282f6 2514=item "%s" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2515
be771a83
GS
2516(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2517sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2518local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2519
8b1a09fc
PP
2520=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2521
e476b1b5 2522(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
2523If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2524again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 2525provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e 2526
64b374f4
FD
2527NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2528%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2529the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2530will not trigger this warning.
2531
49704364
LW
2532=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2533
2534(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2535negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2536
a0d0e21e
LW
2537=item Negative length
2538
be771a83
GS
2539(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2540length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2541
ed9aa3b7
SG
2542=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2543
2544(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2545greater than or equal to zero.
2546
7253e4e3 2547=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2548
b45f050a 2549(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2550things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2551expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2552
7253e4e3 2553Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2554C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2555
6df41af2 2556=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2557
be771a83
GS
2558(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2559scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2560
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2561=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2562
2563(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2564real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2565See L<mro>.
2566
a0d0e21e
LW
2567=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2568
be771a83
GS
2569(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2570setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2571will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2572securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2573
a0d0e21e
LW
2574=item No comma allowed after %s
2575
2576(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2577allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2578Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2579
0a753a76
PP
2580One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2581constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2582importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2583does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2584explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2585L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2586would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2587remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2588constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2589list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2590this error was triggered?
2591
748a9306
LW
2592=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2593
be771a83
GS
2594(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2595redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2596doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2597
a0d0e21e
LW
2598=item No DB::DB routine defined
2599
be771a83 2600(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
ccafdc96
RGS
2601for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2602module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2603statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2604
2605=item No dbm on this machine
2606
2607(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2608supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2609
ccafdc96 2610=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2611
ccafdc96
RGS
2612(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2613for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2614module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2615of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2616
96ebfdd7
RK
2617=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2618
2619(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2620
c47ff5f1 2621=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2622
be771a83
GS
2623(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2624redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2625find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2626
49704364
LW
2627=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2628
2629(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2630matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2631
c47ff5f1 2632=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2633
be771a83
GS
2634(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2635redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2636name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2637
6df41af2
GS
2638=item No #! line
2639
2640(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2641even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2642
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2643=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2644
2645(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2646in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2647it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2648or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2649
6df41af2
GS
2650=item "no" not allowed in expression
2651
be771a83
GS
2652(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2653returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2654
c47ff5f1 2655=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2656
be771a83
GS
2657(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2658redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2659doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2660
c47ff5f1 2661=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2662
be771a83
GS
2663(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2664redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2665find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2666
1ec3e8de
GS
2667=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2668
be771a83
GS
2669(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2670declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2671semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2672
a0d0e21e
LW
2673=item No Perl script found in input
2674
2675(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2676with #! and containing the word "perl".
2677
2678=item No setregid available
2679
2680(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2681your system.
2682
2683=item No setreuid available
2684
2685(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2686your system.
2687
6df41af2
GS
2688=item No %s specified for -%c
2689
2690(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2691you haven't specified one.
2692
e75d1f10
RD
2693=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
2694
2695(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
2696but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
2697package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
2698
2c692339
RGS
2699=item No such class %s
2700
30c282f6 2701(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration, but
2c692339
RGS
2702this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2703
6df41af2
GS
2704=item No such pipe open
2705
2706(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2707close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2708earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2709
a0d0e21e
LW
2710=item No such signal: SIG%s
2711
be771a83
GS
2712(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
2713not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
2714names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
2715
2716=item Not a CODE reference
2717
2718(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2719subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2720use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2721also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2722
2723=item Not a format reference
2724
2725(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2726format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2727
2728=item Not a GLOB reference
2729
be771a83
GS
2730(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
2731symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2732something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
2733kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2734
2735=item Not a HASH reference
2736
be771a83
GS
2737(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
2738reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
2739find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2740
6df41af2
GS
2741=item Not an ARRAY reference
2742
be771a83
GS
2743(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
2744a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2745to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 2746
a0d0e21e
LW
2747=item Not a perl script
2748
2749(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2750even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
2751mention perl.
2752
2753=item Not a SCALAR reference
2754
be771a83
GS
2755(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
2756a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2757to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2758
2759=item Not a subroutine reference
2760
2761(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2762subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2763use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2764also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2765
e7ea3e70 2766=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
2767
2768(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 2769doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2770
a0d0e21e
LW
2771=item Not enough arguments for %s
2772
2773(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2774
6df41af2
GS
2775=item Not enough format arguments
2776
be771a83
GS
2777(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
2778supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
2779
2780=item %s: not found
2781
be771a83
GS
2782(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
2783of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
2784yourself.
6df41af2
GS
2785
2786=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 2787
6df41af2
GS
2788(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
2789timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
2790to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
2791F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
2792need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 2793
4ef2275c
GA
2794=item Non-string passed as bitmask
2795
2796(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
2797Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
2798select. See L<perlfunc/select>
2799
a0d0e21e
LW
2800=item Null filename used
2801
be771a83
GS
2802(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
2803machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 2804
6df41af2
GS
2805=item NULL OP IN RUN
2806
be771a83
GS
2807(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
2808pointer.
6df41af2 2809
55497cff
PP
2810=item Null picture in formline
2811
2812(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
2813specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
2814supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
2815
a0d0e21e
LW
2816=item Null realloc
2817
2818(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
2819
2820=item NULL regexp argument
2821
5f05dabc 2822(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2823
2824=item NULL regexp parameter
2825
2826(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2827
fc36a67e
PP
2828=item Number too long
2829
be771a83 2830(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 2831about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
2832versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
2833the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
2834"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 2835
6df41af2
GS
2836=item Octal number in vector unsupported
2837
be771a83
GS
2838(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
2839The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
2840future version.
6df41af2 2841
252aa082
JH
2842=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
2843
75b44862 2844(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
2845(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2846L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
2847
2848See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
2849
6ad11d81
JH
2850=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
2851
04a80ee0
RGS
2852(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
2853arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 2854
b21befc1
MG
2855=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
2856
2857(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
2858which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
2859
1930e939 2860=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 2861
be771a83
GS
2862(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
2863which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 2864
bbce6d69
PP
2865=item Offset outside string
2866
42bc49da
JH
2867(F, W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
2868with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
2869imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
2870take place when going past the end of the string when either
2871C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
2872for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
2873with real files).
bbce6d69 2874
c289d2f7 2875=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
2876
2877(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
2878never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
2879call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
2880
96ebfdd7
RK
2881=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
2882
2883(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
2884that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2885
a0d0e21e
LW
2886=item oops: oopsAV
2887
e476b1b5 2888(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
2889
2890=item oops: oopsHV
2891
e476b1b5 2892(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 2893
abc718f2
RGS
2894=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
2895
2896(W io deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
2897a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
2898Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
2899and is deprecated.
2900
2901=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
2902
2903(W io deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
2904a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
2905Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
2906and is deprecated.
2907
a0288114 2908=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 2909
be771a83
GS
2910(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
2911handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
2912of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
2913C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 2914
748a9306
LW
2915=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
2916
be771a83
GS
2917(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
2918was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
2919use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
2920example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
2921"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 2922
6df41af2
GS
2923=item "our" variable %s redeclared
2924
be771a83
GS
2925(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
2926in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 2927
a80b8354
GS
2928=item Out of memory!
2929
2930(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
2931remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
2932no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 2933
19a52907
JH
2934At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
2935process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
2936C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
2937the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
2938and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
2939
6d3b25aa
RGS
2940=item Out of memory during %s extend
2941
2942(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
2943the largest possible memory allocation.
2944
6df41af2 2945=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 2946
6df41af2
GS
2947(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2948remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
2949the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
2950possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 2951
1b979e0a 2952=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 2953
be771a83
GS
2954(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
2955insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
2956request.
eff9c6e2
CS
2957
2958The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
2959depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
2960However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
2961emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
2962is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
2963where the failed request happened.
55497cff 2964
1b979e0a
IZ
2965=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
2966
2967(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
2968is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
2969C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 2970
6df41af2
GS
2971=item Out of memory for yacc stack
2972
be771a83
GS
2973(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
2974parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
2975otherwise.
6df41af2 2976
28be1210
TH
2977=item '.' outside of string in pack
2978
2979(F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working
2980position to before the start of the packed string being built.
2981
49704364 2982=item '@' outside of string in unpack
6df41af2 2983
49704364 2984(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
6df41af2
GS
2985the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2986
f337b084
TH
2987=item '@' outside of string with malformed UTF-8 in unpack
2988
2989(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
2990the string being unpacked. The string being unpacked was also invalid
2991UTF-8. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2992
6df41af2
GS
2993=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
2994
be771a83
GS
2995(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
2996package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
2997some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
2998mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 2999
96ebfdd7
RK
3000=item pack/unpack repeat count overflow
3001
3002(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
3003signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3004
a0d0e21e
LW
3005=item page overflow
3006
be771a83
GS
3007(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
3008page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 3009
6df41af2
GS
3010=item panic: %s
3011
3012(P) An internal error.
3013
c99a1475
NC
3014=item panic: attempt to call %s in %s
3015
3016(P) One of the file test operators entered a code branch that calls
3017an ACL related-function, but that function is not available on this
3018platform. Earlier checks mean that it should not be possible to
3019enter this branch on this platform.
3020
a0d0e21e
LW
3021=item panic: ck_grep
3022
3023(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
3024
3025=item panic: ck_split
3026
3027(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
3028
3029=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
3030
be771a83
GS
3031(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than
3032there are in the savestack.
a0d0e21e 3033
810b8aa5
GS
3034=item panic: del_backref
3035
3036(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
3037reference.
3038
7619c85e
RG
3039=item panic: Devel::DProf inconsistent subroutine return
3040
3041(P) Devel::DProf called a subroutine that exited using goto(LABEL),
3042last(LABEL) or next(LABEL). Leaving that way a subroutine called from
3043an XSUB will lead very probably to a crash of the interpreter. This is
3044a bug that will hopefully one day get fixed.
3045
a0d0e21e
LW
3046=item panic: die %s
3047
3048(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
3049it wasn't an eval context.
3050
a0d0e21e
LW
3051=item panic: do_subst
3052
be771a83
GS
3053(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational
3054data.
a0d0e21e 3055
2269b42e 3056=item panic: do_trans_%s
a0d0e21e 3057
2269b42e 3058(P) The internal do_trans routines were called with invalid operational
be771a83 3059data.
a0d0e21e 3060
b7f7fd0b
NC
3061=item panic: fold_constants JMPENV_PUSH returned %d
3062
10203f38 3063(P) While attempting folding constants an exception other than an C<eval>
b7f7fd0b
NC
3064failure was caught.
3065
c635e13b
PP
3066=item panic: frexp
3067
3068(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
3069
a0d0e21e
LW
3070=item panic: goto
3071
3072(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
3073and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
3074
23976bdd
NC
3075=item panic: hfreeentries failed to free hash
3076
3077(P) The internal routine used to clear a hashes entries tried repeatedly,
3078but each time something added more entries to the hash. Most likely the hash
3079contains an object with a reference back to the hash and a destructor that
3080adds a new object to the hash.
3081
a0d0e21e
LW
3082=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
3083
3084(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
3085
3086=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
3087
3088(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
3089
e446cec8
IZ
3090=item panic: kid popen errno read
3091
3092(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
3093
a0d0e21e
LW
3094=item panic: last
3095
3096(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
3097it wasn't a block context.
3098
3099=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
3100
be771a83
GS
3101(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the
3102scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
3103
3104=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
3105
3106(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
3107invalid enum on the top of it.
3108
810b8aa5
GS
3109=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
3110
3111(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
3112references to an object.
3113
6df41af2
GS
3114=item panic: malloc
3115
3116(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
3117
27d5b266
JH
3118=item panic: memory wrap
3119
3120(P) Something tried to allocate more memory than possible.
3121
a0d0e21e
LW
3122=item panic: pad_alloc
3123
3124(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3125and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3126
3127=item panic: pad_free curpad
3128
3129(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3130and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3131
3132=item panic: pad_free po
3133
3134(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
3135
3136=item panic: pad_reset curpad
3137
3138(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3139and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3140
3141=item panic: pad_sv po
3142
3143(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
3144
3145=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
3146
3147(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
3148and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
3149
3150=item panic: pad_swipe po
3151
3152(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
3153
3154=item panic: pp_iter
3155
3156(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
3157
96ebfdd7
RK
3158=item panic: pp_match%s
3159
3160(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational
3161data.
3162
2269b42e
JH
3163=item panic: pp_split
3164
3165(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
3166
a0d0e21e
LW
3167=item panic: realloc
3168
3169(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
3170
3171=item panic: restartop
3172
3173(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
3174didn't supply the destination.
3175
3176=item panic: return
3177
3178(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
3179then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
3180
3181=item panic: scan_num
3182
3183(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
3184
6c65d5f9
NC
3185=item panic: sv_chop %s
3186
3187(P) The sv_chop() routine was passed a position that is not within the
3188scalar's string buffer.
3189
a0d0e21e
LW
3190=item panic: sv_insert
3191
3192(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
3193was string.
3194
3195=item panic: top_env
3196
6224f72b 3197(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e 3198
65bca31a
NC
3199=item panic: unimplemented op %s (#%d) called
3200
3201(P) The compiler is screwed up and attempted to use an op that isn't permitted
3202at run time.
3203
dea0fc0b
JH
3204=item panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen
3205
3206(P) Something tried to call utf16_to_utf8 with an odd (as opposed
64977eb6 3207to even) byte length.
dea0fc0b 3208
2f7da168
RK
3209=item panic: yylex
3210
3211(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
3212
1a147d38
YO
3213=item Pattern subroutine nesting without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3214
3215(F) You used a pattern that uses too many nested subpattern calls without
3216consuming any text. Restructure the pattern so text is consumed before the
3217nesting limit is exceeded.
3218
3219The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
3220discovered.
3221
7b8d334a 3222=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e 3223
e476b1b5 3224(W parenthesis) You said something like
a0d0e21e
LW
3225
3226 my $foo, $bar = @_;
3227
3228when you meant
3229
3230 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
3231
30c282f6 3232Remember that "my", "our", "local" and "state" bind tighter than comma.
a0d0e21e 3233
96ebfdd7
RK
3234=item C<-p> destination: %s
3235
3236(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
3237command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
3238redirected it with select().)
3239
3240=item (perhaps you forgot to load "%s"?)
3241
3242(F) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
3243"Can't locate object method \"%s\" via package \"%s\"". It often means
3244that a method requires a package that has not been loaded.
3245
1109a392
MHM
3246=item Perl_my_%s() not available
3247
3248(F) Your platform has very uncommon byte-order and integer size,
3249so it was not possible to set up some or all fixed-width byte-order
3250conversion functions. This is only a problem when you're using the
3251'<' or '>' modifiers in (un)pack templates. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3252
6d3b25aa
RGS
3253=item Perl %s required--this is only version %s, stopped
3254
3255(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more
3256recent than the currently running version. How long has it been since
3257you upgraded, anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
3258
6df41af2
GS
3259=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
3260
3261(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
fecfaeb8 3262C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 3263
96ebfdd7
RK
3264=item PERL_SIGNALS illegal: "%s"
3265
3266See L<perlrun/PERL_SIGNALS> for legal values.
3267
6df41af2
GS
3268=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3269
3270(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
3271
3272 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3273 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
3274 LC_ALL = "En_US",
3275 LANG = (unset)
3276 are supported and installed on your system.
3277 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
3278
3279Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
3280settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
0ea6b70f
JH
3281This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your operating
3282system supplier and/or system administrator have set up the so-called
3283locale system but Perl could not use those settings. This was not
3284dead serious, fortunately: there is a "default locale" called "C" that
3285Perl can and will use, the script will be run. Before you really fix
3286the problem, however, you will get the same error message each time
3287you run Perl. How to really fix the problem can be found in
3288L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
6df41af2 3289
a0d0e21e
LW
3290=item Permission denied
3291
3292(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
3293
bd3fa61c 3294=item pid %x not a child
748a9306 3295
be771a83
GS
3296(W exec) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a
3297process which isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is
3298fine from VMS' perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
748a9306 3299
49704364 3300=item 'P' must have an explicit size in unpack
3bf38418
WL
3301
3302(F) The unpack format P must have an explicit size, not "*".
3303
96ebfdd7
RK
3304=item POSIX class [:%s:] unknown in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3305
3306(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown. The <-- HERE
3307shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
3308Note that the POSIX character classes do B<not> have the C<is> prefix
3309the corresponding C interfaces have: in other words, it's C<[[:print:]]>,
3310not C<isprint>. See L<perlre>.
3311
3312=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
3313
3314(F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
3315the BSD version, which takes a pid.
3316
49704364 3317=item POSIX syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 3318
9a0b3859 3319(W regexp) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
7253e4e3
RK
3320I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct, for example:
3321/[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that [= =] and [. .] are not currently
3322implemented; they are simply placeholders for future extensions and will
3323cause fatal errors. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
3324where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 3325
49704364 3326=item POSIX syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3327
3328(F regexp) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
7253e4e3
RK
3329beginning with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
3330If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
3331expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
3332backslash: "\[." and ".\]". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression
3333about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 3334
49704364 3335=item POSIX syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 3336
7253e4e3
RK
3337(F) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
3338with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions. If you
3339need to represent those character sequences inside a regular expression
3340character class, just quote the square brackets with the backslash: "\[="
3341and "=\]". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
3342problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
b45f050a 3343
bbce6d69
PP
3344=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
3345
e476b1b5 3346(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
75b44862 3347strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated as
be771a83
GS
3348literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
3349parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 3350
774d564b
PP
3351You probably wrote something like this:
3352
54310121 3353 @list = qw(
774d564b 3354 a # a comment
bbce6d69 3355 b # another comment
774d564b 3356 );
bbce6d69
PP
3357
3358when you should have written this:
3359
774d564b 3360 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
3361 a
3362 b
774d564b
PP
3363 );
3364
3365If you really want comments, build your list the
3366old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
3367
3368 @list = (
3369 'a', # a comment
3370 'b', # another comment
3371 );
bbce6d69
PP
3372
3373=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
3374
be771a83
GS
3375(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore
3376commas aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used
3377different delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also
3378frequently used.)
bbce6d69 3379
54310121 3380You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 3381
774d564b
PP
3382 qw! a, b, c !;
3383
3384which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
3385commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 3386
774d564b 3387 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 3388
a0d0e21e
LW
3389=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
3390
3391(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
3392Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
3393end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
3394Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
3395
276b2a0c
RGS
3396=item Possible precedence problem on bitwise %c operator
3397
3398(W precedence) Your program uses a bitwise logical operator in conjunction
3399with a numeric comparison operator, like this :
3400
3401 if ($x & $y == 0) { ... }
3402
3403This expression is actually equivalent to C<$x & ($y == 0)>, due to the
3404higher precedence of C<==>. This is probably not what you want. (If you
96a925ab
YST
3405really meant to write this, disable the warning, or, better, put the
3406parentheses explicitly and write C<$x & ($y == 0)>).
276b2a0c 3407
18623440
PS
3408=item Possible unintended interpolation of %s in string
3409
3410(W ambiguous) You said something like `@foo' in a double-quoted string
32b0a12e
AMS
3411but there was no array C<@foo> in scope at the time. If you wanted a
3412literal @foo, then write it as \@foo; otherwise find out what happened
3413to the array you apparently lost track of.
18623440 3414
77772344
B
3415=item Possible unintended interpolation of $\ in regex
3416
3417(W ambiguous) You said something like C<m/$\/> in a regex.
3418The regex C<m/foo$\s+bar/m> translates to: match the word 'foo', the output