This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
Fix example #4 in perlXStut
[perl5.git] / pod / perldiag.pod
CommitLineData
a0d0e21e
LW
1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
12 (S) A severe warning (mandatory).
13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
15 (X) A very fatal error (non-trappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
748a9306 18Optional warnings are enabled by using the B<-w> switch. Warnings may
8b1a09fc 19be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}> to a reference to a routine that will be
748a9306
LW
20called on each warning instead of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
21Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
22L<perlfunc/eval>.
a0d0e21e
LW
23
24Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are denoted with a %s,
2ba9eb46 25just as in a printf format. Note that some messages start with a %s!
a0d0e21e
LW
26The symbols C<"%-?@> sort before the letters, while C<[> and C<\> sort after.
27
28=over 4
29
30=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
31
32(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense
33to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use local()
34if you want to localize a package variable.
35
2ba9eb46
PP
36=item "my" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same scope
37
38(S) A lexical variable has been redeclared in the same scope, effectively
39eliminating all access to the previous instance. This is almost always
8b1a09fc 40a typographical error. Note that the earlier variable will still exist
2ba9eb46
PP
41until the end of the scope or until all closure referents to it are
42destroyed.
43
a0d0e21e
LW
44=item "no" not allowed in expression
45
46(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
47no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
48
49=item "use" not allowed in expression
50
51(F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
52no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
53
54=item % may only be used in unpack
55
5f05dabc 56(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
a0d0e21e
LW
57checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other
58way. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
59
60=item %s (...) interpreted as function
61
62(W) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator followed
8b1a09fc 63by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list operators arguments
5f05dabc 64found inside the parentheses. See L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
a0d0e21e
LW
65
66=item %s argument is not a HASH element
67
5f05dabc 68(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash element, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
69
70 $foo{$bar}
71 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
72
5f05dabc
PP
73=item %s argument is not a HASH element or slice
74
75(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash element, such as
76
77 $foo{$bar}
78 $ref->[12]->{"susie"}
79
80or a hash slice, such as
81
82 @foo{$bar, $baz, $xyzzy}
83 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
84
a0d0e21e
LW
85=item %s did not return a true value
86
87(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
88it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
89traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
90do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
91
92=item %s found where operator expected
93
94(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
95sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an operator,
96it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an operator or
97delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
98
99=item %s had compilation errors.
100
101(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
102
103=item %s has too many errors.
104
105(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
106Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
107
108=item %s matches null string many times
109
110(W) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
111regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See L<perlre>.
112
113=item %s never introduced
114
115(S) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of scope
116before it could possibly have been used.
117
118=item %s syntax OK
119
120(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
121
cb1a09d0
AD
122=item %s: Command not found.
123
124(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
8b1a09fc 125of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
126into Perl yourself.
127
128=item %s: Expression syntax.
129
130(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
8b1a09fc 131of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
132into Perl yourself.
133
134=item %s: Undefined variable.
135
136(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
8b1a09fc 137of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
138into Perl yourself.
139
140=item %s: not found
141
8b1a09fc
PP
142(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
143instead of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
144into Perl yourself.
145
a0d0e21e
LW
146=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
147
148(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
149which provides a race condition that breaks security.
150
151=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
152
153(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
154know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
155
a5f75d66
AD
156=item 500 Server error
157
158See Server error.
159
a0d0e21e
LW
160=item ?+* follows nothing in regexp
161
162(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it
163if you meant it literally. See L<perlre>.
164
165=item @ outside of string
166
2ba9eb46 167(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
a0d0e21e
LW
168the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
169
170=item accept() on closed fd
171
172(W) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
173the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/accept>.
174
175=item Allocation too large: %lx
176
55497cff
PP
177(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MSDOS machine.
178
179=item Allocation too large
180
181(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes.
a0d0e21e
LW
182
183=item Arg too short for msgsnd
184
185(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
186
748a9306
LW
187=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
188
189(W)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
190you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
5f05dabc 191a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
748a9306 192
a0d0e21e
LW
193=item Args must match #! line
194
195(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
196with match the arguments specified on the #! line.
197
198=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric
199
200(W) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator that
201expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
202will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
203
204=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
205
206(D) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some spots. This
207is now heavily deprecated.
208
209=item assertion botched: %s
210
211(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
212
213=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
214
215(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
216
217=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
218
219(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
220must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
221know which context to supply to the right side.
222
223=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
224
225(P) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas that will
226be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be outside any
227of those arenas.
228
bbce6d69
PP
229=item Attempt to free non-existent shared string
230
231(P) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of strings to
232optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other strings. This
233indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count of a string
234that can no longer be found in the table.
235
a0d0e21e
LW
236=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
237
238(W) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the free_tmps()
239routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the SV before
240the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the free_tmps()
241routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does try to free
242it.
243
244=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
245
246(P) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
247
248=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
249
250(W) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to see if it
251would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0 earlier,
252and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed. This
253could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or that
254SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was mortalized
255when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been corrupted.
256
b7a902f4
PP
257=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
258
259(W) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr() used
8b1a09fc 260as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
b7a902f4
PP
261dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
262
a0d0e21e
LW
263=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
264
265(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl() or
2ba9eb46 266shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 267S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
a0d0e21e
LW
268S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
269
270=item Bad associative array
271
272(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
273
274=item Bad filehandle: %s
275
276(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the symbol
277has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or
278did it in another package.
279
280=item Bad free() ignored
281
282(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had never been
33c8a3fe
IZ
283malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
284setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
285
286This message can be quite often seen with DB_File on systems with
287"hard" dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of
288C<Berkeley DB> which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving>
289system malloc().
a0d0e21e
LW
290
291=item Bad name after %s::
292
293(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then didn't
294finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes,
295so
296
297 $var = 'myvar';
298 $sym = mypack::$var;
299
300is not the same as
301
302 $var = 'myvar';
303 $sym = "mypack::$var";
304
305=item Bad symbol for array
306
307(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
308wasn't a symbol table entry.
309
310=item Bad symbol for filehandle
311
312(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something that
313wasn't a symbol table entry.
314
315=item Bad symbol for hash
316
317(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
318wasn't a symbol table entry.
319
8b1a09fc 320=item Badly placed ()'s
cb1a09d0
AD
321
322(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
8b1a09fc 323of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
324into Perl yourself.
325
a0d0e21e
LW
326=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
327
328(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN subroutine.
329Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is exited.
330
331=item bind() on closed fd
332
333(W) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
334the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
335
4633a7c4
LW
336=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
337
338(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not copiable.
339
a0d0e21e
LW
340=item Callback called exit
341
342(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via perl_call_sv()
343exited by calling exit.
344
345=item Can't "last" outside a block
346
347(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
348except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a
349current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a
350"loopish" block. You can usually double the curlies to get the same
5f05dabc 351effect though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block
a0d0e21e
LW
352that loops once. See L<perlfunc/last>.
353
354=item Can't "next" outside a block
355
356(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
357there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
358count as a "loopish" block. You can usually double the curlies to get
5f05dabc 359the same effect though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block
a0d0e21e
LW
360that loops once. See L<perlfunc/last>.
361
362=item Can't "redo" outside a block
363
364(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
365there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
366count as a "loopish" block. You can usually double the curlies to get
5f05dabc 367the same effect though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block
a0d0e21e
LW
368that loops once. See L<perlfunc/last>.
369
370=item Can't bless non-reference value
371
372(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
373encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
374
375=item Can't break at that line
376
377(S) A warning intended for while running within the debugger, indicating
378the line number specified wasn't the location of a statement that could
379be stopped at.
380
381=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
382
383(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
384functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
385in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
386
387=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
388
389(F) A method call must know what package it's supposed to run in. It
390ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but
391you didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't
392an object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
393
394=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
395
396(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
397object reference or package name contains an expression that returns
398neither an object reference nor a package name. (Perhaps it's null?)
399Something like this will reproduce the error:
400
401 $BADREF = undef;
402 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
403 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
404
405=item Can't chdir to %s
406
407(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
408that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
409
410=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
411
412(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 413(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
414say things like:
415
416 *foo += 1;
417
418You CAN say
419
420 $foo = *foo;
421 $foo += 1;
422
423but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
424
425=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
426
427(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 428(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
429
430=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
431
432(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 433(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
434
435=item Can't create pipe mailbox
436
748a9306
LW
437(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted quotas
438or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e
LW
439
440=item Can't declare %s in my
441
5f05dabc 442(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as lexical variables.
a0d0e21e
LW
443They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
444
445=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
446
447(S) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated reason.
448
5f05dabc 449=item Can't do in-place edit without backup
a0d0e21e
LW
450
451(F) You're on a system such as MSDOS that gets confused if you try reading
452from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say B<-i>C<.bak>, or some
453such.
454
8b1a09fc 455=item Can't do inplace edit: %s E<gt> 14 characters
a0d0e21e
LW
456
457(S) There isn't enough room in the filename to make a backup name for the file.
458
459=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
460
461(S) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as a file in
462/dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
463
464=item Can't do setegid!
465
466(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
467of suidperl.
468
469=item Can't do seteuid!
470
471(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
472
473=item Can't do setuid
474
475(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to
476do setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the
477form sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides
478under the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines.
479If the file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask
480your sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
481
482=item Can't do waitpid with flags
483
484(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only waitpid()
485without flags is emulated.
486
8b1a09fc 487=item Can't do {n,m} with n E<gt> m
a0d0e21e
LW
488
489(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
490your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. See L<perlre>.
491
492=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
493
494(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this point.
495For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #! line.
496
497=item Can't exec "%s": %s
498
5f05dabc 499(W) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the named
a0d0e21e
LW
500program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the permissions
501were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in C<$ENV{PATH}>, the
502executable in question was compiled for another architecture, or the
503#! line in a script points to an interpreter that can't be run for
504similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at all.)
505
506=item Can't exec %s
507
508(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because that's
509what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may need to
510mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
511
512=item Can't execute %s
513
514(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
515in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions.
516
517=item Can't find label %s
518
519(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's possible
520for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
521
522=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
523
524(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means that
5f05dabc 525the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count nesting
a0d0e21e
LW
526levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
527
528 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.)
529
530=item Can't fork
531
532(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a pipeline.
533
33c8a3fe
IZ
534=item Unsupported function fork
535
536(F) Your version of executable does not support forking.
537
538Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different flavors of
539Perl executables, some of which may support fork, some not. Try changing
540the name you call Perl by to C<perl_>, C<perl__>, and so on.
541
748a9306
LW
542=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
543
544(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference between
545access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes. Under VMS,
546access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in the stat buffer, so
547that ACLs and other protections can be taken into account. Unfortunately, Perl
548assumes that the stat buffer contains all the necessary information, and passes
549it, instead of the filespec, to the access checking routine. It will try to
550retrieve the filespec using the device name and FID present in the stat buffer,
551but this works only if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat()
5f05dabc 552routine, because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
748a9306
LW
553appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up and
554returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking routine
555knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you shouldn't ever
556see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises only if some internal
557code takes stat buffers lightly.)
558
a0d0e21e
LW
559=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
560
748a9306
LW
561(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a pipe, Perl
562can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
563
564=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
565
748a9306
LW
566(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
567mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e
LW
568
569=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
570
571(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one subroutine
572call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole cloth. In general
5f05dabc 573you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine anyway. See
a0d0e21e
LW
574L<perlfunc/goto>.
575
4633a7c4
LW
576=item Can't localize a reference
577
578(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which is not allowed because
579the compiler can't determine whether $ref will end up pointing to anything
580with a symbol table entry, and a symbol table entry is necessary to
581do a local.
582
748a9306
LW
583=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
584
2ba9eb46 585(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
586lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
587localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
588package name.
589
a0d0e21e
LW
590=item Can't locate %s in @INC
591
592(F) You said to do (or require, or use) a file that couldn't be found
593in any of the libraries mentioned in @INC. Perhaps you need to set
594the PERL5LIB environment variable to say where the extra library is,
595or maybe the script needs to add the library name to @INC. Or maybe
596you just misspelled the name of the file. See L<perlfunc/require>.
597
598=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
599
600(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
601functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 602method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
603
604=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
605
606(W) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that doesn't seem
607to exist.
608
609=item Can't mktemp()
610
611(F) The mktemp() routine failed for some reason while trying to process
612a B<-e> switch. Maybe your /tmp partition is full, or clobbered.
613
614=item Can't modify %s in %s
615
616(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try to
5f05dabc 617change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e
LW
618
619=item Can't modify non-existent substring
620
621(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
622a NULL.
623
5f05dabc 624=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 625
5f05dabc 626(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
627buffer.
628
629=item Can't open %s: %s
630
631(S) An inplace edit couldn't open the original file for the indicated reason.
632Usually this is because you don't have read permission for the file.
633
634=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
635
636(W) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported. You can
637try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such as
7e1af8bc 638IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using "E<gt>",
a0d0e21e
LW
639and then read it in under a different file handle.
640
748a9306
LW
641=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
642
643(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
644couldn't open the file specified after '2E<gt>' or '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the
645command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
646
647=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
648
649(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc 650couldn't open the file specified after 'E<lt>' on the command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
651
652=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
653
654(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
655couldn't open the file specified after 'E<gt>' or 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command
656line for writing.
748a9306
LW
657
658=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
659
660(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
661couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined for stdout.
662
a0d0e21e
LW
663=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
664
665(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
666
667=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
668
669(S) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason, probably because
670you don't have write permission to the directory.
671
748a9306
LW
672=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
673
674(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried to
675reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
676
a0d0e21e
LW
677=item Can't reswap uid and euid
678
679(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
680of suidperl.
681
682=item Can't return outside a subroutine
683
684(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
685there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
686
687=item Can't stat script "%s"
688
689(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have
690it open already. Bizarre.
691
692=item Can't swap uid and euid
693
694(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
695of suidperl.
696
697=item Can't take log of %g
698
5f05dabc 699(F) Logarithms are defined on only positive real numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
700
701=item Can't take sqrt of %g
702
703(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
704negative number. There's a Complex package available for Perl, though,
705if you really want to do that.
706
707=item Can't undef active subroutine
708
709(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
710however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
711redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
712
713=item Can't unshift
714
715(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
716as the main Perl stack.
717
718=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
719
720(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making
721it into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are
722so specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This
723message indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
724
725=item Can't upgrade to undef
726
727(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme
728of upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the
729code calling sv_upgrade.
730
c07a80fd
PP
731=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
732
733(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
8b1a09fc 734You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the E<lt>=E<gt> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
735and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
736Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
737lexical variable.
738
a0d0e21e
LW
739=item Can't use %s for loop variable
740
741(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a foreach.
742
743=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
744
745(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
746reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
747test the type of the reference, if need be.
748
748a9306
LW
749=item Can't use \1 to mean $1 in expression
750
751(W) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that creates
752a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a backreference
5f05dabc 753to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular expression pattern.
748a9306
LW
754Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints
755out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form instead.
756
757=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e
LW
758
759(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
760are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
761
762=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
763
764(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
765be a defined value. This helps to de-lurk some insidious errors.
766
a0d0e21e
LW
767=item Can't use global %s in "my"
768
769(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This is
5f05dabc 770not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location (namely
a0d0e21e
LW
771the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to have
772variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
773weren't.
774
748a9306
LW
775=item Can't use subscript on %s
776
777(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
778subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
779didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
780
a0d0e21e
LW
781=item Can't write to temp file for B<-e>: %s
782
783(F) The write routine failed for some reason while trying to process
784a B<-e> switch. Maybe your /tmp partition is full, or clobbered.
785
5f05dabc 786=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e
LW
787
788(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value) with
789an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
790Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
791
792=item Cannot open temporary file
793
8b1a09fc 794(F) The create routine failed for some reason while trying to process
a0d0e21e
LW
795a B<-e> switch. Maybe your /tmp partition is full, or clobbered.
796
797=item chmod: mode argument is missing initial 0
798
799(W) A novice will sometimes say
800
801 chmod 777, $filename
802
803not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number, equivalent
804to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in Perl, as in C.
805
8b1a09fc 806=item Close on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
807
808(W) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
809
810=item connect() on closed fd
811
812(W) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
813the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/connect>.
814
4cee8e80
CS
815=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
816
817(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
818inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
819workarounds.
820
a0d0e21e
LW
821=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
822
823(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
824
825=item corrupted regexp pointers
826
827(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
828expression compiler gave it.
829
830=item corrupted regexp program
831
832(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without
833a valid magic number.
834
835=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
836
837(W) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly) 100
838times than it has returned. This probably indicates an infinite
839recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in which
840case it indicates something else.
841
4633a7c4
LW
842=item Did you mean &%s instead?
843
844(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some such.
845
748a9306 846=item Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?
a0d0e21e 847
748a9306
LW
848(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or @hash{@keys}.
849On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got carried away.
850
7e1af8bc 851=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
852
853(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
854you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
855
856=item Do you need to pre-declare %s?
748a9306
LW
857
858(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
859found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
860name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
861because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
862"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're
863referencing something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have
864to define the subroutine or package before the current location. You
865can use an empty "sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward"
866declaration.
a0d0e21e
LW
867
868=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
869
870(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
871
872=item do_study: out of memory
873
874(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
875
876=item Duplicate free() ignored
877
878(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had already
879been freed.
880
4633a7c4
LW
881=item elseif should be elsif
882
883(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
884ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
885named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
886unlikely to be what you want.
887
a0d0e21e
LW
888=item END failed--cleanup aborted
889
890(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing an END subroutine.
891The interpreter is immediately exited.
892
748a9306
LW
893=item Error converting file specification %s
894
5f05dabc 895(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306
LW
896specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
897single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've
898passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a
899case the conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
900
a0d0e21e
LW
901=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
902
903(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
904
905=item Exiting eval via %s
906
8b1a09fc 907(W) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
908a goto, or a loop control statement.
909
910=item Exiting subroutine via %s
911
8b1a09fc 912(W) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
913a goto, or a loop control statement.
914
915=item Exiting substitution via %s
916
8b1a09fc 917(W) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
918a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
919
748a9306 920=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 921
748a9306
LW
922(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS system
923service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more details. The
924filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell you which section of
925the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
926
927=item fcntl is not implemented
928
929(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
930PDP-11 or something?
931
932=item Filehandle %s never opened
933
934(W) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was never initialized.
935You need to do an open() or a socket() call, or call a constructor from
936the FileHandle package.
937
5f05dabc 938=item Filehandle %s opened for only input
a0d0e21e
LW
939
940(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
941intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 942"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 943you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 944L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 945
5f05dabc 946=item Filehandle opened for only input
a0d0e21e
LW
947
948(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
949intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 950"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 951you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 952L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
953
954=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
955
956(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
957a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
958that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
959the name.
960
961=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
962
963(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
964a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
965that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
966the name.
967
968=item Format %s redefined
969
970(W) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
971
972 {
973 local $^W = 0;
974 eval "format NAME =...";
975 }
976
977=item Format not terminated
978
979(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
980to the end of your file without finding such a line.
981
982=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
983
984(W) You said
985
986 if ($foo = 123)
987
988when you meant
989
990 if ($foo == 123)
991
992(or something like that).
993
994=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
995
996(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
997
998=item gethostent not implemented
999
1000(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1001because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1002on the Internet.
1003
1004=item get{sock,peer}name() on closed fd
1005
1006(W) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed socket.
1007Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
1008
748a9306
LW
1009=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1010
1011(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1012C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1013
1014
a0d0e21e
LW
1015=item Glob not terminated
1016
1017(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
1018a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
1019finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
1020the line, and you really meant a "less than".
1021
1022=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1023
1024(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables must
1025either be lexically scoped (using "my"), or explicitly qualified to
1026say which package the global variable is in (using "::").
1027
1028=item goto must have label
1029
1030(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1031unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1032
1033=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1034
1035(S) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought to have
1036existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be created on
1037an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
1038
1039=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1040
1041(D) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some spots. This
1042is now heavily deprecated.
1043
8b1a09fc 1044=item Ill-formed logical name |%s| in prime_env_iter
a0d0e21e 1045
8b1a09fc
PP
1046(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. A logical name was encountered when preparing
1047to iterate over %ENV which violates the syntactic rules governing logical
5f05dabc
PP
1048names. Because it cannot be translated normally, it is skipped, and will not
1049appear in %ENV. This may be a benign occurrence, as some software packages
8b1a09fc
PP
1050might directly modify logical name tables and introduce non-standard names,
1051or it may indicate that a logical name table has been corrupted.
a0d0e21e
LW
1052
1053=item Illegal division by zero
1054
1055(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in your
1056logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against meaningless input.
1057
1058=item Illegal modulus zero
1059
1060(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most numbers
1061don't take to this kindly.
1062
1063=item Illegal octal digit
1064
1065(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1066
748a9306
LW
1067=item Illegal octal digit ignored
1068
1069(W) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number. Interpretation
1070of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
1071
a0d0e21e
LW
1072=item Insecure dependency in %s
1073
8b1a09fc 1074(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
a0d0e21e
LW
1075The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or setgid,
1076or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The tainting mechanism
1077labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly from the user,
1078who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any such data is
1079used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See L<perlsec>
1080for more information.
1081
1082=item Insecure directory in %s
1083
1084(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid
8b1a09fc 1085script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by the world.
a0d0e21e
LW
1086See L<perlsec>.
1087
1088=item Insecure PATH
1089
1090(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
8b1a09fc 1091setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> is derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1092potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1093known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1094
bbce6d69
PP
1095=item Integer overflow in hex number
1096
1097(S) The literal hex number you have specified is too big for your
1098architecture. On a 32-bit architecture the largest hex literal is
10990xFFFFFFFF.
1100
1101=item Integer overflow in octal number
1102
1103(S) The literal octal number you have specified is too big for your
1104architecture. On a 32-bit architecture the largest octal literal is
1105037777777777.
1106
748a9306
LW
1107=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1108
1109(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number
5f05dabc 1110of times you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine
2ba9eb46 1111whether the current call to C<exec> should affect the current
748a9306
LW
1112script or a subprocess (see L<perlvms/exec>). Somehow, this count
1113has become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating
1114this C<exec> as a request to terminate the Perl script
1115and execute the specified command.
1116
a0d0e21e
LW
1117=item internal disaster in regexp
1118
1119(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
1120
1121=item internal urp in regexp at /%s/
1122
1123(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.
1124
1125=item invalid [] range in regexp
1126
1127(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
1128greater than the maximum character. See L<perlre>.
1129
1130=item ioctl is not implemented
1131
1132(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1133strange for a machine that supports C.
1134
1135=item junk on end of regexp
1136
1137(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1138
1139=item Label not found for "last %s"
1140
1141(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a
1142loop of that name, not even if you count where you were called from.
1143See L<perlfunc/last>.
1144
1145=item Label not found for "next %s"
1146
1147(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1148that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1149L<perlfunc/last>.
1150
1151=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1152
1153(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1154that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1155L<perlfunc/last>.
1156
1157=item listen() on closed fd
1158
1159(W) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1160the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/listen>.
1161
1162=item Literal @%s now requires backslash
1163
1164(F) It used to be that Perl would try to guess whether you wanted an
1165array interpolated or a literal @. It did this when the string was
1166first used at runtime. Now strings are parsed at compile time, and
1167ambiguous instances of @ must be disambiguated, either by putting a
1168backslash to indicate a literal, or by declaring (or using) the array
1169within the program before the string (lexically). (Someday it will simply
1170assume that an unbackslashed @ interpolates an array.)
1171
1172=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1173
1174(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 1175doesn't somehow point to a valid method. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1176
1177=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1178
1179(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1180by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1181ended earlier on the current line.
1182
1183=item Misplaced _ in number
1184
1185(W) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
1186
1187=item Missing $ on loop variable
1188
8b1a09fc
PP
1189(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables are always
1190mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from
a0d0e21e
LW
1191one line to the next.
1192
1193=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1194
1195(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1196"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1197
748a9306
LW
1198=item Missing operator before %s?
1199
1200(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1201found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1202
a0d0e21e
LW
1203=item Missing right bracket
1204
1205(F) The lexer counted more opening curly brackets (braces) than closing ones.
1206As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you were last
1207editing.
1208
1209=item Missing semicolon on previous line?
1210
1211(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1212found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
1213the previous line just because you saw this message.
1214
1215=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1216
1217(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1218constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1219catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1220
1221 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1222 mod(2);
1223
1224Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1225
1226=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, subscript %d
1227
1228(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1229subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1230backwards.
1231
1232=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, subscript "%s"
1233
1234(F) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it couldn't
1235be created for some peculiar reason.
1236
1237=item Module name must be constant
1238
1239(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1240
1241=item msg%s not implemented
1242
1243(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1244
1245=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1246
8b1a09fc
PP
1247(W) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>. They're written
1248like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
1249
1250=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1251
1252(W) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names. If you
1253had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
1254again somehow to suppress the message (the C<use vars> pragma is
1255provided for just this purpose).
a0d0e21e
LW
1256
1257=item Negative length
1258
1259(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer length
1260that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
1261
1262=item nested *?+ in regexp
1263
5f05dabc 1264(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
a0d0e21e
LW
1265things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal.
1266
5f05dabc 1267Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and C<??> appear
a0d0e21e
LW
1268to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
1269
1270=item No #! line
1271
1272(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1273even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
1274
1275=item No %s allowed while running setuid
1276
1277(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or setgid
1278script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there will be
1279another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least securable.
1280See L<perlsec>.
1281
1282=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
1283
1284(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
1285
1286=item No comma allowed after %s
1287
1288(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
1289allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
1290Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
1291
748a9306
LW
1292=item No command into which to pipe on command line
1293
1294(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
1295and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know whither you
1296want to pipe the output from this command.
1297
a0d0e21e
LW
1298=item No DB::DB routine defined
1299
1300(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1301but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1302didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
1303statement. Which is odd, because the file should have been required
1304automatically, and should have blown up the require if it didn't parse
1305right.
1306
1307=item No dbm on this machine
1308
1309(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 1310supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1311
1312=item No DBsub routine
1313
1314(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1315but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1316didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
1317ordinary subroutine call.
1318
8b1a09fc 1319=item No error file after 2E<gt> or 2E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1320
1321(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1322and found a '2E<gt>' or a '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find
1323the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 1324
8b1a09fc 1325=item No input file after E<lt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1326
1327(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1328and found a 'E<lt>' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file
1329from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 1330
8b1a09fc 1331=item No output file after E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1332
1333(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1334and found a lone 'E<gt>' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know
1335whither you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 1336
8b1a09fc 1337=item No output file after E<gt> or E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1338
1339(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1340and found a 'E<gt>' or a 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find the
1341name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 1342
a0d0e21e
LW
1343=item No Perl script found in input
1344
1345(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
1346with #! and containing the word "perl".
1347
1348=item No setregid available
1349
1350(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
1351your system.
1352
1353=item No setreuid available
1354
1355(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
1356your system.
1357
1358=item No space allowed after B<-I>
1359
1360(F) The argument to B<-I> must follow the B<-I> immediately with no
1361intervening space.
1362
748a9306
LW
1363=item No such pipe open
1364
1365(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
1366close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught earlier as
1367an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
1368
a0d0e21e
LW
1369=item No such signal: SIG%s
1370
1371(W) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was not recognized.
1372Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
1373
1374=item Not a CODE reference
1375
1376(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1377subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1378use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1379See also L<perlref>.
1380
1381=item Not a format reference
1382
1383(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
1384format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
1385
1386=item Not a GLOB reference
1387
55497cff 1388(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is,
a0d0e21e
LW
1389a symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
1390something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out
1391what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1392
1393=item Not a HASH reference
1394
1395(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but
1396found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1397function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1398
1399=item Not a perl script
1400
1401(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1402even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
1403mention perl.
1404
1405=item Not a SCALAR reference
1406
1407(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but
1408found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1409function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1410
1411=item Not a subroutine reference
1412
1413(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
1414subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
1415use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
1416See also L<perlref>.
1417
1418=item Not a subroutine reference in %OVERLOAD
1419
1420(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 1421doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1422
1423=item Not an ARRAY reference
1424
1425(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but
1426found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
1427function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
1428
1429=item Not enough arguments for %s
1430
1431(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
1432
1433=item Not enough format arguments
1434
1435(W) A format specified more picture fields than the next line supplied.
1436See L<perlform>.
1437
1438=item Null filename used
1439
5f05dabc 1440(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many machines
a0d0e21e
LW
1441that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
1442
55497cff
PP
1443=item Null picture in formline
1444
1445(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
1446specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
1447supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
1448
a0d0e21e
LW
1449=item NULL OP IN RUN
1450
1451(P) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode pointer.
1452
1453=item Null realloc
1454
1455(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
1456
1457=item NULL regexp argument
1458
5f05dabc 1459(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
1460
1461=item NULL regexp parameter
1462
1463(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
1464
1465=item Odd number of elements in hash list
1466
1467(S) You specified an odd number of elements to a hash list, which is odd,
5f05dabc 1468because hash lists come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 1469
bbce6d69
PP
1470=item Offset outside string
1471
1472(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
1473pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine.
1474The sole exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer
1475will extend the buffer and zero pad the new area.
1476
a0d0e21e
LW
1477=item oops: oopsAV
1478
1479(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
1480
1481=item oops: oopsHV
1482
1483(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
1484
1485=item Operation `%s' %s: no method found,
1486
1487(F) An attempt was made to use an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 1488somehow no longer points to a valid method. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 1489
748a9306
LW
1490=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
1491
1492(S) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser was
1493expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant
1494to use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect.
1495For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as
1496if you said "*foo * 'foo'".
1497
a0d0e21e
LW
1498=item Out of memory for yacc stack
1499
1500(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue parsing,
1501but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or otherwise.
1502
1503=item Out of memory!
1504
55497cff 1505(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
eff9c6e2
CS
1506remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.
1507
1508The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
1509depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
1510However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as
1511an emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the
55497cff
PP
1512error is trappable I<once>.
1513
1514=item Out of memory during request for %s
1515
1516(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
1517remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
1518the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so
1519a possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
1520
a0d0e21e
LW
1521=item page overflow
1522
1523(W) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a page.
1524See L<perlform>.
1525
1526=item panic: ck_grep
1527
1528(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
1529
1530=item panic: ck_split
1531
1532(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
1533
1534=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
1535
1536(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than there
1537are in the savestack.
1538
1539=item panic: die %s
1540
1541(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
1542it wasn't an eval context.
1543
1544=item panic: do_match
1545
1546(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1547
1548=item panic: do_split
1549
1550(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
1551
1552=item panic: do_subst
1553
1554(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1555
1556=item panic: do_trans
1557
1558(P) The internal do_trans() routine was called with invalid operational data.
1559
1560=item panic: goto
1561
1562(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
1563and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
1564
1565=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
1566
1567(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
1568
1569=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
1570
1571(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
1572
1573=item panic: last
1574
1575(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
1576it wasn't a block context.
1577
1578=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
1579
5f05dabc 1580(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
1581
1582=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
1583
1584(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
1585invalid enum on the top of it.
1586
1587=item panic: malloc
1588
1589(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
1590
1591=item panic: mapstart
1592
1593(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
1594
1595=item panic: null array
1596
1597(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
1598
1599=item panic: pad_alloc
1600
1601(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1602and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1603
1604=item panic: pad_free curpad
1605
1606(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1607and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1608
1609=item panic: pad_free po
1610
1611(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1612
1613=item panic: pad_reset curpad
1614
1615(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1616and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1617
1618=item panic: pad_sv po
1619
1620(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1621
1622=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
1623
1624(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
1625and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
1626
1627=item panic: pad_swipe po
1628
1629(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
1630
1631=item panic: pp_iter
1632
1633(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
1634
1635=item panic: realloc
1636
1637(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
1638
1639=item panic: restartop
1640
1641(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
1642didn't supply the destination.
1643
1644=item panic: return
1645
1646(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
1647then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
1648
1649=item panic: scan_num
1650
1651(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
1652
1653=item panic: sv_insert
1654
1655(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
1656was string.
1657
1658=item panic: top_env
1659
1660(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
1661
1662=item panic: yylex
1663
1664(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
1665
5f05dabc 1666=item Pareneses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e
LW
1667
1668(W) You said something like
1669
1670 my $foo, $bar = @_;
1671
1672when you meant
1673
1674 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
1675
1676Remember that "my" and "local" bind closer than comma.
1677
1678=item Perl %3.3f required--this is only version %s, stopped
1679
1680(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more recent
1681than the currently running version. How long has it been since you upgraded,
1682anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
1683
1684=item Permission denied
1685
1686(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
1687
748a9306
LW
1688=item pid %d not a child
1689
1690(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a process which
1691isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is fine from VMS'
1692perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
1693
a0d0e21e
LW
1694=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
1695
1696(F) Your C compiler uses POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
1697the BSD version, which takes a pid.
1698
bbce6d69
PP
1699=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
1700
5f05dabc 1701(W) You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69
PP
1702
1703 qw( a # a comment
1704 b # another comment
1705 ) ;
1706
1707when you should have written this:
1708
1709 qw( a
1710 b
1711 ) ;
1712
1713=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
1714
5f05dabc 1715(W) You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69
PP
1716
1717 qw( a, b, c );
1718
1719when you should have written this:
1720
1721 qw( a b c );
1722
a0d0e21e
LW
1723=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
1724
1725(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
1726Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
1727end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
1728Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
1729
1730=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
1731
1732(S) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 1733
a0d0e21e
LW
1734 open FOO || die;
1735
1736is now misinterpreted as
1737
1738 open(FOO || die);
1739
1740because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary and
1741list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must put
5f05dabc 1742parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator instead of "||".
a0d0e21e
LW
1743
1744=item print on closed filehandle %s
1745
1746(W) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime before now.
1747Check your logic flow.
1748
1749=item printf on closed filehandle %s
1750
1751(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
1752Check your logic flow.
1753
1754=item Probable precedence problem on %s
1755
1756(W) The compiler found a bare word where it expected a conditional,
1757which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part of the
1758last argument of the previous construct, for example:
1759
1760 open FOO || die;
1761
4633a7c4
LW
1762=item Prototype mismatch: (%s) vs (%s)
1763
5f05dabc 1764(S) The subroutine being defined had a pre-declared (forward) declaration
4633a7c4
LW
1765with a different function prototype.
1766
8b1a09fc 1767=item Read on closed filehandle E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
1768
1769(W) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime before now.
1770Check your logic flow.
1771
1772=item Reallocation too large: %lx
1773
1774(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MSDOS machine.
1775
1776=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
1777
1778(F) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce the
1779desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
1780which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
1781
1782=item Recursive inheritance detected
1783
1784(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
1785an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
1786
1787=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
1788
1789(W) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with a
1790reference count of other than 1.
1791
1792=item regexp memory corruption
1793
1794(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1795expression compiler gave it.
1796
1797=item regexp out of space
1798
1799(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it earlier.
1800
1801=item regexp too big
1802
2ba9eb46 1803(F) The current implementation of regular expressions uses shorts as
a0d0e21e
LW
1804address offsets within a string. Unfortunately this means that if
1805the regular expression compiles to longer than 32767, it'll blow up.
1806Usually when you want a regular expression this big, there is a better
1807way to do it with multiple statements. See L<perlre>.
1808
1809=item Reversed %s= operator
1810
1811(W) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must always
1812comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
1813
1814=item Runaway format
1815
1816(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
1817produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
1818199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
1819themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
1820shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
1821
1822=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
1823
a6006777 1824(W) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
a0d0e21e 1825an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
8b1a09fc
PP
1826The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both when
1827assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves
a0d0e21e 1828like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
5f05dabc 1829subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 1830
748a9306 1831On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 1832element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
1833Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
1834L<perlref>.
1835
a6006777
PP
1836=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
1837
1838(W) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
1839a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
1840The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both when
1841assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves
1842like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
1843subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
1844
1845On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash
1846element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
1847Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
1848L<perlref>.
1849
a0d0e21e
LW
1850=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
1851
1852(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script with its setuid
8b1a09fc 1853or setgid bit not set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
1854
1855=item Search pattern not terminated
1856
1857(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
1858construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
1859
1860=item seek() on unopened file
1861
1862(W) You tried to use the seek() function on a filehandle that was either
1863never opened or has been closed since.
1864
1865=item select not implemented
1866
1867(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
1868
1869=item sem%s not implemented
1870
1871(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
1872
1873=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
1874
1875(S) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a scalar
1876that had previously been marked as free.
1877
1878=item Semicolon seems to be missing
1879
1880(W) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing semicolon,
1881or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
1882
1883=item Send on closed socket
1884
1885(W) The filehandle you're sending to got itself closed sometime before now.
1886Check your logic flow.
1887
1888=item Sequence (?#... not terminated
1889
1890(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
5f05dabc 1891parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1892
1893=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented
1894
1895(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved
1896but has not yet been written. See L<perlre>.
1897
1898=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized
1899
1900(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
1901See L<perlre>.
1902
a5f75d66
AD
1903=item Server error
1904
1905Also known as "500 Server error". This is a CGI error, not a Perl
1906error. You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible
1907by the user CGI is running the script under (which is probably not
1908the user account you tested it under), does not rely on any environment
1909variables (like PATH) from the user it isn't running under, and isn't
1910in a location where the CGI server can't find it, basically, more or less.
1911
a0d0e21e
LW
1912=item setegid() not implemented
1913
8b1a09fc 1914(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
1915the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
1916think so.
1917
1918=item seteuid() not implemented
1919
8b1a09fc 1920(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<gt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
1921the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
1922think so.
1923
1924=item setrgid() not implemented
1925
8b1a09fc 1926(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
1927the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
1928think so.
1929
1930=item setruid() not implemented
1931
8b1a09fc 1932(F) You tried to assign to C<$<lt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
1933the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
1934think so.
1935
1936=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
1937
1938(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the world,
1939because the world might have written on it already.
1940
1941=item shm%s not implemented
1942
1943(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
1944
1945=item shutdown() on closed fd
1946
1947(W) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit superfluous.
1948
1949=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined.
1950
1951(W) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist. Perhaps you
1952put it into the wrong package?
1953
1954=item sort is now a reserved word
1955
1956(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
1957But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
1958
1959=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
1960
1961(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
4633a7c4 1962it by not using C<E<lt>=E<gt>> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
1963See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1964
1965=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
1966
1967(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
1968or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1969
1970=item Split loop
1971
1972(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't iterate
1973more times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)
1974See L<perlfunc/split>.
1975
8b1a09fc 1976=item Stat on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
1977
1978(W) You tried to use the stat() function (or an equivalent file test)
1979on a filehandle that was either never opened or has been closed since.
1980
1981=item Statement unlikely to be reached
1982
1983(W) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a die().
1984This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns unless
1985there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system() instead,
1986which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in a block
1987by itself.
1988
1989=item Subroutine %s redefined
1990
1991(W) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
1992
1993 {
1994 local $^W = 0;
1995 eval "sub name { ... }";
1996 }
1997
1998=item Substitution loop
1999
2000(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a
2001substitution shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of
2002input, which is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 2003L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2004
2005=item Substitution pattern not terminated
2006
2007(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2008construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
2009
2010=item Substitution replacement not terminated
2011
2012(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2013construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
2014
2015=item substr outside of string
2016
2017(W) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of a string.
2018That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the length of
2019the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
2020
2021=item suidperl is no longer needed since...
2022
2023(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but a
2024version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
2025
2026=item syntax error
2027
2028(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
2029
2030 A keyword is misspelled.
2031 A semicolon is missing.
2032 A comma is missing.
2033 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
2034 An opening or closing brace is missing.
2035 A closing quote is missing.
2036
2037Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
2038error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
2039The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
2040it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 2041before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
2042Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
2043the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
2044C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
2045if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20 questions>.
2046
cb1a09d0
AD
2047=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
2048
8b1a09fc
PP
2049(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
2050instead of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2051into Perl yourself.
2052
a0d0e21e
LW
2053=item System V IPC is not implemented on this machine
2054
5f05dabc 2055(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem", "shm",
a0d0e21e
LW
2056or "msg". See L<perlfunc/semctl>, for example.
2057
2058=item Syswrite on closed filehandle
2059
2060(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2061Check your logic flow.
2062
2063=item tell() on unopened file
2064
2065(W) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that was either
2066never opened or has been closed since.
2067
8b1a09fc 2068=item Test on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2069
2070(W) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle that isn't
2071open. Check your logic. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2072
2073=item That use of $[ is unsupported
2074
8b1a09fc 2075(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted as
5f05dabc 2076a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
2077
2078 $[ = 0;
2079 $[ = 1;
2080 ...
2081 local $[ = 0;
2082 local $[ = 1;
2083 ...
2084
2085This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base
2086out from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
2087
2088=item The %s function is unimplemented
2089
2090The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
2091to the probings of Configure.
2092
2093=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia.
2094
2095(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
2096probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 2097think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
2098will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
2099will deny it.
2100
2101=item The stat preceding C<-l _> wasn't an lstat
2102
2103(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic linkhood
2104if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went past
2105the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename instead.
2106
2107=item times not implemented
2108
2109(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I suspect
2110you're not running on Unix.
2111
2112=item Too few args to syscall
2113
2114(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
2115system call to call, silly dilly.
2116
cb1a09d0
AD
2117=item Too many ('s
2118
2119=item Too many )'s
2120
2121(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
8b1a09fc 2122of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2123into Perl yourself.
2124
a0d0e21e
LW
2125=item Too many args to syscall
2126
5f05dabc 2127(F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().
a0d0e21e
LW
2128
2129=item Too many arguments for %s
2130
2131(F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.
2132
2133=item trailing \ in regexp
2134
2135(F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash. Backslash
2136it. See L<perlre>.
2137
2138=item Translation pattern not terminated
2139
2140(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
2141construct.
2142
2143=item Translation replacement not terminated
2144
2145(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
2146construct.
2147
2148=item truncate not implemented
2149
2150(F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that
2151Configure knows about.
2152
2153=item Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
2154
2155(F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
8b1a09fc
PP
2156certain type. Arrays must be @NAME or C<@{EXPR}>. Hashes must be
2157%NAME or C<%{EXPR}>. No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
a0d0e21e
LW
2158{EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference. See L<perlref>.
2159
2160=item umask: argument is missing initial 0
2161
5f05dabc 2162(W) A umask of 222 is incorrect. It should be 0222, because octal literals
a0d0e21e
LW
2163always start with 0 in Perl, as in C.
2164
4633a7c4
LW
2165=item Unable to create sub named "%s"
2166
2167(F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.
2168
a0d0e21e
LW
2169=item Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
2170
2171(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many execution
2172contexts were entered and left.
2173
2174=item Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
2175
2176(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many
2177values were temporarily localized.
2178
2179=item Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
2180
2181(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many blocks
2182were entered and left.
2183
2184=item Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
2185
2186(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many mortal
2187scalars were allocated and freed.
2188
2189=item Undefined format "%s" called
2190
2191(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2192another package? See L<perlform>.
2193
2194=item Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
2195
2196(F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps
2197it's in a different package? See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2198
2199=item Undefined subroutine &%s called
2200
2201(F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2202has since been undefined.
2203
2204=item Undefined subroutine called
2205
2206(F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined,
2207or if it was, it has since been undefined.
2208
2209=item Undefined subroutine in sort
2210
2211(F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem to
2212have been defined yet. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2213
4633a7c4
LW
2214=item Undefined top format "%s" called
2215
2216(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
2217another package? See L<perlform>.
2218
a0d0e21e
LW
2219=item unexec of %s into %s failed!
2220
2221(F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason. See your local FSF
2222representative, who probably put it there in the first place.
2223
2224=item Unknown BYTEORDER
2225
5f05dabc 2226(F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte order.
a0d0e21e
LW
2227
2228=item unmatched () in regexp
2229
2230(F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
2231expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding
5f05dabc 2232the matching parenthesis. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2233
2234=item Unmatched right bracket
2235
2236(F) The lexer counted more closing curly brackets (braces) than opening
2237ones, so you're probably missing an opening bracket. As a general
2238rule, you'll find the missing one (so to speak) near the place you were
2239last editing.
2240
2241=item unmatched [] in regexp
2242
2243(F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to
2244include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it first.
2245See L<perlre>.
2246
2247=item Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2248
2249(W) You used a bare word that might someday be claimed as a reserved word.
2250It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert
2251an underbar into it. You might also declare it as a subroutine.
2252
2253=item Unrecognized character \%03o ignored
2254
2255(S) A garbage character was found in the input, and ignored, in case it's
2256a weird control character on an EBCDIC machine, or some such.
2257
2258=item Unrecognized signal name "%s"
2259
2260(F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not recognized.
2261Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
2262
2263=item Unrecognized switch: -%s
2264
2265(F) You specified an illegal option to Perl. Don't do that.
2266(If you think you didn't do that, check the #! line to see if it's
2267supplying the bad switch on your behalf.)
2268
2269=item Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
2270
2271(W) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that operation
2272failed, PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline, PROBABLY
2273because you forgot to chop() or chomp() it off. See L<perlfunc/chop>.
2274
2275=item Unsupported directory function "%s" called
2276
2277(F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and readdir().
2278
2279=item Unsupported function %s
2280
2281(F) This machines doesn't implement the indicated function, apparently.
2282At least, Configure doesn't think so.
2283
2284=item Unsupported socket function "%s" called
2285
2286(F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or at
2287least that's what Configure thought.
2288
8b1a09fc 2289=item Unterminated E<lt>E<gt> operator
a0d0e21e
LW
2290
2291(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
2292a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
2293finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
2294the line, and you really meant a "less than".
2295
2296=item Use of $# is deprecated
2297
8b1a09fc 2298(D) This was an ill-advised attempt to emulate a poorly defined B<awk> feature.
a0d0e21e
LW
2299Use an explicit printf() or sprintf() instead.
2300
2301=item Use of $* is deprecated
2302
5f05dabc 2303(D) This variable magically turned on multi-line pattern matching, both for
a0d0e21e
LW
2304you and for any luckless subroutine that you happen to call. You should
2305use the new C<//m> and C<//s> modifiers now to do that without the dangerous
2306action-at-a-distance effects of C<$*>.
2307
748a9306
LW
2308=item Use of %s in printf format not supported
2309
5f05dabc
PP
2310(F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible from
2311only C. This usually means there's a better way to do it in Perl.
748a9306 2312
a0d0e21e
LW
2313=item Use of %s is deprecated
2314
2315(D) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for use, generally
2316because there's a better way to do it, and also because the old way has
2317bad side effects.
2318
8b1a09fc 2319=item Use of bare E<lt>E<lt> to mean E<lt>E<lt>"" is deprecated
4633a7c4
LW
2320
2321(D) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted form if you
2322wish to use a blank line as the terminator of the here-document.
2323
a0d0e21e
LW
2324=item Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
2325
2326(D) It makes a lot of work for the compiler when you clobber a
2327subroutine's argument list, so it's better if you assign the results of
2328a split() explicitly to an array (or list).
2329
2330=item Use of uninitialized value
2331
2332(W) An undefined value was used as if it were already defined. It was
2333interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a mistake. To suppress this
2334warning assign an initial value to your variables.
2335
2336=item Useless use of %s in void context
2337
2338(W) You did something without a side effect in a context that does nothing
2339with the return value, such as a statement that doesn't return a value
2340from a block, or the left side of a scalar comma operator. Very often
2341this points not to stupidity on your part, but a failure of Perl to parse
2342your program the way you thought it would. For example, you'd get this
2343if you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence and said
2344
2345 $one, $two = 1, 2;
2346
2347when you meant to say
2348
2349 ($one, $two) = (1, 2);
2350
748a9306
LW
2351Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a list
2352reference when you should be using square or curly brackets, for
2353example, if you say
2354
2355 $array = (1,2);
2356
2357when you should have said
2358
2359 $array = [1,2];
2360
2361The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar value,
2362while parentheses do not. So when a parenthesized list is evaluated in
2363a scalar context, the comma is treated like C's comma operator, which
2364throws away the left argument, which is not what you want. See
2365L<perlref> for more on this.
2366
55497cff
PP
2367=item untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
2368
2369(W) A copy of the object returned from C<tie> (or C<tied>) was still
2370valid when C<untie> was called.
2371
8ebc5c01 2372=item Value of %s construct can be "0"; test with defined()
a6006777
PP
2373
2374(W) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*> (glob), or
8ebc5c01 2375C<readdir> as a boolean value. Each of these constructs can return a
a6006777 2376value of "0"; that would make the conditional expression false, which
8ebc5c01 2377is probably not what you intended. When using these constructs in
a6006777
PP
2378conditional expressions, test their values with the C<defined> operator.
2379
4633a7c4
LW
2380=item Variable "%s" is not exported
2381
2382(F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable
2383that you apparently thought was imported from another module, because
2384something else of the same name (usually a subroutine) is exported
2385by that module. It usually means you put the wrong funny character
2386on the front of your variable.
2387
cb1a09d0
AD
2388=item Variable syntax.
2389
2390(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
8b1a09fc 2391of Perl. Check the E<lt>#!E<gt> line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2392into Perl yourself.
2393
7e1af8bc 2394=item Warning: something's wrong
5f05dabc
PP
2395
2396(W) You passed warn() an empty string (the equivalent of C<warn "">) or
2397you called it with no args and C<$_> was empty.
2398
a0d0e21e
LW
2399=item Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly.
2400
8b1a09fc 2401(S) The implicit close() done by an open() got an error indication on the
5f05dabc 2402close(). This usually indicates your file system ran out of disk space.
a0d0e21e 2403
5f05dabc 2404=item Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous
a0d0e21e
LW
2405
2406(S) You wrote a unary operator followed by something that looks like a
2407binary operator that could also have been interpreted as a term or
2408unary operator. For instance, if you know that the rand function
2409has a default argument of 1.0, and you write
2410
2411 rand + 5;
2412
2413you may THINK you wrote the same thing as
2414
2415 rand() + 5;
2416
2417but in actual fact, you got
2418
2419 rand(+5);
2420
5f05dabc 2421So put in parentheses to say what you really mean.
a0d0e21e
LW
2422
2423=item Write on closed filehandle
2424
2425(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2426Check your logic flow.
2427
2428=item X outside of string
2429
2430(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position before
2431the beginning of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2432
2433=item x outside of string
2434
2435(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position after
2436the end of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2437
2438=item Xsub "%s" called in sort
2439
2440(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
2441
2442=item Xsub called in sort
2443
2444(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
2445
2446=item You can't use C<-l> on a filehandle
2447
2448(F) A filehandle represents an opened file, and when you opened the file it
2449already went past any symlink you are presumably trying to look for.
2450Use a filename instead.
2451
2452=item YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
2453
5f05dabc 2454(F) And you probably never will, because you probably don't have the
a0d0e21e
LW
2455sources to your kernel, and your vendor probably doesn't give a rip
2456about what you want. Your best bet is to use the wrapsuid script in
2457the eg directory to put a setuid C wrapper around your script.
2458
2459=item You need to quote "%s"
2460
2461(W) You assigned a bareword as a signal handler name. Unfortunately, you
2462already have a subroutine of that name declared, which means that Perl 5
2463will try to call the subroutine when the assignment is executed, which is
2464probably not what you want. (If it IS what you want, put an & in front.)
2465
2466=item [gs]etsockopt() on closed fd
2467
2468(W) You tried to get or set a socket option on a closed socket.
2469Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
2470See L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2471
2472=item \1 better written as $1
2473
2474(W) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables. The use
5f05dabc 2475of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
a0d0e21e
LW
2476substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
2477because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better
2478if there are more than 9 backreferences.
2479
8b1a09fc 2480=item '|' and 'E<lt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
2481
2482(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
2483found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to redirect STDIN using
8b1a09fc 2484'E<lt>'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
748a9306 2485
8b1a09fc 2486=item '|' and 'E<gt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
2487
2488(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
2489thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and into a pipe to another
2490command. You need to choose one or the other, though nothing's stopping you
2491from piping into a program or Perl script which 'splits' output into two
2492streams, such as
2493
2494 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
2495 while (<STDIN>) {
2496 print;
2497 print OUT;
2498 }
2499 close OUT;
2500
33c8a3fe
IZ
2501=item Got an error from DosAllocMem:
2502
2503(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you use an obsolete version
5f05dabc 2504of perl, and this should not happen anyway.
33c8a3fe
IZ
2505
2506=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2507
2508(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2509
2510 prefix1;prefix2
2511
2512or
2513
2514 prefix1 prefix2
2515
2516with non-empty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2517a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may appear
2518if components are not found, or are too long. See L<perlos2/"PERLLIB_PREFIX">.
2519
2520=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
2521
2522(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
2523C<sh>-shell in. See L<perlos2/"PERL_SH_DIR">.
2524
2525=item Process terminated by SIG%s
2526
2527(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
2528applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
2529port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
2530L<perlipc/"Signals">. See L<perlos2/"Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT">.
2531
a0d0e21e
LW
2532=back
2533