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Remove OPpENTERSUB_NOMOD from B::Concise
[perl5.git] / ext / B / B / Concise.pm
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c99ca59a 1package B::Concise;
c27ea44e 2# Copyright (C) 2000-2003 Stephen McCamant. All rights reserved.
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3# This program is free software; you can redistribute and/or modify it
4# under the same terms as Perl itself.
5
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6# Note: we need to keep track of how many use declarations/BEGIN
7# blocks this module uses, so we can avoid printing them when user
8# asks for the BEGIN blocks in her program. Update the comments and
9# the count in concise_specials if you add or delete one. The
10# -MO=Concise counts as use #1.
78ad9108 11
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12use strict; # use #2
13use warnings; # uses #3 and #4, since warnings uses Carp
78ad9108 14
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15use Exporter (); # use #5
16
8367b681 17our $VERSION = "0.85";
78ad9108 18our @ISA = qw(Exporter);
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19our @EXPORT_OK = qw( set_style set_style_standard add_callback
20 concise_subref concise_cv concise_main
21 add_style walk_output compile reset_sequence );
22our %EXPORT_TAGS =
23 ( io => [qw( walk_output compile reset_sequence )],
24 style => [qw( add_style set_style_standard )],
25 cb => [qw( add_callback )],
26 mech => [qw( concise_subref concise_cv concise_main )], );
78ad9108 27
8ec8fbef 28# use #6
c99ca59a 29use B qw(class ppname main_start main_root main_cv cstring svref_2object
6a077020 30 SVf_IOK SVf_NOK SVf_POK SVf_IVisUV SVf_FAKE OPf_KIDS OPf_SPECIAL
4df7f6af 31 CVf_ANON PAD_FAKELEX_ANON PAD_FAKELEX_MULTI SVf_ROK);
c99ca59a 32
f95e3c3c 33my %style =
c99ca59a 34 ("terse" =>
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35 ["(?(#label =>\n)?)(*( )*)#class (#addr) #name (?([#targ])?) "
36 . "#svclass~(?((#svaddr))?)~#svval~(?(label \"#coplabel\")?)\n",
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37 "(*( )*)goto #class (#addr)\n",
38 "#class pp_#name"],
39 "concise" =>
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40 ["#hyphseq2 (*( (x( ;)x))*)<#classsym> #exname#arg(?([#targarglife])?)"
41 . "~#flags(?(/#private)?)(?(:#hints)?)(x(;~->#next)x)\n"
cc02ea56 42 , " (*( )*) goto #seq\n",
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43 "(?(<#seq>)?)#exname#arg(?([#targarglife])?)"],
44 "linenoise" =>
45 ["(x(;(*( )*))x)#noise#arg(?([#targarg])?)(x( ;\n)x)",
46 "gt_#seq ",
47 "(?(#seq)?)#noise#arg(?([#targarg])?)"],
48 "debug" =>
49 ["#class (#addr)\n\top_next\t\t#nextaddr\n\top_sibling\t#sibaddr\n\t"
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50 . "op_ppaddr\tPL_ppaddr[OP_#NAME]\n\top_type\t\t#typenum\n" .
51 ($] > 5.009 ? '' : "\top_seq\t\t#seqnum\n")
d5ec2987 52 . "\top_flags\t#flagval\n\top_private\t#privval\t#hintsval\n"
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53 . "(?(\top_first\t#firstaddr\n)?)(?(\top_last\t\t#lastaddr\n)?)"
54 . "(?(\top_sv\t\t#svaddr\n)?)",
55 " GOTO #addr\n",
56 "#addr"],
57 "env" => [$ENV{B_CONCISE_FORMAT}, $ENV{B_CONCISE_GOTO_FORMAT},
58 $ENV{B_CONCISE_TREE_FORMAT}],
59 );
60
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61# Renderings, ie how Concise prints, is controlled by these vars
62# primary:
63our $stylename; # selects current style from %style
64my $order = "basic"; # how optree is walked & printed: basic, exec, tree
65
66# rendering mechanics:
67# these 'formats' are the line-rendering templates
68# they're updated from %style when $stylename changes
69my ($format, $gotofmt, $treefmt);
70
71# lesser players:
72my $base = 36; # how <sequence#> is displayed
73my $big_endian = 1; # more <sequence#> display
74my $tree_style = 0; # tree-order details
75my $banner = 1; # print banner before optree is traversed
cc02ea56 76my $do_main = 0; # force printing of main routine
f18deeb9 77my $show_src; # show source code
724aa791 78
cc02ea56 79# another factor: can affect all styles!
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80our @callbacks; # allow external management
81
82set_style_standard("concise");
83
c99ca59a 84my $curcv;
c27ea44e 85my $cop_seq_base;
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86
87sub set_style {
88 ($format, $gotofmt, $treefmt) = @_;
724aa791 89 #warn "set_style: deprecated, use set_style_standard instead\n"; # someday
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90 die "expecting 3 style-format args\n" unless @_ == 3;
91}
92
93sub add_style {
94 my ($newstyle,@args) = @_;
95 die "style '$newstyle' already exists, choose a new name\n"
96 if exists $style{$newstyle};
97 die "expecting 3 style-format args\n" unless @args == 3;
98 $style{$newstyle} = [@args];
724aa791 99 $stylename = $newstyle; # update rendering state
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100}
101
31b49ad4 102sub set_style_standard {
724aa791 103 ($stylename) = @_; # update rendering state
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104 die "err: style '$stylename' unknown\n" unless exists $style{$stylename};
105 set_style(@{$style{$stylename}});
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106}
107
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108sub add_callback {
109 push @callbacks, @_;
110}
c99ca59a 111
f95e3c3c 112# output handle, used with all Concise-output printing
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113our $walkHandle; # public for your convenience
114BEGIN { $walkHandle = \*STDOUT }
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115
116sub walk_output { # updates $walkHandle
117 my $handle = shift;
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118 return $walkHandle unless $handle; # allow use as accessor
119
f95e3c3c 120 if (ref $handle eq 'SCALAR') {
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121 require Config;
122 die "no perlio in this build, can't call walk_output (\\\$scalar)\n"
123 unless $Config::Config{useperlio};
f95e3c3c 124 # in 5.8+, open(FILEHANDLE,MODE,REFERENCE) writes to string
2ce64696 125 open my $tmp, '>', $handle; # but cant re-set existing STDOUT
f95e3c3c 126 $walkHandle = $tmp; # so use my $tmp as intermediate var
cc02ea56 127 return $walkHandle;
f95e3c3c 128 }
cc02ea56 129 my $iotype = ref $handle;
f95e3c3c 130 die "expecting argument/object that can print\n"
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131 unless $iotype eq 'GLOB' or $iotype and $handle->can('print');
132 $walkHandle = $handle;
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133}
134
8ec8fbef 135sub concise_subref {
c0939cee 136 my($order, $coderef, $name) = @_;
f95e3c3c 137 my $codeobj = svref_2object($coderef);
cc02ea56 138
c0939cee 139 return concise_stashref(@_)
cc02ea56 140 unless ref $codeobj eq 'B::CV';
c0939cee 141 concise_cv_obj($order, $codeobj, $name);
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142}
143
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144sub concise_stashref {
145 my($order, $h) = @_;
6cc5d258 146 local *s;
cc02ea56 147 foreach my $k (sort keys %$h) {
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148 next unless defined $h->{$k};
149 *s = $h->{$k};
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150 my $coderef = *s{CODE} or next;
151 reset_sequence();
152 print "FUNC: ", *s, "\n";
153 my $codeobj = svref_2object($coderef);
154 next unless ref $codeobj eq 'B::CV';
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155 eval { concise_cv_obj($order, $codeobj, $k) };
156 warn "err $@ on $codeobj" if $@;
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157 }
158}
159
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160# This should have been called concise_subref, but it was exported
161# under this name in versions before 0.56
c0939cee 162*concise_cv = \&concise_subref;
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163
164sub concise_cv_obj {
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165 my ($order, $cv, $name) = @_;
166 # name is either a string, or a CODE ref (copy of $cv arg??)
167
c99ca59a 168 $curcv = $cv;
d51cf0c9 169
2018a5c3 170 if (ref($cv->XSUBANY) =~ /B::(\w+)/) {
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171 print $walkHandle "$name is a constant sub, optimized to a $1\n";
172 return;
173 }
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174 if ($cv->XSUB) {
175 print $walkHandle "$name is XS code\n";
176 return;
177 }
178 if (class($cv->START) eq "NULL") {
179 no strict 'refs';
180 if (ref $name eq 'CODE') {
181 print $walkHandle "coderef $name has no START\n";
182 }
183 elsif (exists &$name) {
e75702e9 184 print $walkHandle "$name exists in stash, but has no START\n";
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185 }
186 else {
187 print $walkHandle "$name not in symbol table\n";
188 }
189 return;
190 }
c27ea44e 191 sequence($cv->START);
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192 if ($order eq "exec") {
193 walk_exec($cv->START);
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194 }
195 elsif ($order eq "basic") {
196 # walk_topdown($cv->ROOT, sub { $_[0]->concise($_[1]) }, 0);
197 my $root = $cv->ROOT;
198 unless (ref $root eq 'B::NULL') {
199 walk_topdown($root, sub { $_[0]->concise($_[1]) }, 0);
200 } else {
201 print $walkHandle "B::NULL encountered doing ROOT on $cv. avoiding disaster\n";
202 }
c99ca59a 203 } else {
f95e3c3c 204 print $walkHandle tree($cv->ROOT, 0);
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205 }
206}
207
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208sub concise_main {
209 my($order) = @_;
210 sequence(main_start);
211 $curcv = main_cv;
212 if ($order eq "exec") {
213 return if class(main_start) eq "NULL";
214 walk_exec(main_start);
215 } elsif ($order eq "tree") {
216 return if class(main_root) eq "NULL";
f95e3c3c 217 print $walkHandle tree(main_root, 0);
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218 } elsif ($order eq "basic") {
219 return if class(main_root) eq "NULL";
220 walk_topdown(main_root,
221 sub { $_[0]->concise($_[1]) }, 0);
222 }
223}
224
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225sub concise_specials {
226 my($name, $order, @cv_s) = @_;
227 my $i = 1;
228 if ($name eq "BEGIN") {
c0939cee 229 splice(@cv_s, 0, 8); # skip 7 BEGIN blocks in this file. NOW 8 ??
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230 } elsif ($name eq "CHECK") {
231 pop @cv_s; # skip the CHECK block that calls us
232 }
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233 for my $cv (@cv_s) {
234 print $walkHandle "$name $i:\n";
8ec8fbef 235 $i++;
c0939cee 236 concise_cv_obj($order, $cv, $name);
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237 }
238}
239
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240my $start_sym = "\e(0"; # "\cN" sometimes also works
241my $end_sym = "\e(B"; # "\cO" respectively
242
f95e3c3c 243my @tree_decorations =
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244 ([" ", "--", "+-", "|-", "| ", "`-", "-", 1],
245 [" ", "-", "+", "+", "|", "`", "", 0],
246 [" ", map("$start_sym$_$end_sym", "qq", "wq", "tq", "x ", "mq", "q"), 1],
247 [" ", map("$start_sym$_$end_sym", "q", "w", "t", "x", "m"), "", 0],
248 );
78ad9108 249
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250my @render_packs; # collect -stash=<packages>
251
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252sub compileOpts {
253 # set rendering state from options and args
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254 my (@options,@args);
255 if (@_) {
256 @options = grep(/^-/, @_);
257 @args = grep(!/^-/, @_);
258 }
c99ca59a 259 for my $o (@options) {
cc02ea56 260 # mode/order
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261 if ($o eq "-basic") {
262 $order = "basic";
263 } elsif ($o eq "-exec") {
264 $order = "exec";
265 } elsif ($o eq "-tree") {
266 $order = "tree";
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267 }
268 # tree-specific
269 elsif ($o eq "-compact") {
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270 $tree_style |= 1;
271 } elsif ($o eq "-loose") {
272 $tree_style &= ~1;
273 } elsif ($o eq "-vt") {
274 $tree_style |= 2;
275 } elsif ($o eq "-ascii") {
276 $tree_style &= ~2;
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277 }
278 # sequence numbering
279 elsif ($o =~ /^-base(\d+)$/) {
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280 $base = $1;
281 } elsif ($o eq "-bigendian") {
282 $big_endian = 1;
283 } elsif ($o eq "-littleendian") {
284 $big_endian = 0;
cc02ea56 285 }
9e0f9750 286 # miscellaneous, presentation
cc02ea56 287 elsif ($o eq "-nobanner") {
724aa791 288 $banner = 0;
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289 } elsif ($o eq "-banner") {
290 $banner = 1;
291 }
292 elsif ($o eq "-main") {
293 $do_main = 1;
294 } elsif ($o eq "-nomain") {
295 $do_main = 0;
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296 } elsif ($o eq "-src") {
297 $show_src = 1;
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298 }
299 elsif ($o =~ /^-stash=(.*)/) {
300 my $pkg = $1;
301 no strict 'refs';
902fde96 302 if (! %{$pkg.'::'}) {
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303 eval "require $pkg";
304 } else {
305 require Config;
306 if (!$Config::Config{usedl}
307 && keys %{$pkg.'::'} == 1
308 && $pkg->can('bootstrap')) {
b7b1e41b 309 # It is something that we're statically linked to, but hasn't
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310 # yet been used.
311 eval "require $pkg";
312 }
313 }
9e0f9750 314 push @render_packs, $pkg;
724aa791 315 }
cc02ea56 316 # line-style options
724aa791 317 elsif (exists $style{substr($o, 1)}) {
f95e3c3c 318 $stylename = substr($o, 1);
724aa791 319 set_style_standard($stylename);
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320 } else {
321 warn "Option $o unrecognized";
322 }
323 }
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324 return (@args);
325}
326
327sub compile {
328 my (@args) = compileOpts(@_);
c27ea44e 329 return sub {
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330 my @newargs = compileOpts(@_); # accept new rendering options
331 warn "disregarding non-options: @newargs\n" if @newargs;
332
333 for my $objname (@args) {
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334 next unless $objname; # skip null args to avoid noisy responses
335
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336 if ($objname eq "BEGIN") {
337 concise_specials("BEGIN", $order,
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338 B::begin_av->isa("B::AV") ?
339 B::begin_av->ARRAY : ());
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340 } elsif ($objname eq "INIT") {
341 concise_specials("INIT", $order,
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342 B::init_av->isa("B::AV") ?
343 B::init_av->ARRAY : ());
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344 } elsif ($objname eq "CHECK") {
345 concise_specials("CHECK", $order,
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346 B::check_av->isa("B::AV") ?
347 B::check_av->ARRAY : ());
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348 } elsif ($objname eq "UNITCHECK") {
349 concise_specials("UNITCHECK", $order,
350 B::unitcheck_av->isa("B::AV") ?
351 B::unitcheck_av->ARRAY : ());
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352 } elsif ($objname eq "END") {
353 concise_specials("END", $order,
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354 B::end_av->isa("B::AV") ?
355 B::end_av->ARRAY : ());
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356 }
357 else {
358 # convert function names to subrefs
359 my $objref;
360 if (ref $objname) {
361 print $walkHandle "B::Concise::compile($objname)\n"
362 if $banner;
363 $objref = $objname;
8ec8fbef 364 } else {
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365 $objname = "main::" . $objname unless $objname =~ /::/;
366 print $walkHandle "$objname:\n";
367 no strict 'refs';
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368 unless (exists &$objname) {
369 print $walkHandle "err: unknown function ($objname)\n";
370 return;
371 }
cc02ea56 372 $objref = \&$objname;
8ec8fbef 373 }
c0939cee 374 concise_subref($order, $objref, $objname);
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375 }
376 }
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377 for my $pkg (@render_packs) {
378 no strict 'refs';
379 concise_stashref($order, \%{$pkg.'::'});
380 }
381
382 if (!@args or $do_main or @render_packs) {
f95e3c3c 383 print $walkHandle "main program:\n" if $do_main;
31b49ad4 384 concise_main($order);
c99ca59a 385 }
cc02ea56 386 return @args; # something
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387 }
388}
389
390my %labels;
724aa791 391my $lastnext; # remembers op-chain, used to insert gotos
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392
393my %opclass = ('OP' => "0", 'UNOP' => "1", 'BINOP' => "2", 'LOGOP' => "|",
394 'LISTOP' => "@", 'PMOP' => "/", 'SVOP' => "\$", 'GVOP' => "*",
051f02e9 395 'PVOP' => '"', 'LOOP' => "{", 'COP' => ";", 'PADOP' => "#");
c99ca59a 396
8ec8fbef 397no warnings 'qw'; # "Possible attempt to put comments..."; use #7
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398my @linenoise =
399 qw'# () sc ( @? 1 $* gv *{ m$ m@ m% m? p/ *$ $ $# & a& pt \\ s\\ rf bl
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400 ` *? <> ?? ?/ r/ c/ // qr s/ /c y/ = @= C sC Cp sp df un BM po +1 +I
401 -1 -I 1+ I+ 1- I- ** * i* / i/ %$ i% x + i+ - i- . " << >> < i<
402 > i> <= i, >= i. == i= != i! <? i? s< s> s, s. s= s! s? b& b^ b| -0 -i
403 ! ~ a2 si cs rd sr e^ lg sq in %x %o ab le ss ve ix ri sf FL od ch cy
404 uf lf uc lc qm @ [f [ @[ eh vl ky dl ex % ${ @{ uk pk st jn ) )[ a@
405 a% sl +] -] [- [+ so rv GS GW MS MW .. f. .f && || ^^ ?: &= |= -> s{ s}
406 v} ca wa di rs ;; ; ;d }{ { } {} f{ it {l l} rt }l }n }r dm }g }e ^o
407 ^c ^| ^# um bm t~ u~ ~d DB db ^s se ^g ^r {w }w pf pr ^O ^K ^R ^W ^d ^v
408 ^e ^t ^k t. fc ic fl .s .p .b .c .l .a .h g1 s1 g2 s2 ?. l? -R -W -X -r
409 -w -x -e -o -O -z -s -M -A -C -S -c -b -f -d -p -l -u -g -k -t -T -B cd
410 co cr u. cm ut r. l@ s@ r@ mD uD oD rD tD sD wD cD f$ w$ p$ sh e$ k$ g3
411 g4 s4 g5 s5 T@ C@ L@ G@ A@ S@ Hg Hc Hr Hw Mg Mc Ms Mr Sg Sc So rq do {e
412 e} {t t} g6 G6 6e g7 G7 7e g8 G8 8e g9 G9 9e 6s 7s 8s 9s 6E 7E 8E 9E Pn
c27ea44e 413 Pu GP SP EP Gn Gg GG SG EG g0 c$ lk t$ ;s n> // /= CO';
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414
415my $chars = "0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ";
416
19e169bf 417sub op_flags { # common flags (see BASOP.op_flags in op.h)
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418 my($x) = @_;
419 my(@v);
420 push @v, "v" if ($x & 3) == 1;
421 push @v, "s" if ($x & 3) == 2;
422 push @v, "l" if ($x & 3) == 3;
423 push @v, "K" if $x & 4;
424 push @v, "P" if $x & 8;
425 push @v, "R" if $x & 16;
426 push @v, "M" if $x & 32;
427 push @v, "S" if $x & 64;
428 push @v, "*" if $x & 128;
429 return join("", @v);
430}
431
432sub base_n {
433 my $x = shift;
434 return "-" . base_n(-$x) if $x < 0;
435 my $str = "";
436 do { $str .= substr($chars, $x % $base, 1) } while $x = int($x / $base);
437 $str = reverse $str if $big_endian;
438 return $str;
439}
440
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441my %sequence_num;
442my $seq_max = 1;
443
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444sub reset_sequence {
445 # reset the sequence
446 %sequence_num = ();
447 $seq_max = 1;
cc02ea56 448 $lastnext = 0;
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449}
450
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451sub seq {
452 my($op) = @_;
453 return "-" if not exists $sequence_num{$$op};
454 return base_n($sequence_num{$$op});
455}
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456
457sub walk_topdown {
458 my($op, $sub, $level) = @_;
459 $sub->($op, $level);
460 if ($op->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
461 for (my $kid = $op->first; $$kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
462 walk_topdown($kid, $sub, $level + 1);
463 }
464 }
98517ccb 465 if (class($op) eq "PMOP") {
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466 my $maybe_root = $op->pmreplroot;
467 if (ref($maybe_root) and $maybe_root->isa("B::OP")) {
468 # It really is the root of the replacement, not something
469 # else stored here for lack of space elsewhere
470 walk_topdown($maybe_root, $sub, $level + 1);
471 }
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472 }
473}
474
475sub walklines {
476 my($ar, $level) = @_;
477 for my $l (@$ar) {
478 if (ref($l) eq "ARRAY") {
479 walklines($l, $level + 1);
480 } else {
481 $l->concise($level);
482 }
483 }
484}
485
486sub walk_exec {
487 my($top, $level) = @_;
488 my %opsseen;
489 my @lines;
490 my @todo = ([$top, \@lines]);
491 while (@todo and my($op, $targ) = @{shift @todo}) {
492 for (; $$op; $op = $op->next) {
493 last if $opsseen{$$op}++;
494 push @$targ, $op;
495 my $name = $op->name;
62e36f8a 496 if (class($op) eq "LOGOP") {
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497 my $ar = [];
498 push @$targ, $ar;
499 push @todo, [$op->other, $ar];
500 } elsif ($name eq "subst" and $ {$op->pmreplstart}) {
501 my $ar = [];
502 push @$targ, $ar;
503 push @todo, [$op->pmreplstart, $ar];
504 } elsif ($name =~ /^enter(loop|iter)$/) {
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505 if ($] > 5.009) {
506 $labels{${$op->nextop}} = "NEXT";
507 $labels{${$op->lastop}} = "LAST";
508 $labels{${$op->redoop}} = "REDO";
509 } else {
510 $labels{$op->nextop->seq} = "NEXT";
511 $labels{$op->lastop->seq} = "LAST";
512 $labels{$op->redoop->seq} = "REDO";
513 }
c99ca59a
SM
514 }
515 }
516 }
517 walklines(\@lines, 0);
518}
519
c27ea44e
SM
520# The structure of this routine is purposely modeled after op.c's peep()
521sub sequence {
522 my($op) = @_;
523 my $oldop = 0;
524 return if class($op) eq "NULL" or exists $sequence_num{$$op};
525 for (; $$op; $op = $op->next) {
526 last if exists $sequence_num{$$op};
527 my $name = $op->name;
528 if ($name =~ /^(null|scalar|lineseq|scope)$/) {
529 next if $oldop and $ {$op->next};
530 } else {
531 $sequence_num{$$op} = $seq_max++;
532 if (class($op) eq "LOGOP") {
533 my $other = $op->other;
534 $other = $other->next while $other->name eq "null";
535 sequence($other);
536 } elsif (class($op) eq "LOOP") {
537 my $redoop = $op->redoop;
538 $redoop = $redoop->next while $redoop->name eq "null";
539 sequence($redoop);
540 my $nextop = $op->nextop;
541 $nextop = $nextop->next while $nextop->name eq "null";
542 sequence($nextop);
543 my $lastop = $op->lastop;
544 $lastop = $lastop->next while $lastop->name eq "null";
545 sequence($lastop);
546 } elsif ($name eq "subst" and $ {$op->pmreplstart}) {
547 my $replstart = $op->pmreplstart;
548 $replstart = $replstart->next while $replstart->name eq "null";
549 sequence($replstart);
550 }
551 }
552 $oldop = $op;
553 }
554}
555
724aa791 556sub fmt_line { # generate text-line for op.
cc02ea56
JC
557 my($hr, $op, $text, $level) = @_;
558
559 $_->($hr, $op, \$text, \$level, $stylename) for @callbacks;
560
724aa791 561 return '' if $hr->{SKIP}; # suppress line if a callback said so
cc02ea56 562 return '' if $hr->{goto} and $hr->{goto} eq '-'; # no goto nowhere
f95e3c3c 563
cc02ea56 564 # spec: (?(text1#varText2)?)
c99ca59a 565 $text =~ s/\(\?\(([^\#]*?)\#(\w+)([^\#]*?)\)\?\)/
f95e3c3c
JC
566 $hr->{$2} ? $1.$hr->{$2}.$3 : ""/eg;
567
cc02ea56 568 # spec: (x(exec_text;basic_text)x)
c99ca59a 569 $text =~ s/\(x\((.*?);(.*?)\)x\)/$order eq "exec" ? $1 : $2/egs;
cc02ea56
JC
570
571 # spec: (*(text)*)
c99ca59a 572 $text =~ s/\(\*\(([^;]*?)\)\*\)/$1 x $level/egs;
cc02ea56
JC
573
574 # spec: (*(text1;text2)*)
c99ca59a 575 $text =~ s/\(\*\((.*?);(.*?)\)\*\)/$1 x ($level - 1) . $2 x ($level>0)/egs;
cc02ea56
JC
576
577 # convert #Var to tag=>val form: Var\t#var
578 $text =~ s/\#([A-Z][a-z]+)(\d+)?/\t\u$1\t\L#$1$2/gs;
579
580 # spec: #varN
724aa791
JC
581 $text =~ s/\#([a-zA-Z]+)(\d+)/sprintf("%-$2s", $hr->{$1})/eg;
582
cc02ea56
JC
583 $text =~ s/\#([a-zA-Z]+)/$hr->{$1}/eg; # populate #var's
584 $text =~ s/[ \t]*~+[ \t]*/ /g; # squeeze tildes
f18deeb9
JC
585
586 $text = "# $hr->{src}\n$text" if $show_src and $hr->{src};
587
f95e3c3c 588 chomp $text;
efef081e 589 return "$text\n" if $text ne "" and $order ne "tree";
f95e3c3c 590 return $text; # suppress empty lines
c99ca59a
SM
591}
592
19e169bf
JC
593our %priv; # used to display each opcode's BASEOP.op_private values
594
c99ca59a
SM
595$priv{$_}{128} = "LVINTRO"
596 for ("pos", "substr", "vec", "threadsv", "gvsv", "rv2sv", "rv2hv", "rv2gv",
597 "rv2av", "rv2arylen", "aelem", "helem", "aslice", "hslice", "padsv",
52153b34 598 "padav", "padhv", "enteriter", "entersub");
c99ca59a
SM
599$priv{$_}{64} = "REFC" for ("leave", "leavesub", "leavesublv", "leavewrite");
600$priv{"aassign"}{64} = "COMMON";
461824dc 601$priv{"aassign"}{32} = $] < 5.009 ? "PHASH" : "STATE";
952306ac 602$priv{"sassign"}{32} = "STATE";
c99ca59a 603$priv{"sassign"}{64} = "BKWARD";
7abc42fc 604$priv{$_}{64} = "RTIME" for ("match", "subst", "substcont", "qr");
c99ca59a
SM
605@{$priv{"trans"}}{1,2,4,8,16,64} = ("<UTF", ">UTF", "IDENT", "SQUASH", "DEL",
606 "COMPL", "GROWS");
bb16bae8 607$priv{transr} = $priv{trans};
c99ca59a
SM
608$priv{"repeat"}{64} = "DOLIST";
609$priv{"leaveloop"}{64} = "CONT";
0824d667 610$priv{$_}{4} = "DREFed" for (qw(rv2sv rv2av rv2hv));
c99ca59a 611@{$priv{$_}}{32,64,96} = ("DREFAV", "DREFHV", "DREFSV")
314d4778 612 for (qw(rv2gv rv2sv padsv aelem helem));
a5911867 613$priv{$_}{16} = "STATE" for ("padav", "padhv", "padsv");
8367b681 614@{$priv{"entersub"}}{1,4,16,32,64} = qw( DREF INARGS DBG TARG );
52153b34 615@{$priv{rv2cv}}{1,8,128} = ("CONST","AMPER","NO()");
c99ca59a
SM
616$priv{"gv"}{32} = "EARLYCV";
617$priv{"aelem"}{16} = $priv{"helem"}{16} = "LVDEFER";
241416b8
DM
618$priv{$_}{16} = "OURINTR" for ("gvsv", "rv2sv", "rv2av", "rv2hv", "r2gv",
619 "enteriter");
6a8709a6
FC
620$priv{$_}{8} = 'LVSUB' for qw(rv2av rv2gv rv2hv padav padhv aelem helem
621 aslice hslice av2arylen keys rkeys substr pos vec);
c99ca59a
SM
622$priv{$_}{16} = "TARGMY"
623 for (map(($_,"s$_"),"chop", "chomp"),
624 map(($_,"i_$_"), "postinc", "postdec", "multiply", "divide", "modulo",
625 "add", "subtract", "negate"), "pow", "concat", "stringify",
626 "left_shift", "right_shift", "bit_and", "bit_xor", "bit_or",
627 "complement", "atan2", "sin", "cos", "rand", "exp", "log", "sqrt",
628 "int", "hex", "oct", "abs", "length", "index", "rindex", "sprintf",
629 "ord", "chr", "crypt", "quotemeta", "join", "push", "unshift", "flock",
630 "chdir", "chown", "chroot", "unlink", "chmod", "utime", "rename",
631 "link", "symlink", "mkdir", "rmdir", "wait", "waitpid", "system",
632 "exec", "kill", "getppid", "getpgrp", "setpgrp", "getpriority",
633 "setpriority", "time", "sleep");
ef3e5ea9 634$priv{$_}{4} = "REVERSED" for ("enteriter", "iter");
d4797c1d 635@{$priv{"const"}}{4,8,16,32,64,128} = ("SHORT","STRICT","ENTERED",'$[',"BARE","WARN");
c99ca59a
SM
636$priv{"flip"}{64} = $priv{"flop"}{64} = "LINENUM";
637$priv{"list"}{64} = "GUESSED";
638$priv{"delete"}{64} = "SLICE";
639$priv{"exists"}{64} = "SUB";
7b9ef140 640@{$priv{"sort"}}{1,2,4,8,16,32,64} = ("NUM", "INT", "REV", "INPLACE","DESC","QSORT","STABLE");
484c818f 641$priv{"reverse"}{8} = "INPLACE";
c99ca59a 642$priv{"threadsv"}{64} = "SVREFd";
c27ea44e
SM
643@{$priv{$_}}{16,32,64,128} = ("INBIN","INCR","OUTBIN","OUTCR")
644 for ("open", "backtick");
c99ca59a 645$priv{"exit"}{128} = "VMS";
feaeca78
JH
646$priv{$_}{2} = "FTACCESS"
647 for ("ftrread", "ftrwrite", "ftrexec", "fteread", "ftewrite", "fteexec");
7b9ef140 648$priv{"entereval"}{2} = "HAS_HH";
32454ac8
NC
649if ($] >= 5.009) {
650 # Stacked filetests are post 5.8.x
651 $priv{$_}{4} = "FTSTACKED"
652 for ("ftrread", "ftrwrite", "ftrexec", "fteread", "ftewrite", "fteexec",
653 "ftis", "fteowned", "ftrowned", "ftzero", "ftsize", "ftmtime",
654 "ftatime", "ftctime", "ftsock", "ftchr", "ftblk", "ftfile", "ftdir",
655 "ftpipe", "ftlink", "ftsuid", "ftsgid", "ftsvtx", "fttty", "fttext",
656 "ftbinary");
657 # Lexical $_ is post 5.8.x
658 $priv{$_}{2} = "GREPLEX"
659 for ("mapwhile", "mapstart", "grepwhile", "grepstart");
660}
c99ca59a 661
d5ec2987
NC
662our %hints; # used to display each COP's op_hints values
663
664# strict refs, subs, vars
665@hints{2,512,1024} = ('$', '&', '*');
666# integers, locale, bytes, arybase
667@hints{1,4,8,16,32} = ('i', 'l', 'b', '[');
8b850bd5
NC
668# block scope, localise %^H, $^OPEN (in), $^OPEN (out)
669@hints{256,131072,262144,524288} = ('{','%','<','>');
d5ec2987
NC
670# overload new integer, float, binary, string, re
671@hints{4096,8192,16384,32768,65536} = ('I', 'F', 'B', 'S', 'R');
672# taint and eval
673@hints{1048576,2097152} = ('T', 'E');
584420f0
RGS
674# filetest access, UTF-8
675@hints{4194304,8388608} = ('X', 'U');
d5ec2987
NC
676
677sub _flags {
678 my($hash, $x) = @_;
c99ca59a 679 my @s;
d5ec2987
NC
680 for my $flag (sort {$b <=> $a} keys %$hash) {
681 if ($hash->{$flag} and $x & $flag and $x >= $flag) {
c99ca59a 682 $x -= $flag;
d5ec2987 683 push @s, $hash->{$flag};
c99ca59a
SM
684 }
685 }
686 push @s, $x if $x;
687 return join(",", @s);
688}
689
d5ec2987
NC
690sub private_flags {
691 my($name, $x) = @_;
692 _flags($priv{$name}, $x);
693}
694
695sub hints_flags {
696 my($x) = @_;
697 _flags(\%hints, $x);
698}
699
c27ea44e 700sub concise_sv {
2db5ca0a 701 my($sv, $hr, $preferpv) = @_;
c27ea44e 702 $hr->{svclass} = class($sv);
31b49ad4
SM
703 $hr->{svclass} = "UV"
704 if $hr->{svclass} eq "IV" and $sv->FLAGS & SVf_IVisUV;
5b493bdf 705 Carp::cluck("bad concise_sv: $sv") unless $sv and $$sv;
c27ea44e 706 $hr->{svaddr} = sprintf("%#x", $$sv);
50786ba8 707 if ($hr->{svclass} eq "GV" && $sv->isGV_with_GP()) {
c27ea44e 708 my $gv = $sv;
50786ba8 709 my $stash = $gv->STASH->NAME; if ($stash eq "main") {
c27ea44e
SM
710 $stash = "";
711 } else {
712 $stash = $stash . "::";
713 }
714 $hr->{svval} = "*$stash" . $gv->SAFENAME;
715 return "*$stash" . $gv->SAFENAME;
716 } else {
4df7f6af
NC
717 if ($] >= 5.011) {
718 while (class($sv) eq "IV" && $sv->FLAGS & SVf_ROK) {
719 $hr->{svval} .= "\\";
720 $sv = $sv->RV;
721 }
722 } else {
723 while (class($sv) eq "RV") {
724 $hr->{svval} .= "\\";
725 $sv = $sv->RV;
726 }
c27ea44e
SM
727 }
728 if (class($sv) eq "SPECIAL") {
40b5b14f 729 $hr->{svval} .= ["Null", "sv_undef", "sv_yes", "sv_no"]->[$$sv];
2db5ca0a
YST
730 } elsif ($preferpv && $sv->FLAGS & SVf_POK) {
731 $hr->{svval} .= cstring($sv->PV);
c27ea44e 732 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_NOK) {
40b5b14f 733 $hr->{svval} .= $sv->NV;
c27ea44e 734 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_IOK) {
31b49ad4 735 $hr->{svval} .= $sv->int_value;
c27ea44e 736 } elsif ($sv->FLAGS & SVf_POK) {
40b5b14f 737 $hr->{svval} .= cstring($sv->PV);
31b49ad4
SM
738 } elsif (class($sv) eq "HV") {
739 $hr->{svval} .= 'HASH';
c27ea44e 740 }
cc02ea56
JC
741
742 $hr->{svval} = 'undef' unless defined $hr->{svval};
743 my $out = $hr->{svclass};
744 return $out .= " $hr->{svval}" ;
c27ea44e
SM
745 }
746}
747
f18deeb9
JC
748my %srclines;
749
750sub fill_srclines {
9e0f9750
JC
751 my $fullnm = shift;
752 if ($fullnm eq '-e') {
753 $srclines{$fullnm} = [ $fullnm, "-src not supported for -e" ];
754 return;
6cc5d258 755 }
9e0f9750 756 open (my $fh, '<', $fullnm)
6cc5d258 757 or warn "# $fullnm: $!, (chdirs not supported by this feature yet)\n"
f18deeb9
JC
758 and return;
759 my @l = <$fh>;
760 chomp @l;
9e0f9750
JC
761 unshift @l, $fullnm; # like @{_<$fullnm} in debug, array starts at 1
762 $srclines{$fullnm} = \@l;
f18deeb9
JC
763}
764
c99ca59a
SM
765sub concise_op {
766 my ($op, $level, $format) = @_;
767 my %h;
768 $h{exname} = $h{name} = $op->name;
769 $h{NAME} = uc $h{name};
770 $h{class} = class($op);
771 $h{extarg} = $h{targ} = $op->targ;
772 $h{extarg} = "" unless $h{extarg};
773 if ($h{name} eq "null" and $h{targ}) {
8ec8fbef 774 # targ holds the old type
c99ca59a
SM
775 $h{exname} = "ex-" . substr(ppname($h{targ}), 3);
776 $h{extarg} = "";
8ec8fbef
SM
777 } elsif ($op->name =~ /^leave(sub(lv)?|write)?$/) {
778 # targ potentially holds a reference count
779 if ($op->private & 64) {
780 my $refs = "ref" . ($h{targ} != 1 ? "s" : "");
781 $h{targarglife} = $h{targarg} = "$h{targ} $refs";
782 }
c99ca59a
SM
783 } elsif ($h{targ}) {
784 my $padname = (($curcv->PADLIST->ARRAY)[0]->ARRAY)[$h{targ}];
785 if (defined $padname and class($padname) ne "SPECIAL") {
0b40bd6d 786 $h{targarg} = $padname->PVX;
127212b2 787 if ($padname->FLAGS & SVf_FAKE) {
4ac6efe6
NC
788 if ($] < 5.009) {
789 $h{targarglife} = "$h{targarg}:FAKE";
790 } else {
791 # These changes relate to the jumbo closure fix.
792 # See changes 19939 and 20005
793 my $fake = '';
6c5e080d
NC
794 $fake .= 'a'
795 if $padname->PARENT_FAKELEX_FLAGS & PAD_FAKELEX_ANON;
796 $fake .= 'm'
797 if $padname->PARENT_FAKELEX_FLAGS & PAD_FAKELEX_MULTI;
809abb02
NC
798 $fake .= ':' . $padname->PARENT_PAD_INDEX
799 if $curcv->CvFLAGS & CVf_ANON;
4ac6efe6
NC
800 $h{targarglife} = "$h{targarg}:FAKE:$fake";
801 }
127212b2
DM
802 }
803 else {
809abb02
NC
804 my $intro = $padname->COP_SEQ_RANGE_LOW - $cop_seq_base;
805 my $finish = int($padname->COP_SEQ_RANGE_HIGH) - $cop_seq_base;
127212b2
DM
806 $finish = "end" if $finish == 999999999 - $cop_seq_base;
807 $h{targarglife} = "$h{targarg}:$intro,$finish";
808 }
c99ca59a
SM
809 } else {
810 $h{targarglife} = $h{targarg} = "t" . $h{targ};
811 }
812 }
813 $h{arg} = "";
814 $h{svclass} = $h{svaddr} = $h{svval} = "";
815 if ($h{class} eq "PMOP") {
816 my $precomp = $op->precomp;
7a9b44b9 817 if (defined $precomp) {
c27ea44e
SM
818 $precomp = cstring($precomp); # Escape literal control sequences
819 $precomp = "/$precomp/";
820 } else {
821 $precomp = "";
7a9b44b9 822 }
b2a3cfdd 823 my $pmreplroot = $op->pmreplroot;
34a48b4b 824 my $pmreplstart;
c6e79e55 825 if (ref($pmreplroot) eq "B::GV") {
b2a3cfdd 826 # with C<@stash_array = split(/pat/, str);>,
c6e79e55 827 # *stash_array is stored in /pat/'s pmreplroot.
b2a3cfdd 828 $h{arg} = "($precomp => \@" . $pmreplroot->NAME . ")";
c6e79e55
SM
829 } elsif (!ref($pmreplroot) and $pmreplroot) {
830 # same as the last case, except the value is actually a
831 # pad offset for where the GV is kept (this happens under
832 # ithreads)
833 my $gv = (($curcv->PADLIST->ARRAY)[1]->ARRAY)[$pmreplroot];
834 $h{arg} = "($precomp => \@" . $gv->NAME . ")";
b2a3cfdd 835 } elsif ($ {$op->pmreplstart}) {
c99ca59a
SM
836 undef $lastnext;
837 $pmreplstart = "replstart->" . seq($op->pmreplstart);
838 $h{arg} = "(" . join(" ", $precomp, $pmreplstart) . ")";
839 } else {
840 $h{arg} = "($precomp)";
841 }
bb16bae8 842 } elsif ($h{class} eq "PVOP" and $h{name} !~ '^transr?\z') {
c99ca59a
SM
843 $h{arg} = '("' . $op->pv . '")';
844 $h{svval} = '"' . $op->pv . '"';
845 } elsif ($h{class} eq "COP") {
846 my $label = $op->label;
c3caa09d 847 $h{coplabel} = $label;
c99ca59a
SM
848 $label = $label ? "$label: " : "";
849 my $loc = $op->file;
9e0f9750 850 my $pathnm = $loc;
c99ca59a 851 $loc =~ s[.*/][];
9e0f9750
JC
852 my $ln = $op->line;
853 $loc .= ":$ln";
c99ca59a
SM
854 my($stash, $cseq) = ($op->stash->NAME, $op->cop_seq - $cop_seq_base);
855 my $arybase = $op->arybase;
856 $arybase = $arybase ? ' $[=' . $arybase : "";
857 $h{arg} = "($label$stash $cseq $loc$arybase)";
f18deeb9 858 if ($show_src) {
9e0f9750 859 fill_srclines($pathnm) unless exists $srclines{$pathnm};
e9c69003
NC
860 # Would love to retain Jim's use of // but this code needs to be
861 # portable to 5.8.x
862 my $line = $srclines{$pathnm}[$ln];
863 $line = "-src unavailable under -e" unless defined $line;
864 $h{src} = "$ln: $line";
f18deeb9 865 }
c99ca59a
SM
866 } elsif ($h{class} eq "LOOP") {
867 $h{arg} = "(next->" . seq($op->nextop) . " last->" . seq($op->lastop)
868 . " redo->" . seq($op->redoop) . ")";
869 } elsif ($h{class} eq "LOGOP") {
870 undef $lastnext;
871 $h{arg} = "(other->" . seq($op->other) . ")";
5b493bdf
JC
872 }
873 elsif ($h{class} eq "SVOP" or $h{class} eq "PADOP") {
6a077020 874 unless ($h{name} eq 'aelemfast' and $op->flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
5b493bdf 875 my $idx = ($h{class} eq "SVOP") ? $op->targ : $op->padix;
2db5ca0a 876 my $preferpv = $h{name} eq "method_named";
5b493bdf
JC
877 if ($h{class} eq "PADOP" or !${$op->sv}) {
878 my $sv = (($curcv->PADLIST->ARRAY)[1]->ARRAY)[$idx];
2db5ca0a 879 $h{arg} = "[" . concise_sv($sv, \%h, $preferpv) . "]";
6a077020
DM
880 $h{targarglife} = $h{targarg} = "";
881 } else {
2db5ca0a 882 $h{arg} = "(" . concise_sv($op->sv, \%h, $preferpv) . ")";
6a077020 883 }
c99ca59a
SM
884 }
885 }
886 $h{seq} = $h{hyphseq} = seq($op);
887 $h{seq} = "" if $h{seq} eq "-";
7252851f
NC
888 if ($] > 5.009) {
889 $h{opt} = $op->opt;
7252851f
NC
890 $h{label} = $labels{$$op};
891 } else {
892 $h{seqnum} = $op->seq;
893 $h{label} = $labels{$op->seq};
894 }
c99ca59a
SM
895 $h{next} = $op->next;
896 $h{next} = (class($h{next}) eq "NULL") ? "(end)" : seq($h{next});
897 $h{nextaddr} = sprintf("%#x", $ {$op->next});
898 $h{sibaddr} = sprintf("%#x", $ {$op->sibling});
899 $h{firstaddr} = sprintf("%#x", $ {$op->first}) if $op->can("first");
900 $h{lastaddr} = sprintf("%#x", $ {$op->last}) if $op->can("last");
901
902 $h{classsym} = $opclass{$h{class}};
903 $h{flagval} = $op->flags;
904 $h{flags} = op_flags($op->flags);
905 $h{privval} = $op->private;
906 $h{private} = private_flags($h{name}, $op->private);
d5ec2987
NC
907 if ($op->can("hints")) {
908 $h{hintsval} = $op->hints;
909 $h{hints} = hints_flags($h{hintsval});
910 } else {
911 $h{hintsval} = $h{hints} = '';
912 }
c99ca59a 913 $h{addr} = sprintf("%#x", $$op);
c99ca59a
SM
914 $h{typenum} = $op->type;
915 $h{noise} = $linenoise[$op->type];
f95e3c3c 916
cc02ea56 917 return fmt_line(\%h, $op, $format, $level);
c99ca59a
SM
918}
919
920sub B::OP::concise {
921 my($op, $level) = @_;
922 if ($order eq "exec" and $lastnext and $$lastnext != $$op) {
724aa791 923 # insert a 'goto' line
cc02ea56
JC
924 my $synth = {"seq" => seq($lastnext), "class" => class($lastnext),
925 "addr" => sprintf("%#x", $$lastnext),
926 "goto" => seq($lastnext), # simplify goto '-' removal
927 };
928 print $walkHandle fmt_line($synth, $op, $gotofmt, $level+1);
c99ca59a
SM
929 }
930 $lastnext = $op->next;
f95e3c3c 931 print $walkHandle concise_op($op, $level, $format);
c99ca59a
SM
932}
933
31b49ad4
SM
934# B::OP::terse (see Terse.pm) now just calls this
935sub b_terse {
936 my($op, $level) = @_;
937
938 # This isn't necessarily right, but there's no easy way to get
939 # from an OP to the right CV. This is a limitation of the
940 # ->terse() interface style, and there isn't much to do about
941 # it. In particular, we can die in concise_op if the main pad
942 # isn't long enough, or has the wrong kind of entries, compared to
943 # the pad a sub was compiled with. The fix for that would be to
944 # make a backwards compatible "terse" format that never even
945 # looked at the pad, just like the old B::Terse. I don't think
946 # that's worth the effort, though.
947 $curcv = main_cv unless $curcv;
948
949 if ($order eq "exec" and $lastnext and $$lastnext != $$op) {
724aa791 950 # insert a 'goto'
31b49ad4
SM
951 my $h = {"seq" => seq($lastnext), "class" => class($lastnext),
952 "addr" => sprintf("%#x", $$lastnext)};
cc02ea56
JC
953 print # $walkHandle
954 fmt_line($h, $op, $style{"terse"}[1], $level+1);
31b49ad4
SM
955 }
956 $lastnext = $op->next;
cc02ea56
JC
957 print # $walkHandle
958 concise_op($op, $level, $style{"terse"}[0]);
31b49ad4
SM
959}
960
c99ca59a
SM
961sub tree {
962 my $op = shift;
963 my $level = shift;
964 my $style = $tree_decorations[$tree_style];
965 my($space, $single, $kids, $kid, $nokid, $last, $lead, $size) = @$style;
966 my $name = concise_op($op, $level, $treefmt);
967 if (not $op->flags & OPf_KIDS) {
968 return $name . "\n";
969 }
970 my @lines;
971 for (my $kid = $op->first; $$kid; $kid = $kid->sibling) {
972 push @lines, tree($kid, $level+1);
973 }
974 my $i;
975 for ($i = $#lines; substr($lines[$i], 0, 1) eq " "; $i--) {
976 $lines[$i] = $space . $lines[$i];
977 }
978 if ($i > 0) {
979 $lines[$i] = $last . $lines[$i];
980 while ($i-- > 1) {
981 if (substr($lines[$i], 0, 1) eq " ") {
982 $lines[$i] = $nokid . $lines[$i];
983 } else {
f95e3c3c 984 $lines[$i] = $kid . $lines[$i];
c99ca59a
SM
985 }
986 }
987 $lines[$i] = $kids . $lines[$i];
988 } else {
989 $lines[0] = $single . $lines[0];
990 }
991 return("$name$lead" . shift @lines,
992 map(" " x (length($name)+$size) . $_, @lines));
993}
994
213a1a26
SM
995# *** Warning: fragile kludge ahead ***
996# Because the B::* modules run in the same interpreter as the code
2814eb74
PJ
997# they're compiling, their presence tends to distort the view we have of
998# the code we're looking at. In particular, perl gives sequence numbers
999# to COPs. If the program we're looking at were run on its own, this
1000# would start at 1. Because all of B::Concise and all the modules it
1001# uses are compiled first, though, by the time we get to the user's
1002# program the sequence number is already pretty high, which could be
1003# distracting if you're trying to tell OPs apart. Therefore we'd like to
1004# subtract an offset from all the sequence numbers we display, to
1005# restore the simpler view of the world. The trick is to know what that
1006# offset will be, when we're still compiling B::Concise! If we
213a1a26 1007# hardcoded a value, it would have to change every time B::Concise or
2814eb74
PJ
1008# other modules we use do. To help a little, what we do here is compile
1009# a little code at the end of the module, and compute the base sequence
1010# number for the user's program as being a small offset later, so all we
1011# have to worry about are changes in the offset.
7252851f
NC
1012
1013# [For 5.8.x and earlier perl is generating sequence numbers for all ops,
1014# and using them to reference labels]
1015
1016
213a1a26
SM
1017# When you say "perl -MO=Concise -e '$a'", the output should look like:
1018
1019# 4 <@> leave[t1] vKP/REFC ->(end)
1020# 1 <0> enter ->2
1021 #^ smallest OP sequence number should be 1
1022# 2 <;> nextstate(main 1 -e:1) v ->3
1023 # ^ smallest COP sequence number should be 1
1024# - <1> ex-rv2sv vK/1 ->4
1025# 3 <$> gvsv(*a) s ->4
1026
c27ea44e
SM
1027# If the second of the marked numbers there isn't 1, it means you need
1028# to update the corresponding magic number in the next line.
1029# Remember, this needs to stay the last things in the module.
e69a2255 1030
c27ea44e 1031# Why is this different for MacOS? Does it matter?
8ec8fbef 1032my $cop_seq_mnum = $^O eq 'MacOS' ? 12 : 11;
e69a2255 1033$cop_seq_base = svref_2object(eval 'sub{0;}')->START->cop_seq + $cop_seq_mnum;
c99ca59a
SM
1034
10351;
1036
1037__END__
1038
1039=head1 NAME
1040
1041B::Concise - Walk Perl syntax tree, printing concise info about ops
1042
1043=head1 SYNOPSIS
1044
1045 perl -MO=Concise[,OPTIONS] foo.pl
1046
78ad9108
PJ
1047 use B::Concise qw(set_style add_callback);
1048
c99ca59a
SM
1049=head1 DESCRIPTION
1050
1051This compiler backend prints the internal OPs of a Perl program's syntax
1052tree in one of several space-efficient text formats suitable for debugging
1053the inner workings of perl or other compiler backends. It can print OPs in
1054the order they appear in the OP tree, in the order they will execute, or
1055in a text approximation to their tree structure, and the format of the
3c4b39be 1056information displayed is customizable. Its function is similar to that of
c99ca59a
SM
1057perl's B<-Dx> debugging flag or the B<B::Terse> module, but it is more
1058sophisticated and flexible.
1059
f8a679e6
RGS
1060=head1 EXAMPLE
1061
f9f861ec
JC
1062Here's two outputs (or 'renderings'), using the -exec and -basic
1063(i.e. default) formatting conventions on the same code snippet.
19e169bf
JC
1064
1065 % perl -MO=Concise,-exec -e '$a = $b + 42'
1066 1 <0> enter
1067 2 <;> nextstate(main 1 -e:1) v
1068 3 <#> gvsv[*b] s
1069 4 <$> const[IV 42] s
1070 * 5 <2> add[t3] sK/2
1071 6 <#> gvsv[*a] s
1072 7 <2> sassign vKS/2
1073 8 <@> leave[1 ref] vKP/REFC
1074
f9f861ec
JC
1075In this -exec rendering, each opcode is executed in the order shown.
1076The add opcode, marked with '*', is discussed in more detail.
19e169bf
JC
1077
1078The 1st column is the op's sequence number, starting at 1, and is
f9f861ec
JC
1079displayed in base 36 by default. Here they're purely linear; the
1080sequences are very helpful when looking at code with loops and
1081branches.
19e169bf
JC
1082
1083The symbol between angle brackets indicates the op's type, for
1084example; <2> is a BINOP, <@> a LISTOP, and <#> is a PADOP, which is
1085used in threaded perls. (see L</"OP class abbreviations">).
1086
f9f861ec 1087The opname, as in B<'add[t1]'>, may be followed by op-specific
19e169bf
JC
1088information in parentheses or brackets (ex B<'[t1]'>).
1089
f9f861ec 1090The op-flags (ex B<'sK/2'>) are described in (L</"OP flags
19e169bf 1091abbreviations">).
f8a679e6
RGS
1092
1093 % perl -MO=Concise -e '$a = $b + 42'
8ec8fbef 1094 8 <@> leave[1 ref] vKP/REFC ->(end)
f8a679e6
RGS
1095 1 <0> enter ->2
1096 2 <;> nextstate(main 1 -e:1) v ->3
1097 7 <2> sassign vKS/2 ->8
19e169bf 1098 * 5 <2> add[t1] sK/2 ->6
f8a679e6
RGS
1099 - <1> ex-rv2sv sK/1 ->4
1100 3 <$> gvsv(*b) s ->4
1101 4 <$> const(IV 42) s ->5
1102 - <1> ex-rv2sv sKRM*/1 ->7
1103 6 <$> gvsv(*a) s ->7
1104
19e169bf
JC
1105The default rendering is top-down, so they're not in execution order.
1106This form reflects the way the stack is used to parse and evaluate
1107expressions; the add operates on the two terms below it in the tree.
f8a679e6 1108
19e169bf
JC
1109Nullops appear as C<ex-opname>, where I<opname> is an op that has been
1110optimized away by perl. They're displayed with a sequence-number of
1111'-', because they are not executed (they don't appear in previous
1112example), they're printed here because they reflect the parse.
f8a679e6 1113
19e169bf
JC
1114The arrow points to the sequence number of the next op; they're not
1115displayed in -exec mode, for obvious reasons.
f8a679e6 1116
19e169bf
JC
1117Note that because this rendering was done on a non-threaded perl, the
1118PADOPs in the previous examples are now SVOPs, and some (but not all)
1119of the square brackets have been replaced by round ones. This is a
1120subtle feature to provide some visual distinction between renderings
1121on threaded and un-threaded perls.
f8a679e6 1122
f8a679e6 1123
c99ca59a
SM
1124=head1 OPTIONS
1125
1126Arguments that don't start with a hyphen are taken to be the names of
9e0f9750
JC
1127subroutines to render; if no such functions are specified, the main
1128body of the program (outside any subroutines, and not including use'd
1129or require'd files) is rendered. Passing C<BEGIN>, C<UNITCHECK>,
1130C<CHECK>, C<INIT>, or C<END> will cause all of the corresponding
1131special blocks to be printed. Arguments must follow options.
c99ca59a 1132
724aa791
JC
1133Options affect how things are rendered (ie printed). They're presented
1134here by their visual effect, 1st being strongest. They're grouped
1135according to how they interrelate; within each group the options are
1136mutually exclusive (unless otherwise stated).
1137
1138=head2 Options for Opcode Ordering
1139
1140These options control the 'vertical display' of opcodes. The display
1141'order' is also called 'mode' elsewhere in this document.
1142
c99ca59a
SM
1143=over 4
1144
1145=item B<-basic>
1146
1147Print OPs in the order they appear in the OP tree (a preorder
1148traversal, starting at the root). The indentation of each OP shows its
19e169bf
JC
1149level in the tree, and the '->' at the end of the line indicates the
1150next opcode in execution order. This mode is the default, so the flag
1151is included simply for completeness.
c99ca59a
SM
1152
1153=item B<-exec>
1154
1155Print OPs in the order they would normally execute (for the majority
1156of constructs this is a postorder traversal of the tree, ending at the
1157root). In most cases the OP that usually follows a given OP will
1158appear directly below it; alternate paths are shown by indentation. In
1159cases like loops when control jumps out of a linear path, a 'goto'
1160line is generated.
1161
1162=item B<-tree>
1163
1164Print OPs in a text approximation of a tree, with the root of the tree
1165at the left and 'left-to-right' order of children transformed into
1166'top-to-bottom'. Because this mode grows both to the right and down,
1167it isn't suitable for large programs (unless you have a very wide
1168terminal).
1169
724aa791
JC
1170=back
1171
1172=head2 Options for Line-Style
1173
1174These options select the line-style (or just style) used to render
1175each opcode, and dictates what info is actually printed into each line.
1176
1177=over 4
1178
1179=item B<-concise>
1180
1181Use the author's favorite set of formatting conventions. This is the
1182default, of course.
1183
1184=item B<-terse>
1185
1186Use formatting conventions that emulate the output of B<B::Terse>. The
1187basic mode is almost indistinguishable from the real B<B::Terse>, and the
1188exec mode looks very similar, but is in a more logical order and lacks
1189curly brackets. B<B::Terse> doesn't have a tree mode, so the tree mode
1190is only vaguely reminiscent of B<B::Terse>.
1191
1192=item B<-linenoise>
1193
1194Use formatting conventions in which the name of each OP, rather than being
1195written out in full, is represented by a one- or two-character abbreviation.
1196This is mainly a joke.
1197
1198=item B<-debug>
1199
1200Use formatting conventions reminiscent of B<B::Debug>; these aren't
1201very concise at all.
1202
1203=item B<-env>
1204
1205Use formatting conventions read from the environment variables
1206C<B_CONCISE_FORMAT>, C<B_CONCISE_GOTO_FORMAT>, and C<B_CONCISE_TREE_FORMAT>.
1207
1208=back
1209
1210=head2 Options for tree-specific formatting
1211
1212=over 4
1213
c99ca59a
SM
1214=item B<-compact>
1215
1216Use a tree format in which the minimum amount of space is used for the
1217lines connecting nodes (one character in most cases). This squeezes out
1218a few precious columns of screen real estate.
1219
1220=item B<-loose>
1221
1222Use a tree format that uses longer edges to separate OP nodes. This format
1223tends to look better than the compact one, especially in ASCII, and is
1224the default.
1225
1226=item B<-vt>
1227
1228Use tree connecting characters drawn from the VT100 line-drawing set.
1229This looks better if your terminal supports it.
1230
1231=item B<-ascii>
1232
1233Draw the tree with standard ASCII characters like C<+> and C<|>. These don't
1234look as clean as the VT100 characters, but they'll work with almost any
1235terminal (or the horizontal scrolling mode of less(1)) and are suitable
1236for text documentation or email. This is the default.
1237
724aa791 1238=back
c99ca59a 1239
724aa791
JC
1240These are pairwise exclusive, i.e. compact or loose, vt or ascii.
1241
1242=head2 Options controlling sequence numbering
1243
1244=over 4
c99ca59a
SM
1245
1246=item B<-base>I<n>
1247
1248Print OP sequence numbers in base I<n>. If I<n> is greater than 10, the
1249digit for 11 will be 'a', and so on. If I<n> is greater than 36, the digit
1250for 37 will be 'A', and so on until 62. Values greater than 62 are not
1251currently supported. The default is 36.
1252
1253=item B<-bigendian>
1254
1255Print sequence numbers with the most significant digit first. This is the
1256usual convention for Arabic numerals, and the default.
1257
1258=item B<-littleendian>
1259
1c2e8cca 1260Print sequence numbers with the least significant digit first. This is
724aa791 1261obviously mutually exclusive with bigendian.
c99ca59a 1262
724aa791 1263=back
c99ca59a 1264
724aa791 1265=head2 Other options
c99ca59a 1266
f18deeb9
JC
1267=over 4
1268
1269=item B<-src>
1270
e6665613
JC
1271With this option, the rendering of each statement (starting with the
1272nextstate OP) will be preceded by the 1st line of source code that
1273generates it. For example:
f18deeb9
JC
1274
1275 1 <0> enter
1276 # 1: my $i;
1277 2 <;> nextstate(main 1 junk.pl:1) v:{
1278 3 <0> padsv[$i:1,10] vM/LVINTRO
1279 # 3: for $i (0..9) {
1280 4 <;> nextstate(main 3 junk.pl:3) v:{
1281 5 <0> pushmark s
1282 6 <$> const[IV 0] s
1283 7 <$> const[IV 9] s
1284 8 <{> enteriter(next->j last->m redo->9)[$i:1,10] lKS
1285 k <0> iter s
1286 l <|> and(other->9) vK/1
1287 # 4: print "line ";
1288 9 <;> nextstate(main 2 junk.pl:4) v
1289 a <0> pushmark s
1290 b <$> const[PV "line "] s
1291 c <@> print vK
1292 # 5: print "$i\n";
e6665613 1293 ...
f18deeb9 1294
9e0f9750
JC
1295=item B<-stash="somepackage">
1296
1297With this, "somepackage" will be required, then the stash is
1298inspected, and each function is rendered.
1299
f18deeb9
JC
1300=back
1301
1302The following options are pairwise exclusive.
cc02ea56 1303
724aa791 1304=over 4
c99ca59a 1305
724aa791 1306=item B<-main>
c99ca59a 1307
724aa791 1308Include the main program in the output, even if subroutines were also
cc02ea56
JC
1309specified. This rendering is normally suppressed when a subroutine
1310name or reference is given.
1311
1312=item B<-nomain>
1313
1314This restores the default behavior after you've changed it with '-main'
1315(it's not normally needed). If no subroutine name/ref is given, main is
1316rendered, regardless of this flag.
1317
1318=item B<-nobanner>
1319
1320Renderings usually include a banner line identifying the function name
1321or stringified subref. This suppresses the printing of the banner.
1322
1323TBC: Remove the stringified coderef; while it provides a 'cookie' for
1324each function rendered, the cookies used should be 1,2,3.. not a
1325random hex-address. It also complicates string comparison of two
1326different trees.
c99ca59a 1327
724aa791 1328=item B<-banner>
c99ca59a 1329
cc02ea56
JC
1330restores default banner behavior.
1331
1332=item B<-banneris> => subref
1333
1334TBC: a hookpoint (and an option to set it) for a user-supplied
1335function to produce a banner appropriate for users needs. It's not
1336ideal, because the rendering-state variables, which are a natural
1337candidate for use in concise.t, are unavailable to the user.
c99ca59a 1338
724aa791 1339=back
c99ca59a 1340
724aa791 1341=head2 Option Stickiness
c99ca59a 1342
724aa791
JC
1343If you invoke Concise more than once in a program, you should know that
1344the options are 'sticky'. This means that the options you provide in
1345the first call will be remembered for the 2nd call, unless you
1346re-specify or change them.
c99ca59a 1347
cc02ea56
JC
1348=head1 ABBREVIATIONS
1349
1350The concise style uses symbols to convey maximum info with minimal
1351clutter (like hex addresses). With just a little practice, you can
1352start to see the flowers, not just the branches, in the trees.
1353
1354=head2 OP class abbreviations
1355
1356These symbols appear before the op-name, and indicate the
1357B:: namespace that represents the ops in your Perl code.
1358
1359 0 OP (aka BASEOP) An OP with no children
1360 1 UNOP An OP with one child
1361 2 BINOP An OP with two children
1362 | LOGOP A control branch OP
1363 @ LISTOP An OP that could have lots of children
1364 / PMOP An OP with a regular expression
1365 $ SVOP An OP with an SV
1366 " PVOP An OP with a string
1367 { LOOP An OP that holds pointers for a loop
1368 ; COP An OP that marks the start of a statement
1369 # PADOP An OP with a GV on the pad
1370
1371=head2 OP flags abbreviations
1372
19e169bf
JC
1373OP flags are either public or private. The public flags alter the
1374behavior of each opcode in consistent ways, and are represented by 0
1375or more single characters.
cc02ea56
JC
1376
1377 v OPf_WANT_VOID Want nothing (void context)
1378 s OPf_WANT_SCALAR Want single value (scalar context)
1379 l OPf_WANT_LIST Want list of any length (list context)
19e169bf 1380 Want is unknown
cc02ea56
JC
1381 K OPf_KIDS There is a firstborn child.
1382 P OPf_PARENS This operator was parenthesized.
1383 (Or block needs explicit scope entry.)
1384 R OPf_REF Certified reference.
1385 (Return container, not containee).
1386 M OPf_MOD Will modify (lvalue).
1387 S OPf_STACKED Some arg is arriving on the stack.
1388 * OPf_SPECIAL Do something weird for this op (see op.h)
1389
19e169bf
JC
1390Private flags, if any are set for an opcode, are displayed after a '/'
1391
1392 8 <@> leave[1 ref] vKP/REFC ->(end)
1393 7 <2> sassign vKS/2 ->8
1394
1395They're opcode specific, and occur less often than the public ones, so
1396they're represented by short mnemonics instead of single-chars; see
00baac8f 1397F<op.h> for gory details, or try this quick 2-liner:
19e169bf
JC
1398
1399 $> perl -MB::Concise -de 1
1400 DB<1> |x \%B::Concise::priv
1401
c99ca59a
SM
1402=head1 FORMATTING SPECIFICATIONS
1403
724aa791
JC
1404For each line-style ('concise', 'terse', 'linenoise', etc.) there are
14053 format-specs which control how OPs are rendered.
1406
1407The first is the 'default' format, which is used in both basic and exec
1408modes to print all opcodes. The 2nd, goto-format, is used in exec
1409mode when branches are encountered. They're not real opcodes, and are
1410inserted to look like a closing curly brace. The tree-format is tree
1411specific.
1412
cc02ea56
JC
1413When a line is rendered, the correct format-spec is copied and scanned
1414for the following items; data is substituted in, and other
1415manipulations like basic indenting are done, for each opcode rendered.
1416
1417There are 3 kinds of items that may be populated; special patterns,
1418#vars, and literal text, which is copied verbatim. (Yes, it's a set
1419of s///g steps.)
1420
1421=head2 Special Patterns
1422
1423These items are the primitives used to perform indenting, and to
1424select text from amongst alternatives.
c99ca59a
SM
1425
1426=over 4
1427
1428=item B<(x(>I<exec_text>B<;>I<basic_text>B<)x)>
1429
1430Generates I<exec_text> in exec mode, or I<basic_text> in basic mode.
1431
1432=item B<(*(>I<text>B<)*)>
1433
1434Generates one copy of I<text> for each indentation level.
1435
1436=item B<(*(>I<text1>B<;>I<text2>B<)*)>
1437
1438Generates one fewer copies of I<text1> than the indentation level, followed
1439by one copy of I<text2> if the indentation level is more than 0.
1440
1441=item B<(?(>I<text1>B<#>I<var>I<Text2>B<)?)>
1442
1443If the value of I<var> is true (not empty or zero), generates the
1444value of I<var> surrounded by I<text1> and I<Text2>, otherwise
1445nothing.
1446
cc02ea56
JC
1447=item B<~>
1448
1449Any number of tildes and surrounding whitespace will be collapsed to
1450a single space.
1451
1452=back
1453
1454=head2 # Variables
1455
1456These #vars represent opcode properties that you may want as part of
1457your rendering. The '#' is intended as a private sigil; a #var's
1458value is interpolated into the style-line, much like "read $this".
1459
1460These vars take 3 forms:
1461
1462=over 4
1463
c99ca59a
SM
1464=item B<#>I<var>
1465
cc02ea56
JC
1466A property named 'var' is assumed to exist for the opcodes, and is
1467interpolated into the rendering.
c99ca59a
SM
1468
1469=item B<#>I<var>I<N>
1470
cc02ea56
JC
1471Generates the value of I<var>, left justified to fill I<N> spaces.
1472Note that this means while you can have properties 'foo' and 'foo2',
1473you cannot render 'foo2', but you could with 'foo2a'. You would be
1474wise not to rely on this behavior going forward ;-)
c99ca59a 1475
cc02ea56 1476=item B<#>I<Var>
c99ca59a 1477
cc02ea56
JC
1478This ucfirst form of #var generates a tag-value form of itself for
1479display; it converts '#Var' into a 'Var => #var' style, which is then
1480handled as described above. (Imp-note: #Vars cannot be used for
1481conditional-fills, because the => #var transform is done after the check
1482for #Var's value).
c99ca59a
SM
1483
1484=back
1485
cc02ea56
JC
1486The following variables are 'defined' by B::Concise; when they are
1487used in a style, their respective values are plugged into the
1488rendering of each opcode.
1489
1490Only some of these are used by the standard styles, the others are
1491provided for you to delve into optree mechanics, should you wish to
1492add a new style (see L</add_style> below) that uses them. You can
00baac8f 1493also add new ones using L</add_callback>.
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SM
1494
1495=over 4
1496
1497=item B<#addr>
1498
cc02ea56 1499The address of the OP, in hexadecimal.
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1500
1501=item B<#arg>
1502
1503The OP-specific information of the OP (such as the SV for an SVOP, the
cc02ea56 1504non-local exit pointers for a LOOP, etc.) enclosed in parentheses.
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SM
1505
1506=item B<#class>
1507
1508The B-determined class of the OP, in all caps.
1509
f8a679e6 1510=item B<#classsym>
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1511
1512A single symbol abbreviating the class of the OP.
1513
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SM
1514=item B<#coplabel>
1515
1516The label of the statement or block the OP is the start of, if any.
1517
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SM
1518=item B<#exname>
1519
1520The name of the OP, or 'ex-foo' if the OP is a null that used to be a foo.
1521
1522=item B<#extarg>
1523
1524The target of the OP, or nothing for a nulled OP.
1525
1526=item B<#firstaddr>
1527
19e169bf 1528The address of the OP's first child, in hexadecimal.
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SM
1529
1530=item B<#flags>
1531
1532The OP's flags, abbreviated as a series of symbols.
1533
1534=item B<#flagval>
1535
1536The numeric value of the OP's flags.
1537
d5ec2987
NC
1538=item B<#hints>
1539
1540The COP's hint flags, rendered with abbreviated names if possible. An empty
4f948f3a
RGS
1541string if this is not a COP. Here are the symbols used:
1542
1543 $ strict refs
1544 & strict subs
1545 * strict vars
1546 i integers
1547 l locale
1548 b bytes
1549 [ arybase
1550 { block scope
1551 % localise %^H
1552 < open in
1553 > open out
1554 I overload int
1555 F overload float
1556 B overload binary
1557 S overload string
1558 R overload re
1559 T taint
1560 E eval
1561 X filetest access
1562 U utf-8
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NC
1563
1564=item B<#hintsval>
1565
1566The numeric value of the COP's hint flags, or an empty string if this is not
1567a COP.
1568
f8a679e6 1569=item B<#hyphseq>
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SM
1570
1571The sequence number of the OP, or a hyphen if it doesn't have one.
1572
1573=item B<#label>
1574
1575'NEXT', 'LAST', or 'REDO' if the OP is a target of one of those in exec
1576mode, or empty otherwise.
1577
1578=item B<#lastaddr>
1579
19e169bf 1580The address of the OP's last child, in hexadecimal.
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1581
1582=item B<#name>
1583
1584The OP's name.
1585
1586=item B<#NAME>
1587
1588The OP's name, in all caps.
1589
1590=item B<#next>
1591
1592The sequence number of the OP's next OP.
1593
1594=item B<#nextaddr>
1595
19e169bf 1596The address of the OP's next OP, in hexadecimal.
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1597
1598=item B<#noise>
1599
c27ea44e 1600A one- or two-character abbreviation for the OP's name.
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1601
1602=item B<#private>
1603
1604The OP's private flags, rendered with abbreviated names if possible.
1605
1606=item B<#privval>
1607
1608The numeric value of the OP's private flags.
1609
1610=item B<#seq>
1611
2814eb74
PJ
1612The sequence number of the OP. Note that this is a sequence number
1613generated by B::Concise.
c99ca59a 1614
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NC
1615=item B<#seqnum>
1616
16175.8.x and earlier only. 5.9 and later do not provide this.
1618
1619The real sequence number of the OP, as a regular number and not adjusted
1620to be relative to the start of the real program. (This will generally be
1621a fairly large number because all of B<B::Concise> is compiled before
1622your program is).
1623
2814eb74 1624=item B<#opt>
c99ca59a 1625
2814eb74
PJ
1626Whether or not the op has been optimised by the peephole optimiser.
1627
7252851f
NC
1628Only available in 5.9 and later.
1629
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1630=item B<#sibaddr>
1631
19e169bf 1632The address of the OP's next youngest sibling, in hexadecimal.
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1633
1634=item B<#svaddr>
1635
19e169bf 1636The address of the OP's SV, if it has an SV, in hexadecimal.
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1637
1638=item B<#svclass>
1639
1640The class of the OP's SV, if it has one, in all caps (e.g., 'IV').
1641
1642=item B<#svval>
1643
1644The value of the OP's SV, if it has one, in a short human-readable format.
1645
1646=item B<#targ>
1647
1648The numeric value of the OP's targ.
1649
1650=item B<#targarg>
1651
1652The name of the variable the OP's targ refers to, if any, otherwise the
1653letter t followed by the OP's targ in decimal.
1654
1655=item B<#targarglife>
1656
1657Same as B<#targarg>, but followed by the COP sequence numbers that delimit
1658the variable's lifetime (or 'end' for a variable in an open scope) for a
1659variable.
1660
1661=item B<#typenum>
1662
1663The numeric value of the OP's type, in decimal.
1664
1665=back
1666
f9f861ec
JC
1667=head1 One-Liner Command tips
1668
1669=over 4
1670
1671=item perl -MO=Concise,bar foo.pl
1672
1673Renders only bar() from foo.pl. To see main, drop the ',bar'. To see
1674both, add ',-main'
1675
1676=item perl -MDigest::MD5=md5 -MO=Concise,md5 -e1
1677
1678Identifies md5 as an XS function. The export is needed so that BC can
1679find it in main.
1680
1681=item perl -MPOSIX -MO=Concise,_POSIX_ARG_MAX -e1
1682
1683Identifies _POSIX_ARG_MAX as a constant sub, optimized to an IV.
1684Although POSIX isn't entirely consistent across platforms, this is
1685likely to be present in virtually all of them.
1686
1687=item perl -MPOSIX -MO=Concise,a -e 'print _POSIX_SAVED_IDS'
1688
1689This renders a print statement, which includes a call to the function.
1690It's identical to rendering a file with a use call and that single
1691statement, except for the filename which appears in the nextstate ops.
1692
1693=item perl -MPOSIX -MO=Concise,a -e 'sub a{_POSIX_SAVED_IDS}'
1694
1695This is B<very> similar to previous, only the first two ops differ. This
1696subroutine rendering is more representative, insofar as a single main
1697program will have many subs.
1698
6cc5d258
JC
1699=item perl -MB::Concise -e 'B::Concise::compile("-exec","-src", \%B::Concise::)->()'
1700
1701This renders all functions in the B::Concise package with the source
1702lines. It eschews the O framework so that the stashref can be passed
9e0f9750
JC
1703directly to B::Concise::compile(). See -stash option for a more
1704convenient way to render a package.
f9f861ec 1705
d5e42f17 1706=back
f9f861ec 1707
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PJ
1708=head1 Using B::Concise outside of the O framework
1709
cc02ea56
JC
1710The common (and original) usage of B::Concise was for command-line
1711renderings of simple code, as given in EXAMPLE. But you can also use
1712B<B::Concise> from your code, and call compile() directly, and
724aa791 1713repeatedly. By doing so, you can avoid the compile-time only
cc02ea56
JC
1714operation of O.pm, and even use the debugger to step through
1715B::Concise::compile() itself.
f95e3c3c 1716
cc02ea56
JC
1717Once you're doing this, you may alter Concise output by adding new
1718rendering styles, and by optionally adding callback routines which
1719populate new variables, if such were referenced from those (just
1720added) styles.
f95e3c3c 1721
724aa791 1722=head2 Example: Altering Concise Renderings
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PJ
1723
1724 use B::Concise qw(set_style add_callback);
cc02ea56 1725 add_style($yourStyleName => $defaultfmt, $gotofmt, $treefmt);
78ad9108 1726 add_callback
f95e3c3c
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1727 ( sub {
1728 my ($h, $op, $format, $level, $stylename) = @_;
78ad9108 1729 $h->{variable} = some_func($op);
cc02ea56
JC
1730 });
1731 $walker = B::Concise::compile(@options,@subnames,@subrefs);
1732 $walker->();
78ad9108 1733
f95e3c3c
JC
1734=head2 set_style()
1735
724aa791
JC
1736B<set_style> accepts 3 arguments, and updates the three format-specs
1737comprising a line-style (basic-exec, goto, tree). It has one minor
1738drawback though; it doesn't register the style under a new name. This
1739can become an issue if you render more than once and switch styles.
1740Thus you may prefer to use add_style() and/or set_style_standard()
1741instead.
1742
1743=head2 set_style_standard($name)
1744
1745This restores one of the standard line-styles: C<terse>, C<concise>,
1746C<linenoise>, C<debug>, C<env>, into effect. It also accepts style
1747names previously defined with add_style().
f95e3c3c 1748
345e2394 1749=head2 add_style ()
78ad9108 1750
f95e3c3c
JC
1751This subroutine accepts a new style name and three style arguments as
1752above, and creates, registers, and selects the newly named style. It is
1753an error to re-add a style; call set_style_standard() to switch between
1754several styles.
1755
345e2394 1756=head2 add_callback ()
f95e3c3c 1757
19e169bf
JC
1758If your newly minted styles refer to any new #variables, you'll need
1759to define a callback subroutine that will populate (or modify) those
1760variables. They are then available for use in the style you've
1761chosen.
f95e3c3c
JC
1762
1763The callbacks are called for each opcode visited by Concise, in the
1764same order as they are added. Each subroutine is passed five
1765parameters.
1766
1767 1. A hashref, containing the variable names and values which are
1768 populated into the report-line for the op
1769 2. the op, as a B<B::OP> object
1770 3. a reference to the format string
1771 4. the formatting (indent) level
1772 5. the selected stylename
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PJ
1773
1774To define your own variables, simply add them to the hash, or change
1775existing values if you need to. The level and format are passed in as
1776references to scalars, but it is unlikely that they will need to be
1777changed or even used.
1778
724aa791 1779=head2 Running B::Concise::compile()
f95e3c3c
JC
1780
1781B<compile> accepts options as described above in L</OPTIONS>, and
1782arguments, which are either coderefs, or subroutine names.
1783
cc02ea56
JC
1784It constructs and returns a $treewalker coderef, which when invoked,
1785traverses, or walks, and renders the optrees of the given arguments to
1786STDOUT. You can reuse this, and can change the rendering style used
1787each time; thereafter the coderef renders in the new style.
f95e3c3c
JC
1788
1789B<walk_output> lets you change the print destination from STDOUT to
19e169bf
JC
1790another open filehandle, or into a string passed as a ref (unless
1791you've built perl with -Uuseperlio).
f95e3c3c 1792
cc02ea56 1793 my $walker = B::Concise::compile('-terse','aFuncName', \&aSubRef); # 1
f95e3c3c 1794 walk_output(\my $buf);
cc02ea56
JC
1795 $walker->(); # 1 renders -terse
1796 set_style_standard('concise'); # 2
1797 $walker->(); # 2 renders -concise
1798 $walker->(@new); # 3 renders whatever
1799 print "3 different renderings: terse, concise, and @new: $buf\n";
1800
1801When $walker is called, it traverses the subroutines supplied when it
1802was created, and renders them using the current style. You can change
1803the style afterwards in several different ways:
1804
1805 1. call C<compile>, altering style or mode/order
1806 2. call C<set_style_standard>
1807 3. call $walker, passing @new options
1808
1809Passing new options to the $walker is the easiest way to change
1810amongst any pre-defined styles (the ones you add are automatically
1811recognized as options), and is the only way to alter rendering order
1812without calling compile again. Note however that rendering state is
1813still shared amongst multiple $walker objects, so they must still be
1814used in a coordinated manner.
f95e3c3c
JC
1815
1816=head2 B::Concise::reset_sequence()
1817
1818This function (not exported) lets you reset the sequence numbers (note
1819that they're numbered arbitrarily, their goal being to be human
1820readable). Its purpose is mostly to support testing, i.e. to compare
1821the concise output from two identical anonymous subroutines (but
1822different instances). Without the reset, B::Concise, seeing that
1823they're separate optrees, generates different sequence numbers in
1824the output.
1825
1826=head2 Errors
1827
9a3b3024
JC
1828Errors in rendering (non-existent function-name, non-existent coderef)
1829are written to the STDOUT, or wherever you've set it via
1830walk_output().
31b49ad4 1831
9a3b3024
JC
1832Errors using the various *style* calls, and bad args to walk_output(),
1833result in die(). Use an eval if you wish to catch these errors and
1834continue processing.
78ad9108 1835
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SM
1836=head1 AUTHOR
1837
31b49ad4 1838Stephen McCamant, E<lt>smcc@CSUA.Berkeley.EDUE<gt>.
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1839
1840=cut