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1
2=head1 NAME
3
4perltoc - perl documentation table of contents
5
6=head1 DESCRIPTION
7
8This page provides a brief table of contents for the rest of the Perl
28757baa 9documentation set. It is meant to be scanned quickly or grepped
402d0d99 10through to locate the proper section you're looking for.
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11
12=head1 BASIC DOCUMENTATION
13
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14=head2 perl - Practical Extraction and Report Language
15
d420ca49 16=over 4
a45bd81d 17
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18=item SYNOPSIS
19
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20=item DESCRIPTION
21
14218588 22=item AVAILABILITY
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23
24=item ENVIRONMENT
25
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26=item AUTHOR
27
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28=item FILES
29
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30=item SEE ALSO
31
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32=item DIAGNOSTICS
33
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34=item BUGS
35
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36=item NOTES
37
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38=back
39
14218588
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40=head2 perlfaq - frequently asked questions about Perl ($Date: 1999/05/23
4120:38:02 $)
68dc0745 42
d420ca49 43=over 4
a45bd81d 44
68dc0745
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45=item DESCRIPTION
46
983dbef6 47=over 4
68dc0745 48
983dbef6 49=item perlfaq: Structural overview of the FAQ.
68dc0745 50
983dbef6 51=item L<perlfaq1>: General Questions About Perl
68dc0745 52
983dbef6 53=item L<perlfaq2>: Obtaining and Learning about Perl
68dc0745 54
983dbef6 55=item L<perlfaq3>: Programming Tools
68dc0745 56
983dbef6 57=item L<perlfaq4>: Data Manipulation
68dc0745 58
983dbef6 59=item L<perlfaq5>: Files and Formats
68dc0745 60
983dbef6 61=item L<perlfaq6>: Regexps
68dc0745 62
983dbef6 63=item L<perlfaq7>: General Perl Language Issues
68dc0745 64
983dbef6 65=item L<perlfaq8>: System Interaction
68dc0745 66
983dbef6 67=item L<perlfaq9>: Networking
68dc0745 68
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69=back
70
983dbef6 71=item About the perlfaq documents
68dc0745 72
d420ca49 73=over 4
a45bd81d 74
983dbef6 75=item Where to get the perlfaq
68dc0745 76
983dbef6 77=item How to contribute to the perlfaq
68dc0745 78
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79=item What will happen if you mail your Perl programming problems to the
80authors
68dc0745 81
983dbef6 82=back
68dc0745 83
983dbef6 84=item Credits
68dc0745 85
983dbef6 86=item Author and Copyright Information
68dc0745 87
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88=over 4
89
90=item Bundled Distributions
91
92=item Disclaimer
68dc0745 93
4755096e 94=back
68dc0745 95
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96=item Changes
97
981/November/2000, 23/May/99, 13/April/99, 7/January/99, 22/June/98,
9924/April/97, 23/April/97, 25/March/97, 18/March/97, 17/March/97 Version,
100Initial Release: 11/March/97
101
4755096e 102=back
68dc0745 103
4755096e 104=head2 perlbook - Perl book information
68dc0745 105
d420ca49 106=over 4
68dc0745 107
4755096e 108=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 109
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110=back
111
4755096e 112=head2 perlsyn - Perl syntax
a45bd81d 113
d420ca49 114=over 4
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115
116=item DESCRIPTION
117
d420ca49 118=over 4
68dc0745 119
4755096e 120=item Declarations
68dc0745 121
4755096e 122=item Simple statements
68dc0745 123
4755096e 124=item Compound statements
3fe9a6f1 125
4755096e 126=item Loop Control
68dc0745 127
4755096e 128=item For Loops
68dc0745 129
4755096e 130=item Foreach Loops
68dc0745 131
4755096e 132=item Basic BLOCKs and Switch Statements
68dc0745 133
4755096e 134=item Goto
68dc0745 135
4755096e 136=item PODs: Embedded Documentation
68dc0745 137
4755096e 138=item Plain Old Comments (Not!)
68dc0745 139
4755096e 140=back
68dc0745 141
4755096e 142=back
193fb0af 143
4755096e 144=head2 perldata - Perl data types
68dc0745 145
d420ca49 146=over 4
68dc0745 147
4755096e 148=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 149
d420ca49 150=over 4
68dc0745 151
4755096e 152=item Variable names
68dc0745 153
4755096e 154=item Context
68dc0745 155
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156=item Scalar values
157
158=item Scalar value constructors
159
160=item List value constructors
161
162=item Slices
163
164=item Typeglobs and Filehandles
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165
166=back
167
4755096e 168=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 169
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170=back
171
4755096e 172=head2 perlop - Perl operators and precedence
68dc0745 173
d420ca49 174=over 4
a45bd81d 175
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176=item SYNOPSIS
177
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178=item DESCRIPTION
179
d420ca49 180=over 4
68dc0745 181
4755096e 182=item Terms and List Operators (Leftward)
68dc0745 183
4755096e 184=item The Arrow Operator
68dc0745 185
4755096e 186=item Auto-increment and Auto-decrement
68dc0745 187
4755096e 188=item Exponentiation
68dc0745 189
4755096e 190=item Symbolic Unary Operators
68dc0745 191
4755096e 192=item Binding Operators
68dc0745 193
4755096e 194=item Multiplicative Operators
68dc0745 195
4755096e 196=item Additive Operators
68dc0745 197
4755096e 198=item Shift Operators
14218588 199
4755096e 200=item Named Unary Operators
68dc0745 201
4755096e 202=item Relational Operators
68dc0745 203
4755096e 204=item Equality Operators
68dc0745 205
4755096e 206=item Bitwise And
68dc0745 207
4755096e 208=item Bitwise Or and Exclusive Or
68dc0745 209
4755096e 210=item C-style Logical And
68dc0745 211
4755096e 212=item C-style Logical Or
68dc0745 213
4755096e 214=item Range Operators
68dc0745 215
4755096e 216=item Conditional Operator
68dc0745 217
4755096e 218=item Assignment Operators
68dc0745 219
4755096e 220=item Comma Operator
68dc0745 221
4755096e 222=item List Operators (Rightward)
68dc0745 223
4755096e 224=item Logical Not
68dc0745 225
4755096e 226=item Logical And
14218588 227
4755096e 228=item Logical or and Exclusive Or
68dc0745 229
4755096e 230=item C Operators Missing From Perl
68dc0745 231
4755096e 232unary &, unary *, (TYPE)
68dc0745 233
4755096e 234=item Quote and Quote-like Operators
68dc0745 235
4755096e 236=item Regexp Quote-Like Operators
68dc0745 237
4755096e 238?PATTERN?, m/PATTERN/cgimosx, /PATTERN/cgimosx, q/STRING/, C<'STRING'>,
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239qq/STRING/, "STRING", qr/STRING/imosx, qx/STRING/, `STRING`, qw/STRING/,
240s/PATTERN/REPLACEMENT/egimosx, tr/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds,
4755096e 241y/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds
68dc0745 242
4755096e 243=item Gory details of parsing quoted constructs
68dc0745 244
4755096e
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245Finding the end, Removal of backslashes before delimiters, Interpolation,
246C<<<'EOF'>, C<m''>, C<s'''>, C<tr///>, C<y///>, C<''>, C<q//>, C<"">,
247C<``>, C<qq//>, C<qx//>, C<< <file*glob> >>, C<?RE?>, C</RE/>, C<m/RE/>,
248C<s/RE/foo/>,, Interpolation of regular expressions, Optimization of
249regular expressions
68dc0745 250
4755096e 251=item I/O Operators
68dc0745 252
4755096e 253=item Constant Folding
68dc0745 254
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255=item Bitwise String Operators
256
257=item Integer Arithmetic
258
259=item Floating-point Arithmetic
260
261=item Bigger Numbers
68dc0745 262
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263=back
264
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265=back
266
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267=head2 perlsub - Perl subroutines
268
d420ca49 269=over 4
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270
271=item SYNOPSIS
272
273=item DESCRIPTION
274
d420ca49 275=over 4
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276
277=item Private Variables via my()
278
279=item Persistent Private Variables
280
281=item Temporary Values via local()
282
283=item Lvalue subroutines
284
285=item Passing Symbol Table Entries (typeglobs)
286
287=item When to Still Use local()
288
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289=item Pass by Reference
290
291=item Prototypes
292
293=item Constant Functions
294
295=item Overriding Built-in Functions
296
297=item Autoloading
298
299=item Subroutine Attributes
300
301=back
302
303=item SEE ALSO
304
305=back
306
307=head2 perlfunc - Perl builtin functions
308
d420ca49 309=over 4
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310
311=item DESCRIPTION
312
d420ca49 313=over 4
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314
315=item Perl Functions by Category
316
317Functions for SCALARs or strings, Regular expressions and pattern matching,
318Numeric functions, Functions for real @ARRAYs, Functions for list data,
319Functions for real %HASHes, Input and output functions, Functions for fixed
320length data or records, Functions for filehandles, files, or directories,
321Keywords related to the control flow of your perl program, Keywords related
322to scoping, Miscellaneous functions, Functions for processes and process
323groups, Keywords related to perl modules, Keywords related to classes and
324object-orientedness, Low-level socket functions, System V interprocess
325communication functions, Fetching user and group info, Fetching network
326info, Time-related functions, Functions new in perl5, Functions obsoleted
327in perl5
328
329=item Portability
330
331=item Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions
332
333I<-X> FILEHANDLE, I<-X> EXPR, I<-X>, abs VALUE, abs, accept
334NEWSOCKET,GENERICSOCKET, alarm SECONDS, alarm, atan2 Y,X, bind SOCKET,NAME,
335binmode FILEHANDLE, DISCIPLINE, binmode FILEHANDLE, bless REF,CLASSNAME,
336bless REF, caller EXPR, caller, chdir EXPR, chmod LIST, chomp VARIABLE,
337chomp LIST, chomp, chop VARIABLE, chop LIST, chop, chown LIST, chr NUMBER,
338chr, chroot FILENAME, chroot, close FILEHANDLE, close, closedir DIRHANDLE,
d396a558 339connect SOCKET,NAME, continue BLOCK, cos EXPR, cos, crypt PLAINTEXT,SALT,
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340dbmclose HASH, dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MASK, defined EXPR, defined, delete
341EXPR, die LIST, do BLOCK, do SUBROUTINE(LIST), do EXPR, dump LABEL, dump,
342each HASH, eof FILEHANDLE, eof (), eof, eval EXPR, eval BLOCK, exec LIST,
343exec PROGRAM LIST, exists EXPR, exit EXPR, exp EXPR, exp, fcntl
344FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, fileno FILEHANDLE, flock FILEHANDLE,OPERATION,
345fork, format, formline PICTURE,LIST, getc FILEHANDLE, getc, getlogin,
346getpeername SOCKET, getpgrp PID, getppid, getpriority WHICH,WHO, getpwnam
347NAME, getgrnam NAME, gethostbyname NAME, getnetbyname NAME, getprotobyname
348NAME, getpwuid UID, getgrgid GID, getservbyname NAME,PROTO, gethostbyaddr
349ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getprotobynumber NUMBER,
350getservbyport PORT,PROTO, getpwent, getgrent, gethostent, getnetent,
351getprotoent, getservent, setpwent, setgrent, sethostent STAYOPEN, setnetent
352STAYOPEN, setprotoent STAYOPEN, setservent STAYOPEN, endpwent, endgrent,
353endhostent, endnetent, endprotoent, endservent, getsockname SOCKET,
354getsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME, glob EXPR, glob, gmtime EXPR, goto LABEL,
355goto EXPR, goto &NAME, grep BLOCK LIST, grep EXPR,LIST, hex EXPR, hex,
356import, index STR,SUBSTR,POSITION, index STR,SUBSTR, int EXPR, int, ioctl
357FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, join EXPR,LIST, keys HASH, kill SIGNAL, LIST,
358last LABEL, last, lc EXPR, lc, lcfirst EXPR, lcfirst, length EXPR, length,
359link OLDFILE,NEWFILE, listen SOCKET,QUEUESIZE, local EXPR, localtime EXPR,
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360lock, log EXPR, log, lstat EXPR, lstat, m//, map BLOCK LIST, map EXPR,LIST,
361mkdir FILENAME,MASK, mkdir FILENAME, msgctl ID,CMD,ARG, msgget KEY,FLAGS,
362msgrcv ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS, msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS, my EXPR, my EXPR :
363ATTRIBUTES, next LABEL, next, no Module LIST, oct EXPR, oct, open
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364FILEHANDLE,EXPR, open FILEHANDLE,MODE,EXPR, open FILEHANDLE,MODE,EXPR,LIST,
365open FILEHANDLE, opendir DIRHANDLE,EXPR, ord EXPR, ord, our EXPR, our EXPR
366: ATTRIBUTES, pack TEMPLATE,LIST, package NAMESPACE, package, pipe
367READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE, pop ARRAY, pop, pos SCALAR, pos, print FILEHANDLE
368LIST, print LIST, print, printf FILEHANDLE FORMAT, LIST, printf FORMAT,
369LIST, prototype FUNCTION, push ARRAY,LIST, q/STRING/, qq/STRING/,
370qr/STRING/, qx/STRING/, qw/STRING/, quotemeta EXPR, quotemeta, rand EXPR,
371rand, read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,
372readdir DIRHANDLE, readline EXPR, readlink EXPR, readlink, readpipe EXPR,
373recv SOCKET,SCALAR,LENGTH,FLAGS, redo LABEL, redo, ref EXPR, ref, rename
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374OLDNAME,NEWNAME, require VERSION, require EXPR, require, reset EXPR, reset,
375return EXPR, return, reverse LIST, rewinddir DIRHANDLE, rindex
376STR,SUBSTR,POSITION, rindex STR,SUBSTR, rmdir FILENAME, rmdir, s///, scalar
377EXPR, seek FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE, seekdir DIRHANDLE,POS, select
378FILEHANDLE, select, select RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIMEOUT, semctl
379ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG, semget KEY,NSEMS,FLAGS, semop KEY,OPSTRING, send
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380SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS,TO, send SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS, setpgrp PID,PGRP, setpriority
381WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY, setsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,OPTVAL, shift ARRAY,
382shift, shmctl ID,CMD,ARG, shmget KEY,SIZE,FLAGS, shmread ID,VAR,POS,SIZE,
383shmwrite ID,STRING,POS,SIZE, shutdown SOCKET,HOW, sin EXPR, sin, sleep
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384EXPR, sleep, sockatmark SOCKET, socket SOCKET,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL,
385socketpair SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, sort SUBNAME LIST, sort
386BLOCK LIST, sort LIST, splice ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH,LIST, splice
387ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH, splice ARRAY,OFFSET, splice ARRAY, split
388/PATTERN/,EXPR,LIMIT, split /PATTERN/,EXPR, split /PATTERN/, split, sprintf
389FORMAT, LIST, sqrt EXPR, sqrt, srand EXPR, srand, stat FILEHANDLE, stat
390EXPR, stat, study SCALAR, study, sub BLOCK, sub NAME, sub NAME BLOCK,
391substr EXPR,OFFSET,LENGTH,REPLACEMENT, substr EXPR,OFFSET,LENGTH, substr
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392EXPR,OFFSET, symlink OLDFILE,NEWFILE, syscall LIST, sysopen
393FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE, sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE,PERMS, sysread
394FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, sysread FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, sysseek
395FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE, system LIST, system PROGRAM LIST, syswrite
396FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,
397syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR, tell FILEHANDLE, tell, telldir DIRHANDLE, tie
398VARIABLE,CLASSNAME,LIST, tied VARIABLE, time, times, tr///, truncate
399FILEHANDLE,LENGTH, truncate EXPR,LENGTH, uc EXPR, uc, ucfirst EXPR,
400ucfirst, umask EXPR, umask, undef EXPR, undef, unlink LIST, unlink, unpack
401TEMPLATE,EXPR, untie VARIABLE, unshift ARRAY,LIST, use Module VERSION LIST,
402use Module VERSION, use Module LIST, use Module, use VERSION, utime LIST,
403values HASH, vec EXPR,OFFSET,BITS, wait, waitpid PID,FLAGS, wantarray, warn
404LIST, write FILEHANDLE, write EXPR, write, y///
405
406=back
407
408=back
409
4755096e 410=head2 perlreftut - Mark's very short tutorial about references
68dc0745 411
d420ca49 412=over 4
a45bd81d 413
68dc0745
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414=item DESCRIPTION
415
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416=item Who Needs Complicated Data Structures?
417
418=item The Solution
419
420=item Syntax
68dc0745 421
d420ca49 422=over 4
68dc0745 423
4755096e 424=item Making References
46fc3d4c 425
4755096e 426=item Using References
68dc0745 427
4755096e 428=back
68dc0745 429
4755096e 430=item An Example
68dc0745 431
4755096e 432=item Arrow Rule
14218588 433
4755096e 434=item Solution
68dc0745 435
4755096e 436=item The Rest
68dc0745 437
4755096e 438=item Summary
68dc0745 439
4755096e
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440=item Credits
441
d420ca49 442=over 4
4755096e
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443
444=item Distribution Conditions
68dc0745
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445
446=back
447
4755096e
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448=back
449
450=head2 perldsc - Perl Data Structures Cookbook
68dc0745 451
d420ca49 452=over 4
68dc0745 453
4755096e 454=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 455
4755096e
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456arrays of arrays, hashes of arrays, arrays of hashes, hashes of hashes,
457more elaborate constructs
14218588 458
4755096e 459=item REFERENCES
68dc0745 460
4755096e 461=item COMMON MISTAKES
68dc0745 462
4755096e 463=item CAVEAT ON PRECEDENCE
68dc0745 464
4755096e 465=item WHY YOU SHOULD ALWAYS C<use strict>
14218588 466
4755096e 467=item DEBUGGING
68dc0745 468
4755096e 469=item CODE EXAMPLES
68dc0745 470
4755096e 471=item ARRAYS OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 472
d420ca49 473=over 4
68dc0745 474
4755096e 475=item Declaration of a ARRAY OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 476
4755096e 477=item Generation of a ARRAY OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 478
4755096e 479=item Access and Printing of a ARRAY OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 480
4755096e 481=back
68dc0745 482
4755096e 483=item HASHES OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 484
d420ca49 485=over 4
68dc0745 486
4755096e 487=item Declaration of a HASH OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 488
4755096e 489=item Generation of a HASH OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 490
4755096e 491=item Access and Printing of a HASH OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 492
4755096e 493=back
68dc0745 494
4755096e 495=item ARRAYS OF HASHES
68dc0745 496
d420ca49 497=over 4
68dc0745 498
4755096e 499=item Declaration of a ARRAY OF HASHES
68dc0745 500
4755096e 501=item Generation of a ARRAY OF HASHES
68dc0745 502
4755096e 503=item Access and Printing of a ARRAY OF HASHES
14218588 504
4755096e 505=back
68dc0745 506
4755096e 507=item HASHES OF HASHES
68dc0745 508
d420ca49 509=over 4
68dc0745 510
4755096e 511=item Declaration of a HASH OF HASHES
68dc0745 512
4755096e 513=item Generation of a HASH OF HASHES
68dc0745 514
4755096e 515=item Access and Printing of a HASH OF HASHES
68dc0745
PP
516
517=back
518
4755096e 519=item MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
68dc0745 520
d420ca49 521=over 4
68dc0745 522
4755096e 523=item Declaration of MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
14218588 524
4755096e 525=item Declaration of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
68dc0745 526
4755096e 527=item Generation of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
68dc0745 528
4755096e 529=back
68dc0745 530
4755096e 531=item Database Ties
68dc0745 532
4755096e 533=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 534
4755096e 535=item AUTHOR
14218588 536
4755096e 537=back
68dc0745 538
4755096e 539=head2 perlrequick - Perl regular expressions quick start
68dc0745 540
d420ca49 541=over 4
68dc0745 542
4755096e 543=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 544
4755096e 545=item The Guide
68dc0745 546
d420ca49 547=over 4
68dc0745 548
4755096e 549=item Simple word matching
68dc0745 550
4755096e 551=item Using character classes
68dc0745 552
4755096e 553=item Matching this or that
68dc0745 554
4755096e 555=item Grouping things and hierarchical matching
68dc0745 556
4755096e 557=item Extracting matches
68dc0745 558
4755096e 559=item Matching repetitions
68dc0745 560
4755096e 561=item More matching
68dc0745 562
4755096e 563=item Search and replace
68dc0745 564
4755096e 565=item The split operator
68dc0745
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566
567=back
568
4755096e 569=item BUGS
68dc0745 570
4755096e 571=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 572
4755096e 573=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
68dc0745 574
d420ca49 575=over 4
68dc0745 576
4755096e 577=item Acknowledgments
14218588 578
68dc0745
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579=back
580
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581=back
582
c2e66d9e 583=head2 perlpod - plain old documentation
68dc0745 584
d420ca49 585=over 4
a45bd81d 586
68dc0745
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587=item DESCRIPTION
588
d420ca49 589=over 4
68dc0745 590
c2e66d9e 591=item Verbatim Paragraph
68dc0745 592
c2e66d9e 593=item Command Paragraph
68dc0745 594
c2e66d9e 595=item Ordinary Block of Text
68dc0745 596
c2e66d9e 597=item The Intent
68dc0745 598
c2e66d9e 599=item Embedding Pods in Perl Modules
68dc0745 600
c2e66d9e 601=item Common Pod Pitfalls
193fb0af 602
c2e66d9e 603=back
68dc0745 604
c2e66d9e 605=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 606
c2e66d9e 607=item AUTHOR
68dc0745 608
c2e66d9e 609=back
68dc0745 610
c2e66d9e 611=head2 perlstyle - Perl style guide
68dc0745 612
d420ca49 613=over 4
c2e66d9e
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614
615=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 616
4755096e 617=back
68dc0745 618
c2e66d9e 619=head2 perltrap - Perl traps for the unwary
68dc0745 620
d420ca49 621=over 4
68dc0745 622
c2e66d9e 623=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 624
d420ca49 625=over 4
68dc0745 626
c2e66d9e 627=item Awk Traps
68dc0745 628
c2e66d9e 629=item C Traps
4755096e 630
c2e66d9e 631=item Sed Traps
4755096e 632
c2e66d9e 633=item Shell Traps
4755096e 634
c2e66d9e 635=item Perl Traps
68dc0745 636
c2e66d9e 637=item Perl4 to Perl5 Traps
68dc0745 638
c2e66d9e
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639Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps, Parsing Traps, Numerical
640Traps, General data type traps, Context Traps - scalar, list contexts,
641Precedence Traps, General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc,
642Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps, OS Traps, DBM Traps, Unclassified Traps
643
644=item Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps
645
646Discontinuance, Deprecation, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance,
647Discontinuance, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance, BugFix,
648Discontinuance, Deprecation, Discontinuance, Discontinuance
649
650=item Parsing Traps
651
652Parsing, Parsing, Parsing, Parsing
653
654=item Numerical Traps
655
656Numerical, Numerical, Numerical, Bitwise string ops
657
658=item General data type traps
659
660(Arrays), (Arrays), (Hashes), (Globs), (Globs), (Scalar String),
661(Constants), (Scalars), (Variable Suicide)
662
663=item Context Traps - scalar, list contexts
664
665(list context), (scalar context), (scalar context), (list, builtin)
666
667=item Precedence Traps
668
669Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence,
670Precedence
671
672=item General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc.
673
674Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular
675Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression,
676Regular Expression
677
678=item Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps
679
680(Signals), (Sort Subroutine), warn() won't let you specify a filehandle
681
682=item OS Traps
683
684(SysV), (SysV)
685
686=item Interpolation Traps
687
688Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation,
689Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation
690
691=item DBM Traps
692
693DBM, DBM
694
695=item Unclassified Traps
696
697C<require>/C<do> trap using returned value, C<split> on empty string with
698LIMIT specified
68dc0745 699
4755096e 700=back
68dc0745 701
c2e66d9e 702=back
14218588 703
c2e66d9e 704=head2 perlrun - how to execute the Perl interpreter
68dc0745 705
d420ca49 706=over 4
c2e66d9e
GS
707
708=item SYNOPSIS
709
710=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 711
d420ca49 712=over 4
68dc0745 713
c2e66d9e
GS
714=item #! and quoting on non-Unix systems
715
716OS/2, MS-DOS, Win95/NT, Macintosh, VMS
717
718=item Location of Perl
719
720=item Command Switches
721
91e74348 722B<-0>[I<digits>], B<-a>, B<-C>, B<-c>, B<-d>, B<-d:>I<foo[=bar,baz]>,
c2e66d9e
GS
723B<-D>I<letters>, B<-D>I<number>, B<-e> I<commandline>, B<-F>I<pattern>,
724B<-h>, B<-i>[I<extension>], B<-I>I<directory>, B<-l>[I<octnum>],
725B<-m>[B<->]I<module>, B<-M>[B<->]I<module>, B<-M>[B<->]I<'module ...'>,
726B<-[mM]>[B<->]I<module=arg[,arg]...>, B<-n>, B<-p>, B<-P>, B<-s>, B<-S>,
727B<-T>, B<-u>, B<-U>, B<-v>, B<-V>, B<-V:>I<name>, B<-w>, B<-W>, B<-X>,
728B<-x> I<directory>
68dc0745 729
4755096e 730=back
68dc0745 731
c2e66d9e
GS
732=item ENVIRONMENT
733
734HOME, LOGDIR, PATH, PERL5LIB, PERL5OPT, PERLLIB, PERL5DB, PERL5SHELL
735(specific to the Win32 port), PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS, PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL,
736PERL_ROOT (specific to the VMS port), SYS$LOGIN (specific to the VMS port)
737
738=back
739
740=head2 perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
741
d420ca49 742=over 4
c2e66d9e
GS
743
744=item DESCRIPTION
745
4755096e 746=back
68dc0745 747
4755096e 748=head2 perllexwarn - Perl Lexical Warnings
68dc0745 749
d420ca49 750=over 4
68dc0745 751
4755096e 752=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 753
d420ca49 754=over 4
68dc0745 755
4755096e 756=item Default Warnings and Optional Warnings
14218588 757
4755096e 758=item What's wrong with B<-w> and C<$^W>
68dc0745 759
4755096e 760=item Controlling Warnings from the Command Line
68dc0745 761
4755096e 762B<-w>, B<-W>, B<-X>
a45bd81d 763
4755096e 764=item Backward Compatibility
68dc0745 765
4755096e 766=item Category Hierarchy
a45bd81d 767
4755096e 768=item Fatal Warnings
68dc0745 769
4755096e 770=item Reporting Warnings from a Module
68dc0745 771
4755096e 772=back
68dc0745 773
4755096e 774=item TODO
68dc0745 775
4755096e 776=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 777
4755096e 778=item AUTHOR
68dc0745 779
4755096e 780=back
68dc0745 781
10862624
RF
782=head2 perldebtut - Perl debugging tutorial
783
d420ca49 784=over 4
10862624
RF
785
786=item DESCRIPTION
787
788=item use strict
789
d396a558
JH
790=item Looking at data and -w and w
791
792=item help
10862624
RF
793
794=item Stepping through code
795
796=item Placeholder for a, w, t, T
797
d396a558 798=item REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
10862624 799
d396a558 800=item OUTPUT TIPS
10862624
RF
801
802=item CGI
803
804=item GUIs
805
d396a558 806=item SUMMARY
10862624
RF
807
808=item SEE ALSO
809
810=item AUTHOR
811
812=item CONTRIBUTORS
813
814=back
815
4755096e 816=head2 perldebug - Perl debugging
68dc0745 817
d420ca49 818=over 4
68dc0745 819
4755096e 820=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 821
4755096e 822=item The Perl Debugger
68dc0745 823
d420ca49 824=over 4
68dc0745 825
4755096e 826=item Debugger Commands
68dc0745 827
4755096e
GS
828h [command], p expr, x expr, V [pkg [vars]], X [vars], T, s [expr], n
829[expr], r, <CR>, c [line|sub], l, l min+incr, l min-max, l line, l subname,
830-, w [line], f filename, /pattern/, ?pattern?, L, S [[!]regex], t, t expr,
831b [line] [condition], b subname [condition], b postpone subname
832[condition], b load filename, b compile subname, d [line], D, a [line]
833command, a [line], A, W expr, W, O booloption .., O anyoption? .., O
834option=value .., < ?, < [ command ], << command, > ?, > command, >>
835command, { ?, { [ command ], {{ command, ! number, ! -number, ! pattern, !!
836cmd, H -number, q or ^D, R, |dbcmd, ||dbcmd, command, m expr, man [manpage]
68dc0745 837
4755096e 838=item Configurable Options
68dc0745 839
4755096e
GS
840C<recallCommand>, C<ShellBang>, C<pager>, C<tkRunning>, C<signalLevel>,
841C<warnLevel>, C<dieLevel>, C<AutoTrace>, C<LineInfo>, C<inhibit_exit>,
a6fb92f1
JH
842C<PrintRet>, C<ornaments>, C<frame>, C<maxTraceLen>, C<windowSize>,
843C<arrayDepth>, C<hashDepth>, C<compactDump>, C<veryCompact>, C<globPrint>,
844C<DumpDBFiles>, C<DumpPackages>, C<DumpReused>, C<quote>, C<HighBit>,
845C<undefPrint>, C<UsageOnly>, C<TTY>, C<noTTY>, C<ReadLine>, C<NonStop>
68dc0745 846
4755096e 847=item Debugger input/output
68dc0745 848
4755096e
GS
849Prompt, Multiline commands, Stack backtrace, Line Listing Format, Frame
850listing
68dc0745 851
4755096e 852=item Debugging compile-time statements
68dc0745 853
4755096e 854=item Debugger Customization
68dc0745 855
4755096e 856=item Readline Support
68dc0745 857
4755096e 858=item Editor Support for Debugging
68dc0745 859
4755096e 860=item The Perl Profiler
68dc0745 861
4755096e 862=back
68dc0745 863
4755096e 864=item Debugging regular expressions
68dc0745 865
4755096e 866=item Debugging memory usage
14218588 867
4755096e 868=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 869
4755096e 870=item BUGS
68dc0745 871
a45bd81d
GS
872=back
873
c2e66d9e 874=head2 perlvar - Perl predefined variables
68dc0745 875
d420ca49 876=over 4
a45bd81d 877
68dc0745
PP
878=item DESCRIPTION
879
d420ca49 880=over 4
68dc0745 881
c2e66d9e 882=item Predefined Names
68dc0745 883
640374d0 884$ARG, $_, $a, $b, $<I<digits>>, $MATCH, $&, $PREMATCH, $`, $POSTMATCH, $',
354a27bf 885$LAST_PAREN_MATCH, $+, $^N, @LAST_MATCH_END, @+, $MULTILINE_MATCHING, $*,
c2e66d9e 886input_line_number HANDLE EXPR, $INPUT_LINE_NUMBER, $NR, $,
2a2bf5f4
JH
887IO::Handle->input_record_separator EXPR, $INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $RS, $/,
888autoflush HANDLE EXPR, $OUTPUT_AUTOFLUSH, $|,
889IO::Handle->output_field_separator EXPR, $OUTPUT_FIELD_SEPARATOR, $OFS, $,,
890IO::Handle->output_record_separator EXPR, $OUTPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $ORS,
891$\, $LIST_SEPARATOR, $", $SUBSCRIPT_SEPARATOR, $SUBSEP, $;, $OFMT, $#,
892format_page_number HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_PAGE_NUMBER, $%,
893format_lines_per_page HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_LINES_PER_PAGE, $=,
894format_lines_left HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_LINES_LEFT, $-, @LAST_MATCH_START,
895@-, C<$`> is the same as C<substr($var, 0, $-[0])>, C<$&> is the same as
896C<substr($var, $-[0], $+[0] - $-[0])>, C<$'> is the same as C<substr($var,
897$+[0])>, C<$1> is the same as C<substr($var, $-[1], $+[1] - $-[1])>, C<$2>
898is the same as C<substr($var, $-[2], $+[2] - $-[2])>, C<$3> is the same as
899C<substr $var, $-[3], $+[3] - $-[3])>, format_name HANDLE EXPR,
900$FORMAT_NAME, $~, format_top_name HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_TOP_NAME, $^,
901IO::Handle->format_line_break_characters EXPR,
902$FORMAT_LINE_BREAK_CHARACTERS, $:, IO::Handle->format_formfeed EXPR,
903$FORMAT_FORMFEED, $^L, $ACCUMULATOR, $^A, $CHILD_ERROR, $?, $OS_ERROR,
904$ERRNO, $!, $EXTENDED_OS_ERROR, $^E, $EVAL_ERROR, $@, $PROCESS_ID, $PID,
905$$, $REAL_USER_ID, $UID, $<, $EFFECTIVE_USER_ID, $EUID, $>, $REAL_GROUP_ID,
906$GID, $(, $EFFECTIVE_GROUP_ID, $EGID, $), $PROGRAM_NAME, $0, $[, $],
907$COMPILING, $^C, $DEBUGGING, $^D, $SYSTEM_FD_MAX, $^F, $^H, %^H,
908$INPLACE_EDIT, $^I, $^M, $OSNAME, $^O, $PERLDB, $^P, 0x01, 0x02, 0x04,
9090x08, 0x10, 0x20, 0x40, 0x80, 0x100, 0x200, $LAST_REGEXP_CODE_RESULT, $^R,
910$EXCEPTIONS_BEING_CAUGHT, $^S, $BASETIME, $^T, $PERL_VERSION, $^V,
911$WARNING, $^W, ${^WARNING_BITS}, ${^WIDE_SYSTEM_CALLS}, $EXECUTABLE_NAME,
912$^X, $ARGV, @ARGV, @F, @INC, @_, %INC, %ENV, $ENV{expr}, %SIG, $SIG{expr}
68dc0745 913
c2e66d9e 914=item Error Indicators
68dc0745 915
c2e66d9e 916=item Technical Note on the Syntax of Variable Names
4755096e 917
c2e66d9e
GS
918=back
919
920=item BUGS
4755096e
GS
921
922=back
923
c2e66d9e 924=head2 perllol - Manipulating Arrays of Arrays in Perl
4755096e 925
d420ca49 926=over 4
c2e66d9e
GS
927
928=item DESCRIPTION
929
4d4e713d
JH
930=over 4
931
c2e66d9e
GS
932=item Declaration and Access of Arrays of Arrays
933
934=item Growing Your Own
935
936=item Access and Printing
937
938=item Slices
939
4d4e713d
JH
940=back
941
c2e66d9e
GS
942=item SEE ALSO
943
944=item AUTHOR
4755096e
GS
945
946=back
947
c2e66d9e 948=head2 perlopentut - tutorial on opening things in Perl
4755096e 949
d420ca49 950=over 4
4755096e
GS
951
952=item DESCRIPTION
953
c2e66d9e
GS
954=item Open E<agrave> la shell
955
d420ca49 956=over 4
4755096e 957
c2e66d9e 958=item Simple Opens
4755096e 959
c2e66d9e 960=item Pipe Opens
4755096e 961
c2e66d9e 962=item The Minus File
4755096e 963
c2e66d9e 964=item Mixing Reads and Writes
4755096e
GS
965
966=item Filters
967
968=back
969
970=item Open E<agrave> la C
971
d420ca49 972=over 4
4755096e
GS
973
974=item Permissions E<agrave> la mode
975
976=back
977
978=item Obscure Open Tricks
979
d420ca49 980=over 4
4755096e
GS
981
982=item Re-Opening Files (dups)
983
984=item Dispelling the Dweomer
985
986=item Paths as Opens
987
988=item Single Argument Open
989
990=item Playing with STDIN and STDOUT
991
992=back
993
994=item Other I/O Issues
995
d420ca49 996=over 4
4755096e
GS
997
998=item Opening Non-File Files
999
1000=item Binary Files
1001
1002=item File Locking
1003
1004=back
1005
1006=item SEE ALSO
1007
1008=item AUTHOR and COPYRIGHT
1009
1010=item HISTORY
1011
1012=back
1013
c2e66d9e 1014=head2 perlretut - Perl regular expressions tutorial
4755096e 1015
d420ca49 1016=over 4
4755096e
GS
1017
1018=item DESCRIPTION
1019
c2e66d9e 1020=item Part 1: The basics
4755096e 1021
d420ca49 1022=over 4
4755096e 1023
c2e66d9e 1024=item Simple word matching
4755096e 1025
c2e66d9e 1026=item Using character classes
4755096e 1027
c2e66d9e 1028=item Matching this or that
4755096e 1029
c2e66d9e 1030=item Grouping things and hierarchical matching
4755096e 1031
c2e66d9e 1032=item Extracting matches
4755096e 1033
c2e66d9e 1034=item Matching repetitions
4755096e 1035
c2e66d9e 1036=item Building a regexp
4755096e 1037
c2e66d9e 1038=item Using regular expressions in Perl
4755096e 1039
c2e66d9e 1040=back
4755096e 1041
c2e66d9e 1042=item Part 2: Power tools
4755096e 1043
d420ca49 1044=over 4
4755096e 1045
c2e66d9e 1046=item More on characters, strings, and character classes
4755096e 1047
c2e66d9e 1048=item Compiling and saving regular expressions
4755096e 1049
c2e66d9e 1050=item Embedding comments and modifiers in a regular expression
4755096e 1051
c2e66d9e 1052=item Non-capturing groupings
4755096e 1053
c2e66d9e 1054=item Looking ahead and looking behind
4755096e 1055
c2e66d9e 1056=item Using independent subexpressions to prevent backtracking
4755096e 1057
c2e66d9e 1058=item Conditional expressions
4755096e 1059
c2e66d9e 1060=item A bit of magic: executing Perl code in a regular expression
4755096e 1061
c2e66d9e 1062=item Pragmas and debugging
4755096e
GS
1063
1064=back
1065
c2e66d9e 1066=item BUGS
4755096e 1067
c2e66d9e 1068=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 1069
c2e66d9e 1070=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
4755096e 1071
d420ca49 1072=over 4
4755096e 1073
c2e66d9e 1074=item Acknowledgments
4755096e
GS
1075
1076=back
1077
4755096e
GS
1078=back
1079
c2e66d9e 1080=head2 perlre - Perl regular expressions
4755096e 1081
d420ca49 1082=over 4
4755096e
GS
1083
1084=item DESCRIPTION
1085
c2e66d9e 1086i, m, s, x
4755096e 1087
d420ca49 1088=over 4
4755096e 1089
c2e66d9e 1090=item Regular Expressions
4755096e 1091
c2e66d9e 1092cntrl, graph, print, punct, xdigit
4755096e 1093
c2e66d9e 1094=item Extended Patterns
4755096e 1095
c2e66d9e
GS
1096C<(?#text)>, C<(?imsx-imsx)>, C<(?:pattern)>, C<(?imsx-imsx:pattern)>,
1097C<(?=pattern)>, C<(?!pattern)>, C<(?<=pattern)>, C<(?<!pattern)>, C<(?{
1098code })>, C<(??{ code })>, C<< (?>pattern) >>,
1099C<(?(condition)yes-pattern|no-pattern)>, C<(?(condition)yes-pattern)>
4755096e 1100
c2e66d9e 1101=item Backtracking
4755096e 1102
c2e66d9e 1103=item Version 8 Regular Expressions
4755096e 1104
c2e66d9e 1105=item Warning on \1 vs $1
4755096e 1106
c2e66d9e
GS
1107=item Repeated patterns matching zero-length substring
1108
1109=item Combining pieces together
1110
1111C<ST>, C<S|T>, C<S{REPEAT_COUNT}>, C<S{min,max}>, C<S{min,max}?>, C<S?>,
1112C<S*>, C<S+>, C<S??>, C<S*?>, C<S+?>, C<< (?>S) >>, C<(?=S)>, C<(?<=S)>,
1113C<(?!S)>, C<(?<!S)>, C<(??{ EXPR })>,
1114C<(?(condition)yes-pattern|no-pattern)>
1115
1116=item Creating custom RE engines
4755096e
GS
1117
1118=back
1119
c2e66d9e 1120=item BUGS
4755096e 1121
c2e66d9e 1122=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 1123
c2e66d9e
GS
1124=back
1125
d396a558
JH
1126=head2 perlref - Perl references and nested data structures
1127
d420ca49 1128=over 4
d396a558
JH
1129
1130=item NOTE
1131
1132=item DESCRIPTION
1133
d420ca49 1134=over 4
d396a558
JH
1135
1136=item Making References
1137
1138=item Using References
1139
1140=item Symbolic references
1141
1142=item Not-so-symbolic references
1143
1144=item Pseudo-hashes: Using an array as a hash
1145
1146=item Function Templates
1147
1148=back
1149
1150=item WARNING
1151
1152=item SEE ALSO
1153
1154=back
1155
c2e66d9e 1156=head2 perlform - Perl formats
4755096e 1157
d420ca49 1158=over 4
4755096e 1159
c2e66d9e 1160=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 1161
d420ca49 1162=over 4
4755096e 1163
c2e66d9e 1164=item Format Variables
4755096e 1165
c2e66d9e 1166=back
4755096e 1167
c2e66d9e 1168=item NOTES
4755096e 1169
d420ca49 1170=over 4
c2e66d9e
GS
1171
1172=item Footers
1173
1174=item Accessing Formatting Internals
4755096e
GS
1175
1176=back
1177
c2e66d9e 1178=item WARNINGS
4755096e
GS
1179
1180=back
1181
d396a558 1182=head2 perlboot - Beginner's Object-Oriented Tutorial
4755096e 1183
d420ca49 1184=over 4
4755096e
GS
1185
1186=item DESCRIPTION
1187
d420ca49 1188=over 4
c2e66d9e 1189
d396a558
JH
1190=item If we could talk to the animals...
1191
1192=item Introducing the method invocation arrow
1193
1194=item Invoking a barnyard
1195
1196=item The extra parameter of method invocation
1197
1198=item Calling a second method to simplify things
1199
1200=item Inheriting the windpipes
1201
1202=item A few notes about @ISA
1203
1204=item Overriding the methods
1205
1206=item Starting the search from a different place
1207
1208=item The SUPER way of doing things
1209
1210=item Where we're at so far...
1211
1212=item A horse is a horse, of course of course -- or is it?
1213
1214=item Invoking an instance method
1215
1216=item Accessing the instance data
1217
1218=item How to build a horse
1219
1220=item Inheriting the constructor
1221
1222=item Making a method work with either classes or instances
1223
1224=item Adding parameters to a method
1225
1226=item More interesting instances
1227
1228=item A horse of a different color
1229
1230=item Summary
1231
1232=back
1233
1234=item SEE ALSO
1235
1236=item COPYRIGHT
1237
1238=back
1239
1240=head2 perltoot - Tom's object-oriented tutorial for perl
c2e66d9e 1241
d420ca49 1242=over 4
4755096e 1243
d396a558 1244=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 1245
d396a558 1246=item Creating a Class
4755096e 1247
d420ca49 1248=over 4
4755096e 1249
d396a558 1250=item Object Representation
4755096e 1251
d396a558 1252=item Class Interface
4755096e 1253
d396a558 1254=item Constructors and Instance Methods
c2e66d9e 1255
d396a558 1256=item Planning for the Future: Better Constructors
c2e66d9e 1257
d396a558 1258=item Destructors
c2e66d9e 1259
d396a558 1260=item Other Object Methods
4755096e
GS
1261
1262=back
1263
d396a558 1264=item Class Data
4755096e 1265
d420ca49 1266=over 4
4755096e 1267
d396a558 1268=item Accessing Class Data
4755096e 1269
d396a558 1270=item Debugging Methods
4755096e 1271
d396a558 1272=item Class Destructors
4755096e 1273
d396a558 1274=item Documenting the Interface
4755096e 1275
d396a558 1276=back
4755096e 1277
d396a558
JH
1278=item Aggregation
1279
1280=item Inheritance
1281
d420ca49 1282=over 4
d396a558
JH
1283
1284=item Overridden Methods
1285
1286=item Multiple Inheritance
1287
1288=item UNIVERSAL: The Root of All Objects
4755096e 1289
c2e66d9e 1290=back
4755096e 1291
d396a558 1292=item Alternate Object Representations
4755096e 1293
d420ca49 1294=over 4
4755096e 1295
d396a558 1296=item Arrays as Objects
4755096e 1297
d396a558
JH
1298=item Closures as Objects
1299
1300=back
1301
1302=item AUTOLOAD: Proxy Methods
1303
d420ca49 1304=over 4
d396a558
JH
1305
1306=item Autoloaded Data Methods
1307
1308=item Inherited Autoloaded Data Methods
1309
1310=back
1311
1312=item Metaclassical Tools
1313
d420ca49 1314=over 4
d396a558
JH
1315
1316=item Class::Struct
1317
1318=item Data Members as Variables
4755096e 1319
d420ca49
AD
1320=back
1321
c2e66d9e 1322=item NOTES
4755096e 1323
d420ca49
AD
1324=over 4
1325
d396a558
JH
1326=item Object Terminology
1327
1328=back
1329
1330=item SEE ALSO
1331
1332=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
1333
1334=item COPYRIGHT
1335
d420ca49 1336=over 4
c2e66d9e 1337
d396a558 1338=item Acknowledgments
c2e66d9e 1339
d396a558 1340=back
c2e66d9e 1341
d396a558 1342=back
c2e66d9e 1343
d396a558 1344=head2 perltootc - Tom's OO Tutorial for Class Data in Perl
c2e66d9e 1345
d420ca49 1346=over 4
c2e66d9e 1347
d396a558 1348=item DESCRIPTION
c2e66d9e 1349
dc5c060f
JH
1350=item Class Data in a Can
1351
d396a558
JH
1352=item Class Data as Package Variables
1353
d420ca49 1354=over 4
d396a558
JH
1355
1356=item Putting All Your Eggs in One Basket
1357
1358=item Inheritance Concerns
1359
1360=item The Eponymous Meta-Object
1361
1362=item Indirect References to Class Data
1363
1364=item Monadic Classes
1365
1366=item Translucent Attributes
4755096e
GS
1367
1368=back
1369
d396a558 1370=item Class Data as Lexical Variables
4755096e 1371
d420ca49 1372=over 4
4755096e 1373
d396a558
JH
1374=item Privacy and Responsibility
1375
1376=item File-Scoped Lexicals
1377
1378=item More Inheritance Concerns
1379
1380=item Locking the Door and Throwing Away the Key
1381
1382=item Translucency Revisited
4755096e 1383
c2e66d9e 1384=back
4755096e 1385
d396a558
JH
1386=item NOTES
1387
c2e66d9e 1388=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 1389
d396a558
JH
1390=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
1391
1392=item ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
1393
c2e66d9e 1394=item HISTORY
4755096e 1395
c2e66d9e 1396=back
4755096e 1397
d396a558 1398=head2 perlobj - Perl objects
4755096e 1399
d420ca49 1400=over 4
4755096e 1401
c2e66d9e 1402=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 1403
d420ca49 1404=over 4
4755096e 1405
d396a558 1406=item An Object is Simply a Reference
4755096e 1407
d396a558 1408=item A Class is Simply a Package
4755096e 1409
d396a558 1410=item A Method is Simply a Subroutine
4755096e 1411
d396a558 1412=item Method Invocation
4755096e 1413
bd28ded5 1414=item Indirect Object Syntax
d396a558
JH
1415
1416=item Default UNIVERSAL methods
1417
1418isa(CLASS), can(METHOD), VERSION( [NEED] )
1419
1420=item Destructors
1421
1422=item Summary
1423
1424=item Two-Phased Garbage Collection
4755096e 1425
c2e66d9e 1426=back
4755096e 1427
d396a558
JH
1428=item SEE ALSO
1429
1430=back
1431
1432=head2 perlbot - Bag'o Object Tricks (the BOT)
1433
d420ca49 1434=over 4
d396a558
JH
1435
1436=item DESCRIPTION
1437
1438=item OO SCALING TIPS
1439
1440=item INSTANCE VARIABLES
1441
1442=item SCALAR INSTANCE VARIABLES
1443
1444=item INSTANCE VARIABLE INHERITANCE
1445
1446=item OBJECT RELATIONSHIPS
1447
1448=item OVERRIDING SUPERCLASS METHODS
1449
1450=item USING RELATIONSHIP WITH SDBM
1451
1452=item THINKING OF CODE REUSE
1453
1454=item CLASS CONTEXT AND THE OBJECT
1455
1456=item INHERITING A CONSTRUCTOR
1457
1458=item DELEGATION
1459
1460=back
1461
1462=head2 perltie - how to hide an object class in a simple variable
1463
d420ca49 1464=over 4
d396a558
JH
1465
1466=item SYNOPSIS
1467
1468=item DESCRIPTION
1469
d420ca49 1470=over 4
d396a558
JH
1471
1472=item Tying Scalars
1473
93d73c42
JH
1474TIESCALAR classname, LIST, FETCH this, STORE this, value, UNTIE this,
1475DESTROY this
d396a558
JH
1476
1477=item Tying Arrays
1478
1479TIEARRAY classname, LIST, FETCH this, index, STORE this, index, value,
165c0277
JH
1480FETCHSIZE this, STORESIZE this, count, EXTEND this, count, EXISTS this,
1481key, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this, PUSH this, LIST, POP this, SHIFT this,
1482UNSHIFT this, LIST, SPLICE this, offset, length, LIST, UNTIE this, DESTROY
1483this
d396a558
JH
1484
1485=item Tying Hashes
1486
1487USER, HOME, CLOBBER, LIST, TIEHASH classname, LIST, FETCH this, key, STORE
1488this, key, value, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this, EXISTS this, key, FIRSTKEY
93d73c42 1489this, NEXTKEY this, lastkey, UNTIE this, DESTROY this
d396a558
JH
1490
1491=item Tying FileHandles
1492
1493TIEHANDLE classname, LIST, WRITE this, LIST, PRINT this, LIST, PRINTF this,
93d73c42
JH
1494LIST, READ this, LIST, READLINE this, GETC this, CLOSE this, UNTIE this,
1495DESTROY this
d396a558 1496
9fa7f388
JH
1497=item UNTIE this
1498
d396a558
JH
1499=item The C<untie> Gotcha
1500
1501=back
4755096e 1502
c2e66d9e 1503=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 1504
d396a558
JH
1505=item BUGS
1506
1507=item AUTHOR
1508
c2e66d9e 1509=back
4755096e 1510
c2e66d9e
GS
1511=head2 perlipc - Perl interprocess communication (signals, fifos, pipes,
1512safe subprocesses, sockets, and semaphores)
4755096e 1513
d420ca49 1514=over 4
4755096e 1515
c2e66d9e 1516=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 1517
c2e66d9e 1518=item Signals
4755096e 1519
c2e66d9e 1520=item Named Pipes
4755096e 1521
d420ca49 1522=over 4
4755096e 1523
c2e66d9e 1524=item WARNING
4755096e 1525
c2e66d9e 1526=back
4755096e 1527
c2e66d9e 1528=item Using open() for IPC
4755096e 1529
d420ca49 1530=over 4
4755096e 1531
c2e66d9e 1532=item Filehandles
4755096e 1533
c2e66d9e 1534=item Background Processes
4755096e 1535
c2e66d9e 1536=item Complete Dissociation of Child from Parent
4755096e 1537
c2e66d9e 1538=item Safe Pipe Opens
4755096e 1539
c2e66d9e 1540=item Bidirectional Communication with Another Process
4755096e 1541
c2e66d9e 1542=item Bidirectional Communication with Yourself
4755096e
GS
1543
1544=back
1545
c2e66d9e 1546=item Sockets: Client/Server Communication
4755096e 1547
d420ca49 1548=over 4
4755096e 1549
c2e66d9e 1550=item Internet Line Terminators
4755096e 1551
c2e66d9e 1552=item Internet TCP Clients and Servers
4755096e 1553
c2e66d9e
GS
1554=item Unix-Domain TCP Clients and Servers
1555
1556=back
1557
1558=item TCP Clients with IO::Socket
4755096e 1559
d420ca49 1560=over 4
4755096e 1561
c2e66d9e 1562=item A Simple Client
4755096e 1563
c2e66d9e 1564C<Proto>, C<PeerAddr>, C<PeerPort>
4755096e 1565
c2e66d9e 1566=item A Webget Client
4755096e 1567
c2e66d9e 1568=item Interactive Client with IO::Socket
4755096e 1569
c2e66d9e 1570=back
4755096e 1571
c2e66d9e 1572=item TCP Servers with IO::Socket
4755096e 1573
c2e66d9e 1574Proto, LocalPort, Listen, Reuse
4755096e 1575
c2e66d9e 1576=item UDP: Message Passing
4755096e 1577
c2e66d9e 1578=item SysV IPC
4755096e 1579
c2e66d9e 1580=item NOTES
4755096e 1581
c2e66d9e 1582=item BUGS
4755096e 1583
c2e66d9e 1584=item AUTHOR
4755096e 1585
c2e66d9e 1586=item SEE ALSO
4755096e
GS
1587
1588=back
1589
bd28ded5 1590=head2 perlfork - Perl's fork() emulation (EXPERIMENTAL, subject to change)
4755096e 1591
d420ca49 1592=over 4
4755096e 1593
c2e66d9e
GS
1594=item SYNOPSIS
1595
1596=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 1597
d420ca49 1598=over 4
4755096e 1599
c2e66d9e 1600=item Behavior of other Perl features in forked pseudo-processes
4755096e 1601
c2e66d9e
GS
1602$$ or $PROCESS_ID, %ENV, chdir() and all other builtins that accept
1603filenames, wait() and waitpid(), kill(), exec(), exit(), Open handles to
1604files, directories and network sockets
4755096e 1605
c2e66d9e 1606=item Resource limits
4755096e 1607
c2e66d9e 1608=item Killing the parent process
4755096e 1609
c2e66d9e 1610=item Lifetime of the parent process and pseudo-processes
4755096e 1611
c2e66d9e 1612=item CAVEATS AND LIMITATIONS
4755096e 1613
c2e66d9e
GS
1614BEGIN blocks, Open filehandles, Forking pipe open() not yet implemented,
1615Global state maintained by XSUBs, Interpreter embedded in larger
1616application, Thread-safety of extensions
4755096e 1617
c2e66d9e 1618=back
4755096e 1619
c2e66d9e
GS
1620=item BUGS
1621
1622=item AUTHOR
1623
1624=item SEE ALSO
4755096e
GS
1625
1626=back
1627
c2e66d9e 1628=head2 perlnumber - semantics of numbers and numeric operations in Perl
4755096e 1629
d420ca49 1630=over 4
4755096e 1631
c2e66d9e 1632=item SYNOPSIS
4755096e 1633
c2e66d9e 1634=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 1635
c2e66d9e 1636=item Storing numbers
4755096e 1637
c2e66d9e 1638=item Numeric operators and numeric conversions
4755096e 1639
c2e66d9e 1640=item Flavors of Perl numeric operations
4755096e 1641
c2e66d9e
GS
1642Arithmetic operators except, C<no integer>, Arithmetic operators except,
1643C<use integer>, Bitwise operators, C<no integer>, Bitwise operators, C<use
1644integer>, Operators which expect an integer, Operators which expect a
1645string
4755096e 1646
c2e66d9e 1647=item AUTHOR
4755096e 1648
c2e66d9e 1649=item SEE ALSO
4755096e
GS
1650
1651=back
1652
c2e66d9e 1653=head2 perlthrtut - tutorial on threads in Perl
4755096e 1654
d420ca49 1655=over 4
4755096e
GS
1656
1657=item DESCRIPTION
1658
c2e66d9e 1659=item What Is A Thread Anyway?
4755096e 1660
c2e66d9e 1661=item Threaded Program Models
4755096e 1662
d420ca49 1663=over 4
4755096e 1664
c2e66d9e 1665=item Boss/Worker
4755096e 1666
c2e66d9e 1667=item Work Crew
4755096e 1668
c2e66d9e 1669=item Pipeline
4755096e
GS
1670
1671=back
1672
c2e66d9e 1673=item Native threads
4755096e 1674
c2e66d9e 1675=item What kind of threads are perl threads?
4755096e 1676
c2e66d9e 1677=item Threadsafe Modules
4755096e 1678
c2e66d9e 1679=item Thread Basics
4755096e 1680
d420ca49 1681=over 4
4755096e 1682
c2e66d9e 1683=item Basic Thread Support
4755096e 1684
c2e66d9e 1685=item Creating Threads
4755096e 1686
c2e66d9e 1687=item Giving up control
4755096e 1688
c2e66d9e 1689=item Waiting For A Thread To Exit
4755096e 1690
c2e66d9e 1691=item Errors In Threads
4755096e 1692
c2e66d9e 1693=item Ignoring A Thread
4755096e
GS
1694
1695=back
1696
c2e66d9e 1697=item Threads And Data
4755096e 1698
d420ca49 1699=over 4
4755096e 1700
c2e66d9e 1701=item Shared And Unshared Data
4755096e 1702
c2e66d9e 1703=item Thread Pitfall: Races
4755096e 1704
c2e66d9e 1705=item Controlling access: lock()
4755096e 1706
c2e66d9e 1707=item Thread Pitfall: Deadlocks
4755096e 1708
c2e66d9e 1709=item Queues: Passing Data Around
4755096e 1710
c2e66d9e 1711=back
4755096e 1712
c2e66d9e 1713=item Threads And Code
4755096e 1714
d420ca49 1715=over 4
4755096e 1716
c2e66d9e 1717=item Semaphores: Synchronizing Data Access
4755096e 1718
c2e66d9e 1719Basic semaphores, Advanced Semaphores
4755096e 1720
c2e66d9e 1721=item Attributes: Restricting Access To Subroutines
4755096e 1722
c2e66d9e 1723=item Subroutine Locks
4755096e 1724
c2e66d9e 1725=item Methods
4755096e 1726
c2e66d9e 1727=item Locking A Subroutine
4755096e
GS
1728
1729=back
1730
c2e66d9e 1731=item General Thread Utility Routines
4755096e 1732
d420ca49 1733=over 4
4755096e 1734
c2e66d9e 1735=item What Thread Am I In?
4755096e 1736
c2e66d9e 1737=item Thread IDs
4755096e 1738
c2e66d9e 1739=item Are These Threads The Same?
4755096e 1740
c2e66d9e 1741=item What Threads Are Running?
4755096e 1742
c2e66d9e 1743=back
4755096e 1744
c2e66d9e 1745=item A Complete Example
4755096e 1746
c2e66d9e 1747=item Conclusion
4755096e 1748
c2e66d9e 1749=item Bibliography
4755096e 1750
d420ca49 1751=over 4
4755096e 1752
c2e66d9e 1753=item Introductory Texts
4755096e 1754
c2e66d9e 1755=item OS-Related References
4755096e 1756
c2e66d9e 1757=item Other References
4755096e
GS
1758
1759=back
1760
c2e66d9e 1761=item Acknowledgements
4755096e 1762
c2e66d9e 1763=item AUTHOR
4755096e 1764
c2e66d9e 1765=item Copyrights
4755096e 1766
c2e66d9e 1767=back
4755096e 1768
c2e66d9e 1769=head2 perlport - Writing portable Perl
4755096e 1770
d420ca49 1771=over 4
4755096e 1772
c2e66d9e 1773=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 1774
c2e66d9e
GS
1775Not all Perl programs have to be portable, Nearly all of Perl already I<is>
1776portable
4755096e 1777
c2e66d9e 1778=item ISSUES
4755096e 1779
d420ca49 1780=over 4
4755096e 1781
c2e66d9e 1782=item Newlines
4755096e 1783
c2e66d9e 1784=item Numbers endianness and Width
4755096e 1785
c2e66d9e 1786=item Files and Filesystems
4755096e 1787
c2e66d9e 1788=item System Interaction
4755096e 1789
c2e66d9e 1790=item Interprocess Communication (IPC)
4755096e 1791
c2e66d9e 1792=item External Subroutines (XS)
4755096e 1793
c2e66d9e 1794=item Standard Modules
4755096e 1795
c2e66d9e 1796=item Time and Date
4755096e 1797
c2e66d9e 1798=item Character sets and character encoding
4755096e 1799
c2e66d9e 1800=item Internationalisation
4755096e 1801
c2e66d9e 1802=item System Resources
4755096e 1803
c2e66d9e 1804=item Security
4755096e 1805
c2e66d9e 1806=item Style
4755096e
GS
1807
1808=back
1809
c2e66d9e 1810=item CPAN Testers
4755096e 1811
c2e66d9e
GS
1812Mailing list: cpan-testers@perl.org, Testing results:
1813http://testers.cpan.org/
4755096e 1814
c2e66d9e 1815=item PLATFORMS
4755096e 1816
d420ca49 1817=over 4
4755096e 1818
c2e66d9e 1819=item Unix
4755096e 1820
c2e66d9e 1821=item DOS and Derivatives
4755096e 1822
c2e66d9e 1823=item S<Mac OS>
4755096e 1824
c2e66d9e 1825=item VMS
4755096e 1826
c2e66d9e 1827=item VOS
4755096e 1828
c2e66d9e 1829=item EBCDIC Platforms
4755096e 1830
c2e66d9e 1831=item Acorn RISC OS
4755096e 1832
c2e66d9e 1833=item Other perls
4755096e
GS
1834
1835=back
1836
c2e66d9e 1837=item FUNCTION IMPLEMENTATIONS
4755096e 1838
d420ca49 1839=over 4
4755096e 1840
c2e66d9e
GS
1841=item Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions
1842
1843-I<X> FILEHANDLE, -I<X> EXPR, -I<X>, alarm SECONDS, alarm, binmode
1844FILEHANDLE, chmod LIST, chown LIST, chroot FILENAME, chroot, crypt
1845PLAINTEXT,SALT, dbmclose HASH, dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MODE, dump LABEL, exec
1846LIST, fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, flock FILEHANDLE,OPERATION, fork,
1847getlogin, getpgrp PID, getppid, getpriority WHICH,WHO, getpwnam NAME,
1848getgrnam NAME, getnetbyname NAME, getpwuid UID, getgrgid GID, getnetbyaddr
1849ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getprotobynumber NUMBER, getservbyport PORT,PROTO, getpwent,
1850getgrent, gethostent, getnetent, getprotoent, getservent, setpwent,
1851setgrent, sethostent STAYOPEN, setnetent STAYOPEN, setprotoent STAYOPEN,
1852setservent STAYOPEN, endpwent, endgrent, endhostent, endnetent,
758a5d79
JH
1853endprotoent, endservent, exit EXPR, exit, getsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,
1854glob EXPR, glob, ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, kill SIGNAL, LIST, link
1855OLDFILE,NEWFILE, lstat FILEHANDLE, lstat EXPR, lstat, msgctl ID,CMD,ARG,
1856msgget KEY,FLAGS, msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS, msgrcv ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS, open
1857FILEHANDLE,EXPR, open FILEHANDLE, pipe READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE, readlink
1858EXPR, readlink, select RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIMEOUT, semctl ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG,
1859semget KEY,NSEMS,FLAGS, semop KEY,OPSTRING, setgrent, setpgrp PID,PGRP,
c2e66d9e
GS
1860setpriority WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY, setpwent, setsockopt
1861SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,OPTVAL, shmctl ID,CMD,ARG, shmget KEY,SIZE,FLAGS,
80cbd5ad
JH
1862shmread ID,VAR,POS,SIZE, shmwrite ID,STRING,POS,SIZE, sockatmark SOCKET,
1863socketpair SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, stat FILEHANDLE, stat
1864EXPR, stat, symlink OLDFILE,NEWFILE, syscall LIST, sysopen
d396a558
JH
1865FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE,PERMS, system LIST, times, truncate
1866FILEHANDLE,LENGTH, truncate EXPR,LENGTH, umask EXPR, umask, utime LIST,
1867wait, waitpid PID,FLAGS
4755096e 1868
d396a558 1869=back
4755096e 1870
d396a558 1871=item CHANGES
4755096e 1872
603b90a8
JH
1873v1.48, 02 February 2001, v1.47, 22 March 2000, v1.46, 12 February 2000,
1874v1.45, 20 December 1999, v1.44, 19 July 1999, v1.43, 24 May 1999, v1.42, 22
1875May 1999, v1.41, 19 May 1999, v1.40, 11 April 1999, v1.39, 11 February
18761999, v1.38, 31 December 1998, v1.37, 19 December 1998, v1.36, 9 September
18771998, v1.35, 13 August 1998, v1.33, 06 August 1998, v1.32, 05 August 1998,
1878v1.30, 03 August 1998, v1.23, 10 July 1998
4755096e 1879
d396a558 1880=item Supported Platforms
4755096e 1881
d396a558 1882=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 1883
d396a558 1884=item AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS
4755096e 1885
d396a558 1886=item VERSION
4755096e
GS
1887
1888=back
1889
d396a558
JH
1890=head2 perllocale - Perl locale handling (internationalization and
1891localization)
4755096e 1892
d420ca49 1893=over 4
4755096e 1894
d396a558 1895=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 1896
d396a558
JH
1897=item PREPARING TO USE LOCALES
1898
1899=item USING LOCALES
4755096e 1900
d420ca49 1901=over 4
4755096e 1902
d396a558 1903=item The use locale pragma
4755096e 1904
d396a558 1905=item The setlocale function
4755096e 1906
d396a558 1907=item Finding locales
4755096e 1908
d396a558 1909=item LOCALE PROBLEMS
4755096e 1910
d396a558 1911=item Temporarily fixing locale problems
4755096e 1912
d396a558 1913=item Permanently fixing locale problems
4755096e 1914
d396a558 1915=item Permanently fixing your system's locale configuration
4755096e 1916
d396a558 1917=item Fixing system locale configuration
4755096e 1918
d396a558 1919=item The localeconv function
4755096e 1920
d0363f02
JH
1921=item I18N::Langinfo
1922
4755096e
GS
1923=back
1924
d396a558 1925=item LOCALE CATEGORIES
4755096e 1926
d420ca49 1927=over 4
4755096e 1928
d396a558 1929=item Category LC_COLLATE: Collation
4755096e 1930
d396a558 1931=item Category LC_CTYPE: Character Types
4755096e 1932
d396a558 1933=item Category LC_NUMERIC: Numeric Formatting
4755096e 1934
d396a558 1935=item Category LC_MONETARY: Formatting of monetary amounts
4755096e 1936
d396a558 1937=item LC_TIME
4755096e 1938
d396a558 1939=item Other categories
4755096e 1940
d396a558 1941=back
4755096e 1942
d396a558 1943=item SECURITY
4755096e 1944
d396a558 1945=item ENVIRONMENT
4755096e 1946
d396a558
JH
1947PERL_BADLANG, LC_ALL, LANGUAGE, LC_CTYPE, LC_COLLATE, LC_MONETARY,
1948LC_NUMERIC, LC_TIME, LANG
4755096e 1949
d396a558 1950=item NOTES
4755096e 1951
d420ca49 1952=over 4
4755096e 1953
d396a558 1954=item Backward compatibility
4755096e 1955
d396a558 1956=item I18N:Collate obsolete
4755096e 1957
d396a558 1958=item Sort speed and memory use impacts
4755096e 1959
d396a558 1960=item write() and LC_NUMERIC
4755096e 1961
d396a558 1962=item Freely available locale definitions
4755096e 1963
d396a558 1964=item I18n and l10n
4755096e 1965
d396a558 1966=item An imperfect standard
4755096e
GS
1967
1968=back
1969
d396a558 1970=item BUGS
4755096e 1971
d420ca49 1972=over 4
4755096e 1973
d396a558 1974=item Broken systems
4755096e
GS
1975
1976=back
1977
1978=item SEE ALSO
1979
d396a558 1980=item HISTORY
4755096e
GS
1981
1982=back
1983
d396a558 1984=head2 perlunicode - Unicode support in Perl
4755096e 1985
d420ca49 1986=over 4
4755096e
GS
1987
1988=item DESCRIPTION
1989
d420ca49 1990=over 4
4755096e 1991
e42c74e1 1992=item Important Caveats
4755096e 1993
d396a558 1994Input and Output Disciplines, Regular Expressions, C<use utf8> still needed
ad0029c4 1995to enable UTF-8/UTF-EBCDIC in scripts
4755096e 1996
d396a558 1997=item Byte and Character semantics
4755096e 1998
d396a558 1999=item Effects of character semantics
4755096e 2000
fbe3d936
JH
2001=item Scripts
2002
2003=item Blocks
2004
d396a558 2005=item Character encodings for input and output
4755096e 2006
d396a558
JH
2007=back
2008
2009=item CAVEATS
2010
2011=item SEE ALSO
4755096e
GS
2012
2013=back
2014
d396a558 2015=head2 perlebcdic - Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms
4755096e 2016
d420ca49 2017=over 4
4755096e 2018
d396a558 2019=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2020
d396a558 2021=item COMMON CHARACTER CODE SETS
4755096e 2022
d420ca49 2023=over 4
4755096e 2024
d396a558 2025=item ASCII
4755096e 2026
d396a558 2027=item ISO 8859
4755096e 2028
d396a558 2029=item Latin 1 (ISO 8859-1)
4755096e 2030
d396a558 2031=item EBCDIC
4755096e 2032
d396a558 2033=item 13 variant characters
4755096e 2034
d396a558 2035=item 0037
4755096e 2036
d396a558 2037=item 1047
4755096e 2038
d396a558 2039=item POSIX-BC
4755096e 2040
41ca3a40
JH
2041=item Unicode and UTF
2042
4755096e
GS
2043=back
2044
d396a558 2045=item SINGLE OCTET TABLES
4755096e 2046
41ca3a40 2047recipe 0, recipe 1, recipe 2, recipe 3, recipe 4, recipe 5, recipe 6
4755096e 2048
d396a558 2049=item IDENTIFYING CHARACTER CODE SETS
4755096e 2050
d396a558 2051=item CONVERSIONS
4755096e 2052
d420ca49 2053=over 4
37d4d706
JH
2054
2055=item tr///
2056
2057=item iconv
2058
2059=item C RTL
2060
2061=back
2062
d396a558 2063=item OPERATOR DIFFERENCES
4755096e 2064
d396a558 2065=item FUNCTION DIFFERENCES
4755096e 2066
d396a558 2067chr(), ord(), pack(), print(), printf(), sort(), sprintf(), unpack()
4755096e 2068
d396a558 2069=item REGULAR EXPRESSION DIFFERENCES
4755096e 2070
d396a558 2071=item SOCKETS
4755096e 2072
d396a558 2073=item SORTING
4755096e 2074
d420ca49 2075=over 4
4755096e 2076
9fa7f388 2077=item Ignore ASCII vs. EBCDIC sort differences.
4755096e 2078
9fa7f388 2079=item MONO CASE then sort data.
4755096e 2080
9fa7f388 2081=item Convert, sort data, then re convert.
4755096e 2082
d396a558 2083=item Perform sorting on one type of machine only.
4755096e
GS
2084
2085=back
2086
41ca3a40 2087=item TRANSFORMATION FORMATS
37d4d706 2088
d420ca49 2089=over 4
37d4d706
JH
2090
2091=item URL decoding and encoding
2092
2093=item uu encoding and decoding
2094
2095=item Quoted-Printable encoding and decoding
2096
41ca3a40 2097=item Caesarian ciphers
37d4d706
JH
2098
2099=back
2100
2101=item Hashing order and checksums
4755096e 2102
d396a558 2103=item I18N AND L10N
4755096e 2104
d396a558 2105=item MULTI OCTET CHARACTER SETS
4755096e 2106
d396a558 2107=item OS ISSUES
4755096e 2108
d420ca49 2109=over 4
4755096e 2110
d396a558 2111=item OS/400
7029d033 2112
d396a558 2113IFS access
4755096e 2114
41ca3a40 2115=item OS/390, z/OS
4755096e 2116
41ca3a40 2117chcp, dataset access, OS/390, z/OS iconv, locales
4755096e 2118
d396a558 2119=item VM/ESA?
4755096e 2120
d396a558 2121=item POSIX-BC?
4755096e 2122
d396a558 2123=back
4755096e 2124
9fa7f388
JH
2125=item BUGS
2126
b3b6085d
PP
2127=item SEE ALSO
2128
d396a558 2129=item REFERENCES
c2e66d9e 2130
41ca3a40
JH
2131=item HISTORY
2132
d396a558 2133=item AUTHOR
4755096e
GS
2134
2135=back
2136
d396a558 2137=head2 perlsec - Perl security
4755096e 2138
d420ca49 2139=over 4
4755096e 2140
4755096e
GS
2141=item DESCRIPTION
2142
d420ca49 2143=over 4
4755096e 2144
d396a558 2145=item Laundering and Detecting Tainted Data
4755096e 2146
d396a558 2147=item Switches On the "#!" Line
4755096e 2148
d396a558 2149=item Cleaning Up Your Path
c2e66d9e 2150
d396a558 2151=item Security Bugs
c2e66d9e 2152
d396a558 2153=item Protecting Your Programs
4755096e
GS
2154
2155=back
2156
c2e66d9e
GS
2157=item SEE ALSO
2158
4755096e
GS
2159=back
2160
c2e66d9e 2161=head2 perlmod - Perl modules (packages and symbol tables)
4755096e 2162
d420ca49 2163=over 4
4755096e
GS
2164
2165=item DESCRIPTION
2166
d420ca49 2167=over 4
4755096e 2168
c2e66d9e 2169=item Packages
4755096e 2170
c2e66d9e 2171=item Symbol Tables
4755096e 2172
c2e66d9e 2173=item Package Constructors and Destructors
4755096e 2174
c2e66d9e 2175=item Perl Classes
4755096e 2176
c2e66d9e 2177=item Perl Modules
4755096e 2178
a6fb92f1
JH
2179=item Making your module threadsafe
2180
4755096e
GS
2181=back
2182
c2e66d9e 2183=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 2184
c2e66d9e 2185=back
4755096e 2186
c2e66d9e 2187=head2 perlmodlib - constructing new Perl modules and finding existing ones
4755096e 2188
d420ca49 2189=over 4
4755096e 2190
c2e66d9e 2191=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2192
c2e66d9e 2193=item THE PERL MODULE LIBRARY
4755096e 2194
d420ca49 2195=over 4
4755096e 2196
c2e66d9e 2197=item Pragmatic Modules
4755096e 2198
c2e66d9e 2199attributes, attrs, autouse, base, blib, bytes, charnames, constant,
d420ca49 2200diagnostics, fields, filetest, integer, less, locale, open, ops, overload,
51a35ef1 2201re, sigtrap, strict, subs, utf8, vars, warnings, warnings::register
4755096e 2202
c2e66d9e 2203=item Standard Modules
4755096e 2204
dc6b6eef
JH
2205AnyDBM_File, Attribute::Handlers, AutoLoader, AutoSplit, B, B::Asmdata,
2206B::Assembler, B::Bblock, B::Bytecode, B::C, B::CC, B::Concise, B::Debug,
2207B::Deparse, B::Disassembler, B::Lint, B::Showlex, B::Stackobj, B::Stash,
2208B::Terse, B::Xref, Benchmark, ByteLoader, CGI, CGI::Apache, CGI::Carp,
2209CGI::Cookie, CGI::Fast, CGI::Pretty, CGI::Push, CGI::Switch, CGI::Util,
2210CPAN, CPAN::FirstTime, CPAN::Nox, Carp, Carp::Heavy, Class::ISA,
2211Class::Struct, Cwd, DB, DB_File, Devel::SelfStubber, Digest, DirHandle,
2212Dumpvalue, Encode, Encode::EncodeFormat, Encode::Tcl, English, Env,
2213Exporter, Exporter::Heavy, ExtUtils::Command, ExtUtils::Constant,
2214ExtUtils::Embed, ExtUtils::Install, ExtUtils::Installed, ExtUtils::Liblist,
a6fb92f1
JH
2215ExtUtils::MM_Cygwin, ExtUtils::MM_NW5, ExtUtils::MM_OS2, ExtUtils::MM_Unix,
2216ExtUtils::MM_VMS, ExtUtils::MM_Win32, ExtUtils::MakeMaker,
2217ExtUtils::Manifest, ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap, ExtUtils::Mksymlists,
2218ExtUtils::Packlist, ExtUtils::testlib, Fatal, Fcntl, File::Basename,
2219File::CheckTree, File::Compare, File::Copy, File::DosGlob, File::Find,
2220File::Path, File::Spec, File::Spec::Epoc, File::Spec::Functions,
2221File::Spec::Mac, File::Spec::OS2, File::Spec::Unix, File::Spec::VMS,
2222File::Spec::Win32, File::Temp, File::stat, FileCache, FileHandle,
2223Filter::Simple, FindBin, Getopt::Long, Getopt::Std, I18N::Collate,
2224I18N::LangTags, I18N::LangTags::List, IO, IPC::Open2, IPC::Open3,
2225Locale::Constants, Locale::Country, Locale::Currency, Locale::Language,
2226Locale::Maketext, Locale::Maketext::TPJ13, Math::BigFloat, Math::BigInt,
27713a04
JH
2227Math::BigInt::Calc, Math::Complex, Math::Trig, Memoize,
2228Memoize::AnyDBM_File, Memoize::Expire, Memoize::ExpireFile,
2229Memoize::ExpireTest, Memoize::NDBM_File, Memoize::SDBM_File,
2230Memoize::Saves, Memoize::Storable, NDBM_File, NEXT, Net::Cmd, Net::Config,
2231Net::Domain, Net::FTP, Net::NNTP, Net::Netrc, Net::POP3, Net::Ping,
2232Net::SMTP, Net::Time, Net::hostent, Net::libnetFAQ, Net::netent,
2233Net::protoent, Net::servent, O, ODBM_File, Opcode, POSIX, PerlIO,
2234Pod::Checker, Pod::Find, Pod::Html, Pod::InputObjects, Pod::LaTeX,
389925df
JH
2235Pod::Man, Pod::ParseUtils, Pod::Parser, Pod::Plainer, Pod::Select,
2236Pod::Text, Pod::Text::Color, Pod::Text::Overstrike, Pod::Text::Termcap,
2237Pod::Usage, SDBM_File, Safe, Search::Dict, SelectSaver, SelfLoader, Shell,
2238Socket, Storable, Switch, Symbol, Term::ANSIColor, Term::Cap,
2239Term::Complete, Term::ReadLine, Test, Test::Harness, Test::More,
2240Test::Simple, Text::Abbrev, Text::Balanced, Text::ParseWords,
51a35ef1
JH
2241Text::Soundex, Text::Tabs, Text::Wrap, Thread, Thread::Queue,
2242Thread::Semaphore, Thread::Signal, Thread::Specific, Tie::Array,
2243Tie::Handle, Tie::Hash, Tie::RefHash, Tie::Scalar, Tie::SubstrHash,
2244Time::Local, Time::gmtime, Time::localtime, Time::tm, UNIVERSAL, UnicodeCD,
2245User::grent, User::pwent, Win32
4755096e 2246
c2e66d9e 2247=item Extension Modules
4755096e 2248
c2e66d9e 2249=back
4755096e 2250
c2e66d9e 2251=item CPAN
4755096e 2252
603b90a8
JH
2253=over 4
2254
2255=item Africa
2256
2257=item Asia
2258
2259=item Central America
2260
2261=item Europe
2262
2263=item North America
2264
2265=item Oceania
2266
2267=item South America
2268
2269=back
4755096e 2270
c2e66d9e 2271=item Modules: Creation, Use, and Abuse
4755096e 2272
d420ca49 2273=over 4
4755096e 2274
c2e66d9e 2275=item Guidelines for Module Creation
4755096e 2276
603b90a8 2277Adding a Copyright Notice
4755096e 2278
c2e66d9e 2279=item Guidelines for Converting Perl 4 Library Scripts into Modules
4755096e 2280
c2e66d9e 2281=item Guidelines for Reusing Application Code
4755096e 2282
c2e66d9e 2283=back
4755096e 2284
c2e66d9e 2285=item NOTE
4755096e 2286
c2e66d9e 2287=back
4755096e 2288
c2e66d9e 2289=head2 perlmodinstall - Installing CPAN Modules
4755096e 2290
d420ca49 2291=over 4
4755096e 2292
c2e66d9e 2293=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2294
d420ca49 2295=over 4
4755096e 2296
c2e66d9e 2297=item PREAMBLE
4755096e 2298
c2e66d9e
GS
2299B<DECOMPRESS> the file, B<UNPACK> the file into a directory, B<BUILD> the
2300module (sometimes unnecessary), B<INSTALL> the module
4755096e 2301
c2e66d9e 2302=back
4755096e 2303
a9ef4385
JH
2304=item PORTABILITY
2305
c2e66d9e
GS
2306=item HEY
2307
2308=item AUTHOR
2309
2310=item COPYRIGHT
4755096e
GS
2311
2312=back
2313
c2e66d9e 2314=head2 perlnewmod - preparing a new module for distribution
4755096e 2315
d420ca49 2316=over 4
4755096e 2317
c2e66d9e 2318=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2319
d420ca49 2320=over 4
4755096e 2321
c2e66d9e 2322=item Warning
4755096e 2323
c2e66d9e 2324=item What should I make into a module?
4755096e 2325
c2e66d9e 2326=item Step-by-step: Preparing the ground
4755096e 2327
c2e66d9e 2328Look around, Check it's new, Discuss the need, Choose a name, Check again
4755096e 2329
c2e66d9e 2330=item Step-by-step: Making the module
4755096e 2331
c2e66d9e 2332Start with F<h2xs>, Use L<strict|strict> and L<warnings|warnings>, Use
4d4e713d
JH
2333L<Carp|Carp>, Use L<Exporter|Exporter> - wisely!, Use L<plain old
2334documentation|perlpod>, Write tests, Write the README
4755096e 2335
c2e66d9e 2336=item Step-by-step: Distributing your module
4755096e 2337
c2e66d9e
GS
2338Get a CPAN user ID, C<perl Makefile.PL; make test; make dist>, Upload the
2339tarball, Announce to the modules list, Announce to clpa, Fix bugs!
4755096e 2340
c2e66d9e 2341=back
4755096e 2342
c2e66d9e 2343=item AUTHOR
4755096e 2344
c2e66d9e 2345=item SEE ALSO
4755096e
GS
2346
2347=back
2348
2349=head2 perlfaq1 - General Questions About Perl ($Revision: 1.23 $, $Date:
23501999/05/23 16:08:30 $)
2351
d420ca49 2352=over 4
4755096e
GS
2353
2354=item DESCRIPTION
2355
d420ca49 2356=over 4
4755096e
GS
2357
2358=item What is Perl?
2359
2360=item Who supports Perl? Who develops it? Why is it free?
2361
2362=item Which version of Perl should I use?
2363
2364=item What are perl4 and perl5?
2365
2366=item What is perl6?
2367
2368=item How stable is Perl?
2369
2370=item Is Perl difficult to learn?
2371
2372=item How does Perl compare with other languages like Java, Python, REXX,
2373Scheme, or Tcl?
2374
2375=item Can I do [task] in Perl?
2376
2377=item When shouldn't I program in Perl?
2378
2379=item What's the difference between "perl" and "Perl"?
2380
2381=item Is it a Perl program or a Perl script?
2382
2383=item What is a JAPH?
2384
2385=item Where can I get a list of Larry Wall witticisms?
2386
165c0277
JH
2387=item How can I convince my sysadmin/supervisor/employees to use version
23885/5.005/Perl instead of some other language?
4755096e
GS
2389
2390=back
2391
2392=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
2393
2394=back
2395
2396=head2 perlfaq2 - Obtaining and Learning about Perl ($Revision: 1.32 $,
2397$Date: 1999/10/14 18:46:09 $)
2398
d420ca49 2399=over 4
4755096e
GS
2400
2401=item DESCRIPTION
2402
d420ca49 2403=over 4
4755096e
GS
2404
2405=item What machines support Perl? Where do I get it?
2406
2407=item How can I get a binary version of Perl?
2408
2409=item I don't have a C compiler on my system. How can I compile perl?
2410
2411=item I copied the Perl binary from one machine to another, but scripts
2412don't work.
2413
2414=item I grabbed the sources and tried to compile but gdbm/dynamic
2415loading/malloc/linking/... failed. How do I make it work?
2416
2417=item What modules and extensions are available for Perl? What is CPAN?
2418What does CPAN/src/... mean?
2419
2420=item Is there an ISO or ANSI certified version of Perl?
2421
2422=item Where can I get information on Perl?
2423
2424=item What are the Perl newsgroups on Usenet? Where do I post questions?
2425
2426=item Where should I post source code?
2427
2428=item Perl Books
2429
2430References, Tutorials, Task-Oriented, Special Topics
2431
2432=item Perl in Magazines
2433
2434=item Perl on the Net: FTP and WWW Access
2435
2436=item What mailing lists are there for Perl?
2437
2438=item Archives of comp.lang.perl.misc
2439
2440=item Where can I buy a commercial version of Perl?
2441
2442=item Where do I send bug reports?
2443
2444=item What is perl.com? Perl Mongers? pm.org? perl.org?
2445
2446=back
2447
2448=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
2449
2450=back
2451
2452=head2 perlfaq3 - Programming Tools ($Revision: 1.38 $, $Date: 1999/05/23
245316:08:30 $)
2454
d420ca49 2455=over 4
4755096e
GS
2456
2457=item DESCRIPTION
2458
d420ca49 2459=over 4
4755096e
GS
2460
2461=item How do I do (anything)?
2462
2463=item How can I use Perl interactively?
2464
2465=item Is there a Perl shell?
2466
2467=item How do I debug my Perl programs?
2468
2469=item How do I profile my Perl programs?
2470
2471=item How do I cross-reference my Perl programs?
2472
2473=item Is there a pretty-printer (formatter) for Perl?
2474
2475=item Is there a ctags for Perl?
2476
2477=item Is there an IDE or Windows Perl Editor?
2478
245d750e
JH
2479Komodo, The Object System, Open Perl IDE, PerlBuilder, visiPerl+,
2480CodeMagicCD, GNU Emacs, MicroEMACS, XEmacs, Elvis, Vile, Vim, Codewright,
603b90a8
JH
2481MultiEdit, SlickEdit, Bash, Ksh, Tcsh, Zsh, BBEdit and BBEdit Lite, Alpha
2482
4755096e
GS
2483=item Where can I get Perl macros for vi?
2484
2485=item Where can I get perl-mode for emacs?
2486
2487=item How can I use curses with Perl?
2488
2489=item How can I use X or Tk with Perl?
2490
2491=item How can I generate simple menus without using CGI or Tk?
2492
2493=item What is undump?
2494
2495=item How can I make my Perl program run faster?
2496
2497=item How can I make my Perl program take less memory?
2498
2499=item Is it unsafe to return a pointer to local data?
2500
2501=item How can I free an array or hash so my program shrinks?
2502
2503=item How can I make my CGI script more efficient?
2504
2505=item How can I hide the source for my Perl program?
2506
2507=item How can I compile my Perl program into byte code or C?
2508
2509=item How can I compile Perl into Java?
2510
2511=item How can I get C<#!perl> to work on [MS-DOS,NT,...]?
2512
2513=item Can I write useful Perl programs on the command line?
2514
2515=item Why don't Perl one-liners work on my DOS/Mac/VMS system?
2516
2517=item Where can I learn about CGI or Web programming in Perl?
2518
2519=item Where can I learn about object-oriented Perl programming?
2520
2521=item Where can I learn about linking C with Perl? [h2xs, xsubpp]
2522
2523=item I've read perlembed, perlguts, etc., but I can't embed perl in
d420ca49 2524my C program; what am I doing wrong?
4755096e
GS
2525
2526=item When I tried to run my script, I got this message. What does it
2527mean?
2528
2529=item What's MakeMaker?
2530
2531=back
2532
2533=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
2534
2535=back
2536
2537=head2 perlfaq4 - Data Manipulation ($Revision: 1.49 $, $Date: 1999/05/23
253820:37:49 $)
2539
d420ca49 2540=over 4
4755096e
GS
2541
2542=item DESCRIPTION
2543
2544=item Data: Numbers
2545
d420ca49 2546=over 4
4755096e
GS
2547
2548=item Why am I getting long decimals (eg, 19.9499999999999) instead of the
2549numbers I should be getting (eg, 19.95)?
2550
2551=item Why isn't my octal data interpreted correctly?
2552
2553=item Does Perl have a round() function? What about ceil() and floor()?
2554Trig functions?
2555
2556=item How do I convert bits into ints?
2557
2558=item Why doesn't & work the way I want it to?
2559
2560=item How do I multiply matrices?
2561
2562=item How do I perform an operation on a series of integers?
2563
2564=item How can I output Roman numerals?
2565
2566=item Why aren't my random numbers random?
2567
2568=back
2569
2570=item Data: Dates
2571
d420ca49 2572=over 4
4755096e
GS
2573
2574=item How do I find the week-of-the-year/day-of-the-year?
2575
2576=item How do I find the current century or millennium?
2577
2578=item How can I compare two dates and find the difference?
2579
2580=item How can I take a string and turn it into epoch seconds?
2581
2582=item How can I find the Julian Day?
2583
2584=item How do I find yesterday's date?
2585
2586=item Does Perl have a Year 2000 problem? Is Perl Y2K compliant?
2587
2588=back
2589
2590=item Data: Strings
2591
d420ca49 2592=over 4
4755096e
GS
2593
2594=item How do I validate input?
2595
2596=item How do I unescape a string?
2597
2598=item How do I remove consecutive pairs of characters?
2599
2600=item How do I expand function calls in a string?
2601
2602=item How do I find matching/nesting anything?
2603
2604=item How do I reverse a string?
2605
2606=item How do I expand tabs in a string?
2607
2608=item How do I reformat a paragraph?
2609
2610=item How can I access/change the first N letters of a string?
2611
2612=item How do I change the Nth occurrence of something?
2613
2614=item How can I count the number of occurrences of a substring within a
2615string?
2616
2617=item How do I capitalize all the words on one line?
2618
2619=item How can I split a [character] delimited string except when inside
2620[character]? (Comma-separated files)
2621
2622=item How do I strip blank space from the beginning/end of a string?
2623
2624=item How do I pad a string with blanks or pad a number with zeroes?
2625
2626=item How do I extract selected columns from a string?
2627
2628=item How do I find the soundex value of a string?
2629
2630=item How can I expand variables in text strings?
2631
2632=item What's wrong with always quoting "$vars"?
2633
2634=item Why don't my <<HERE documents work?
2635
26361. There must be no space after the << part, 2. There (probably) should be
2637a semicolon at the end, 3. You can't (easily) have any space in front of
2638the tag
2639
2640=back
2641
2642=item Data: Arrays
2643
d420ca49 2644=over 4
4755096e
GS
2645
2646=item What is the difference between a list and an array?
2647
2648=item What is the difference between $array[1] and @array[1]?
2649
2650=item How can I remove duplicate elements from a list or array?
2651
ab648d5e 2652a), b), c), d), e)
4755096e 2653
389925df
JH
2654=item How can I tell whether a certain element is contained in a list or
2655array?
4755096e
GS
2656
2657=item How do I compute the difference of two arrays? How do I compute the
2658intersection of two arrays?
2659
2660=item How do I test whether two arrays or hashes are equal?
2661
2662=item How do I find the first array element for which a condition is true?
2663
2664=item How do I handle linked lists?
2665
2666=item How do I handle circular lists?
2667
2668=item How do I shuffle an array randomly?
2669
2670=item How do I process/modify each element of an array?
2671
2672=item How do I select a random element from an array?
2673
2674=item How do I permute N elements of a list?
2675
2676=item How do I sort an array by (anything)?
2677
2678=item How do I manipulate arrays of bits?
2679
2680=item Why does defined() return true on empty arrays and hashes?
2681
2682=back
2683
2684=item Data: Hashes (Associative Arrays)
2685
d420ca49 2686=over 4
4755096e
GS
2687
2688=item How do I process an entire hash?
2689
2690=item What happens if I add or remove keys from a hash while iterating over
2691it?
2692
2693=item How do I look up a hash element by value?
2694
2695=item How can I know how many entries are in a hash?
2696
2697=item How do I sort a hash (optionally by value instead of key)?
2698
2699=item How can I always keep my hash sorted?
2700
2701=item What's the difference between "delete" and "undef" with hashes?
2702
2703=item Why don't my tied hashes make the defined/exists distinction?
2704
2705=item How do I reset an each() operation part-way through?
2706
2707=item How can I get the unique keys from two hashes?
2708
2709=item How can I store a multidimensional array in a DBM file?
2710
2711=item How can I make my hash remember the order I put elements into it?
2712
2713=item Why does passing a subroutine an undefined element in a hash create
2714it?
2715
2716=item How can I make the Perl equivalent of a C structure/C++ class/hash or
2717array of hashes or arrays?
2718
2719=item How can I use a reference as a hash key?
2720
2721=back
2722
2723=item Data: Misc
2724
d420ca49 2725=over 4
4755096e
GS
2726
2727=item How do I handle binary data correctly?
2728
2729=item How do I determine whether a scalar is a number/whole/integer/float?
2730
2731=item How do I keep persistent data across program calls?
2732
2733=item How do I print out or copy a recursive data structure?
2734
2735=item How do I define methods for every class/object?
2736
2737=item How do I verify a credit card checksum?
2738
2739=item How do I pack arrays of doubles or floats for XS code?
2740
2741=back
2742
2743=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
2744
2745=back
2746
2747=head2 perlfaq5 - Files and Formats ($Revision: 1.38 $, $Date: 1999/05/23
274816:08:30 $)
2749
d420ca49 2750=over 4
4755096e
GS
2751
2752=item DESCRIPTION
2753
d420ca49 2754=over 4
4755096e
GS
2755
2756=item How do I flush/unbuffer an output filehandle? Why must I do this?
2757
2758=item How do I change one line in a file/delete a line in a file/insert a
2759line in the middle of a file/append to the beginning of a file?
2760
2761=item How do I count the number of lines in a file?
2762
2763=item How do I make a temporary file name?
2764
2765=item How can I manipulate fixed-record-length files?
2766
2767=item How can I make a filehandle local to a subroutine? How do I pass
2768filehandles between subroutines? How do I make an array of filehandles?
2769
2770=item How can I use a filehandle indirectly?
2771
2772=item How can I set up a footer format to be used with write()?
2773
2774=item How can I write() into a string?
2775
2776=item How can I output my numbers with commas added?
2777
2778=item How can I translate tildes (~) in a filename?
2779
2780=item How come when I open a file read-write it wipes it out?
2781
2782=item Why do I sometimes get an "Argument list too long" when I use <*>?
2783
2784=item Is there a leak/bug in glob()?
2785
2786=item How can I open a file with a leading ">" or trailing blanks?
2787
2788=item How can I reliably rename a file?
2789
2790=item How can I lock a file?
2791
2792=item Why can't I just open(FH, ">file.lock")?
2793
2794=item I still don't get locking. I just want to increment the number in
2795the file. How can I do this?
2796
1fa7ca25
JH
2797=item All I want to do is append a small amount of text to the end of a
2798file. Do I still have to use locking?
2799
4755096e
GS
2800=item How do I randomly update a binary file?
2801
2802=item How do I get a file's timestamp in perl?
2803
2804=item How do I set a file's timestamp in perl?
2805
2806=item How do I print to more than one file at once?
2807
2808=item How can I read in an entire file all at once?
2809
2810=item How can I read in a file by paragraphs?
2811
2812=item How can I read a single character from a file? From the keyboard?
2813
2814=item How can I tell whether there's a character waiting on a filehandle?
2815
2816=item How do I do a C<tail -f> in perl?
2817
2818=item How do I dup() a filehandle in Perl?
2819
2820=item How do I close a file descriptor by number?
2821
2822=item Why can't I use "C:\temp\foo" in DOS paths? What doesn't
2823`C:\temp\foo.exe` work?
2824
2825=item Why doesn't glob("*.*") get all the files?
2826
2827=item Why does Perl let me delete read-only files? Why does C<-i> clobber
2828protected files? Isn't this a bug in Perl?
2829
2830=item How do I select a random line from a file?
2831
2832=item Why do I get weird spaces when I print an array of lines?
2833
2834=back
2835
2836=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
2837
2838=back
2839
2840=head2 perlfaq6 - Regexes ($Revision: 1.27 $, $Date: 1999/05/23 16:08:30 $)
2841
d420ca49 2842=over 4
4755096e
GS
2843
2844=item DESCRIPTION
2845
d420ca49 2846=over 4
4755096e
GS
2847
2848=item How can I hope to use regular expressions without creating illegible
2849and unmaintainable code?
2850
2851Comments Outside the Regex, Comments Inside the Regex, Different Delimiters
2852
2853=item I'm having trouble matching over more than one line. What's wrong?
2854
2855=item How can I pull out lines between two patterns that are themselves on
2856different lines?
2857
2858=item I put a regular expression into $/ but it didn't work. What's wrong?
2859
d420ca49 2860=item How do I substitute case insensitively on the LHS while preserving
4755096e
GS
2861case on the RHS?
2862
2863=item How can I make C<\w> match national character sets?
2864
2865=item How can I match a locale-smart version of C</[a-zA-Z]/>?
2866
2867=item How can I quote a variable to use in a regex?
2868
2869=item What is C</o> really for?
2870
2871=item How do I use a regular expression to strip C style comments from a
2872file?
2873
2874=item Can I use Perl regular expressions to match balanced text?
2875
2876=item What does it mean that regexes are greedy? How can I get around it?
2877
165c0277 2878=item How do I process each word on each line?
4755096e
GS
2879
2880=item How can I print out a word-frequency or line-frequency summary?
2881
2882=item How can I do approximate matching?
2883
2884=item How do I efficiently match many regular expressions at once?
2885
2886=item Why don't word-boundary searches with C<\b> work for me?
2887
2888=item Why does using $&, $`, or $' slow my program down?
2889
2890=item What good is C<\G> in a regular expression?
2891
2892=item Are Perl regexes DFAs or NFAs? Are they POSIX compliant?
2893
2894=item What's wrong with using grep or map in a void context?
2895
2896=item How can I match strings with multibyte characters?
2897
2898=item How do I match a pattern that is supplied by the user?
2899
2900=back
2901
2902=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
2903
2904=back
2905
2906=head2 perlfaq7 - Perl Language Issues ($Revision: 1.28 $, $Date:
29071999/05/23 20:36:18 $)
2908
d420ca49 2909=over 4
4755096e
GS
2910
2911=item DESCRIPTION
2912
d420ca49 2913=over 4
4755096e
GS
2914
2915=item Can I get a BNF/yacc/RE for the Perl language?
2916
2917=item What are all these $@%&* punctuation signs, and how do I know when to
2918use them?
2919
2920=item Do I always/never have to quote my strings or use semicolons and
2921commas?
2922
2923=item How do I skip some return values?
68dc0745
PP
2924
2925=item How do I temporarily block warnings?
2926
2927=item What's an extension?
2928
2929=item Why do Perl operators have different precedence than C operators?
2930
2931=item How do I declare/create a structure?
2932
2933=item How do I create a module?
2934
2935=item How do I create a class?
2936
2937=item How can I tell if a variable is tainted?
2938
2939=item What's a closure?
2940
46fc3d4c
PP
2941=item What is variable suicide and how can I prevent it?
2942
68dc0745 2943=item How can I pass/return a {Function, FileHandle, Array, Hash, Method,
14218588 2944Regex}?
68dc0745 2945
14218588 2946Passing Variables and Functions, Passing Filehandles, Passing Regexes,
68dc0745
PP
2947Passing Methods
2948
2949=item How do I create a static variable?
2950
14218588 2951=item What's the difference between dynamic and lexical (static) scoping?
68dc0745
PP
2952Between local() and my()?
2953
2954=item How can I access a dynamic variable while a similarly named lexical
2955is in scope?
2956
2957=item What's the difference between deep and shallow binding?
2958
b38f6a39 2959=item Why doesn't "my($foo) = <FILE>;" work right?
68dc0745 2960
54310121 2961=item How do I redefine a builtin function, operator, or method?
68dc0745
PP
2962
2963=item What's the difference between calling a function as &foo and foo()?
2964
2965=item How do I create a switch or case statement?
2966
2967=item How can I catch accesses to undefined variables/functions/methods?
2968
2969=item Why can't a method included in this same file be found?
2970
2971=item How can I find out my current package?
2972
46fc3d4c
PP
2973=item How can I comment out a large block of perl code?
2974
14218588
GS
2975=item How do I clear a package?
2976
2977=item How can I use a variable as a variable name?
2978
68dc0745
PP
2979=back
2980
2981=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
2982
a45bd81d
GS
2983=back
2984
14218588
GS
2985=head2 perlfaq8 - System Interaction ($Revision: 1.39 $, $Date: 1999/05/23
298618:37:57 $)
68dc0745 2987
d420ca49 2988=over 4
a45bd81d 2989
68dc0745
PP
2990=item DESCRIPTION
2991
d420ca49 2992=over 4
68dc0745
PP
2993
2994=item How do I find out which operating system I'm running under?
2995
2996=item How come exec() doesn't return?
2997
2998=item How do I do fancy stuff with the keyboard/screen/mouse?
2999
3000Keyboard, Screen, Mouse
3001
fb9cefb4
GS
3002=item How do I print something out in color?
3003
3004=item How do I read just one key without waiting for a return key?
3005
3006=item How do I check whether input is ready on the keyboard?
3007
3008=item How do I clear the screen?
3009
3010=item How do I get the screen size?
3011
68dc0745
PP
3012=item How do I ask the user for a password?
3013
3014=item How do I read and write the serial port?
3015
3016lockfiles, open mode, end of line, flushing output, non-blocking input
3017
3018=item How do I decode encrypted password files?
3019
3020=item How do I start a process in the background?
3021
fb9cefb4 3022STDIN, STDOUT, and STDERR are shared, Signals, Zombies
68dc0745
PP
3023
3024=item How do I trap control characters/signals?
3025
3026=item How do I modify the shadow password file on a Unix system?
3027
3028=item How do I set the time and date?
3029
3030=item How can I sleep() or alarm() for under a second?
3031
3032=item How can I measure time under a second?
3033
3034=item How can I do an atexit() or setjmp()/longjmp()? (Exception handling)
3035
d420ca49 3036=item Why doesn't my sockets program work under System V (Solaris)? What
68dc0745
PP
3037does the error message "Protocol not supported" mean?
3038
3039=item How can I call my system's unique C functions from Perl?
3040
3041=item Where do I get the include files to do ioctl() or syscall()?
3042
3043=item Why do setuid perl scripts complain about kernel problems?
3044
3045=item How can I open a pipe both to and from a command?
3046
3fe9a6f1
PP
3047=item Why can't I get the output of a command with system()?
3048
68dc0745
PP
3049=item How can I capture STDERR from an external command?
3050
3051=item Why doesn't open() return an error when a pipe open fails?
3052
3053=item What's wrong with using backticks in a void context?
3054
3055=item How can I call backticks without shell processing?
3056
3057=item Why can't my script read from STDIN after I gave it EOF (^D on Unix,
54310121 3058^Z on MS-DOS)?
68dc0745
PP
3059
3060=item How can I convert my shell script to perl?
3061
3062=item Can I use perl to run a telnet or ftp session?
3063
3064=item How can I write expect in Perl?
3065
3066=item Is there a way to hide perl's command line from programs such as
3067"ps"?
3068
3069=item I {changed directory, modified my environment} in a perl script. How
3070come the change disappeared when I exited the script? How do I get my
3071changes to be visible?
3072
fb9cefb4 3073Unix
68dc0745
PP
3074
3075=item How do I close a process's filehandle without waiting for it to
3076complete?
3077
3078=item How do I fork a daemon process?
3079
68dc0745
PP
3080=item How do I find out if I'm running interactively or not?
3081
3082=item How do I timeout a slow event?
3083
3084=item How do I set CPU limits?
3085
3086=item How do I avoid zombies on a Unix system?
3087
3088=item How do I use an SQL database?
3089
3090=item How do I make a system() exit on control-C?
3091
3092=item How do I open a file without blocking?
3093
14218588 3094=item How do I install a module from CPAN?
68dc0745 3095
fb9cefb4
GS
3096=item What's the difference between require and use?
3097
46fc3d4c
PP
3098=item How do I keep my own module/library directory?
3099
3100=item How do I add the directory my program lives in to the module/library
3101search path?
3102
3103=item How do I add a directory to my include path at runtime?
3104
14218588
GS
3105=item What is socket.ph and where do I get it?
3106
68dc0745
PP
3107=back
3108
fc36a67e
PP
3109=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
3110
a45bd81d
GS
3111=back
3112
14218588 3113=head2 perlfaq9 - Networking ($Revision: 1.26 $, $Date: 1999/05/23 16:08:30
3fe9a6f1 3114$)
68dc0745 3115
d420ca49 3116=over 4
a45bd81d 3117
68dc0745
PP
3118=item DESCRIPTION
3119
d420ca49 3120=over 4
68dc0745 3121
d420ca49 3122=item My CGI script runs from the command line but not the browser. (500
fb9cefb4
GS
3123Server Error)
3124
3125=item How can I get better error messages from a CGI program?
68dc0745
PP
3126
3127=item How do I remove HTML from a string?
3128
3129=item How do I extract URLs?
3130
3131=item How do I download a file from the user's machine? How do I open a
3132file on another machine?
3133
3134=item How do I make a pop-up menu in HTML?
3135
3136=item How do I fetch an HTML file?
3137
fb9cefb4
GS
3138=item How do I automate an HTML form submission?
3139
3140=item How do I decode or create those %-encodings on the web?
68dc0745
PP
3141
3142=item How do I redirect to another page?
3143
3144=item How do I put a password on my web pages?
3145
3146=item How do I edit my .htpasswd and .htgroup files with Perl?
3147
46fc3d4c
PP
3148=item How do I make sure users can't enter values into a form that cause my
3149CGI script to do bad things?
3150
193fb0af 3151=item How do I parse a mail header?
68dc0745
PP
3152
3153=item How do I decode a CGI form?
3154
193fb0af 3155=item How do I check a valid mail address?
68dc0745
PP
3156
3157=item How do I decode a MIME/BASE64 string?
3158
193fb0af 3159=item How do I return the user's mail address?
68dc0745 3160
fb9cefb4
GS
3161=item How do I send mail?
3162
2d967e39
JH
3163=item How do I use MIME to make an attachment to a mail message?
3164
fb9cefb4 3165=item How do I read mail?
68dc0745
PP
3166
3167=item How do I find out my hostname/domainname/IP address?
3168
3169=item How do I fetch a news article or the active newsgroups?
3170
3171=item How do I fetch/put an FTP file?
3172
3173=item How can I do RPC in Perl?
3174
3175=back
3176
3177=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
3178
a45bd81d
GS
3179=back
3180
4755096e 3181=head2 perlcompile - Introduction to the Perl Compiler-Translator
a45bd81d 3182
d420ca49 3183=over 4
cb1a09d0 3184
8ebc5c01 3185=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 3186
d420ca49 3187=over 4
fb9cefb4 3188
4755096e 3189=item Layout
a45bd81d 3190
4755096e 3191B::Bytecode, B::C, B::CC, B::Lint, B::Deparse, B::Xref
637e9122 3192
4755096e 3193=back
c76ac1ee 3194
4755096e 3195=item Using The Back Ends
c76ac1ee 3196
d420ca49 3197=over 4
694468e3 3198
4755096e 3199=item The Cross Referencing Back End
c76ac1ee 3200
4755096e 3201i, &, s, r
637e9122 3202
4755096e 3203=item The Decompiling Back End
37590e52 3204
4755096e 3205=item The Lint Back End
c76ac1ee 3206
4755096e 3207=item The Simple C Back End
37590e52 3208
4755096e 3209=item The Bytecode Back End
a45bd81d 3210
4755096e 3211=item The Optimized C Back End
a45bd81d 3212
4755096e
GS
3213B, O, B::Asmdata, B::Assembler, B::Bblock, B::Bytecode, B::C, B::CC,
3214B::Debug, B::Deparse, B::Disassembler, B::Lint, B::Showlex, B::Stackobj,
3215B::Stash, B::Terse, B::Xref
c76ac1ee 3216
4755096e 3217=back
b38f6a39 3218
4755096e 3219=item KNOWN PROBLEMS
fb9cefb4 3220
4755096e 3221=item AUTHOR
c76ac1ee 3222
4755096e 3223=back
a45bd81d 3224
4755096e 3225=head2 perlembed - how to embed perl in your C program
c76ac1ee 3226
d420ca49 3227=over 4
a45bd81d 3228
4755096e 3229=item DESCRIPTION
fb9cefb4 3230
d420ca49 3231=over 4
c76ac1ee 3232
4755096e 3233=item PREAMBLE
fb9cefb4 3234
4755096e
GS
3235B<Use C from Perl?>, B<Use a Unix program from Perl?>, B<Use Perl from
3236Perl?>, B<Use C from C?>, B<Use Perl from C?>
fb9cefb4 3237
4755096e 3238=item ROADMAP
fb9cefb4 3239
4755096e 3240=item Compiling your C program
c76ac1ee 3241
4755096e 3242=item Adding a Perl interpreter to your C program
c76ac1ee 3243
4755096e 3244=item Calling a Perl subroutine from your C program
fb9cefb4 3245
4755096e 3246=item Evaluating a Perl statement from your C program
c76ac1ee 3247
4755096e 3248=item Performing Perl pattern matches and substitutions from your C program
c76ac1ee 3249
4755096e 3250=item Fiddling with the Perl stack from your C program
37590e52 3251
4755096e 3252=item Maintaining a persistent interpreter
c76ac1ee 3253
4755096e 3254=item Maintaining multiple interpreter instances
694468e3 3255
4755096e
GS
3256=item Using Perl modules, which themselves use C libraries, from your C
3257program
c76ac1ee 3258
14218588 3259=back
fb9cefb4 3260
d420ca49 3261=item Embedding Perl under Win32
fb9cefb4 3262
4755096e 3263=item MORAL
c76ac1ee 3264
4755096e 3265=item AUTHOR
fb9cefb4 3266
4755096e 3267=item COPYRIGHT
c76ac1ee 3268
4755096e 3269=back
c76ac1ee 3270
4755096e 3271=head2 perldebguts - Guts of Perl debugging
a45bd81d 3272
d420ca49 3273=over 4
c76ac1ee 3274
4755096e 3275=item DESCRIPTION
c76ac1ee 3276
4755096e 3277=item Debugger Internals
c76ac1ee 3278
d420ca49 3279=over 4
c76ac1ee 3280
4755096e 3281=item Writing Your Own Debugger
c76ac1ee 3282
37590e52 3283=back
c76ac1ee 3284
4755096e 3285=item Frame Listing Output Examples
c76ac1ee 3286
4755096e 3287=item Debugging regular expressions
c76ac1ee 3288
d420ca49 3289=over 4
c76ac1ee 3290
4755096e 3291=item Compile-time output
c76ac1ee 3292
4755096e
GS
3293C<anchored> I<STRING> C<at> I<POS>, C<floating> I<STRING> C<at>
3294I<POS1..POS2>, C<matching floating/anchored>, C<minlen>, C<stclass>
3295I<TYPE>, C<noscan>, C<isall>, C<GPOS>, C<plus>, C<implicit>, C<with eval>,
3296C<anchored(TYPE)>
c76ac1ee 3297
4755096e 3298=item Types of nodes
c76ac1ee 3299
4755096e 3300=item Run-time output
c76ac1ee 3301
37590e52 3302=back
c76ac1ee 3303
4755096e 3304=item Debugging Perl memory usage
c76ac1ee 3305
d420ca49 3306=over 4
c76ac1ee 3307
4755096e 3308=item Using C<$ENV{PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS}>
c76ac1ee 3309
4755096e
GS
3310C<buckets SMALLEST(APPROX)..GREATEST(APPROX)>, Free/Used, C<Total sbrk():
3311SBRKed/SBRKs:CONTINUOUS>, C<pad: 0>, C<heads: 2192>, C<chain: 0>, C<tail:
33126144>
c76ac1ee 3313
4755096e 3314=item Example of using B<-DL> switch
c76ac1ee 3315
4755096e 3316C<717>, C<002>, C<054>, C<602>, C<702>, C<704>
c76ac1ee 3317
4755096e 3318=item B<-DL> details
37590e52 3319
4755096e 3320C<!!!>, C<!!>, C<!>
37590e52 3321
4755096e 3322=item Limitations of B<-DL> statistics
37590e52 3323
4755096e 3324=back
37590e52 3325
4755096e 3326=item SEE ALSO
c76ac1ee
GS
3327
3328=back
3329
4755096e 3330=head2 perlxstut, perlXStut - Tutorial for writing XSUBs
c76ac1ee 3331
d420ca49 3332=over 4
c76ac1ee 3333
4755096e 3334=item DESCRIPTION
c76ac1ee 3335
4755096e 3336=item SPECIAL NOTES
c76ac1ee 3337
d420ca49 3338=over 4
c76ac1ee 3339
4755096e 3340=item make
c76ac1ee 3341
4755096e
GS
3342=item Version caveat
3343
3344=item Dynamic Loading versus Static Loading
c76ac1ee
GS
3345
3346=back
fb9cefb4 3347
4755096e 3348=item TUTORIAL
cb1a09d0 3349
d420ca49 3350=over 4
8ebc5c01 3351
4755096e 3352=item EXAMPLE 1
fb9cefb4 3353
4755096e 3354=item EXAMPLE 2
fb9cefb4 3355
4755096e 3356=item What has gone on?
5cd24f17 3357
4755096e 3358=item Writing good test scripts
cb1a09d0 3359
4755096e 3360=item EXAMPLE 3
774d564b 3361
4755096e 3362=item What's new here?
c76ac1ee 3363
4755096e 3364=item Input and Output Parameters
c76ac1ee 3365
4755096e 3366=item The XSUBPP Program
b38f6a39 3367
4755096e 3368=item The TYPEMAP file
c76ac1ee 3369
4755096e 3370=item Warning about Output Arguments
37590e52 3371
4755096e 3372=item EXAMPLE 4
37590e52 3373
4755096e 3374=item What has happened here?
c76ac1ee 3375
4755096e 3376=item Anatomy of .xs file
37590e52 3377
4755096e 3378=item Getting the fat out of XSUBs
cb1a09d0 3379
4755096e 3380=item More about XSUB arguments
37590e52 3381
4755096e 3382=item The Argument Stack
a45bd81d 3383
4755096e 3384=item Extending your Extension
a45bd81d 3385
4755096e 3386=item Documenting your Extension
37590e52 3387
4755096e 3388=item Installing your Extension
37590e52 3389