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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
4
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5=head1 NAME
6
7Install - Build and Installation guide for perl5.
8
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9=head1 Reporting Problems
10
11Wherever possible please use the perlbug tool supplied with this Perl
12to report problems, as it automatically includes summary configuration
13information about your perl, which may help us track down problems far
14more quickly. But first you should read the advice in this file,
15carefully re-read the error message and check the relevant manual pages
16on your system, as these may help you find an immediate solution. If
17you are not sure whether what you are seeing is a bug, you can send a
18message describing the problem to the comp.lang.perl.misc newsgroup to
19get advice.
20
21The perlbug tool is installed along with perl, so after you have
22completed C<make install> it should be possible to run it with plain
23C<perlbug>. If the install fails, or you want to report problems with
24C<make test> without installing perl, then you can use C<make nok> to
25run perlbug to report the problem, or run it by hand from this source
26directory with C<./perl -Ilib utils/perlbug>
27
28If the build fails too early to run perlbug uninstalled, then please
29B<run> the C<./myconfig> shell script, and mail its output along with
30an accurate description of your problem to perlbug@perl.org
31
ce80d64e 32If Configure itself fails, and does not generate a config.sh file
40dd8381 33(needed to run C<./myconfig>), then please mail perlbug@perl.org the
ce80d64e 34description of how Configure fails along with details of your system
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35- for example the output from running C<uname -a>
36
37Please try to make your message brief but clear. Brief, clear bug
38reports tend to get answered more quickly. Please don't worry if your
39written English is not great - what matters is how well you describe
40the important technical details of the problem you have encountered,
41not whether your grammar and spelling is flawless.
42
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43Trim out unnecessary information. Do not include large files (such as
44config.sh or a complete Configure or make log) unless absolutely
45necessary. Do not include a complete transcript of your build
46session. Just include the failing commands, the relevant error
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47messages, and whatever preceding commands are necessary to give the
48appropriate context. Plain text should usually be sufficient--fancy
49attachments or encodings may actually reduce the number of people who
50read your message. Your message will get relayed to over 400
51subscribers around the world so please try to keep it brief but clear.
52
53If you are unsure what makes a good bug report please read "How to
54report Bugs Effectively" by Simon Tatham:
55http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/bugs.html
56
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57=head1 SYNOPSIS
58
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59First, make sure you have an up-to-date version of Perl. If you
60didn't get your Perl source from CPAN, check the latest version at
61http://www.cpan.org/src/. Perl uses a version scheme where even-numbered
62subreleases (like 5.6.x and 5.8.x) are stable maintenance releases and
63odd-numbered subreleases (like 5.7.x and 5.9.x) are unstable
64development releases. Development releases should not be used in
65production environments. Fixes and new features are first carefully
66tested in development releases and only if they prove themselves to be
67worthy will they be migrated to the maintenance releases.
3ce0d271 68
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69The basic steps to build and install perl5 on a Unix system with all
70the defaults are:
8e07c86e 71
dc45a647 72 rm -f config.sh Policy.sh
491517e0 73 sh Configure -de
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74 make
75 make test
76 make install
36477c24 77
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78Each of these is explained in further detail below.
79
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80The above commands will install Perl to /usr/local (or some other
81platform-specific directory -- see the appropriate file in hints/.)
ce80d64e 82If that's not okay with you, can run Configure interactively and use
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83
84 rm -f config.sh Policy.sh
85 sh Configure
86 make
87 make test
88 make install
89
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90 # You may also wish to add these:
91 (cd /usr/include && h2ph *.h sys/*.h)
92 (installhtml --help)
93 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
adbebc0b 94
ce80d64e 95or you can use some of the Configure options described below.
7f678428 96
8d74ce1c 97If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
40dd8381 98L<"Reporting Problems"> above.
8d74ce1c 99
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100For information on what's new in this release, see the
101pod/perldelta.pod file. For more detailed information about specific
102changes, see the Changes file.
c3edaffb 103
1ec51d55 104=head1 DESCRIPTION
edb1cbcb 105
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106This document is written in pod format as an easy way to indicate its
107structure. The pod format is described in pod/perlpod.pod, but you can
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108read it as is with any pager or editor. Headings and items are marked
109by lines beginning with '='. The other mark-up used is
110
111 B<text> embolden text, used for switches, programs or commands
112 C<code> literal code
113 L<name> A link (cross reference) to name
ce80d64e 114 F<file> A filename
1ec51d55 115
c42e3e15 116Although most of the defaults are probably fine for most users,
ce80d64e 117you should probably at least skim through this document before
1ec51d55 118proceeding.
c3edaffb 119
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120In addition to this file, check if there is a README file specific to
121your operating system, since it may provide additional or different
122instructions for building Perl. If there is a hint file for your
123system (in the hints/ directory) you should also read that hint file
124for even more information. (Unixware users should use the svr4.sh or
125the svr5.sh hint file.)
c42e3e15 126
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127For additional information about porting Perl, see the section on
128L<"Porting information"> below, and look at the files in the Porting/
129directory.
d56c5707 130
ce80d64e 131=head1 PRELIMINARIES
c42e3e15 132
ce80d64e 133=head2 Changes and Incompatibilities
c42e3e15 134
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135Please see pod/perldelta.pod for a description of the changes and
136potential incompatibilities introduced with this release. A few of
137the most important issues are listed below, but you should refer
138to pod/perldelta.pod for more detailed information.
c42e3e15 139
ce80d64e 140=head3 WARNING: This version is not binary compatible with releases of
9a664500 141Perl prior to 5.9.0.
1b1c1ae2 142
cc65bb49 143If you have built extensions (i.e. modules that include C code)
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144using an earlier version of Perl, you will need to rebuild and reinstall
145those extensions.
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146
147Pure perl modules without XS or C code should continue to work fine
148without reinstallation. See the discussions below on
149L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> and
fe23a901 150L<"Upgrading from 5.005 or 5.6 to 5.8.0"> for more details.
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151
152The standard extensions supplied with Perl will be handled automatically.
153
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154On a related issue, old modules may possibly be affected by the changes
155in the Perl language in the current release. Please see
156pod/perldelta.pod for a description of what's changed. See your
157installed copy of the perllocal.pod file for a (possibly incomplete)
158list of locally installed modules. Also see CPAN::autobundle for one
159way to make a "bundle" of your currently installed modules.
16dc217a 160
ce80d64e 161=head2 Space Requirements
eed2e782 162
9a664500 163The complete perl5 source tree takes up about 60 MB of disk space.
8756f06c 164After completing make, it takes up roughly 100 MB, though the actual
d6baa268 165total is likely to be quite system-dependent. The installation
8756f06c 166directories need something on the order of 45 MB, though again that
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167value is system-dependent. A perl build with debug symbols and
168-DDEBUGGING will require something on the order of 10 MB extra.
8e07c86e 169
aa689395 170=head1 Start with a Fresh Distribution
8e07c86e 171
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172If you have built perl before, you should clean out the build directory
173with the command
174
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175 make distclean
176
177or
178
edb1cbcb 179 make realclean
c3edaffb 180
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181The only difference between the two is that make distclean also removes
182your old config.sh and Policy.sh files.
183
184The results of a Configure run are stored in the config.sh and Policy.sh
185files. If you are upgrading from a previous version of perl, or if you
186change systems or compilers or make other significant changes, or if
187you are experiencing difficulties building perl, you should probably
d6baa268 188not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it
8e07c86e 189
d6baa268 190 rm -f config.sh
4633a7c4 191
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192If you wish to use your old config.sh, be especially attentive to the
193version and architecture-specific questions and answers. For example,
194the default directory for architecture-dependent library modules
195includes the version name. By default, Configure will reuse your old
196name (e.g. /opt/perl/lib/i86pc-solaris/5.003) even if you're running
197Configure for a different version, e.g. 5.004. Yes, Configure should
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198probably check and correct for this, but it doesn't. Similarly, if you
199used a shared libperl.so (see below) with version numbers, you will
200probably want to adjust them as well.
e57fd563 201
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202Also, be careful to check your architecture name. For example, some
203Linux distributions use i386, while others may use i486. If you build
204it yourself, Configure uses the output of the arch command, which
205might be i586 or i686 instead. If you pick up a precompiled binary, or
206compile extensions on different systems, they might not all agree on
207the architecture name.
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208
209In short, if you wish to use your old config.sh, I recommend running
210Configure interactively rather than blindly accepting the defaults.
8e07c86e 211
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212If your reason to reuse your old config.sh is to save your particular
213installation choices, then you can probably achieve the same effect by
214using the Policy.sh file. See the section on L<"Site-wide Policy
215settings"> below. If you wish to start with a fresh distribution, you
216also need to remove any old Policy.sh files you may have with
217
218 rm -f Policy.sh
dc45a647 219
aa689395 220=head1 Run Configure
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221
222Configure will figure out various things about your system. Some
223things Configure will figure out for itself, other things it will ask
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224you about. To accept the default, just press RETURN. The default is
225almost always okay. It is normal for some things to be "NOT found",
226since Configure often searches for many different ways of performing
227the same function.
228
ce80d64e 229At any Configure prompt, you can type &-d and Configure will use the
d6baa268 230defaults from then on.
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231
232After it runs, Configure will perform variable substitution on all the
1ec51d55 233*.SH files and offer to run make depend.
8e07c86e 234
ce80d64e 235=head2 Common Configure options
844fc9f4 236
ce80d64e 237Configure supports a number of useful options. Run
844fc9f4 238
ce80d64e 239 Configure -h
d6baa268 240
ce80d64e 241to get a listing. See the Porting/Glossary file for a complete list of
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242Configure variables you can set and their definitions.
243
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244=over 4
245
246=item gcc
247
248To compile with gcc you should run
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249
250 sh Configure -Dcc=gcc
251
252This is the preferred way to specify gcc (or another alternative
253compiler) so that the hints files can set appropriate defaults.
254
d6baa268 255=item Installation prefix
4633a7c4 256
8e07c86e 257By default, for most systems, perl will be installed in
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258/usr/local/{bin, lib, man}. (See L<"Installation Directories">
259and L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> below for
260further details.)
261
262You can specify a different 'prefix' for the default installation
ce80d64e 263directory when Configure prompts you, or by using the Configure command
8d74ce1c 264line option -Dprefix='/some/directory', e.g.
8e07c86e 265
25f94b33 266 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl
4633a7c4 267
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268If your prefix contains the string "perl", then the suggested
269directory structure is simplified. For example, if you use
270prefix=/opt/perl, then Configure will suggest /opt/perl/lib instead of
271/opt/perl/lib/perl5/. Again, see L<"Installation Directories"> below
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272for more details. Do not include a trailing slash, (i.e. /opt/perl/)
273or you may experience odd test failures.
8e07c86e 274
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275NOTE: You must not specify an installation directory that is the same
276as or below your perl source directory. If you do, installperl will
277attempt infinite recursion.
84902520 278
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279=item /usr/bin/perl
280
281It may seem obvious, but Perl is useful only when users can easily
282find it. It's often a good idea to have both /usr/bin/perl and
dd64f1c3 283/usr/local/bin/perl be symlinks to the actual binary. Be especially
d6baa268 284careful, however, not to overwrite a version of perl supplied by your
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285vendor unless you are sure you know what you are doing. If you insist
286on replacing your vendor's perl, useful information on how it was
287configured may be found with
288
289 perl -V:config_args
290
291(Check the output carefully, however, since this doesn't preserve
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292spaces in arguments to Configure. For that, you have to look carefully
293at config_arg1, config_arg2, etc.)
d6baa268 294
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295By default, Configure will not try to link /usr/bin/perl to the current
296version of perl. You can turn on that behavior by running
d6baa268 297
7d56c962 298 Configure -Dinstallusrbinperl
d6baa268 299
7d56c962 300or by answering 'yes' to the appropriate Configure prompt.
d6baa268 301
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302In any case, system administrators are strongly encouraged to put
303(symlinks to) perl and its accompanying utilities, such as perldoc,
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304into a directory typically found along a user's PATH, or in another
305obvious and convenient place.
306
ce80d64e 307=item Building a development release.
04d420f9 308
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309For development releases (odd subreleases, like 5.9.x) if you want to
310use Configure -d, you will also need to supply -Dusedevel to Configure,
311because the default answer to the question "do you really want to
312Configure a development version?" is "no". The -Dusedevel skips that
313sanity check.
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314
315=back
8e07c86e 316
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317If you are willing to accept all the defaults, and you want terse
318output, you can run
319
320 sh Configure -des
321
ce80d64e 322For example for my Solaris/x86 system, I usually use
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323
324 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl -Doptimize='-xpentium -xO4' -des
325
ce80d64e 326=head2 Altering config.sh variables for C compiler switches etc.
46bb10fb 327
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328For most users, most of the Configure defaults are fine, or can easily
329be set on the Configure command line. However, if Configure doesn't
330have an option to do what you want, you can change Configure variables
331after the platform hints have been run by using Configure's -A switch.
332For example, here's how to add a couple of extra flags to C compiler
333invocations:
46bb10fb 334
ce80d64e 335 sh Configure -Accflags="-DPERL_Y2KWARN -DPERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC"
46bb10fb 336
ce80d64e 337For more help on Configure switches, run
46bb10fb 338
ce80d64e 339 sh Configure -h
46bb10fb 340
ce80d64e 341=head2 Major Configure-time Build Options
46bb10fb 342
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343There are several different ways to Configure and build perl for your
344system. For most users, the defaults are sensible and will work.
345Some users, however, may wish to further customize perl. Here are
346some of the main things you can change.
46bb10fb 347
ce80d64e 348=head3 Threads
cc65bb49 349
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350On some platforms, perl can be compiled with support for threads. To
351enable this, run
4633a7c4 352
ce80d64e 353 sh Configure -Dusethreads
4633a7c4 354
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355Currently, you need to specify -Dusethreads on the Configure command
356line so that the hint files can make appropriate adjustments.
cc65bb49 357
ce80d64e 358The default is to compile without thread support.
cc65bb49 359
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360Perl has two different internal threads implementations. The current
361model (available internally since 5.6, and as a user-level module since
3625.8) is called interpreter-based implementation (ithreads), with one
363interpreter per thread, and explicit sharing of data. The 5.005
364version (5005threads) is considered obsolete, buggy, and unmaintained.
d6baa268 365
ce80d64e 366By default, Configure selects ithreads if -Dusethreads is specified.
d6baa268 367
ce80d64e 368However, if you insist, you can select the unsupported old 5005threads behavior
d6baa268 369
ce80d64e 370 sh Configure -Dusethreads -Duse5005threads
d6baa268 371
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372The 'threads' module is for use with the ithreads implementation. The
373'Thread' module offers an interface to either 5005threads or ithreads
374(whichever has been configured).
d6baa268 375
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376When using threads, perl uses a dynamically-sized buffer for some of
377the thread-safe library calls, such as those in the getpw*() family.
378This buffer starts small, but it will keep growing until the result
379fits. To get a fixed upper limit, you should compile Perl with
380PERL_REENTRANT_MAXSIZE defined to be the number of bytes you want. One
381way to do this is to run Configure with
382C<-Accflags=-DPERL_REENTRANT_MAXSIZE=65536>
d6baa268 383
ce80d64e 384=head3 Large file support.
b367e8b0 385
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386Since Perl 5.6.0, Perl has supported large files (files larger than
3872 gigabytes), and in many common platforms like Linux or Solaris this
388support is on by default.
d6baa268 389
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390This is both good and bad. It is good in that you can use large files,
391seek(), stat(), and -s them. It is bad in that if you are interfacing Perl
392using some extension, the components you are connecting to must also
393be large file aware: if Perl thinks files can be large but the other
394parts of the software puzzle do not understand the concept, bad things
395will happen. One popular extension suffering from this ailment is the
396Apache extension mod_perl.
d6baa268 397
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398There's also one known limitation with the current large files
399implementation: unless you also have 64-bit integers (see the next
400section), you cannot use the printf/sprintf non-decimal integer formats
401like C<%x> to print filesizes. You can use C<%d>, though.
d6baa268 402
ce80d64e 403=head3 64 bit support.
d6baa268 404
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405If your platform does not have run natively at 64 bits, but can
406simulate them with compiler flags and/or C<long long> or C<int64_t>,
407you can build a perl that uses 64 bits.
d6baa268 408
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409There are actually two modes of 64-bitness: the first one is achieved
410using Configure -Duse64bitint and the second one using Configure
411-Duse64bitall. The difference is that the first one is minimal and
412the second one maximal. The first works in more places than the second.
d6baa268 413
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414The C<use64bitint> option does only as much as is required to get
41564-bit integers into Perl (this may mean, for example, using "long
416longs") while your memory may still be limited to 2 gigabytes (because
417your pointers could still be 32-bit). Note that the name C<64bitint>
418does not imply that your C compiler will be using 64-bit C<int>s (it
419might, but it doesn't have to). The C<use64bitint> simply means that
420you will be able to have 64 bit-wide scalar values.
d6baa268 421
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422The C<use64bitall> option goes all the way by attempting to switch
423integers (if it can), longs (and pointers) to being 64-bit. This may
424create an even more binary incompatible Perl than -Duse64bitint: the
425resulting executable may not run at all in a 32-bit box, or you may
426have to reboot/reconfigure/rebuild your operating system to be 64-bit
427aware.
d6baa268 428
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429Natively 64-bit systems like Alpha and Cray need neither -Duse64bitint
430nor -Duse64bitall.
d6baa268 431
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432 NOTE: 64-bit support is still experimental on most platforms.
433 Existing support only covers the LP64 data model. In particular, the
434 LLP64 data model is not yet supported. 64-bit libraries and system
435 APIs on many platforms have not stabilized--your mileage may vary.
d6baa268 436
ce80d64e 437=head3 Long doubles
d6baa268 438
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439In some systems you may be able to use long doubles to enhance the
440range and precision of your double precision floating point numbers
441(that is, Perl's numbers). Use Configure -Duselongdouble to enable
442this support (if it is available).
d6baa268 443
ce80d64e 444=head3 "more bits"
b367e8b0 445
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446You can "Configure -Dusemorebits" to turn on both the 64-bit support
447and the long double support.
b367e8b0 448
ce80d64e 449=head3 Selecting File IO mechanisms
d6baa268 450
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451Executive summary: as of Perl 5.8, you should use the default "PerlIO"
452as the IO mechanism unless you have a good reason not to.
273cf8d1 453
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454In more detail: previous versions of perl used the standard IO
455mechanisms as defined in stdio.h. Versions 5.003_02 and later of perl
456introduced alternate IO mechanisms via a "PerlIO" abstraction, but up
457until and including Perl 5.6, the stdio mechanism was still the default
458and the only supported mechanism.
d6baa268 459
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460Starting from Perl 5.8, the default mechanism is to use the PerlIO
461abstraction, because it allows better control of I/O mechanisms,
462instead of having to work with (often, work around) vendors' I/O
463implementations.
46bb10fb 464
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465This PerlIO abstraction can be (but again, unless you know what you
466are doing, should not be) disabled either on the Configure command
467line with
46bb10fb 468
6d5328bc 469 sh Configure -Uuseperlio
46bb10fb 470
6d5328bc 471or interactively at the appropriate Configure prompt.
46bb10fb 472
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473With the PerlIO abstraction layer, there is another possibility for
474the underlying IO calls, AT&T's "sfio". This has superior performance
475to stdio.h in many cases, and is extensible by the use of "discipline"
476modules ("Native" PerlIO has them too). Sfio currently only builds on
477a subset of the UNIX platforms perl supports. Because the data
478structures are completely different from stdio, perl extension modules
479or external libraries may not work. This configuration exists to
480allow these issues to be worked on.
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481
482This option requires the 'sfio' package to have been built and installed.
1b9c9cf5 483The latest sfio is available from http://www.research.att.com/sw/tools/sfio/
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484
485You select this option by
486
487 sh Configure -Duseperlio -Dusesfio
488
489If you have already selected -Duseperlio, and if Configure detects
490that you have sfio, then sfio will be the default suggested by
491Configure.
492
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493Note: On some systems, sfio's iffe configuration script fails to
494detect that you have an atexit function (or equivalent). Apparently,
495this is a problem at least for some versions of Linux and SunOS 4.
496Configure should detect this problem and warn you about problems with
497_exit vs. exit. If you have this problem, the fix is to go back to
498your sfio sources and correct iffe's guess about atexit.
33e6ee5f 499
ce80d64e 500=head3 Algorithmic Complexity Attacks on Hashes
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501
502In Perls 5.8.0 and earlier it was easy to create degenerate hashes.
503Processing such hashes would consume large amounts of CPU time,
3debabd9 504enabling a "Denial of Service" attack against Perl. Such hashes may be
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505a problem for example for mod_perl sites, sites with Perl CGI scripts
506and web services, that process data originating from external sources.
507
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508In Perl 5.8.1 a security feature was introduced to make it harder to
509create such degenerate hashes. A visible side effect of this was that
510the keys(), values(), and each() functions may return the hash elements
511in different order between different runs of Perl even with the same
512data. It also had unintended binary incompatibility issues with
513certain modules compiled against Perl 5.8.0.
514
515In Perl 5.8.2 an improved scheme was introduced. Hashes will return
516elements in the same order as Perl 5.8.0 by default. On a hash by hash
517basis, if pathological data is detected during a hash key insertion,
518then that hash will switch to an alternative random hash seed. As
519adding keys can always dramatically change returned hash element order,
520existing programs will not be affected by this, unless they
521specifically test for pre-recorded hash return order for contrived
522data. (eg the list of keys generated by C<map {"\0"x$_} 0..15> trigger
523randomisation) In effect the new implementation means that 5.8.1 scheme
524is only being used on hashes which are under attack.
525
526One can still revert to the old guaranteed repeatable order (and be
527vulnerable to attack by wily crackers) by setting the environment
528variable PERL_HASH_SEED, see L<perlrun/PERL_HASH_SEED>. Another option
529is to add -DUSE_HASH_SEED_EXPLICIT to the compilation flags (for
530example by using C<Configure -Accflags=-DUSE_HAS_SEED_EXPLICIT>), in
531which case one has to explicitly set the PERL_HASH_SEED environment
532variable to enable the security feature, or by adding -DNO_HASH_SEED to
533the compilation flags to completely disable the randomisation feature.
504f80c1 534
3debabd9 535B<Perl has never guaranteed any ordering of the hash keys>, and the
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536ordering has already changed several times during the lifetime of Perl
5375. Also, the ordering of hash keys has always been, and continues to
538be, affected by the insertion order. It is likely that Perl 5.10 and
539Perl 6 will randomise all hashes. Note that because of this
540randomisation for example the Data::Dumper results will be different
541between different runs of Perl since Data::Dumper by default dumps
542hashes "unordered". The use of the Data::Dumper C<Sortkeys> option is
543recommended.
504f80c1 544
ce80d64e 545=head3 SOCKS
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546
547Perl can be configured to be 'socksified', that is, to use the SOCKS
548TCP/IP proxy protocol library. SOCKS is used to give applications
549access to transport layer network proxies. Perl supports only SOCKS
550Version 5. You can find more about SOCKS from http://www.socks.nec.com/
551
ce80d64e 552=head3 Dynamic Loading
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553
554By default, Configure will compile perl to use dynamic loading if
555your system supports it. If you want to force perl to be compiled
556statically, you can either choose this when Configure prompts you or
557you can use the Configure command line option -Uusedl.
558
ce80d64e 559=head3 Building a shared Perl library
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560
561Currently, for most systems, the main perl executable is built by
562linking the "perl library" libperl.a with perlmain.o, your static
563extensions (usually just DynaLoader.a) and various extra libraries,
564such as -lm.
565
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566On some systems that support dynamic loading, it may be possible to
567replace libperl.a with a shared libperl.so. If you anticipate building
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568several different perl binaries (e.g. by embedding libperl into
569different programs, or by using the optional compiler extension), then
9d67150a 570you might wish to build a shared libperl.so so that all your binaries
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571can share the same library.
572
573The disadvantages are that there may be a significant performance
9d67150a 574penalty associated with the shared libperl.so, and that the overall
aa689395 575mechanism is still rather fragile with respect to different versions
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576and upgrades.
577
578In terms of performance, on my test system (Solaris 2.5_x86) the perl
9d67150a 579test suite took roughly 15% longer to run with the shared libperl.so.
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580Your system and typical applications may well give quite different
581results.
582
583The default name for the shared library is typically something like
ce80d64e 584libperl.so.6.2 (for Perl 5.6.2), or libperl.so.602, or simply
9d67150a 585libperl.so. Configure tries to guess a sensible naming convention
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586based on your C library name. Since the library gets installed in a
587version-specific architecture-dependent directory, the exact name
588isn't very important anyway, as long as your linker is happy.
589
590For some systems (mostly SVR4), building a shared libperl is required
591for dynamic loading to work, and hence is already the default.
592
593You can elect to build a shared libperl by
594
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595 sh Configure -Duseshrplib
596
597To build a shared libperl, the environment variable controlling shared
598library search (LD_LIBRARY_PATH in most systems, DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH for
599NeXTSTEP/OPENSTEP/Darwin, LIBRARY_PATH for BeOS, LD_LIBRARY_PATH/SHLIB_PATH
600for HP-UX, LIBPATH for AIX, PATH for Cygwin) must be set up to include
601the Perl build directory because that's where the shared libperl will
602be created. Configure arranges makefile to have the correct shared
603library search settings. You can find the name of the environment
604variable Perl thinks works in your your system by
605
606 grep ldlibpthname config.sh
607
608However, there are some special cases where manually setting the
609shared library path might be required. For example, if you want to run
610something like the following with the newly-built but not-yet-installed
611./perl:
612
613 cd t; ./perl misc/failing_test.t
614or
615 ./perl -Ilib ~/my_mission_critical_test
616
617then you need to set up the shared library path explicitly.
618You can do this with
619
620 LD_LIBRARY_PATH=`pwd`:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
621
622for Bourne-style shells, or
623
624 setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH `pwd`
625
626for Csh-style shells. (This procedure may also be needed if for some
627unexpected reason Configure fails to set up makefile correctly.) (And
628again, it may be something other than LD_LIBRARY_PATH for you, see above.)
629
630You can often recognize failures to build/use a shared libperl from error
631messages complaining about a missing libperl.so (or libperl.sl in HP-UX),
632for example:
63318126:./miniperl: /sbin/loader: Fatal Error: cannot map libperl.so
634
635There is also an potential problem with the shared perl library if you
636want to have more than one "flavor" of the same version of perl (e.g.
637with and without -DDEBUGGING). For example, suppose you build and
638install a standard Perl 5.8.0 with a shared library. Then, suppose you
639try to build Perl 5.8.0 with -DDEBUGGING enabled, but everything else
640the same, including all the installation directories. How can you
641ensure that your newly built perl will link with your newly built
642libperl.so.8 rather with the installed libperl.so.8? The answer is
643that you might not be able to. The installation directory is encoded
644in the perl binary with the LD_RUN_PATH environment variable (or
645equivalent ld command-line option). On Solaris, you can override that
646with LD_LIBRARY_PATH; on Linux, you can only override at runtime via
647LD_PRELOAD, specifying the exact filename you wish to be used; and on
648Digital Unix, you can override LD_LIBRARY_PATH by setting the
649_RLD_ROOT environment variable to point to the perl build directory.
650
651In other words, it is generally not a good idea to try to build a perl
652with a shared library if $archlib/CORE/$libperl already exists from a
653previous build.
654
655A good workaround is to specify a different directory for the
656architecture-dependent library for your -DDEBUGGING version of perl.
657You can do this by changing all the *archlib* variables in config.sh to
658point to your new architecture-dependent library.
659
660=head2 Installation Directories
661
662The installation directories can all be changed by answering the
663appropriate questions in Configure. For convenience, all the
664installation questions are near the beginning of Configure.
665Do not include trailing slashes on directory names.
666
667I highly recommend running Configure interactively to be sure it puts
668everything where you want it. At any point during the Configure
669process, you can answer a question with &-d and Configure will use
670the defaults from then on. Alternatively, you can
671
672 grep '^install' config.sh
673
674after Configure has run to verify the installation paths.
675
676The defaults are intended to be reasonable and sensible for most
677people building from sources. Those who build and distribute binary
678distributions or who export perl to a range of systems will probably
679need to alter them. If you are content to just accept the defaults,
680you can safely skip the next section.
681
682The directories set up by Configure fall into three broad categories.
683
684=over 4
685
686=item Directories for the perl distribution
687
688By default, Configure will use the following directories for 5.9.0.
689$version is the full perl version number, including subversion, e.g.
6905.9.0 or 5.9.1, and $archname is a string like sun4-sunos,
691determined by Configure. The full definitions of all Configure
692variables are in the file Porting/Glossary.
693
694 Configure variable Default value
695 $prefixexp /usr/local
696 $binexp $prefixexp/bin
697 $scriptdirexp $prefixexp/bin
698 $privlibexp $prefixexp/lib/perl5/$version
699 $archlibexp $prefixexp/lib/perl5/$version/$archname
700 $man1direxp $prefixexp/man/man1
701 $man3direxp $prefixexp/man/man3
702 $html1direxp (none)
703 $html3direxp (none)
704
705$prefixexp is generated from $prefix, with ~ expansion done to convert home
706directories into absolute paths. Similarly for the other variables listed. As
707file system calls do not do this, you should always reference the ...exp
708variables, to support users who build perl in their home directory.
709
710Actually, Configure recognizes the SVR3-style
711/usr/local/man/l_man/man1 directories, if present, and uses those
712instead. Also, if $prefix contains the string "perl", the library
713directories are simplified as described below. For simplicity, only
714the common style is shown here.
715
716=item Directories for site-specific add-on files
717
718After perl is installed, you may later wish to add modules (e.g. from
719CPAN) or scripts. Configure will set up the following directories to
720be used for installing those add-on modules and scripts.
721
722 Configure variable Default value
723 $siteprefixexp $prefixexp
724 $sitebinexp $siteprefixexp/bin
725 $sitescriptexp $siteprefixexp/bin
726 $sitelibexp $siteprefixexp/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version
727 $sitearchexp $siteprefixexp/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version/$archname
728 $siteman1direxp $siteprefixexp/man/man1
729 $siteman3direxp $siteprefixexp/man/man3
730 $sitehtml1direxp (none)
731 $sitehtml3direxp (none)
732
733By default, ExtUtils::MakeMaker will install architecture-independent
734modules into $sitelib and architecture-dependent modules into $sitearch.
735
736=item Directories for vendor-supplied add-on files
737
738Lastly, if you are building a binary distribution of perl for
739distribution, Configure can optionally set up the following directories
740for you to use to distribute add-on modules.
741
742 Configure variable Default value
743 $vendorprefixexp (none)
744 (The next ones are set only if vendorprefix is set.)
745 $vendorbinexp $vendorprefixexp/bin
746 $vendorscriptexp $vendorprefixexp/bin
747 $vendorlibexp
748 $vendorprefixexp/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version
749 $vendorarchexp
750 $vendorprefixexp/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version/$archname
751 $vendorman1direxp $vendorprefixexp/man/man1
752 $vendorman3direxp $vendorprefixexp/man/man3
753 $vendorhtml1direxp (none)
754 $vendorhtml3direxp (none)
755
756These are normally empty, but may be set as needed. For example,
757a vendor might choose the following settings:
758
759 $prefix /usr
760 $siteprefix /usr/local
761 $vendorprefix /usr
762
763This would have the effect of setting the following:
764
765 $binexp /usr/bin
766 $scriptdirexp /usr/bin
767 $privlibexp /usr/lib/perl5/$version
768 $archlibexp /usr/lib/perl5/$version/$archname
769 $man1direxp /usr/man/man1
770 $man3direxp /usr/man/man3
771
772 $sitebinexp /usr/local/bin
773 $sitescriptexp /usr/local/bin
774 $sitelibexp /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version
775 $sitearchexp /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version/$archname
776 $siteman1direxp /usr/local/man/man1
777 $siteman3direxp /usr/local/man/man3
778
779 $vendorbinexp /usr/bin
780 $vendorscriptexp /usr/bin
781 $vendorlibexp /usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version
782 $vendorarchexp /usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version/$archname
783 $vendorman1direxp /usr/man/man1
784 $vendorman3direxp /usr/man/man3
785
786Note how in this example, the vendor-supplied directories are in the
787/usr hierarchy, while the directories reserved for the end-user are in
788the /usr/local hierarchy.
789
790The entire installed library hierarchy is installed in locations with
791version numbers, keeping the installations of different versions distinct.
792However, later installations of Perl can still be configured to search the
793installed libraries corresponding to compatible earlier versions.
794See L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> below for more details
795on how Perl can be made to search older version directories.
796
797Of course you may use these directories however you see fit. For
798example, you may wish to use $siteprefix for site-specific files that
799are stored locally on your own disk and use $vendorprefix for
800site-specific files that are stored elsewhere on your organization's
801network. One way to do that would be something like
802
803 sh Configure -Dsiteprefix=/usr/local -Dvendorprefix=/usr/share/perl
804
805=item otherlibdirs
806
807As a final catch-all, Configure also offers an $otherlibdirs
808variable. This variable contains a colon-separated list of additional
809directories to add to @INC. By default, it will be empty.
810Perl will search these directories (including architecture and
811version-specific subdirectories) for add-on modules and extensions.
812
813For example, if you have a bundle of perl libraries from a previous
814installation, perhaps in a strange place:
815
816 Configure -Dotherlibdirs=/usr/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.1
817
818=item APPLLIB_EXP
819
820There is one other way of adding paths to @INC at perl build time, and
821that is by setting the APPLLIB_EXP C pre-processor token to a colon-
822separated list of directories, like this
823
824 sh Configure -Accflags='-DAPPLLIB_EXP=\"/usr/libperl\"'
825
826The directories defined by APPLLIB_EXP get added to @INC I<first>,
827ahead of any others, and so provide a way to override the standard perl
828modules should you, for example, want to distribute fixes without
829touching the perl distribution proper. And, like otherlib dirs,
830version and architecture specific subdirectories are also searched, if
831present, at run time. Of course, you can still search other @INC
832directories ahead of those in APPLLIB_EXP by using any of the standard
833run-time methods: $PERLLIB, $PERL5LIB, -I, use lib, etc.
834
835=item Man Pages
836
837In versions 5.005_57 and earlier, the default was to store module man
838pages in a version-specific directory, such as
839/usr/local/lib/perl5/$version/man/man3. The default for 5.005_58 and
840after is /usr/local/man/man3 so that most users can find the man pages
841without resetting MANPATH.
842
843You can continue to use the old default from the command line with
844
845 sh Configure -Dman3dir=/usr/local/lib/perl5/5.9.0/man/man3
846
847Some users also prefer to use a .3pm suffix. You can do that with
848
849 sh Configure -Dman3ext=3pm
850
851Again, these are just the defaults, and can be changed as you run
852Configure.
853
854=item HTML pages
855
856Currently, the standard perl installation does not do anything with
857HTML documentation, but that may change in the future. Further, some
858add-on modules may wish to install HTML documents. The html Configure
859variables listed above are provided if you wish to specify where such
860documents should be placed. The default is "none", but will likely
861eventually change to something useful based on user feedback.
862
863=back
864
865Some users prefer to append a "/share" to $privlib and $sitelib
866to emphasize that those directories can be shared among different
867architectures.
868
869Note that these are just the defaults. You can actually structure the
870directories any way you like. They don't even have to be on the same
871filesystem.
c3edaffb 872
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873Further details about the installation directories, maintenance and
874development subversions, and about supporting multiple versions are
875discussed in L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> below.
10c7e831 876
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877If you specify a prefix that contains the string "perl", then the
878library directory structure is slightly simplified. Instead of
879suggesting $prefix/lib/perl5/, Configure will suggest $prefix/lib.
2bf2710f 880
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881Thus, for example, if you Configure with
882-Dprefix=/opt/perl, then the default library directories for 5.9.0 are
2bf2710f 883
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884 Configure variable Default value
885 $privlib /opt/perl/lib/5.9.0
886 $archlib /opt/perl/lib/5.9.0/$archname
887 $sitelib /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.9.0
888 $sitearch /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.9.0/$archname
2bf2710f 889
ce80d64e 890=head2 Changing the installation directory
c3edaffb 891
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892Configure distinguishes between the directory in which perl (and its
893associated files) should be installed and the directory in which it
894will eventually reside. For most sites, these two are the same; for
895sites that use AFS, this distinction is handled automatically.
896However, sites that use software such as depot to manage software
897packages, or users building binary packages for distribution may also
898wish to install perl into a different directory and use that
899management software to move perl to its final destination. This
900section describes how to do that.
c3edaffb 901
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902Suppose you want to install perl under the /tmp/perl5 directory. You
903could edit config.sh and change all the install* variables to point to
904/tmp/perl5 instead of /usr/local, or you could simply use the
905following command line:
c3edaffb 906
ce80d64e 907 sh Configure -Dinstallprefix=/tmp/perl5
c3edaffb 908
ce80d64e 909(replace /tmp/perl5 by a directory of your choice).
2bf2710f 910
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911Beware, though, that if you go to try to install new add-on
912modules, they too will get installed in under '/tmp/perl5' if you
913follow this example. The next section shows one way of dealing with
914that problem.
c3edaffb 915
ce80d64e 916=head2 Creating an installable tar archive
9d67150a 917
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918If you need to install perl on many identical systems, it is convenient
919to compile it once and create an archive that can be installed on
920multiple systems. Suppose, for example, that you want to create an
921archive that can be installed in /opt/perl. One way to do that is by
922using the DESTDIR variable during C<make install>. The DESTDIR is
923automatically prepended to all the installation paths. Thus you
924simply do:
830717a7 925
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926 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl -des
927 make
928 make test
929 make install DESTDIR=/tmp/perl5
930 cd /tmp/perl5/opt/perl
931 tar cvf /tmp/perl5-archive.tar .
9d67150a 932
ce80d64e 933=head2 Site-wide Policy settings
55479bb6 934
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935After Configure runs, it stores a number of common site-wide "policy"
936answers (such as installation directories and the local perl contact
937person) in the Policy.sh file. If you want to build perl on another
938system using the same policy defaults, simply copy the Policy.sh file
939to the new system and Configure will use it along with the appropriate
940hint file for your system.
55479bb6 941
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942Alternatively, if you wish to change some or all of those policy
943answers, you should
c3edaffb 944
ce80d64e 945 rm -f Policy.sh
aa689395 946
ce80d64e 947to ensure that Configure doesn't re-use them.
2ae324a7 948
ce80d64e 949Further information is in the Policy_sh.SH file itself.
aa689395 950
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951If the generated Policy.sh file is unsuitable, you may freely edit it
952to contain any valid shell commands. It will be run just after the
953platform-specific hints files.
aa689395 954
ce80d64e 955=head2 Disabling older versions of Perl
aa689395 956
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957Configure will search for binary compatible versions of previously
958installed perl binaries in the tree that is specified as target tree
959and these will be used by the perl being built.
960See L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> for more details.
86058a2d 961
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962To disable this use of older perl modules, even completely valid pure perl
963modules, you can specify to not include the paths found:
b2a6d19e 964
ce80d64e 965 sh Configure -Dinc_version_list=none ...
d6baa268 966
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967When using the newer perl, you can add these paths again in the
968$PERL5LIB environment variable or with perl's -I runtime option.
86058a2d 969
ce80d64e 970=head2 Building Perl outside of the source directory
86058a2d 971
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972Sometimes it is desirable to build Perl in a directory different from
973where the sources are, for example if you want to keep your sources
974read-only, or if you want to share the sources between different binary
975architectures. You can do this (if your file system supports symbolic
976links) by
06c896bb 977
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978 mkdir /tmp/perl/build/directory
979 cd /tmp/perl/build/directory
980 sh /path/to/perl/source/Configure -Dmksymlinks ...
06c896bb 981
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982This will create in /tmp/perl/build/directory a tree of symbolic links
983pointing to files in /path/to/perl/source. The original files are left
984unaffected. After Configure has finished you can just say
06c896bb 985
ce80d64e 986 make
06c896bb 987
ce80d64e 988as usual, and Perl will be built in /tmp/perl/build/directory.
aa689395 989
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990=head2 Building a debugging perl
991
992You can run perl scripts under the perl debugger at any time with
3fe9a6f1 993B<perl -d your_script>. If, however, you want to debug perl itself,
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994you probably want to do
995
996 sh Configure -Doptimize='-g'
997
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998This will do two independent things: First, it will force compilation
999to use cc -g so that you can use your system's debugger on the
1000executable. (Note: Your system may actually require something like
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1001cc -g2. Check your man pages for cc(1) and also any hint file for
1002your system.) Second, it will add -DDEBUGGING to your ccflags
1003variable in config.sh so that you can use B<perl -D> to access perl's
1004internal state. (Note: Configure will only add -DDEBUGGING by default
1005if you are not reusing your old config.sh. If you want to reuse your
1006old config.sh, then you can just edit it and change the optimize and
1007ccflags variables by hand and then propagate your changes as shown in
1008L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below.)
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1009
1010You can actually specify -g and -DDEBUGGING independently, but usually
1011it's convenient to have both.
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1012
1013If you are using a shared libperl, see the warnings about multiple
a522f097 1014versions of perl under L<Building a shared Perl library>.
3bf462b8 1015
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1016=head2 Extensions
1017
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1018Perl ships with a number of standard extensions. These are contained
1019in the ext/ subdirectory.
1020
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1021By default, Configure will offer to build every extension which appears
1022to be supported. For example, Configure will offer to build GDBM_File
1023only if it is able to find the gdbm library. (See examples below.)
8d74ce1c 1024Configure does not contain code to test for POSIX compliance, so POSIX
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1025is always built by default. If you wish to skip POSIX, you can
1026set the Configure variable useposix=false from the Configure command line.
8d74ce1c 1027
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1028If you unpack any additional extensions in the ext/ directory before
1029running Configure, then Configure will offer to build those additional
1030extensions as well. Most users probably shouldn't have to do this --
1031it is usually easier to build additional extensions later after perl
1032has been installed. However, if you wish to have those additional
1033extensions statically linked into the perl binary, then this offers a
1034convenient way to do that in one step. (It is not necessary, however;
1035you can build and install extensions just fine even if you don't have
1036dynamic loading. See lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm for more details.)
1037
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1038If you have dynamic loading, another way of specifying extra modules
1039is described in L<"Adding extra modules to the build"> below.
1040
c42e3e15 1041You can learn more about each of the supplied extensions by consulting the
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1042documentation in the individual .pm modules, located under the
1043ext/ subdirectory.
1044
1045Even if you do not have dynamic loading, you must still build the
1046DynaLoader extension; you should just build the stub dl_none.xs
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1047version. Configure will suggest this as the default.
1048
1049To disable certain extensions so that they are not built, use the
1050-Dnoextensions=... and -Donlyextensions=... options. They both accept
1051a space-separated list of extensions. The extensions listed in
1052C<noextensions> are removed from the list of extensions to build, while
1053the C<onlyextensions> is rather more severe and builds only the listed
1054extensions. The latter should be used with extreme caution since
1055certain extensions are used by many other extensions and modules:
1056examples of such modules include Fcntl and IO. The order of processing
1057these options is first C<only> (if present), then C<no> (if present).
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1058
1059Of course, you may always run Configure interactively and select only
1060the extensions you want.
1061
1062Note: The DB_File module will only work with version 1.x of Berkeley
1063DB or newer releases of version 2. Configure will automatically detect
1064this for you and refuse to try to build DB_File with earlier
1065releases of version 2.
1066
1067If you re-use your old config.sh but change your system (e.g. by
1068adding libgdbm) Configure will still offer your old choices of extensions
1069for the default answer, but it will also point out the discrepancy to
1070you.
1071
80c1f5de 1072Finally, if you have dynamic loading (most modern systems do)
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1073remember that these extensions do not increase the size of your perl
1074executable, nor do they impact start-up time, so you probably might as
1075well build all the ones that will work on your system.
1076
1077=head2 Including locally-installed libraries
1078
1079Perl5 comes with interfaces to number of database extensions, including
1080dbm, ndbm, gdbm, and Berkeley db. For each extension, if
1081Configure can find the appropriate header files and libraries, it will
1082automatically include that extension. The gdbm and db libraries
1083are not included with perl. See the library documentation for
1084how to obtain the libraries.
1085
d6baa268
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1086If your database header (.h) files are not in a directory normally
1087searched by your C compiler, then you will need to include the
1088appropriate -I/your/directory option when prompted by Configure. If
ce80d64e 1089your database libraries are not in a directory normally
d6baa268
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1090searched by your C compiler and linker, then you will need to include
1091the appropriate -L/your/directory option when prompted by Configure.
1092See the examples below.
8d74ce1c 1093
ce80d64e 1094=head3 Examples
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1095
1096=over 4
1097
1098=item gdbm in /usr/local
1099
1100Suppose you have gdbm and want Configure to find it and build the
d6baa268 1101GDBM_File extension. This example assumes you have gdbm.h
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1102installed in /usr/local/include/gdbm.h and libgdbm.a installed in
1103/usr/local/lib/libgdbm.a. Configure should figure all the
1104necessary steps out automatically.
1105
1106Specifically, when Configure prompts you for flags for
1107your C compiler, you should include -I/usr/local/include.
1108
1109When Configure prompts you for linker flags, you should include
1110-L/usr/local/lib.
1111
1112If you are using dynamic loading, then when Configure prompts you for
1113linker flags for dynamic loading, you should again include
1114-L/usr/local/lib.
1115
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1116Again, this should all happen automatically. This should also work if
1117you have gdbm installed in any of (/usr/local, /opt/local, /usr/gnu,
1118/opt/gnu, /usr/GNU, or /opt/GNU).
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1119
1120=item gdbm in /usr/you
1121
1122Suppose you have gdbm installed in some place other than /usr/local/,
1123but you still want Configure to find it. To be specific, assume you
1124have /usr/you/include/gdbm.h and /usr/you/lib/libgdbm.a. You
1125still have to add -I/usr/you/include to cc flags, but you have to take
1126an extra step to help Configure find libgdbm.a. Specifically, when
1127Configure prompts you for library directories, you have to add
1128/usr/you/lib to the list.
1129
1130It is possible to specify this from the command line too (all on one
1131line):
1132
d6baa268 1133 sh Configure -de \
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1134 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include" \
1135 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib"
1136
1137locincpth is a space-separated list of include directories to search.
1138Configure will automatically add the appropriate -I directives.
1139
1140loclibpth is a space-separated list of library directories to search.
1141Configure will automatically add the appropriate -L directives. If
1142you have some libraries under /usr/local/ and others under
1143/usr/you, then you have to include both, namely
1144
d6baa268 1145 sh Configure -de \
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1146 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include /usr/local/include" \
1147 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib /usr/local/lib"
1148
1149=back
1150
bb636fa4
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1151=head2 Building DB, NDBM, and ODBM interfaces with Berkeley DB 3
1152
ce80d64e
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1153A Perl interface for DB3 is part of Berkeley DB, but if you want to
1154compile the standard Perl DB/ODBM/NDBM interfaces, you must follow
bb636fa4
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1155following instructions.
1156
1157Berkeley DB3 from Sleepycat Software is by default installed without
ce80d64e 1158DB1 compatibility code (needed for the DB_File interface) and without
bb636fa4 1159links to compatibility files. So if you want to use packages written
ce80d64e 1160for the DB/ODBM/NDBM interfaces, you need to configure DB3 with
bb636fa4
JH
1161--enable-compat185 (and optionally with --enable-dump185) and create
1162additional references (suppose you are installing DB3 with
1163--prefix=/usr):
1164
1165 ln -s libdb-3.so /usr/lib/libdbm.so
1166 ln -s libdb-3.so /usr/lib/libndbm.so
f1300be0 1167 echo '#define DB_DBM_HSEARCH 1' >dbm.h
bb636fa4 1168 echo '#include <db.h>' >>dbm.h
f1300be0 1169 install -m 0644 dbm.h /usr/include/dbm.h
bb636fa4
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1170 install -m 0644 dbm.h /usr/include/ndbm.h
1171
1172Optionally, if you have compiled with --enable-compat185 (not needed
1173for ODBM/NDBM):
1174
1175 ln -s libdb-3.so /usr/lib/libdb1.so
1176 ln -s libdb-3.so /usr/lib/libdb.so
1177
1178ODBM emulation seems not to be perfect, but is quite usable,
1179using DB 3.1.17:
1180
1181 lib/odbm.............FAILED at test 9
1182 Failed 1/64 tests, 98.44% okay
1183
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1184=head2 Overriding an old config.sh
1185
1186If you want to use your old config.sh but override some of the items
1187with command line options, you need to use B<Configure -O>.
1188
1189=head2 GNU-style configure
1190
1191If you prefer the GNU-style configure command line interface, you can
1192use the supplied configure.gnu command, e.g.
1193
1194 CC=gcc ./configure.gnu
1195
1196The configure.gnu script emulates a few of the more common configure
1197options. Try
1198
1199 ./configure.gnu --help
1200
1201for a listing.
1202
1203(The file is called configure.gnu to avoid problems on systems
1204that would not distinguish the files "Configure" and "configure".)
1205
1206See L<Cross-compilation> below for information on cross-compiling.
1207
1208=head2 Malloc Issues
1209
1210Perl relies heavily on malloc(3) to grow data structures as needed,
1211so perl's performance can be noticeably affected by the performance of
1212the malloc function on your system. The perl source is shipped with a
1213version of malloc that has been optimized for the typical requests from
1214perl, so there's a chance that it may be both faster and use less memory
1215than your system malloc.
1216
1217However, if your system already has an excellent malloc, or if you are
1218experiencing difficulties with extensions that use third-party libraries
1219that call malloc, then you should probably use your system's malloc.
1220(Or, you might wish to explore the malloc flags discussed below.)
1221
1222=over 4
1223
1224=item Using the system malloc
1225
1226To build without perl's malloc, you can use the Configure command
1227
1228 sh Configure -Uusemymalloc
1229
1230or you can answer 'n' at the appropriate interactive Configure prompt.
1231
1232=item -DPERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC
1233
1234NOTE: This flag is enabled automatically on some platforms if you just
1235run Configure to accept all the defaults on those platforms.
1236
1237Perl's malloc family of functions are normally called Perl_malloc(),
1238Perl_realloc(), Perl_calloc() and Perl_mfree().
1239These names do not clash with the system versions of these functions.
1240
1241If this flag is enabled, however, Perl's malloc family of functions
1242will have the same names as the system versions. This may be required
1243sometimes if you have libraries that like to free() data that may have
1244been allocated by Perl_malloc() and vice versa.
1245
1246Note that enabling this option may sometimes lead to duplicate symbols
1247from the linker for malloc et al. In such cases, the system probably
1248does not allow its malloc functions to be fully replaced with custom
1249versions.
1250
1251=item -DPERL_DEBUGGING_MSTATS
1252
1253This flag enables debugging mstats, which is required to use the
1254Devel::Peek::mstat() function. You cannot enable this unless you are
1255using Perl's malloc, so a typical Configure command would be
1256
1257 sh Configure -Accflags=-DPERL_DEBUGGING_MSTATS -Dusemymalloc='y'
1258
1259to enable this option.
1260
1261=back
1262
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1263=head2 What if it doesn't work?
1264
8d74ce1c 1265If you run into problems, try some of the following ideas.
40dd8381 1266If none of them help, then see L<"Reporting Problems"> above.
8d74ce1c 1267
8e07c86e
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1268=over 4
1269
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1270=item Running Configure Interactively
1271
1272If Configure runs into trouble, remember that you can always run
1273Configure interactively so that you can check (and correct) its
1274guesses.
1275
1276All the installation questions have been moved to the top, so you don't
aa689395 1277have to wait for them. Once you've handled them (and your C compiler and
1ec51d55 1278flags) you can type &-d at the next Configure prompt and Configure
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1279will use the defaults from then on.
1280
1281If you find yourself trying obscure command line incantations and
1282config.over tricks, I recommend you run Configure interactively
1283instead. You'll probably save yourself time in the long run.
1284
aa689395 1285=item Hint files
8e07c86e
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1286
1287The perl distribution includes a number of system-specific hints files
1288in the hints/ directory. If one of them matches your system, Configure
1289will offer to use that hint file.
1290
1291Several of the hint files contain additional important information.
f5b3b617
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1292If you have any problems, it is a good idea to read the relevant hint file
1293for further information. See hints/solaris_2.sh for an extensive example.
1294More information about writing good hints is in the hints/README.hints
1295file.
8e07c86e 1296
edb1cbcb
PP
1297=item *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1298
1299Occasionally, Configure makes a wrong guess. For example, on SunOS
13004.1.3, Configure incorrectly concludes that tzname[] is in the
1301standard C library. The hint file is set up to correct for this. You
1302will see a message:
1303
1304 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1305 The recommended value for $d_tzname on this machine was "undef"!
1306 Keep the recommended value? [y]
1307
1308You should always keep the recommended value unless, after reading the
1309relevant section of the hint file, you are sure you want to try
1310overriding it.
1311
1312If you are re-using an old config.sh, the word "previous" will be
1313used instead of "recommended". Again, you will almost always want
1314to keep the previous value, unless you have changed something on your
1315system.
1316
1317For example, suppose you have added libgdbm.a to your system
1318and you decide to reconfigure perl to use GDBM_File. When you run
1319Configure again, you will need to add -lgdbm to the list of libraries.
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1320Now, Configure will find your gdbm include file and library and will
1321issue a message:
edb1cbcb
PP
1322
1323 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1324 The previous value for $i_gdbm on this machine was "undef"!
1325 Keep the previous value? [y]
1326
1ec51d55 1327In this case, you do not want to keep the previous value, so you
c3edaffb 1328should answer 'n'. (You'll also have to manually add GDBM_File to
edb1cbcb
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1329the list of dynamic extensions to build.)
1330
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1331=item Changing Compilers
1332
1333If you change compilers or make other significant changes, you should
1ec51d55 1334probably not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or
8e07c86e
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1335rename it, e.g. mv config.sh config.sh.old. Then rerun Configure
1336with the options you want to use.
1337
1ec51d55
CS
1338This is a common source of problems. If you change from cc to
1339gcc, you should almost always remove your old config.sh.
8e07c86e 1340
c3edaffb 1341=item Propagating your changes to config.sh
8e07c86e 1342
1ec51d55
CS
1343If you make any changes to config.sh, you should propagate
1344them to all the .SH files by running
1345
1346 sh Configure -S
1347
1348You will then have to rebuild by running
9d67150a
PP
1349
1350 make depend
1351 make
8e07c86e 1352
48370efc
JH
1353=item config.over and config.arch
1354
1355You can also supply a shell script config.over to over-ride
1356Configure's guesses. It will get loaded up at the very end, just
1357before config.sh is created. You have to be careful with this,
1358however, as Configure does no checking that your changes make sense.
1359This file is usually good for site-specific customizations.
1360
1361There is also another file that, if it exists, is loaded before the
1362config.over, called config.arch. This file is intended to be per
1363architecture, not per site, and usually it's the architecture-specific
1364hints file that creates the config.arch.
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1365
1366=item config.h
1367
1ec51d55
CS
1368Many of the system dependencies are contained in config.h.
1369Configure builds config.h by running the config_h.SH script.
1370The values for the variables are taken from config.sh.
8e07c86e 1371
1ec51d55
CS
1372If there are any problems, you can edit config.h directly. Beware,
1373though, that the next time you run Configure, your changes will be
8e07c86e
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1374lost.
1375
1376=item cflags
1377
1378If you have any additional changes to make to the C compiler command
1ec51d55
CS
1379line, they can be made in cflags.SH. For instance, to turn off the
1380optimizer on toke.c, find the line in the switch structure for
1381toke.c and put the command optimize='-g' before the ;; . You
1382can also edit cflags directly, but beware that your changes will be
1383lost the next time you run Configure.
8e07c86e 1384
f5b3b617
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1385To explore various ways of changing ccflags from within a hint file,
1386see the file hints/README.hints.
1387
1388To change the C flags for all the files, edit config.sh and change either
1389$ccflags or $optimize, and then re-run
1ec51d55
CS
1390
1391 sh Configure -S
1392 make depend
8e07c86e 1393
aa689395 1394=item No sh
8e07c86e 1395
c42e3e15
GS
1396If you don't have sh, you'll have to copy the sample file
1397Porting/config.sh to config.sh and edit your config.sh to reflect your
1398system's peculiarities. See Porting/pumpkin.pod for more information.
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1399You'll probably also have to extensively modify the extension building
1400mechanism.
1401
d6baa268
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1402=item Digital UNIX/Tru64 UNIX and BIN_SH
1403
1404In Digital UNIX/Tru64 UNIX, Configure might abort with
1405
1406Build a threading Perl? [n]
1407Configure[2437]: Syntax error at line 1 : `config.sh' is not expected.
1408
1409This indicates that Configure is being run with a broken Korn shell
1410(even though you think you are using a Bourne shell by using
1411"sh Configure" or "./Configure"). The Korn shell bug has been reported
1412to Compaq as of February 1999 but in the meanwhile, the reason ksh is
1413being used is that you have the environment variable BIN_SH set to
1414'xpg4'. This causes /bin/sh to delegate its duties to /bin/posix/sh
1415(a ksh). Unset the environment variable and rerun Configure.
1416
1417=item HP-UX 11, pthreads, and libgdbm
1418
1419If you are running Configure with -Dusethreads in HP-UX 11, be warned
1420that POSIX threads and libgdbm (the GNU dbm library) compiled before
1421HP-UX 11 do not mix. This will cause a basic test run by Configure to
1422fail
1423
1424Pthread internal error: message: __libc_reinit() failed, file: ../pthreads/pthread.c, line: 1096
1425Return Pointer is 0xc082bf33
1426sh: 5345 Quit(coredump)
1427
1428and Configure will give up. The cure is to recompile and install
1429libgdbm under HP-UX 11.
1430
c3edaffb
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1431=item Porting information
1432
e6f03d26 1433Specific information for the OS/2, Plan 9, VMS and Win32 ports is in the
1ec51d55
CS
1434corresponding README files and subdirectories. Additional information,
1435including a glossary of all those config.sh variables, is in the Porting
ce80d64e 1436subdirectory. Porting/Glossary should especially come in handy.
c3edaffb 1437
7f678428 1438Ports for other systems may also be available. You should check out
468f45d5 1439http://www.cpan.org/ports for current information on ports to
7f678428
PP
1440various other operating systems.
1441
ce80d64e 1442If you plan to port Perl to a new architecture, study carefully the
491517e0
JA
1443section titled "Philosophical Issues in Patching and Porting Perl"
1444in the file Porting/pumpkin.pod and the file Porting/patching.pod.
1445Study also how other non-UNIX ports have solved problems.
1446
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1447=back
1448
ce80d64e 1449=head2 Adding extra modules to the build
fadf0ef5
JH
1450
1451You can specify extra modules or module bundles to be fetched from the
1452CPAN and installed as part of the Perl build. Either use the -Dextras=...
1453command line parameter to Configure, for example like this:
1454
1455 Configure -Dextras="Compress::Zlib Bundle::LWP DBI"
1456
1457or answer first 'y' to the question 'Install any extra modules?' and
1458then answer "Compress::Zlib Bundle::LWP DBI" to the 'Extras?' question.
1459The module or the bundle names are as for the CPAN module 'install' command.
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1460This will only work if those modules are to be built as dynamic
1461extensions. If you wish to include those extra modules as static
1462extensions, see L<"Extensions"> above.
fadf0ef5
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1463
1464Notice that because the CPAN module will be used to fetch the extra
1465modules, you will need access to the CPAN, either via the Internet,
1466or via a local copy such as a CD-ROM or a local CPAN mirror. If you
1467do not, using the extra modules option will die horribly.
1468
1469Also notice that you yourself are responsible for satisfying any extra
1470dependencies such as external headers or libraries BEFORE trying the build.
1471For example: you will need to have the zlib.h header and the libz
1472library installed for the Compress::Zlib, or the Foo database specific
1473headers and libraries installed for the DBD::Foo module. The Configure
1474process or the Perl build process will not help you with these.
1475
ce80d64e 1476=head2 suidperl
03739d21 1477
ce80d64e
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1478suidperl is an optional component, which is normally neither built
1479nor installed by default. From perlfaq1:
03739d21
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1480
1481 On some systems, setuid and setgid scripts (scripts written
1482 in the C shell, Bourne shell, or Perl, for example, with the
1483 set user or group ID permissions enabled) are insecure due to
1484 a race condition in the kernel. For those systems, Perl versions
1485 5 and 4 attempt to work around this vulnerability with an optional
1486 component, a special program named suidperl, also known as sperl.
1487 This program attempts to emulate the set-user-ID and set-group-ID
1488 features of the kernel.
1489
1490Because of the buggy history of suidperl, and the difficulty
1491of properly security auditing as large and complex piece of
1492software as Perl, we cannot recommend using suidperl and the feature
1493should be considered deprecated.
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1494Instead, use a tool specifically designed to handle changes in
1495privileges, such as B<sudo>, http://www.courtesan.com/sudo/ .
03739d21 1496
8e07c86e
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1497=head1 make depend
1498
bfb7748a
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1499This will look for all the includes. The output is stored in makefile.
1500The only difference between Makefile and makefile is the dependencies at
1501the bottom of makefile. If you have to make any changes, you should edit
ce80d64e 1502makefile, not Makefile, since the Unix make command reads makefile first.
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1503(On non-Unix systems, the output may be stored in a different file.
1504Check the value of $firstmakefile in your config.sh if in doubt.)
8e07c86e
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1505
1506Configure will offer to do this step for you, so it isn't listed
1507explicitly above.
1508
1509=head1 make
1510
1511This will attempt to make perl in the current directory.
1512
8d410bc4
YST
1513=head2 Expected errors
1514
1515These errors are normal, and can be ignored:
1516
1517 ...
1518 make: [extra.pods] Error 1 (ignored)
1519 ...
1520 make: [extras.make] Error 1 (ignored)
1521
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1522=head2 What if it doesn't work?
1523
8e07c86e 1524If you can't compile successfully, try some of the following ideas.
7f678428 1525If none of them help, and careful reading of the error message and
8d74ce1c 1526the relevant manual pages on your system doesn't help,
40dd8381 1527then see L<"Reporting Problems"> above.
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1528
1529=over 4
1530
1ec51d55 1531=item hints
8e07c86e
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1532
1533If you used a hint file, try reading the comments in the hint file
1534for further tips and information.
1535
1ec51d55 1536=item extensions
8e07c86e 1537
1ec51d55 1538If you can successfully build miniperl, but the process crashes
ce80d64e 1539during the building of extensions, run
c3edaffb 1540
3a6175e1 1541 make minitest
c3edaffb
PP
1542
1543to test your version of miniperl.
1544
e57fd563
PP
1545=item locale
1546
bfb7748a
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1547If you have any locale-related environment variables set, try unsetting
1548them. I have some reports that some versions of IRIX hang while
1549running B<./miniperl configpm> with locales other than the C locale.
1550See the discussion under L<"make test"> below about locales and the
1551whole L<"Locale problems"> section in the file pod/perllocale.pod.
3e6e419a
JH
1552The latter is especially useful if you see something like this
1553
1554 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
1555 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
1556 LC_ALL = "En_US",
1557 LANG = (unset)
1558 are supported and installed on your system.
1559 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
1560
1561at Perl startup.
e57fd563 1562
7f678428 1563=item varargs
c3edaffb
PP
1564
1565If you get varargs problems with gcc, be sure that gcc is installed
bfb7748a
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1566correctly and that you are not passing -I/usr/include to gcc. When using
1567gcc, you should probably have i_stdarg='define' and i_varargs='undef'
ce80d64e 1568in config.sh. The problem is usually solved by installing gcc
bfb7748a
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1569correctly. If you do change config.sh, don't forget to propagate
1570your changes (see L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below).
7f678428 1571See also the L<"vsprintf"> item below.
c3edaffb 1572
bfb7748a 1573=item util.c
c3edaffb
PP
1574
1575If you get error messages such as the following (the exact line
bfb7748a 1576numbers and function name may vary in different versions of perl):
c3edaffb 1577
bfb7748a
AD
1578 util.c: In function `Perl_form':
1579 util.c:1107: number of arguments doesn't match prototype
1580 proto.h:125: prototype declaration
c3edaffb
PP
1581
1582it might well be a symptom of the gcc "varargs problem". See the
7f678428 1583previous L<"varargs"> item.
c3edaffb 1584
1ec51d55 1585=item LD_LIBRARY_PATH
c3edaffb
PP
1586
1587If you run into dynamic loading problems, check your setting of
aa689395
PP
1588the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable. If you're creating a static
1589Perl library (libperl.a rather than libperl.so) it should build
c3edaffb
PP
1590fine with LD_LIBRARY_PATH unset, though that may depend on details
1591of your local set-up.
1592
aa689395 1593=item nm extraction
c3edaffb
PP
1594
1595If Configure seems to be having trouble finding library functions,
1596try not using nm extraction. You can do this from the command line
1597with
1598
1599 sh Configure -Uusenm
1600
1601or by answering the nm extraction question interactively.
1ec51d55 1602If you have previously run Configure, you should not reuse your old
c3edaffb
PP
1603config.sh.
1604
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AD
1605=item umask not found
1606
1607If the build processes encounters errors relating to umask(), the problem
1608is probably that Configure couldn't find your umask() system call.
1609Check your config.sh. You should have d_umask='define'. If you don't,
1610this is probably the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above. Also,
1611try reading the hints file for your system for further information.
1612
7f678428 1613=item vsprintf
c3edaffb
PP
1614
1615If you run into problems with vsprintf in compiling util.c, the
1616problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
1617version of vsprintf(). Check whether your system has vprintf().
1618(Virtually all modern Unix systems do.) Then, check the variable
1619d_vprintf in config.sh. If your system has vprintf, it should be:
1620
1621 d_vprintf='define'
1622
1623If Configure guessed wrong, it is likely that Configure guessed wrong
bfb7748a
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1624on a number of other common functions too. This is probably
1625the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
c3edaffb 1626
3fe9a6f1
PP
1627=item do_aspawn
1628
1629If you run into problems relating to do_aspawn or do_spawn, the
1630problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
bfb7748a
AD
1631fork() function. Follow the procedure in the previous item
1632on L<"nm extraction">.
3fe9a6f1 1633
84902520
TB
1634=item __inet_* errors
1635
1636If you receive unresolved symbol errors during Perl build and/or test
1637referring to __inet_* symbols, check to see whether BIND 8.1 is
1638installed. It installs a /usr/local/include/arpa/inet.h that refers to
1639these symbols. Versions of BIND later than 8.1 do not install inet.h
1640in that location and avoid the errors. You should probably update to a
6d240721
JH
1641newer version of BIND (and remove the files the old one left behind).
1642If you can't, you can either link with the updated resolver library provided
1643with BIND 8.1 or rename /usr/local/bin/arpa/inet.h during the Perl build and
1644test process to avoid the problem.
1645
1646=item *_r() prototype NOT found
1647
1648On a related note, if you see a bunch of complaints like the above about
1649reentrant functions - specifically networking-related ones - being present
1650but without prototypes available, check to see if BIND 8.1 (or possibly
1651other BIND 8 versions) is (or has been) installed. They install
1652header files such as netdb.h into places such as /usr/local/include (or into
1653another directory as specified at build/install time), at least optionally.
f1300be0 1654Remove them or put them in someplace that isn't in the C preprocessor's
6d240721
JH
1655header file include search path (determined by -I options plus defaults,
1656normally /usr/include).
84902520 1657
d6baa268
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1658=item #error "No DATAMODEL_NATIVE specified"
1659
1660This is a common error when trying to build perl on Solaris 2.6 with a
1661gcc installation from Solaris 2.5 or 2.5.1. The Solaris header files
1662changed, so you need to update your gcc installation. You can either
1663rerun the fixincludes script from gcc or take the opportunity to
1664update your gcc installation.
1665
aa689395 1666=item Optimizer
c3edaffb 1667
9d67150a 1668If you can't compile successfully, try turning off your compiler's
aa689395 1669optimizer. Edit config.sh and change the line
9d67150a
PP
1670
1671 optimize='-O'
1672
bfb7748a 1673to
9d67150a
PP
1674
1675 optimize=' '
1676
1677then propagate your changes with B<sh Configure -S> and rebuild
1678with B<make depend; make>.
1679
9d67150a
PP
1680=item Missing functions
1681
1682If you have missing routines, you probably need to add some library or
1683other, or you need to undefine some feature that Configure thought was
1684there but is defective or incomplete. Look through config.h for
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1685likely suspects. If Configure guessed wrong on a number of functions,
1686you might have the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
8e07c86e 1687
1ec51d55 1688=item toke.c
8e07c86e 1689
1ec51d55
CS
1690Some compilers will not compile or optimize the larger files (such as
1691toke.c) without some extra switches to use larger jump offsets or
1692allocate larger internal tables. You can customize the switches for
1693each file in cflags. It's okay to insert rules for specific files into
1694makefile since a default rule only takes effect in the absence of a
8e07c86e
AD
1695specific rule.
1696
7f678428 1697=item Missing dbmclose
8e07c86e 1698
c3edaffb
PP
1699SCO prior to 3.2.4 may be missing dbmclose(). An upgrade to 3.2.4
1700that includes libdbm.nfs (which includes dbmclose()) may be available.
8e07c86e 1701
f3d9a6ba 1702=item Note (probably harmless): No library found for -lsomething
7f678428
PP
1703
1704If you see such a message during the building of an extension, but
1705the extension passes its tests anyway (see L<"make test"> below),
1706then don't worry about the warning message. The extension
1707Makefile.PL goes looking for various libraries needed on various
aa689395 1708systems; few systems will need all the possible libraries listed.
7f678428
PP
1709For example, a system may have -lcposix or -lposix, but it's
1710unlikely to have both, so most users will see warnings for the one
f3d9a6ba
CS
1711they don't have. The phrase 'probably harmless' is intended to
1712reassure you that nothing unusual is happening, and the build
1713process is continuing.
7f678428
PP
1714
1715On the other hand, if you are building GDBM_File and you get the
1716message
1717
f3d9a6ba 1718 Note (probably harmless): No library found for -lgdbm
7f678428
PP
1719
1720then it's likely you're going to run into trouble somewhere along
1721the line, since it's hard to see how you can use the GDBM_File
1722extension without the -lgdbm library.
1723
1724It is true that, in principle, Configure could have figured all of
1725this out, but Configure and the extension building process are not
1726quite that tightly coordinated.
1727
aa689395
PP
1728=item sh: ar: not found
1729
1730This is a message from your shell telling you that the command 'ar'
1731was not found. You need to check your PATH environment variable to
1732make sure that it includes the directory with the 'ar' command. This
1ec51d55 1733is a common problem on Solaris, where 'ar' is in the /usr/ccs/bin
aa689395
PP
1734directory.
1735
1736=item db-recno failure on tests 51, 53 and 55
1737
1738Old versions of the DB library (including the DB library which comes
1739with FreeBSD 2.1) had broken handling of recno databases with modified
1740bval settings. Upgrade your DB library or OS.
1741
6087ac44
JH
1742=item Bad arg length for semctl, is XX, should be ZZZ
1743
11906ba0 1744If you get this error message from the ext/IPC/SysV/t/sem test, your System
6087ac44
JH
1745V IPC may be broken. The XX typically is 20, and that is what ZZZ
1746also should be. Consider upgrading your OS, or reconfiguring your OS
1747to include the System V semaphores.
1748
11906ba0 1749=item ext/IPC/SysV/t/sem........semget: No space left on device
220f3621
GS
1750
1751Either your account or the whole system has run out of semaphores. Or
1752both. Either list the semaphores with "ipcs" and remove the unneeded
1753ones (which ones these are depends on your system and applications)
1754with "ipcrm -s SEMAPHORE_ID_HERE" or configure more semaphores to your
1755system.
1756
d6baa268
JH
1757=item GNU binutils
1758
1759If you mix GNU binutils (nm, ld, ar) with equivalent vendor-supplied
1760tools you may be in for some trouble. For example creating archives
1761with an old GNU 'ar' and then using a new current vendor-supplied 'ld'
1762may lead into linking problems. Either recompile your GNU binutils
1763under your current operating system release, or modify your PATH not
1764to include the GNU utils before running Configure, or specify the
1765vendor-supplied utilities explicitly to Configure, for example by
1766Configure -Dar=/bin/ar.
1767
16dc217a
GS
1768=item THIS PACKAGE SEEMS TO BE INCOMPLETE
1769
1770The F<Configure> program has not been able to find all the files which
1771make up the complete Perl distribution. You may have a damaged source
1772archive file (in which case you may also have seen messages such as
1773C<gzip: stdin: unexpected end of file> and C<tar: Unexpected EOF on
1774archive file>), or you may have obtained a structurally-sound but
1775incomplete archive. In either case, try downloading again from the
1776official site named at the start of this document. If you do find
1777that any site is carrying a corrupted or incomplete source code
1778archive, please report it to the site's maintainer.
1779
16dc217a
GS
1780=item invalid token: ##
1781
ce80d64e
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1782You are using a non-ANSI-compliant C compiler. To compile Perl, you
1783need to use a compiler that supports ANSI C. If there is a README
1784file for your system, it may have further details on your compiler
1785options.
16dc217a 1786
1ec51d55 1787=item Miscellaneous
8e07c86e
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1788
1789Some additional things that have been reported for either perl4 or perl5:
1790
1791Genix may need to use libc rather than libc_s, or #undef VARARGS.
1792
1793NCR Tower 32 (OS 2.01.01) may need -W2,-Sl,2000 and #undef MKDIR.
1794
9ede5bc8 1795UTS may need one or more of -K or -g, and undef LSTAT.
8e07c86e 1796
11906ba0 1797FreeBSD can fail the ext/IPC/SysV/t/sem.t test if SysV IPC has not been
5cda700b 1798configured in the kernel. Perl tries to detect this, though, and
ce80d64e 1799you will get a message telling you what to do.
6087ac44 1800
d6baa268
JH
1801HP-UX 11 Y2K patch "Y2K-1100 B.11.00.B0125 HP-UX Core OS Year 2000
1802Patch Bundle" has been reported to break the io/fs test #18 which
1803tests whether utime() can change timestamps. The Y2K patch seems to
1804break utime() so that over NFS the timestamps do not get changed
1805(on local filesystems utime() still works).
1806
6c8d78fb
HS
1807Building Perl on a system that has also BIND (headers and libraries)
1808installed may run into troubles because BIND installs its own netdb.h
1809and socket.h, which may not agree with the operating system's ideas of
1810the same files. Similarly, including -lbind may conflict with libc's
1811view of the world. You may have to tweak -Dlocincpth and -Dloclibpth
1812to avoid the BIND.
1813
8e07c86e
AD
1814=back
1815
58a21a9b
JH
1816=head2 Cross-compilation
1817
ce80d64e 1818Starting from version 5.8, Perl has the beginnings of cross-compilation
58a21a9b
JH
1819support. What is known to work is running Configure in a
1820cross-compilation environment and building the miniperl executable.
65090350 1821What is known not to work is building the perl executable because
58a21a9b
JH
1822that would require building extensions: Dynaloader statically and
1823File::Glob dynamically, for extensions one needs MakeMaker and
1824MakeMaker is not yet cross-compilation aware, and neither is
1825the main Makefile.
1826
93bc48fa
JH
1827Since the functionality is so lacking, it must be considered
1828highly experimental. It is so experimental that it is not even
c80c8d62 1829mentioned during an interactive Configure session, a direct command
93bc48fa
JH
1830line invocation (detailed shortly) is required to access the
1831functionality.
1832
58a21a9b 1833 NOTE: Perl is routinely built using cross-compilation
6a809565
JH
1834 in the EPOC environment, in the WinCE, and in the OpenZaurus
1835 project, but all those use something slightly different setup
1836 than what described here. For the WinCE setup, read the
1837 wince/README.compile. For the OpenZaurus setup, read the
1838 Cross/README.
1839
1840The one environment where this cross-compilation setup has
1841successfully been used as of this writing is the Compaq iPAQ running
1842ARM Linux. The build host was Intel Linux, the networking setup was
1843PPP + SSH. The exact setup details are beyond the scope of this
1844document, see http://www.handhelds.org/ for more information.
58a21a9b
JH
1845
1846To run Configure in cross-compilation mode the basic switch is
1847C<-Dusecrosscompile>.
1848
1849 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile -D...
1850
1851This will make the cpp symbol USE_CROSS_COMPILE and the %Config
1852symbol C<usecrosscompile> available.
1853
1854During the Configure and build, certain helper scripts will be created
1855into the Cross/ subdirectory. The scripts are used to execute a
1856cross-compiled executable, and to transfer files to and from the
1857target host. The execution scripts are named F<run-*> and the
1858transfer scripts F<to-*> and F<from-*>. The part after the dash is
1859the method to use for remote execution and transfer: by default the
1860methods are B<ssh> and B<scp>, thus making the scripts F<run-ssh>,
1861F<to-scp>, and F<from-scp>.
1862
1863To configure the scripts for a target host and a directory (in which
1864the execution will happen and which is to and from where the transfer
1865happens), supply Configure with
1866
1867 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st -Dtargetdir=/tar/get/dir
1868
1869The targethost is what e.g. ssh will use as the hostname, the targetdir
93bc48fa
JH
1870must exist (the scripts won't create it), the targetdir defaults to /tmp.
1871You can also specify a username to use for ssh/rsh logins
58a21a9b
JH
1872
1873 -Dtargetuser=luser
1874
1875but in case you don't, "root" will be used.
1876
93bc48fa
JH
1877Because this is a cross-compilation effort, you will also need to specify
1878which target environment and which compilation environment to use.
1879This includes the compiler, the header files, and the libraries.
1880In the below we use the usual settings for the iPAQ cross-compilation
1881environment:
58a21a9b
JH
1882
1883 -Dtargetarch=arm-linux
1884 -Dcc=arm-linux-gcc
1885 -Dusrinc=/skiff/local/arm-linux/include
1886 -Dincpth=/skiff/local/arm-linux/include
1887 -Dlibpth=/skiff/local/arm-linux/lib
1888
1889If the name of the C<cc> has the usual GNU C semantics for cross
1890compilers, that is, CPU-OS-gcc, the names of the C<ar>, C<nm>, and
1891C<ranlib> will also be automatically chosen to be CPU-OS-ar and so on.
93bc48fa
JH
1892(The C<ld> requires more thought and will be chosen later by Configure
1893as appropriate.) Also, in this case the incpth, libpth, and usrinc
1894will be guessed by Configure (unless explicitly set to something else,
1895in which case Configure's guesses with be appended).
58a21a9b
JH
1896
1897In addition to the default execution/transfer methods you can also
1898choose B<rsh> for execution, and B<rcp> or B<cp> for transfer,
1899for example:
1900
1901 -Dtargetrun=rsh -Dtargetto=rcp -Dtargetfrom=cp
1902
1903Putting it all together:
1904
1905 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile \
93bc48fa
JH
1906 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st \
1907 -Dtargetdir=/tar/get/dir \
58a21a9b
JH
1908 -Dtargetuser=root \
1909 -Dtargetarch=arm-linux \
1910 -Dcc=arm-linux-gcc \
1911 -Dusrinc=/skiff/local/arm-linux/include \
1912 -Dincpth=/skiff/local/arm-linux/include \
1913 -Dlibpth=/skiff/local/arm-linux/lib \
1914 -D...
1915
93bc48fa
JH
1916or if you are happy with the defaults
1917
1918 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile \
1919 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st \
1920 -Dcc=arm-linux-gcc \
1921 -D...
1922
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1923=head1 make test
1924
d6baa268
JH
1925This will run the regression tests on the perl you just made. If
1926'make test' doesn't say "All tests successful" then something went
1927wrong. See the file t/README in the t subdirectory.
84902520 1928
84902520 1929Note that you can't run the tests in background if this disables
fb73857a
PP
1930opening of /dev/tty. You can use 'make test-notty' in that case but
1931a few tty tests will be skipped.
c3edaffb 1932
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1933=head2 What if make test doesn't work?
1934
1ec51d55
CS
1935If make test bombs out, just cd to the t directory and run ./TEST
1936by hand to see if it makes any difference. If individual tests
c3edaffb 1937bomb, you can run them by hand, e.g.,
8e07c86e
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1938
1939 ./perl op/groups.t
1940
aa689395 1941Another way to get more detailed information about failed tests and
1ec51d55 1942individual subtests is to cd to the t directory and run
aa689395
PP
1943
1944 ./perl harness
1945
fb73857a 1946(this assumes that most basic tests succeed, since harness uses
10c7e831
JH
1947complicated constructs). For extension and library tests you
1948need a little bit more: you need to setup your environment variable
1949PERL_CORE to a true value (like "1"), and you need to supply the
1950right Perl library path:
1951
1952 setenv PERL_CORE 1
1953 ./perl -I../lib ../ext/Socket/Socket.t
1954 ./perl -I../lib ../lib/less.t
aa689395 1955
5cda700b 1956(For csh-like shells on UNIX; adjust appropriately for other platforms.)
fb73857a 1957You should also read the individual tests to see if there are any helpful
10c7e831
JH
1958comments that apply to your system. You may also need to setup your
1959shared library path if you get errors like:
1960
1961 /sbin/loader: Fatal Error: cannot map libperl.so
1962
1963See L</"Building a shared Perl library"> earlier in this document.
c3edaffb 1964
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1965=over 4
1966
1967=item locale
1968
1ec51d55 1969Note: One possible reason for errors is that some external programs
c07a80fd 1970may be broken due to the combination of your environment and the way
3fe9a6f1 1971B<make test> exercises them. For example, this may happen if you have
1ec51d55
CS
1972one or more of these environment variables set: LC_ALL LC_CTYPE
1973LC_COLLATE LANG. In some versions of UNIX, the non-English locales
e57fd563
PP
1974are known to cause programs to exhibit mysterious errors.
1975
1976If you have any of the above environment variables set, please try
aa689395
PP
1977
1978 setenv LC_ALL C
1979
1980(for C shell) or
1981
1982 LC_ALL=C;export LC_ALL
1983
1ec51d55
CS
1984for Bourne or Korn shell) from the command line and then retry
1985make test. If the tests then succeed, you may have a broken program that
aa689395 1986is confusing the testing. Please run the troublesome test by hand as
e57fd563 1987shown above and see whether you can locate the program. Look for
1ec51d55
CS
1988things like: exec, `backquoted command`, system, open("|...") or
1989open("...|"). All these mean that Perl is trying to run some
e57fd563 1990external program.
eed2e782 1991
0740bb5b
AD
1992=item Timing problems
1993
c29923ff
JH
1994Several tests in the test suite check timing functions, such as
1995sleep(), and see if they return in a reasonable amount of time.
9341413f
JH
1996If your system is quite busy and doesn't respond quickly enough,
1997these tests might fail. If possible, try running the tests again
1998with the system under a lighter load. These timing-sensitive
1999and load-sensitive tests include F<t/op/alarm.t>,
2000F<ext/Time/HiRes/HiRes.t>, F<lib/Benchmark.t>,
2001F<lib/Memoize/t/expmod_t.t>, and F<lib/Memoize/t/speed.t>.
0740bb5b 2002
c4f23d77
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2003=item Out of memory
2004
2005On some systems, particularly those with smaller amounts of RAM, some
2006of the tests in t/op/pat.t may fail with an "Out of memory" message.
7970f296
GS
2007For example, on my SparcStation IPC with 12 MB of RAM, in perl5.5.670,
2008test 85 will fail if run under either t/TEST or t/harness.
c4f23d77
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2009
2010Try stopping other jobs on the system and then running the test by itself:
2011
2012 cd t; ./perl op/pat.t
2013
2014to see if you have any better luck. If your perl still fails this
2015test, it does not necessarily mean you have a broken perl. This test
2016tries to exercise the regular expression subsystem quite thoroughly,
2017and may well be far more demanding than your normal usage.
2018
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2019=item Failures from lib/File/Temp/t/security saying "system possibly insecure"
2020
2021First, such warnings are not necessarily serious or indicative of a
2022real security threat. That being said, they bear investigating.
2023
2024Note that each of the tests is run twice. The first time is in the
2025directory returned by File::Spec->tmpdir() (often /tmp on Unix
2026systems), and the second time in the directory from which the test was
2027run (usually the 't' directory, if the test was run as part of 'make
2028test').
2029
2030The tests may fail for the following reasons:
2031
2032(1) If the directory the tests are being run in is owned by somebody
2033other than the user running the tests, or by root (uid 0).
2034
2035This failure can happen if the Perl source code distribution is
2036unpacked in such a way that the user ids in the distribution package
2037are used as-is. Some tar programs do this.
2038
2039(2) If the directory the tests are being run in is writable by group or
2040by others, and there is no sticky bit set for the directory. (With
2041UNIX/POSIX semantics, write access to a directory means the right to
2042add or remove files in that directory. The 'sticky bit' is a feature
2043used in some UNIXes to give extra protection to files: if the bit is
2044set for a directory, no one but the owner (or root) can remove that
2045file even if the permissions would otherwise allow file removal by
2046others.)
2047
2048This failure may or may not be a real problem: it depends on the
2049permissions policy used on this particular system. This failure can
2050also happen if the system either doesn't support the sticky bit (this
2051is the case with many non-UNIX platforms: in principle File::Temp
2052should know about these platforms and skip the tests), or if the system
2053supports the sticky bit but for some reason or reasons it is not being
2054used. This is, for example, the case with HP-UX: as of HP-UX release
205511.00, the sticky bit is very much supported, but HP-UX doesn't use it
2056on its /tmp directory as shipped. Also, as with the permissions, some
2057local policy might dictate that the stickiness is not used.
781948c1 2058
b2b23189
JH
2059(3) If the system supports the POSIX 'chown giveaway' feature and if
2060any of the parent directories of the temporary file back to the root
2061directory are 'unsafe', using the definitions given above in (1) and
4f76e5ba
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2062(2). For Unix systems, this is usually not an issue if you are
2063building on a local disk. See the documentation for the File::Temp
2064module for more information about 'chown giveaway'.
781948c1
JH
2065
2066See the documentation for the File::Temp module for more information
4f76e5ba 2067about the various security aspects of temporary files.
781948c1 2068
c4f23d77
AD
2069=back
2070
8e07c86e
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2071=head1 make install
2072
2073This will put perl into the public directory you specified to
1ec51d55 2074Configure; by default this is /usr/local/bin. It will also try
8e07c86e 2075to put the man pages in a reasonable place. It will not nroff the man
aa689395 2076pages, however. You may need to be root to run B<make install>. If you
ce80d64e
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2077are not root, you must still have permission to install into the directories
2078in question and you should ignore any messages about chown not working.
2079
2080If "make install" just says "`install' is up to date" or something
2081similar, you may be on a case-insensitive filesystems such as Mac's HFS+,
2082and you should say "make install-all". (This confusion is brought to you
2083by the Perl distribution having a file called INSTALL.)
8e07c86e 2084
dd64f1c3
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2085=head2 Installing perl under different names
2086
2087If you want to install perl under a name other than "perl" (for example,
2088when installing perl with special features enabled, such as debugging),
2089indicate the alternate name on the "make install" line, such as:
2090
2091 make install PERLNAME=myperl
2092
beb13193
RS
2093You can separately change the base used for versioned names (like
2094"perl5.005") by setting PERLNAME_VERBASE, like
2095
2096 make install PERLNAME=perl5 PERLNAME_VERBASE=perl
2097
5cda700b
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2098This can be useful if you have to install perl as "perl5" (e.g. to
2099avoid conflicts with an ancient version in /usr/bin supplied by your vendor).
2100Without this the versioned binary would be called "perl55.005".
beb13193 2101
ce80d64e
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2102=head2 Installing perl under a different directory
2103
2104You can install perl under a different destination directory by using
2105the DESTDIR variable during C<make install>, with a command like
2106
2107 make install DESTDIR=/tmp/perl5
2108
2109DESTDIR is automatically prepended to all the installation paths. See
2110the example in L<"Creating an installable tar archive"> above.
2111
2112
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2113=head2 Installed files
2114
8e07c86e
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2115If you want to see exactly what will happen without installing
2116anything, you can run
4633a7c4 2117
8e07c86e
AD
2118 ./perl installperl -n
2119 ./perl installman -n
2120
1ec51d55 2121make install will install the following:
8e07c86e 2122
d56c5707
JH
2123 binaries
2124
8e07c86e
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2125 perl,
2126 perl5.nnn where nnn is the current release number. This
2127 will be a link to perl.
2128 suidperl,
2129 sperl5.nnn If you requested setuid emulation.
2130 a2p awk-to-perl translator
d56c5707
JH
2131
2132 scripts
2133
8e07c86e
AD
2134 cppstdin This is used by perl -P, if your cc -E can't
2135 read from stdin.
2136 c2ph, pstruct Scripts for handling C structures in header files.
2137 s2p sed-to-perl translator
2138 find2perl find-to-perl translator
aa689395 2139 h2ph Extract constants and simple macros from C headers
8e07c86e 2140 h2xs Converts C .h header files to Perl extensions.
24b3df7f 2141 perlbug Tool to report bugs in Perl.
8e07c86e 2142 perldoc Tool to read perl's pod documentation.
aa689395 2143 pl2pm Convert Perl 4 .pl files to Perl 5 .pm modules
8e07c86e 2144 pod2html, Converters from perl's pod documentation format
aa689395 2145 pod2latex, to other useful formats.
d56c5707
JH
2146 pod2man,
2147 pod2text,
2148 pod2checker,
2149 pod2select,
2150 pod2usage
aa689395 2151 splain Describe Perl warnings and errors
95667ae4 2152 dprofpp Perl code profile post-processor
8e07c86e 2153
d56c5707
JH
2154 library files
2155
2156 in $privlib and $archlib specified to
8e07c86e 2157 Configure, usually under /usr/local/lib/perl5/.
d56c5707
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2158
2159 documentation
2160
d6baa268
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2161 man pages in $man1dir, usually /usr/local/man/man1.
2162 module man
2163 pages in $man3dir, usually /usr/local/man/man3.
8e07c86e
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2164 pod/*.pod in $privlib/pod/.
2165
d6baa268
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2166Installperl will also create the directories listed above
2167in L<"Installation Directories">.
4633a7c4 2168
d56c5707 2169Perl's *.h header files and the libperl library are also installed
d6baa268 2170under $archlib so that any user may later build new modules, run the
56c6f531
JH
2171optional Perl compiler, or embed the perl interpreter into another
2172program even if the Perl source is no longer available.
8e07c86e 2173
d56c5707
JH
2174Sometimes you only want to install the version-specific parts of the perl
2175installation. For example, you may wish to install a newer version of
2176perl alongside an already installed production version of perl without
2177disabling installation of new modules for the production version.
2178To only install the version-specific parts of the perl installation, run
2179
2180 Configure -Dversiononly
2181
2182or answer 'y' to the appropriate Configure prompt. Alternatively,
2183you can just manually run
2184
2185 ./perl installperl -v
2186
2187and skip installman altogether.
2188See also L<"Maintaining completely separate versions"> for another
2189approach.
2190
aa689395 2191=head1 Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5
4633a7c4 2192
9a664500 2193Perl 5.9 is not binary compatible with earlier versions of Perl.
cc65bb49 2194In other words, you will have to recompile your XS modules.
14eee2f1 2195
693762b4 2196In general, you can usually safely upgrade from one version of Perl (e.g.
9a664500 21975.8.0) to another similar version (e.g. 5.8.2) without re-compiling
693762b4
AD
2198all of your add-on extensions. You can also safely leave the old version
2199around in case the new version causes you problems for some reason.
2200For example, if you want to be sure that your script continues to run
9a664500 2201with 5.8.2, simply replace the '#!/usr/local/bin/perl' line at the
693762b4 2202top of the script with the particular version you want to run, e.g.
9a664500 2203#!/usr/local/bin/perl5.8.2.
693762b4 2204
ce80d64e
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2205Usually, most extensions will probably not need to be recompiled to use
2206with a newer version of Perl Here is how it is supposed to work.
2207(These examples assume you accept all the Configure defaults.)
693762b4 2208
d6baa268
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2209Suppose you already have version 5.005_03 installed. The directories
2210searched by 5.005_03 are
2211
2212 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.00503/$archname
2213 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.00503
2214 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/$archname
2215 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
2216
0a08c020
GS
2217Beginning with 5.6.0 the version number in the site libraries are
2218fully versioned. Now, suppose you install version 5.6.0. The directories
2219searched by version 5.6.0 will be
d6baa268 2220
0a08c020
GS
2221 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.6.0/$archname
2222 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.6.0
2223 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0/$archname
2224 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0
d6baa268
JH
2225
2226 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/$archname
2227 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
c42e3e15 2228 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
bfb7748a 2229
c42e3e15 2230Notice the last three entries -- Perl understands the default structure
d6baa268
JH
2231of the $sitelib directories and will look back in older, compatible
2232directories. This way, modules installed under 5.005_03 will continue
0a08c020 2233to be usable by 5.005_03 but will also accessible to 5.6.0. Further,
d6baa268 2234suppose that you upgrade a module to one which requires features
0a08c020
GS
2235present only in 5.6.0. That new module will get installed into
2236/usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0 and will be available to 5.6.0,
d6baa268 2237but will not interfere with the 5.005_03 version.
bfb7748a 2238
c42e3e15 2239The last entry, /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/, is there so that
fe23a901 22405.6.0 and above will look for 5.004-era pure perl modules.
d6baa268 2241
cc65bb49
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2242Lastly, suppose you now install 5.8.0, which is not binary compatible
2243with 5.6.0. The directories searched by 5.8.0 (if you don't change the
fe23a901
RF
2244Configure defaults) will be:
2245
2246 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.0/$archname
2247 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.0
2248 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.0/$archname
2249 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.0
d6baa268 2250
0a08c020 2251 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0
d6baa268 2252
d6baa268 2253 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
fe23a901 2254
d6baa268 2255 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
bfb7748a 2256
cc65bb49
AD
2257Note that the earlier $archname entries are now gone, but pure perl
2258modules from earlier versions will still be found.
2259
0a08c020 2260Assuming the users in your site are still actively using perl 5.6.0 and
fe23a901 22615.005 after you installed 5.8.0, you can continue to install add-on
cc65bb49
AD
2262extensions using any of perl 5.8.0, 5.6.0, or 5.005. The installations
2263of these different versions remain distinct, but remember that the
2264newer versions of perl are automatically set up to search the
2265compatible site libraries of the older ones. This means that
2266installing a new XS extension with 5.005 will make it visible to both
22675.005 and 5.6.0, but not to 5.8.0. Installing a pure perl module with
22685.005 will make it visible to all three versions. Later, if you
2269install the same extension using, say, perl 5.8.0, it will override the
22705.005-installed version, but only for perl 5.8.0.
0a08c020
GS
2271
2272This way, you can choose to share compatible extensions, but also upgrade
2273to a newer version of an extension that may be incompatible with earlier
2274versions, without breaking the earlier versions' installations.
693762b4
AD
2275
2276=head2 Maintaining completely separate versions
4633a7c4 2277
1ec51d55 2278Many users prefer to keep all versions of perl in completely
d6baa268 2279separate directories. This guarantees that an update to one version
0a08c020
GS
2280won't interfere with another version. (The defaults guarantee this for
2281libraries after 5.6.0, but not for executables. TODO?) One convenient
2282way to do this is by using a separate prefix for each version, such as
d52d4e46 2283
9a664500 2284 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl5.8.2
d52d4e46 2285
9a664500 2286and adding /opt/perl5.8.2/bin to the shell PATH variable. Such users
d52d4e46
PP
2287may also wish to add a symbolic link /usr/local/bin/perl so that
2288scripts can still start with #!/usr/local/bin/perl.
2289
693762b4 2290Others might share a common directory for maintenance sub-versions
cc65bb49 2291(e.g. 5.8 for all 5.8.x versions), but change directory with
693762b4
AD
2292each major version.
2293
6877a1cf
AD
2294If you are installing a development subversion, you probably ought to
2295seriously consider using a separate directory, since development
2296subversions may not have all the compatibility wrinkles ironed out
2297yet.
2298
e655887d 2299=head2 Upgrading from 5.005 or 5.6 to 5.8.0
693762b4 2300
9a664500 2301B<Perl 5.9.0 is binary incompatible with Perl 5.8.x, Perl 5.6.x, 5.005,
e655887d
CB
2302and any earlier Perl release.> Perl modules having binary parts
2303(meaning that a C compiler is used) will have to be recompiled to be
9a664500
AMS
2304used with 5.9.0. If you find you do need to rebuild an extension with
23055.9.0, you may safely do so without disturbing the older
e655887d
CB
2306installations. (See L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5">
2307above.)
c42e3e15
GS
2308
2309See your installed copy of the perllocal.pod file for a (possibly
2310incomplete) list of locally installed modules. Note that you want
cc65bb49 2311perllocal.pod, not perllocale.pod, for installed module information.
693762b4 2312
8e07c86e
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2313=head1 Coexistence with perl4
2314
2315You can safely install perl5 even if you want to keep perl4 around.
2316
1ec51d55
CS
2317By default, the perl5 libraries go into /usr/local/lib/perl5/, so
2318they don't override the perl4 libraries in /usr/local/lib/perl/.
8e07c86e
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2319
2320In your /usr/local/bin directory, you should have a binary named
1ec51d55 2321perl4.036. That will not be touched by the perl5 installation
8e07c86e
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2322process. Most perl4 scripts should run just fine under perl5.
2323However, if you have any scripts that require perl4, you can replace
d6baa268 2324the #! line at the top of them by #!/usr/local/bin/perl4.036 (or
4dc3e0af 2325whatever the appropriate pathname is). See L<perltrap> for
d6baa268 2326possible problems running perl4 scripts under perl5.
8e07c86e 2327
aa689395
PP
2328=head1 cd /usr/include; h2ph *.h sys/*.h
2329
d6baa268
JH
2330Some perl scripts need to be able to obtain information from the
2331system header files. This command will convert the most commonly used
1ec51d55 2332header files in /usr/include into files that can be easily interpreted
d6baa268
JH
2333by perl. These files will be placed in the architecture-dependent
2334library ($archlib) directory you specified to Configure.
aa689395 2335
d6baa268
JH
2336Note: Due to differences in the C and perl languages, the conversion
2337of the header files is not perfect. You will probably have to
2338hand-edit some of the converted files to get them to parse correctly.
2339For example, h2ph breaks spectacularly on type casting and certain
2340structures.
aa689395 2341
fb73857a 2342=head1 installhtml --help
aa689395 2343
3e3baf6d
TB
2344Some sites may wish to make perl documentation available in HTML
2345format. The installhtml utility can be used to convert pod
fb73857a 2346documentation into linked HTML files and install them.
aa689395 2347
d6baa268
JH
2348Currently, the supplied ./installhtml script does not make use of the
2349html Configure variables. This should be fixed in a future release.
2350
fb73857a 2351The following command-line is an example of one used to convert
3e3baf6d 2352perl documentation:
aa689395 2353
3e3baf6d
TB
2354 ./installhtml \
2355 --podroot=. \
2356 --podpath=lib:ext:pod:vms \
2357 --recurse \
2358 --htmldir=/perl/nmanual \
2359 --htmlroot=/perl/nmanual \
2360 --splithead=pod/perlipc \
2361 --splititem=pod/perlfunc \
2362 --libpods=perlfunc:perlguts:perlvar:perlrun:perlop \
2363 --verbose
2364
2365See the documentation in installhtml for more details. It can take
2366many minutes to execute a large installation and you should expect to
2367see warnings like "no title", "unexpected directive" and "cannot
2368resolve" as the files are processed. We are aware of these problems
2369(and would welcome patches for them).
aa689395 2370
fb73857a
PP
2371You may find it helpful to run installhtml twice. That should reduce
2372the number of "cannot resolve" warnings.
2373
aa689395
PP
2374=head1 cd pod && make tex && (process the latex files)
2375
2376Some sites may also wish to make the documentation in the pod/ directory
2377available in TeX format. Type
2378
2379 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
2380
8ebf57cf
JH
2381=head1 Minimizing the Perl installation
2382
2383The following section is meant for people worrying about squeezing the
2384Perl installation into minimal systems (for example when installing
2385operating systems, or in really small filesystems).
2386
c8214fdf 2387Leaving out as many extensions as possible is an obvious way:
5cda700b
AD
2388Encode, with its big conversion tables, consumes a lot of
2389space. On the other hand, you cannot throw away everything. The
2390Fcntl module is pretty essential. If you need to do network
c8214fdf
JH
2391programming, you'll appreciate the Socket module, and so forth: it all
2392depends on what do you need to do.
2393
8ebf57cf
JH
2394In the following we offer two different slimmed down installation
2395recipes. They are informative, not normative: the choice of files
2396depends on what you need.
2397
2398Firstly, the bare minimum to run this script
2399
2400 use strict;
2401 use warnings;
2402 foreach my $f (</*>) {
2403 print("$f\n");
2404 }
2405
2406in Solaris is as follows (under $Config{prefix}):
2407
2408 ./bin/perl
2409 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/auto/DynaLoader/autosplit.ix
2410 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/auto/DynaLoader/dl_expandspec.al
2411 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/auto/DynaLoader/dl_find_symbol_anywhere.al
2412 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/auto/DynaLoader/dl_findfile.al
2413 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/auto/File/Glob/Glob.so
2414 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/auto/File/Glob/autosplit.ix
2415 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/Config.pm
2416 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/XSLoader.pm
2417 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/DynaLoader.pm
2418 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/sun4-solaris-64int/CORE/libperl.so
2419 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/strict.pm
2420 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/warnings.pm
2421 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/Carp.pm
2422 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/Exporter.pm
2423 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/File/Glob.pm
2424 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/AutoLoader.pm
2425 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/vars.pm
2426 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/warnings/register.pm
2427 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/Carp/Heavy.pm
2428 ./lib/perl5/5.6.1/Exporter/Heavy.pm
2429
2430Secondly, Debian perl-base package contains the following files,
2431size about 1.2MB in its i386 version:
2432
2433 /usr/share/doc/perl/Documentation
2434 /usr/share/doc/perl/README.Debian
2435 /usr/share/doc/perl/copyright
2436 /usr/share/doc/perl/AUTHORS.gz
2437 /usr/share/doc/perl/changelog.Debian.gz
2438 /usr/share/man/man1/perl.1.gz
2439 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/AutoLoader.pm
2440 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Carp.pm
2441 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Carp/Heavy.pm
2442 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Cwd.pm
2443 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Exporter.pm
2444 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Exporter/Heavy.pm
2445 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/File/Spec.pm
2446 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/File/Spec/Unix.pm
2447 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/FileHandle.pm
2448 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Getopt/Long.pm
2449 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/IO/Socket/INET.pm
2450 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/IO/Socket/UNIX.pm
2451 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/IPC/Open2.pm
2452 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/IPC/Open3.pm
2453 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/SelectSaver.pm
2454 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Symbol.pm
2455 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Text/Tabs.pm
2456 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/Text/Wrap.pm
2457 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/attributes.pm
2458 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/auto/Getopt/Long/GetOptions.al
2459 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/auto/Getopt/Long/FindOption.al
2460 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/auto/Getopt/Long/Configure.al
2461 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/auto/Getopt/Long/config.al
2462 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/auto/Getopt/Long/Croak.al
2463 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/auto/Getopt/Long/autosplit.ix
2464 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/base.pm
2465 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/constant.pm
2466 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/fields.pm
2467 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/integer.pm
2468 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/lib.pm
2469 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/locale.pm
2470 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/overload.pm
2471 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/strict.pm
2472 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/vars.pm
2473 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/warnings.pm
2474 /usr/share/perl/5.6.1/warnings/register.pm
2475 /usr/bin/perl
2476 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/Config.pm
2477 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/Data/Dumper.pm
2478 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/DynaLoader.pm
2479 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/Errno.pm
2480 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/Fcntl.pm
2481 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/File/Glob.pm
2482 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/IO.pm
2483 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/IO/File.pm
2484 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/IO/Handle.pm
2485 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/IO/Pipe.pm
2486 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/IO/Seekable.pm
2487 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/IO/Select.pm
2488 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/IO/Socket.pm
2489 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/POSIX.pm
2490 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/Socket.pm
2491 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/XSLoader.pm
2492 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/Data/Dumper/Dumper.so
2493 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/Data/Dumper/Dumper.bs
2494 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/DynaLoader/dl_findfile.al
2495 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/DynaLoader/dl_expandspec.al
2496 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/DynaLoader/dl_find_symbol_anywhere.al
2497 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/DynaLoader/autosplit.ix
2498 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/DynaLoader/DynaLoader.a
2499 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/DynaLoader/extralibs.ld
2500 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/Fcntl/Fcntl.so
2501 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/Fcntl/Fcntl.bs
2502 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/File/Glob/Glob.bs
2503 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/File/Glob/Glob.so
2504 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/File/Glob/autosplit.ix
2505 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/IO/IO.so
2506 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/IO/IO.bs
2507 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/POSIX/POSIX.bs
2508 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/POSIX/POSIX.so
2509 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/POSIX/autosplit.ix
2510 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/POSIX/load_imports.al
2511 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/Socket/Socket.so
2512 /usr/lib/perl/5.6.1/auto/Socket/Socket.bs
2513
8e07c86e
AD
2514=head1 DOCUMENTATION
2515
bfb7748a
AD
2516Read the manual entries before running perl. The main documentation
2517is in the pod/ subdirectory and should have been installed during the
8e07c86e 2518build process. Type B<man perl> to get started. Alternatively, you
bfb7748a
AD
2519can type B<perldoc perl> to use the supplied perldoc script. This is
2520sometimes useful for finding things in the library modules.
8e07c86e 2521
1ec51d55 2522Under UNIX, you can produce a documentation book in postscript form,
bfb7748a
AD
2523along with its table of contents, by going to the pod/ subdirectory and
2524running (either):
34a2a22e
RM
2525
2526 ./roffitall -groff # If you have GNU groff installed
aa689395 2527 ./roffitall -psroff # If you have psroff
34a2a22e
RM
2528
2529This will leave you with two postscript files ready to be printed.
aa689395
PP
2530(You may need to fix the roffitall command to use your local troff
2531set-up.)
34a2a22e 2532
bfb7748a
AD
2533Note that you must have performed the installation already before running
2534the above, since the script collects the installed files to generate
2535the documentation.
34a2a22e 2536
8e07c86e
AD
2537=head1 AUTHOR
2538
bfb7748a
AD
2539Original author: Andy Dougherty doughera@lafayette.edu , borrowing very
2540heavily from the original README by Larry Wall, with lots of helpful
2541feedback and additions from the perl5-porters@perl.org folks.
fb73857a 2542
f5b3b617
AD
2543If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
2544L<"Reporting Problems"> above.
2545
2546=head1 REDISTRIBUTION
2547
2548This document is part of the Perl package and may be distributed under
d6baa268 2549the same terms as perl itself, with the following additional request:
f5b3b617 2550If you are distributing a modified version of perl (perhaps as part of
d6baa268
JH
2551a larger package) please B<do> modify these installation instructions
2552and the contact information to match your distribution.