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CommitLineData
a0d0e21e 1/* util.c
a687059c 2 *
1129b882
NC
3 * Copyright (C) 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001,
4 * 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 by Larry Wall and others
a687059c 5 *
d48672a2
LW
6 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
8d063cd8 8 *
8d063cd8 9 */
a0d0e21e
LW
10
11/*
4ac71550
TC
12 * 'Very useful, no doubt, that was to Saruman; yet it seems that he was
13 * not content.' --Gandalf to Pippin
14 *
cdad3b53 15 * [p.598 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/xi: "The Palantír"]
a0d0e21e 16 */
8d063cd8 17
166f8a29
DM
18/* This file contains assorted utility routines.
19 * Which is a polite way of saying any stuff that people couldn't think of
20 * a better place for. Amongst other things, it includes the warning and
21 * dieing stuff, plus wrappers for malloc code.
22 */
23
8d063cd8 24#include "EXTERN.h"
864dbfa3 25#define PERL_IN_UTIL_C
8d063cd8 26#include "perl.h"
7dc86639 27#include "reentr.h"
62b28dd9 28
97cb92d6 29#if defined(USE_PERLIO)
2e0cfa16 30#include "perliol.h" /* For PerlIOUnix_refcnt */
6f408c34 31#endif
2e0cfa16 32
64ca3a65 33#ifndef PERL_MICRO
a687059c 34#include <signal.h>
36477c24
PP
35#ifndef SIG_ERR
36# define SIG_ERR ((Sighandler_t) -1)
37#endif
64ca3a65 38#endif
36477c24 39
3be8f094
TC
40#include <math.h>
41#include <stdlib.h>
42
172d2248
OS
43#ifdef __Lynx__
44/* Missing protos on LynxOS */
45int putenv(char *);
46#endif
47
868439a2
JH
48#ifdef HAS_SELECT
49# ifdef I_SYS_SELECT
50# include <sys/select.h>
51# endif
52#endif
53
470dd224 54#ifdef USE_C_BACKTRACE
0762e42f
JH
55# ifdef I_BFD
56# define USE_BFD
57# ifdef PERL_DARWIN
58# undef USE_BFD /* BFD is useless in OS X. */
59# endif
60# ifdef USE_BFD
61# include <bfd.h>
62# endif
63# endif
470dd224
JH
64# ifdef I_DLFCN
65# include <dlfcn.h>
66# endif
67# ifdef I_EXECINFO
68# include <execinfo.h>
69# endif
70#endif
71
b001a0d1
FC
72#ifdef PERL_DEBUG_READONLY_COW
73# include <sys/mman.h>
74#endif
75
8d063cd8 76#define FLUSH
8d063cd8 77
a687059c
LW
78/* NOTE: Do not call the next three routines directly. Use the macros
79 * in handy.h, so that we can easily redefine everything to do tracking of
80 * allocated hunks back to the original New to track down any memory leaks.
20cec16a 81 * XXX This advice seems to be widely ignored :-( --AD August 1996.
a687059c
LW
82 */
83
79a92154 84#if defined (DEBUGGING) || defined(PERL_IMPLICIT_SYS) || defined (PERL_TRACK_MEMPOOL)
1f4d2d4e
NC
85# define ALWAYS_NEED_THX
86#endif
87
b001a0d1
FC
88#if defined(PERL_TRACK_MEMPOOL) && defined(PERL_DEBUG_READONLY_COW)
89static void
90S_maybe_protect_rw(pTHX_ struct perl_memory_debug_header *header)
91{
92 if (header->readonly
93 && mprotect(header, header->size, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE))
94 Perl_warn(aTHX_ "mprotect for COW string %p %lu failed with %d",
95 header, header->size, errno);
96}
97
98static void
99S_maybe_protect_ro(pTHX_ struct perl_memory_debug_header *header)
100{
101 if (header->readonly
102 && mprotect(header, header->size, PROT_READ))
103 Perl_warn(aTHX_ "mprotect RW for COW string %p %lu failed with %d",
104 header, header->size, errno);
105}
106# define maybe_protect_rw(foo) S_maybe_protect_rw(aTHX_ foo)
107# define maybe_protect_ro(foo) S_maybe_protect_ro(aTHX_ foo)
108#else
109# define maybe_protect_rw(foo) NOOP
110# define maybe_protect_ro(foo) NOOP
111#endif
112
3f07c2bc
FC
113#if defined(PERL_TRACK_MEMPOOL) || defined(PERL_DEBUG_READONLY_COW)
114 /* Use memory_debug_header */
115# define USE_MDH
116# if (defined(PERL_POISON) && defined(PERL_TRACK_MEMPOOL)) \
117 || defined(PERL_DEBUG_READONLY_COW)
118# define MDH_HAS_SIZE
119# endif
120#endif
121
26fa51c3
AMS
122/* paranoid version of system's malloc() */
123
bd4080b3 124Malloc_t
4f63d024 125Perl_safesysmalloc(MEM_SIZE size)
8d063cd8 126{
1f4d2d4e 127#ifdef ALWAYS_NEED_THX
54aff467 128 dTHX;
0cb20dae 129#endif
bd4080b3 130 Malloc_t ptr;
9efda33a
TC
131
132#ifdef USE_MDH
133 if (size + PERL_MEMORY_DEBUG_HEADER_SIZE < size)
134 goto out_of_memory;
a78adc84 135 size += PERL_MEMORY_DEBUG_HEADER_SIZE;
9efda33a 136#endif
34de22dd 137#ifdef DEBUGGING
03c5309f 138 if ((SSize_t)size < 0)
5637ef5b 139 Perl_croak_nocontext("panic: malloc, size=%"UVuf, (UV) size);
34de22dd 140#endif
b001a0d1
FC
141 if (!size) size = 1; /* malloc(0) is NASTY on our system */
142#ifdef PERL_DEBUG_READONLY_COW
143 if ((ptr = mmap(0, size, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE,
144 MAP_ANON|MAP_PRIVATE, -1, 0)) == MAP_FAILED) {
145 perror("mmap failed");
146 abort();
147 }
148#else
149 ptr = (Malloc_t)PerlMem_malloc(size?size:1);
150#endif
da927450 151 PERL_ALLOC_CHECK(ptr);
bd61b366 152 if (ptr != NULL) {
3f07c2bc 153#ifdef USE_MDH
7cb608b5
NC
154 struct perl_memory_debug_header *const header
155 = (struct perl_memory_debug_header *)ptr;
9a083ecf
NC
156#endif
157
158#ifdef PERL_POISON
7e337ee0 159 PoisonNew(((char *)ptr), size, char);
9a083ecf 160#endif
7cb608b5 161
9a083ecf 162#ifdef PERL_TRACK_MEMPOOL
7cb608b5
NC
163 header->interpreter = aTHX;
164 /* Link us into the list. */
165 header->prev = &PL_memory_debug_header;
166 header->next = PL_memory_debug_header.next;
167 PL_memory_debug_header.next = header;
b001a0d1 168 maybe_protect_rw(header->next);
7cb608b5 169 header->next->prev = header;
b001a0d1
FC
170 maybe_protect_ro(header->next);
171# ifdef PERL_DEBUG_READONLY_COW
172 header->readonly = 0;
cd1541b2 173# endif
e8dda941 174#endif
3f07c2bc 175#ifdef MDH_HAS_SIZE
b001a0d1
FC
176 header->size = size;
177#endif
b033d668 178 ptr = (Malloc_t)((char*)ptr+PERL_MEMORY_DEBUG_HEADER_SIZE);
5dfff8f3 179 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf": (%05ld) malloc %ld bytes\n",PTR2UV(ptr),(long)PL_an++,(long)size));
b033d668
DD
180
181 }
8d063cd8 182 else {
296f0d56 183#ifdef USE_MDH
9efda33a 184 out_of_memory:
296f0d56
TC
185#endif
186 {
187#ifndef ALWAYS_NEED_THX
188 dTHX;
189#endif
190 if (PL_nomemok)
191 ptr = NULL;
192 else
193 croak_no_mem();
194 }
8d063cd8 195 }
b033d668 196 return ptr;
8d063cd8
LW
197}
198
f2517201 199/* paranoid version of system's realloc() */
8d063cd8 200
bd4080b3 201Malloc_t
4f63d024 202Perl_safesysrealloc(Malloc_t where,MEM_SIZE size)
8d063cd8 203{
1f4d2d4e 204#ifdef ALWAYS_NEED_THX
54aff467 205 dTHX;
0cb20dae 206#endif
bd4080b3 207 Malloc_t ptr;
b001a0d1
FC
208#ifdef PERL_DEBUG_READONLY_COW
209 const MEM_SIZE oldsize = where
a78adc84 210 ? ((struct perl_memory_debug_header *)((char *)where - PERL_MEMORY_DEBUG_HEADER_SIZE))->size
b001a0d1
FC
211 : 0;
212#endif
9a34ef1d 213#if !defined(STANDARD_C) && !defined(HAS_REALLOC_PROTOTYPE) && !defined(PERL_MICRO)
6ad3d225 214 Malloc_t PerlMem_realloc();
ecfc5424 215#endif /* !defined(STANDARD_C) && !defined(HAS_REALLOC_PROTOTYPE) */
8d063cd8 216
7614df0c 217 if (!size) {
f2517201 218 safesysfree(where);
b033d668 219 ptr = NULL;
7614df0c 220 }
b033d668
DD
221 else if (!where) {
222 ptr = safesysmalloc(size);
223 }
224 else {
3f07c2bc 225#ifdef USE_MDH
b033d668 226 where = (Malloc_t)((char*)where-PERL_MEMORY_DEBUG_HEADER_SIZE);
9efda33a
TC
227 if (size + PERL_MEMORY_DEBUG_HEADER_SIZE < size)
228 goto out_of_memory;
b033d668
DD
229 size += PERL_MEMORY_DEBUG_HEADER_SIZE;
230 {
231 struct perl_memory_debug_header *const header
232 = (struct perl_memory_debug_header *)where;
7cb608b5 233
b001a0d1 234# ifdef PERL_TRACK_MEMPOOL
b033d668
DD
235 if (header->interpreter != aTHX) {
236 Perl_croak_nocontext("panic: realloc from wrong pool, %p!=%p",
237 header->interpreter, aTHX);
238 }
239 assert(header->next->prev == header);
240 assert(header->prev->next == header);
cd1541b2 241# ifdef PERL_POISON
b033d668
DD
242 if (header->size > size) {
243 const MEM_SIZE freed_up = header->size - size;
244 char *start_of_freed = ((char *)where) + size;
245 PoisonFree(start_of_freed, freed_up, char);
246 }
cd1541b2 247# endif
b001a0d1 248# endif
3f07c2bc 249# ifdef MDH_HAS_SIZE
b033d668 250 header->size = size;
b001a0d1 251# endif
b033d668 252 }
e8dda941 253#endif
34de22dd 254#ifdef DEBUGGING
b033d668
DD
255 if ((SSize_t)size < 0)
256 Perl_croak_nocontext("panic: realloc, size=%"UVuf, (UV)size);
34de22dd 257#endif
b001a0d1 258#ifdef PERL_DEBUG_READONLY_COW
b033d668
DD
259 if ((ptr = mmap(0, size, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE,
260 MAP_ANON|MAP_PRIVATE, -1, 0)) == MAP_FAILED) {
261 perror("mmap failed");
262 abort();
263 }
264 Copy(where,ptr,oldsize < size ? oldsize : size,char);
265 if (munmap(where, oldsize)) {
266 perror("munmap failed");
267 abort();
268 }
b001a0d1 269#else
b033d668 270 ptr = (Malloc_t)PerlMem_realloc(where,size);
b001a0d1 271#endif
b033d668 272 PERL_ALLOC_CHECK(ptr);
a1d180c4 273
4fd0a9b8
NC
274 /* MUST do this fixup first, before doing ANYTHING else, as anything else
275 might allocate memory/free/move memory, and until we do the fixup, it
276 may well be chasing (and writing to) free memory. */
b033d668 277 if (ptr != NULL) {
b001a0d1 278#ifdef PERL_TRACK_MEMPOOL
b033d668
DD
279 struct perl_memory_debug_header *const header
280 = (struct perl_memory_debug_header *)ptr;
7cb608b5 281
9a083ecf 282# ifdef PERL_POISON
b033d668
DD
283 if (header->size < size) {
284 const MEM_SIZE fresh = size - header->size;
285 char *start_of_fresh = ((char *)ptr) + size;
286 PoisonNew(start_of_fresh, fresh, char);
287 }
9a083ecf
NC
288# endif
289
b033d668
DD
290 maybe_protect_rw(header->next);
291 header->next->prev = header;
292 maybe_protect_ro(header->next);
293 maybe_protect_rw(header->prev);
294 header->prev->next = header;
295 maybe_protect_ro(header->prev);
b001a0d1 296#endif
b033d668
DD
297 ptr = (Malloc_t)((char*)ptr+PERL_MEMORY_DEBUG_HEADER_SIZE);
298 }
4fd0a9b8
NC
299
300 /* In particular, must do that fixup above before logging anything via
301 *printf(), as it can reallocate memory, which can cause SEGVs. */
302
b033d668
DD
303 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf": (%05ld) rfree\n",PTR2UV(where),(long)PL_an++));
304 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf": (%05ld) realloc %ld bytes\n",PTR2UV(ptr),(long)PL_an++,(long)size));
4fd0a9b8 305
b033d668 306 if (ptr == NULL) {
296f0d56 307#ifdef USE_MDH
9efda33a 308 out_of_memory:
296f0d56
TC
309#endif
310 {
311#ifndef ALWAYS_NEED_THX
312 dTHX;
313#endif
314 if (PL_nomemok)
315 ptr = NULL;
316 else
317 croak_no_mem();
318 }
0cb20dae 319 }
8d063cd8 320 }
b033d668 321 return ptr;
8d063cd8
LW
322}
323
f2517201 324/* safe version of system's free() */
8d063cd8 325
54310121 326Free_t
4f63d024 327Perl_safesysfree(Malloc_t where)
8d063cd8 328{
79a92154 329#ifdef ALWAYS_NEED_THX
54aff467 330 dTHX;
155aba94 331#endif
97835f67 332 DEBUG_m( PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf": (%05ld) free\n",PTR2UV(where),(long)PL_an++));
378cc40b 333 if (where) {
3f07c2bc 334#ifdef USE_MDH
6edcbed6 335 Malloc_t where_intrn = (Malloc_t)((char*)where-PERL_MEMORY_DEBUG_HEADER_SIZE);
cd1541b2 336 {
7cb608b5 337 struct perl_memory_debug_header *const header
6edcbed6 338 = (struct perl_memory_debug_header *)where_intrn;
7cb608b5 339
3f07c2bc 340# ifdef MDH_HAS_SIZE
b001a0d1
FC
341 const MEM_SIZE size = header->size;
342# endif
343# ifdef PERL_TRACK_MEMPOOL
7cb608b5 344 if (header->interpreter != aTHX) {
5637ef5b
NC
345 Perl_croak_nocontext("panic: free from wrong pool, %p!=%p",
346 header->interpreter, aTHX);
7cb608b5
NC
347 }
348 if (!header->prev) {
cd1541b2
NC
349 Perl_croak_nocontext("panic: duplicate free");
350 }
5637ef5b
NC
351 if (!(header->next))
352 Perl_croak_nocontext("panic: bad free, header->next==NULL");
353 if (header->next->prev != header || header->prev->next != header) {
354 Perl_croak_nocontext("panic: bad free, ->next->prev=%p, "
355 "header=%p, ->prev->next=%p",
356 header->next->prev, header,
357 header->prev->next);
cd1541b2 358 }
7cb608b5 359 /* Unlink us from the chain. */
b001a0d1 360 maybe_protect_rw(header->next);
7cb608b5 361 header->next->prev = header->prev;
b001a0d1
FC
362 maybe_protect_ro(header->next);
363 maybe_protect_rw(header->prev);
7cb608b5 364 header->prev->next = header->next;
b001a0d1
FC
365 maybe_protect_ro(header->prev);
366 maybe_protect_rw(header);
7cb608b5 367# ifdef PERL_POISON
6edcbed6 368 PoisonNew(where_intrn, size, char);
cd1541b2 369# endif
7cb608b5
NC
370 /* Trigger the duplicate free warning. */
371 header->next = NULL;
b001a0d1
FC
372# endif
373# ifdef PERL_DEBUG_READONLY_COW
6edcbed6 374 if (munmap(where_intrn, size)) {
b001a0d1
FC
375 perror("munmap failed");
376 abort();
377 }
378# endif
7cb608b5 379 }
6edcbed6
DD
380#else
381 Malloc_t where_intrn = where;
382#endif /* USE_MDH */
b001a0d1 383#ifndef PERL_DEBUG_READONLY_COW
6edcbed6 384 PerlMem_free(where_intrn);
b001a0d1 385#endif
378cc40b 386 }
8d063cd8
LW
387}
388
f2517201 389/* safe version of system's calloc() */
1050c9ca 390
bd4080b3 391Malloc_t
4f63d024 392Perl_safesyscalloc(MEM_SIZE count, MEM_SIZE size)
1050c9ca 393{
1f4d2d4e 394#ifdef ALWAYS_NEED_THX
54aff467 395 dTHX;
0cb20dae 396#endif
bd4080b3 397 Malloc_t ptr;
3f07c2bc 398#if defined(USE_MDH) || defined(DEBUGGING)
ad7244db 399 MEM_SIZE total_size = 0;
4b1123b9 400#endif
1050c9ca 401
ad7244db 402 /* Even though calloc() for zero bytes is strange, be robust. */
4b1123b9 403 if (size && (count <= MEM_SIZE_MAX / size)) {
3f07c2bc 404#if defined(USE_MDH) || defined(DEBUGGING)
ad7244db 405 total_size = size * count;
4b1123b9
NC
406#endif
407 }
ad7244db 408 else
d1decf2b 409 croak_memory_wrap();
3f07c2bc 410#ifdef USE_MDH
a78adc84
DM
411 if (PERL_MEMORY_DEBUG_HEADER_SIZE <= MEM_SIZE_MAX - (MEM_SIZE)total_size)
412 total_size += PERL_MEMORY_DEBUG_HEADER_SIZE;
ad7244db 413 else
d1decf2b 414 croak_memory_wrap();
ad7244db 415#endif
1050c9ca 416#ifdef DEBUGGING
03c5309f 417 if ((SSize_t)size < 0 || (SSize_t)count < 0)
5637ef5b
NC
418 Perl_croak_nocontext("panic: calloc, size=%"UVuf", count=%"UVuf,
419 (UV)size, (UV)count);
1050c9ca 420#endif
b001a0d1
FC
421#ifdef PERL_DEBUG_READONLY_COW
422 if ((ptr = mmap(0, total_size ? total_size : 1, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE,
423 MAP_ANON|MAP_PRIVATE, -1, 0)) == MAP_FAILED) {
424 perror("mmap failed");
425 abort();
426 }
427#elif defined(PERL_TRACK_MEMPOOL)
e1a95402
NC
428 /* Have to use malloc() because we've added some space for our tracking
429 header. */
ad7244db
JH
430 /* malloc(0) is non-portable. */
431 ptr = (Malloc_t)PerlMem_malloc(total_size ? total_size : 1);
e1a95402
NC
432#else
433 /* Use calloc() because it might save a memset() if the memory is fresh
434 and clean from the OS. */
ad7244db
JH
435 if (count && size)
436 ptr = (Malloc_t)PerlMem_calloc(count, size);
437 else /* calloc(0) is non-portable. */
438 ptr = (Malloc_t)PerlMem_calloc(count ? count : 1, size ? size : 1);
e8dda941 439#endif
da927450 440 PERL_ALLOC_CHECK(ptr);
e1a95402 441 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf": (%05ld) calloc %ld x %ld bytes\n",PTR2UV(ptr),(long)PL_an++,(long)count,(long)total_size));
bd61b366 442 if (ptr != NULL) {
3f07c2bc 443#ifdef USE_MDH
7cb608b5
NC
444 {
445 struct perl_memory_debug_header *const header
446 = (struct perl_memory_debug_header *)ptr;
447
b001a0d1 448# ifndef PERL_DEBUG_READONLY_COW
e1a95402 449 memset((void*)ptr, 0, total_size);
b001a0d1
FC
450# endif
451# ifdef PERL_TRACK_MEMPOOL
7cb608b5
NC
452 header->interpreter = aTHX;
453 /* Link us into the list. */
454 header->prev = &PL_memory_debug_header;
455 header->next = PL_memory_debug_header.next;
456 PL_memory_debug_header.next = header;
b001a0d1 457 maybe_protect_rw(header->next);
7cb608b5 458 header->next->prev = header;
b001a0d1
FC
459 maybe_protect_ro(header->next);
460# ifdef PERL_DEBUG_READONLY_COW
461 header->readonly = 0;
462# endif
463# endif
3f07c2bc 464# ifdef MDH_HAS_SIZE
e1a95402 465 header->size = total_size;
cd1541b2 466# endif
a78adc84 467 ptr = (Malloc_t)((char*)ptr+PERL_MEMORY_DEBUG_HEADER_SIZE);
7cb608b5 468 }
e8dda941 469#endif
1050c9ca
PP
470 return ptr;
471 }
0cb20dae 472 else {
1f4d2d4e 473#ifndef ALWAYS_NEED_THX
0cb20dae
NC
474 dTHX;
475#endif
476 if (PL_nomemok)
477 return NULL;
4cbe3a7d 478 croak_no_mem();
0cb20dae 479 }
1050c9ca
PP
480}
481
cae6d0e5
GS
482/* These must be defined when not using Perl's malloc for binary
483 * compatibility */
484
485#ifndef MYMALLOC
486
487Malloc_t Perl_malloc (MEM_SIZE nbytes)
488{
20b7effb
JH
489#ifdef PERL_IMPLICIT_SYS
490 dTHX;
491#endif
077a72a9 492 return (Malloc_t)PerlMem_malloc(nbytes);
cae6d0e5
GS
493}
494
495Malloc_t Perl_calloc (MEM_SIZE elements, MEM_SIZE size)
496{
20b7effb
JH
497#ifdef PERL_IMPLICIT_SYS
498 dTHX;
499#endif
077a72a9 500 return (Malloc_t)PerlMem_calloc(elements, size);
cae6d0e5
GS
501}
502
503Malloc_t Perl_realloc (Malloc_t where, MEM_SIZE nbytes)
504{
20b7effb
JH
505#ifdef PERL_IMPLICIT_SYS
506 dTHX;
507#endif
077a72a9 508 return (Malloc_t)PerlMem_realloc(where, nbytes);
cae6d0e5
GS
509}
510
511Free_t Perl_mfree (Malloc_t where)
512{
20b7effb
JH
513#ifdef PERL_IMPLICIT_SYS
514 dTHX;
515#endif
cae6d0e5
GS
516 PerlMem_free(where);
517}
518
519#endif
520
8d063cd8
LW
521/* copy a string up to some (non-backslashed) delimiter, if any */
522
523char *
5aaab254 524Perl_delimcpy(char *to, const char *toend, const char *from, const char *fromend, int delim, I32 *retlen)
8d063cd8 525{
eb578fdb 526 I32 tolen;
35da51f7 527
7918f24d
NC
528 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_DELIMCPY;
529
fc36a67e 530 for (tolen = 0; from < fromend; from++, tolen++) {
378cc40b 531 if (*from == '\\') {
35da51f7 532 if (from[1] != delim) {
fc36a67e
PP
533 if (to < toend)
534 *to++ = *from;
535 tolen++;
fc36a67e 536 }
35da51f7 537 from++;
378cc40b 538 }
bedebaa5 539 else if (*from == delim)
8d063cd8 540 break;
fc36a67e
PP
541 if (to < toend)
542 *to++ = *from;
8d063cd8 543 }
bedebaa5
CS
544 if (to < toend)
545 *to = '\0';
fc36a67e 546 *retlen = tolen;
73d840c0 547 return (char *)from;
8d063cd8
LW
548}
549
550/* return ptr to little string in big string, NULL if not found */
378cc40b 551/* This routine was donated by Corey Satten. */
8d063cd8
LW
552
553char *
5aaab254 554Perl_instr(const char *big, const char *little)
378cc40b 555{
378cc40b 556
7918f24d
NC
557 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_INSTR;
558
5d1d68e2 559 return strstr((char*)big, (char*)little);
378cc40b 560}
8d063cd8 561
e057d092
KW
562/* same as instr but allow embedded nulls. The end pointers point to 1 beyond
563 * the final character desired to be checked */
a687059c
LW
564
565char *
04c9e624 566Perl_ninstr(const char *big, const char *bigend, const char *little, const char *lend)
8d063cd8 567{
7918f24d 568 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_NINSTR;
4c8626be
GA
569 if (little >= lend)
570 return (char*)big;
571 {
8ba22ff4 572 const char first = *little;
4c8626be 573 const char *s, *x;
8ba22ff4 574 bigend -= lend - little++;
4c8626be
GA
575 OUTER:
576 while (big <= bigend) {
b0ca24ee
JH
577 if (*big++ == first) {
578 for (x=big,s=little; s < lend; x++,s++) {
579 if (*s != *x)
580 goto OUTER;
581 }
582 return (char*)(big-1);
4c8626be 583 }
4c8626be 584 }
378cc40b 585 }
bd61b366 586 return NULL;
a687059c
LW
587}
588
589/* reverse of the above--find last substring */
590
591char *
5aaab254 592Perl_rninstr(const char *big, const char *bigend, const char *little, const char *lend)
a687059c 593{
eb578fdb
KW
594 const char *bigbeg;
595 const I32 first = *little;
596 const char * const littleend = lend;
a687059c 597
7918f24d
NC
598 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_RNINSTR;
599
260d78c9 600 if (little >= littleend)
08105a92 601 return (char*)bigend;
a687059c
LW
602 bigbeg = big;
603 big = bigend - (littleend - little++);
604 while (big >= bigbeg) {
eb578fdb 605 const char *s, *x;
a687059c
LW
606 if (*big-- != first)
607 continue;
608 for (x=big+2,s=little; s < littleend; /**/ ) {
4fc877ac 609 if (*s != *x)
a687059c 610 break;
4fc877ac
AL
611 else {
612 x++;
613 s++;
a687059c
LW
614 }
615 }
616 if (s >= littleend)
08105a92 617 return (char*)(big+1);
378cc40b 618 }
bd61b366 619 return NULL;
378cc40b 620}
a687059c 621
cf93c79d
IZ
622/* As a space optimization, we do not compile tables for strings of length
623 0 and 1, and for strings of length 2 unless FBMcf_TAIL. These are
624 special-cased in fbm_instr().
625
626 If FBMcf_TAIL, the table is created as if the string has a trailing \n. */
627
954c1994 628/*
ccfc67b7
JH
629=head1 Miscellaneous Functions
630
954c1994
GS
631=for apidoc fbm_compile
632
633Analyses the string in order to make fast searches on it using fbm_instr()
634-- the Boyer-Moore algorithm.
635
636=cut
637*/
638
378cc40b 639void
7506f9c3 640Perl_fbm_compile(pTHX_ SV *sv, U32 flags)
378cc40b 641{
eb578fdb 642 const U8 *s;
ea725ce6 643 STRLEN i;
0b71040e 644 STRLEN len;
79072805 645 U32 frequency = 256;
2bda37ba 646 MAGIC *mg;
00cccd05 647 PERL_DEB( STRLEN rarest = 0 );
79072805 648
7918f24d
NC
649 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_FBM_COMPILE;
650
948d2370 651 if (isGV_with_GP(sv) || SvROK(sv))
4265b45d
NC
652 return;
653
9402563a
NC
654 if (SvVALID(sv))
655 return;
656
c517dc2b 657 if (flags & FBMcf_TAIL) {
890ce7af 658 MAGIC * const mg = SvUTF8(sv) && SvMAGICAL(sv) ? mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_utf8) : NULL;
396482e1 659 sv_catpvs(sv, "\n"); /* Taken into account in fbm_instr() */
c517dc2b
JH
660 if (mg && mg->mg_len >= 0)
661 mg->mg_len++;
662 }
11609d9c 663 if (!SvPOK(sv) || SvNIOKp(sv))
66379c06
FC
664 s = (U8*)SvPV_force_mutable(sv, len);
665 else s = (U8 *)SvPV_mutable(sv, len);
d1be9408 666 if (len == 0) /* TAIL might be on a zero-length string. */
cf93c79d 667 return;
c13a5c80 668 SvUPGRADE(sv, SVt_PVMG);
78d0cf80 669 SvIOK_off(sv);
8eeaf79a
NC
670 SvNOK_off(sv);
671 SvVALID_on(sv);
2bda37ba
NC
672
673 /* "deep magic", the comment used to add. The use of MAGIC itself isn't
674 really. MAGIC was originally added in 79072805bf63abe5 (perl 5.0 alpha 2)
675 to call SvVALID_off() if the scalar was assigned to.
676
677 The comment itself (and "deeper magic" below) date back to
678 378cc40b38293ffc (perl 2.0). "deep magic" was an annotation on
679 str->str_pok |= 2;
680 where the magic (presumably) was that the scalar had a BM table hidden
681 inside itself.
682
683 As MAGIC is always present on BMs [in Perl 5 :-)], we can use it to store
684 the table instead of the previous (somewhat hacky) approach of co-opting
685 the string buffer and storing it after the string. */
686
687 assert(!mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_bm));
688 mg = sv_magicext(sv, NULL, PERL_MAGIC_bm, &PL_vtbl_bm, NULL, 0);
689 assert(mg);
690
02128f11 691 if (len > 2) {
21aeb718
NC
692 /* Shorter strings are special-cased in Perl_fbm_instr(), and don't use
693 the BM table. */
66a1b24b 694 const U8 mlen = (len>255) ? 255 : (U8)len;
2bda37ba 695 const unsigned char *const sb = s + len - mlen; /* first char (maybe) */
eb578fdb 696 U8 *table;
cf93c79d 697
2bda37ba 698 Newx(table, 256, U8);
7506f9c3 699 memset((void*)table, mlen, 256);
2bda37ba
NC
700 mg->mg_ptr = (char *)table;
701 mg->mg_len = 256;
702
703 s += len - 1; /* last char */
02128f11 704 i = 0;
cf93c79d
IZ
705 while (s >= sb) {
706 if (table[*s] == mlen)
7506f9c3 707 table[*s] = (U8)i;
cf93c79d
IZ
708 s--, i++;
709 }
378cc40b 710 }
378cc40b 711
9cbe880b 712 s = (const unsigned char*)(SvPVX_const(sv)); /* deeper magic */
bbce6d69 713 for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
22c35a8c 714 if (PL_freq[s[i]] < frequency) {
00cccd05 715 PERL_DEB( rarest = i );
22c35a8c 716 frequency = PL_freq[s[i]];
378cc40b
LW
717 }
718 }
cf93c79d
IZ
719 BmUSEFUL(sv) = 100; /* Initial value */
720 if (flags & FBMcf_TAIL)
721 SvTAIL_on(sv);
ea725ce6 722 DEBUG_r(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "rarest char %c at %"UVuf"\n",
d80cf470 723 s[rarest], (UV)rarest));
378cc40b
LW
724}
725
cf93c79d
IZ
726/* If SvTAIL(littlestr), it has a fake '\n' at end. */
727/* If SvTAIL is actually due to \Z or \z, this gives false positives
728 if multiline */
729
954c1994
GS
730/*
731=for apidoc fbm_instr
732
3f4963df
FC
733Returns the location of the SV in the string delimited by C<big> and
734C<bigend>. It returns C<NULL> if the string can't be found. The C<sv>
954c1994
GS
735does not have to be fbm_compiled, but the search will not be as fast
736then.
737
738=cut
739*/
740
378cc40b 741char *
5aaab254 742Perl_fbm_instr(pTHX_ unsigned char *big, unsigned char *bigend, SV *littlestr, U32 flags)
378cc40b 743{
eb578fdb 744 unsigned char *s;
cf93c79d 745 STRLEN l;
eb578fdb
KW
746 const unsigned char *little = (const unsigned char *)SvPV_const(littlestr,l);
747 STRLEN littlelen = l;
748 const I32 multiline = flags & FBMrf_MULTILINE;
cf93c79d 749
7918f24d
NC
750 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_FBM_INSTR;
751
eb160463 752 if ((STRLEN)(bigend - big) < littlelen) {
a1d180c4 753 if ( SvTAIL(littlestr)
eb160463 754 && ((STRLEN)(bigend - big) == littlelen - 1)
a1d180c4 755 && (littlelen == 1
12ae5dfc 756 || (*big == *little &&
27da23d5 757 memEQ((char *)big, (char *)little, littlelen - 1))))
cf93c79d 758 return (char*)big;
bd61b366 759 return NULL;
cf93c79d 760 }
378cc40b 761
21aeb718
NC
762 switch (littlelen) { /* Special cases for 0, 1 and 2 */
763 case 0:
764 return (char*)big; /* Cannot be SvTAIL! */
765 case 1:
cf93c79d
IZ
766 if (SvTAIL(littlestr) && !multiline) { /* Anchor only! */
767 /* Know that bigend != big. */
768 if (bigend[-1] == '\n')
769 return (char *)(bigend - 1);
770 return (char *) bigend;
771 }
772 s = big;
773 while (s < bigend) {
774 if (*s == *little)
775 return (char *)s;
776 s++;
777 }
778 if (SvTAIL(littlestr))
779 return (char *) bigend;
bd61b366 780 return NULL;
21aeb718 781 case 2:
cf93c79d
IZ
782 if (SvTAIL(littlestr) && !multiline) {
783 if (bigend[-1] == '\n' && bigend[-2] == *little)
784 return (char*)bigend - 2;
785 if (bigend[-1] == *little)
786 return (char*)bigend - 1;
bd61b366 787 return NULL;
cf93c79d
IZ
788 }
789 {
790 /* This should be better than FBM if c1 == c2, and almost
791 as good otherwise: maybe better since we do less indirection.
792 And we save a lot of memory by caching no table. */
66a1b24b
AL
793 const unsigned char c1 = little[0];
794 const unsigned char c2 = little[1];
cf93c79d
IZ
795
796 s = big + 1;
797 bigend--;
798 if (c1 != c2) {
799 while (s <= bigend) {
800 if (s[0] == c2) {
801 if (s[-1] == c1)
802 return (char*)s - 1;
803 s += 2;
804 continue;
3fe6f2dc 805 }
cf93c79d
IZ
806 next_chars:
807 if (s[0] == c1) {
808 if (s == bigend)
809 goto check_1char_anchor;
810 if (s[1] == c2)
811 return (char*)s;
812 else {
813 s++;
814 goto next_chars;
815 }
816 }
817 else
818 s += 2;
819 }
820 goto check_1char_anchor;
821 }
822 /* Now c1 == c2 */
823 while (s <= bigend) {
824 if (s[0] == c1) {
825 if (s[-1] == c1)
826 return (char*)s - 1;
827 if (s == bigend)
828 goto check_1char_anchor;
829 if (s[1] == c1)
830 return (char*)s;
831 s += 3;
02128f11 832 }
c277df42 833 else
cf93c79d 834 s += 2;
c277df42 835 }
c277df42 836 }
cf93c79d
IZ
837 check_1char_anchor: /* One char and anchor! */
838 if (SvTAIL(littlestr) && (*bigend == *little))
839 return (char *)bigend; /* bigend is already decremented. */
bd61b366 840 return NULL;
21aeb718
NC
841 default:
842 break; /* Only lengths 0 1 and 2 have special-case code. */
d48672a2 843 }
21aeb718 844
cf93c79d 845 if (SvTAIL(littlestr) && !multiline) { /* tail anchored? */
bbce6d69 846 s = bigend - littlelen;
a1d180c4 847 if (s >= big && bigend[-1] == '\n' && *s == *little
cf93c79d
IZ
848 /* Automatically of length > 2 */
849 && memEQ((char*)s + 1, (char*)little + 1, littlelen - 2))
7506f9c3 850 {
bbce6d69 851 return (char*)s; /* how sweet it is */
7506f9c3
GS
852 }
853 if (s[1] == *little
854 && memEQ((char*)s + 2, (char*)little + 1, littlelen - 2))
855 {
cf93c79d 856 return (char*)s + 1; /* how sweet it is */
7506f9c3 857 }
bd61b366 858 return NULL;
02128f11 859 }
cecf5685 860 if (!SvVALID(littlestr)) {
c4420975 861 char * const b = ninstr((char*)big,(char*)bigend,
cf93c79d
IZ
862 (char*)little, (char*)little + littlelen);
863
864 if (!b && SvTAIL(littlestr)) { /* Automatically multiline! */
865 /* Chop \n from littlestr: */
866 s = bigend - littlelen + 1;
7506f9c3
GS
867 if (*s == *little
868 && memEQ((char*)s + 1, (char*)little + 1, littlelen - 2))
869 {
3fe6f2dc 870 return (char*)s;
7506f9c3 871 }
bd61b366 872 return NULL;
a687059c 873 }
cf93c79d 874 return b;
a687059c 875 }
a1d180c4 876
3566a07d
NC
877 /* Do actual FBM. */
878 if (littlelen > (STRLEN)(bigend - big))
879 return NULL;
880
881 {
2bda37ba 882 const MAGIC *const mg = mg_find(littlestr, PERL_MAGIC_bm);
eb578fdb 883 const unsigned char *oldlittle;
cf93c79d 884
316ebaf2
JH
885 assert(mg);
886
cf93c79d
IZ
887 --littlelen; /* Last char found by table lookup */
888
889 s = big + littlelen;
890 little += littlelen; /* last char */
891 oldlittle = little;
892 if (s < bigend) {
316ebaf2 893 const unsigned char * const table = (const unsigned char *) mg->mg_ptr;
eb578fdb 894 I32 tmp;
cf93c79d
IZ
895
896 top2:
7506f9c3 897 if ((tmp = table[*s])) {
cf93c79d 898 if ((s += tmp) < bigend)
62b28dd9 899 goto top2;
cf93c79d
IZ
900 goto check_end;
901 }
902 else { /* less expensive than calling strncmp() */
eb578fdb 903 unsigned char * const olds = s;
cf93c79d
IZ
904
905 tmp = littlelen;
906
907 while (tmp--) {
908 if (*--s == *--little)
909 continue;
cf93c79d
IZ
910 s = olds + 1; /* here we pay the price for failure */
911 little = oldlittle;
912 if (s < bigend) /* fake up continue to outer loop */
913 goto top2;
914 goto check_end;
915 }
916 return (char *)s;
a687059c 917 }
378cc40b 918 }
cf93c79d 919 check_end:
c8029a41 920 if ( s == bigend
cffe132d 921 && SvTAIL(littlestr)
12ae5dfc
JH
922 && memEQ((char *)(bigend - littlelen),
923 (char *)(oldlittle - littlelen), littlelen) )
cf93c79d 924 return (char*)bigend - littlelen;
bd61b366 925 return NULL;
378cc40b 926 }
378cc40b
LW
927}
928
e6226b18
KW
929/*
930=for apidoc foldEQ
931
932Returns true if the leading len bytes of the strings s1 and s2 are the same
933case-insensitively; false otherwise. Uppercase and lowercase ASCII range bytes
934match themselves and their opposite case counterparts. Non-cased and non-ASCII
935range bytes match only themselves.
936
937=cut
938*/
939
940
79072805 941I32
5aaab254 942Perl_foldEQ(const char *s1, const char *s2, I32 len)
79072805 943{
eb578fdb
KW
944 const U8 *a = (const U8 *)s1;
945 const U8 *b = (const U8 *)s2;
96a5add6 946
e6226b18 947 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_FOLDEQ;
7918f24d 948
223f01db
KW
949 assert(len >= 0);
950
79072805 951 while (len--) {
22c35a8c 952 if (*a != *b && *a != PL_fold[*b])
e6226b18 953 return 0;
bbce6d69
PP
954 a++,b++;
955 }
e6226b18 956 return 1;
bbce6d69 957}
1b9f127b 958I32
5aaab254 959Perl_foldEQ_latin1(const char *s1, const char *s2, I32 len)
1b9f127b
KW
960{
961 /* Compare non-utf8 using Unicode (Latin1) semantics. Does not work on
962 * MICRO_SIGN, LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S, nor
963 * LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS, and does not check for these. Nor
964 * does it check that the strings each have at least 'len' characters */
965
eb578fdb
KW
966 const U8 *a = (const U8 *)s1;
967 const U8 *b = (const U8 *)s2;
1b9f127b
KW
968
969 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_FOLDEQ_LATIN1;
970
223f01db
KW
971 assert(len >= 0);
972
1b9f127b
KW
973 while (len--) {
974 if (*a != *b && *a != PL_fold_latin1[*b]) {
975 return 0;
976 }
977 a++, b++;
978 }
979 return 1;
980}
bbce6d69 981
e6226b18
KW
982/*
983=for apidoc foldEQ_locale
984
985Returns true if the leading len bytes of the strings s1 and s2 are the same
986case-insensitively in the current locale; false otherwise.
987
988=cut
989*/
990
bbce6d69 991I32
5aaab254 992Perl_foldEQ_locale(const char *s1, const char *s2, I32 len)
bbce6d69 993{
27da23d5 994 dVAR;
eb578fdb
KW
995 const U8 *a = (const U8 *)s1;
996 const U8 *b = (const U8 *)s2;
96a5add6 997
e6226b18 998 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_FOLDEQ_LOCALE;
7918f24d 999
223f01db
KW
1000 assert(len >= 0);
1001
bbce6d69 1002 while (len--) {
22c35a8c 1003 if (*a != *b && *a != PL_fold_locale[*b])
e6226b18 1004 return 0;
bbce6d69 1005 a++,b++;
79072805 1006 }
e6226b18 1007 return 1;
79072805
LW
1008}
1009
8d063cd8
LW
1010/* copy a string to a safe spot */
1011
954c1994 1012/*
ccfc67b7
JH
1013=head1 Memory Management
1014
954c1994
GS
1015=for apidoc savepv
1016
72d33970
FC
1017Perl's version of C<strdup()>. Returns a pointer to a newly allocated
1018string which is a duplicate of C<pv>. The size of the string is
30a15352
KW
1019determined by C<strlen()>, which means it may not contain embedded C<NUL>
1020characters and must have a trailing C<NUL>. The memory allocated for the new
1021string can be freed with the C<Safefree()> function.
954c1994 1022
0358c255
KW
1023On some platforms, Windows for example, all allocated memory owned by a thread
1024is deallocated when that thread ends. So if you need that not to happen, you
1025need to use the shared memory functions, such as C<L</savesharedpv>>.
1026
954c1994
GS
1027=cut
1028*/
1029
8d063cd8 1030char *
efdfce31 1031Perl_savepv(pTHX_ const char *pv)
8d063cd8 1032{
96a5add6 1033 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
e90e2364 1034 if (!pv)
bd61b366 1035 return NULL;
66a1b24b
AL
1036 else {
1037 char *newaddr;
1038 const STRLEN pvlen = strlen(pv)+1;
10edeb5d
JH
1039 Newx(newaddr, pvlen, char);
1040 return (char*)memcpy(newaddr, pv, pvlen);
66a1b24b 1041 }
8d063cd8
LW
1042}
1043
a687059c
LW
1044/* same thing but with a known length */
1045
954c1994
GS
1046/*
1047=for apidoc savepvn
1048
72d33970 1049Perl's version of what C<strndup()> would be if it existed. Returns a
61a925ed 1050pointer to a newly allocated string which is a duplicate of the first
72d33970 1051C<len> bytes from C<pv>, plus a trailing
6602b933 1052C<NUL> byte. The memory allocated for
cbf82dd0 1053the new string can be freed with the C<Safefree()> function.
954c1994 1054
0358c255
KW
1055On some platforms, Windows for example, all allocated memory owned by a thread
1056is deallocated when that thread ends. So if you need that not to happen, you
1057need to use the shared memory functions, such as C<L</savesharedpvn>>.
1058
954c1994
GS
1059=cut
1060*/
1061
a687059c 1062char *
5aaab254 1063Perl_savepvn(pTHX_ const char *pv, I32 len)
a687059c 1064{
eb578fdb 1065 char *newaddr;
96a5add6 1066 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
a687059c 1067
223f01db
KW
1068 assert(len >= 0);
1069
a02a5408 1070 Newx(newaddr,len+1,char);
92110913 1071 /* Give a meaning to NULL pointer mainly for the use in sv_magic() */
efdfce31 1072 if (pv) {
e90e2364
NC
1073 /* might not be null terminated */
1074 newaddr[len] = '\0';
07409e01 1075 return (char *) CopyD(pv,newaddr,len,char);
92110913
NIS
1076 }
1077 else {
07409e01 1078 return (char *) ZeroD(newaddr,len+1,char);
92110913 1079 }
a687059c
LW
1080}
1081
05ec9bb3
NIS
1082/*
1083=for apidoc savesharedpv
1084
61a925ed
AMS
1085A version of C<savepv()> which allocates the duplicate string in memory
1086which is shared between threads.
05ec9bb3
NIS
1087
1088=cut
1089*/
1090char *
efdfce31 1091Perl_savesharedpv(pTHX_ const char *pv)
05ec9bb3 1092{
eb578fdb 1093 char *newaddr;
490a0e98 1094 STRLEN pvlen;
dc3bf405
BF
1095
1096 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
1097
e90e2364 1098 if (!pv)
bd61b366 1099 return NULL;
e90e2364 1100
490a0e98
NC
1101 pvlen = strlen(pv)+1;
1102 newaddr = (char*)PerlMemShared_malloc(pvlen);
e90e2364 1103 if (!newaddr) {
4cbe3a7d 1104 croak_no_mem();
05ec9bb3 1105 }
10edeb5d 1106 return (char*)memcpy(newaddr, pv, pvlen);
05ec9bb3
NIS
1107}
1108
2e0de35c 1109/*
d9095cec
NC
1110=for apidoc savesharedpvn
1111
1112A version of C<savepvn()> which allocates the duplicate string in memory
72d33970 1113which is shared between threads. (With the specific difference that a NULL
d9095cec
NC
1114pointer is not acceptable)
1115
1116=cut
1117*/
1118char *
1119Perl_savesharedpvn(pTHX_ const char *const pv, const STRLEN len)
1120{
1121 char *const newaddr = (char*)PerlMemShared_malloc(len + 1);
7918f24d 1122
dc3bf405 1123 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
6379d4a9 1124 /* PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SAVESHAREDPVN; */
7918f24d 1125
d9095cec 1126 if (!newaddr) {
4cbe3a7d 1127 croak_no_mem();
d9095cec
NC
1128 }
1129 newaddr[len] = '\0';
1130 return (char*)memcpy(newaddr, pv, len);
1131}
1132
1133/*
2e0de35c
NC
1134=for apidoc savesvpv
1135
6832267f 1136A version of C<savepv()>/C<savepvn()> which gets the string to duplicate from
2e0de35c
NC
1137the passed in SV using C<SvPV()>
1138
0358c255
KW
1139On some platforms, Windows for example, all allocated memory owned by a thread
1140is deallocated when that thread ends. So if you need that not to happen, you
1141need to use the shared memory functions, such as C<L</savesharedsvpv>>.
1142
2e0de35c
NC
1143=cut
1144*/
1145
1146char *
1147Perl_savesvpv(pTHX_ SV *sv)
1148{
1149 STRLEN len;
7452cf6a 1150 const char * const pv = SvPV_const(sv, len);
eb578fdb 1151 char *newaddr;
2e0de35c 1152
7918f24d
NC
1153 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SAVESVPV;
1154
26866f99 1155 ++len;
a02a5408 1156 Newx(newaddr,len,char);
07409e01 1157 return (char *) CopyD(pv,newaddr,len,char);
2e0de35c 1158}
05ec9bb3 1159
9dcc53ea
Z
1160/*
1161=for apidoc savesharedsvpv
1162
1163A version of C<savesharedpv()> which allocates the duplicate string in
1164memory which is shared between threads.
1165
1166=cut
1167*/
1168
1169char *
1170Perl_savesharedsvpv(pTHX_ SV *sv)
1171{
1172 STRLEN len;
1173 const char * const pv = SvPV_const(sv, len);
1174
1175 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SAVESHAREDSVPV;
1176
1177 return savesharedpvn(pv, len);
1178}
05ec9bb3 1179
cea2e8a9 1180/* the SV for Perl_form() and mess() is not kept in an arena */
fc36a67e 1181
76e3520e 1182STATIC SV *
cea2e8a9 1183S_mess_alloc(pTHX)
fc36a67e
PP
1184{
1185 SV *sv;
1186 XPVMG *any;
1187
627364f1 1188 if (PL_phase != PERL_PHASE_DESTRUCT)
84bafc02 1189 return newSVpvs_flags("", SVs_TEMP);
e72dc28c 1190
0372dbb6
GS
1191 if (PL_mess_sv)
1192 return PL_mess_sv;
1193
fc36a67e 1194 /* Create as PVMG now, to avoid any upgrading later */
a02a5408
JC
1195 Newx(sv, 1, SV);
1196 Newxz(any, 1, XPVMG);
fc36a67e
PP
1197 SvFLAGS(sv) = SVt_PVMG;
1198 SvANY(sv) = (void*)any;
6136c704 1199 SvPV_set(sv, NULL);
fc36a67e 1200 SvREFCNT(sv) = 1 << 30; /* practically infinite */
e72dc28c 1201 PL_mess_sv = sv;
fc36a67e
PP
1202 return sv;
1203}
1204
c5be433b 1205#if defined(PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT)
cea2e8a9
GS
1206char *
1207Perl_form_nocontext(const char* pat, ...)
1208{
1209 dTHX;
c5be433b 1210 char *retval;
cea2e8a9 1211 va_list args;
7918f24d 1212 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_FORM_NOCONTEXT;
cea2e8a9 1213 va_start(args, pat);
c5be433b 1214 retval = vform(pat, &args);
cea2e8a9 1215 va_end(args);
c5be433b 1216 return retval;
cea2e8a9 1217}
c5be433b 1218#endif /* PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT */
cea2e8a9 1219
7c9e965c 1220/*
ccfc67b7 1221=head1 Miscellaneous Functions
7c9e965c
JP
1222=for apidoc form
1223
1224Takes a sprintf-style format pattern and conventional
1225(non-SV) arguments and returns the formatted string.
1226
1227 (char *) Perl_form(pTHX_ const char* pat, ...)
1228
1229can be used any place a string (char *) is required:
1230
1231 char * s = Perl_form("%d.%d",major,minor);
1232
1233Uses a single private buffer so if you want to format several strings you
1234must explicitly copy the earlier strings away (and free the copies when you
1235are done).
1236
1237=cut
1238*/
1239
8990e307 1240char *
864dbfa3 1241Perl_form(pTHX_ const char* pat, ...)
8990e307 1242{
c5be433b 1243 char *retval;
46fc3d4c 1244 va_list args;
7918f24d 1245 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_FORM;
46fc3d4c 1246 va_start(args, pat);
c5be433b 1247 retval = vform(pat, &args);
46fc3d4c 1248 va_end(args);
c5be433b
GS
1249 return retval;
1250}
1251
1252char *
1253Perl_vform(pTHX_ const char *pat, va_list *args)
1254{
2d03de9c 1255 SV * const sv = mess_alloc();
7918f24d 1256 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_VFORM;
4608196e 1257 sv_vsetpvfn(sv, pat, strlen(pat), args, NULL, 0, NULL);
e72dc28c 1258 return SvPVX(sv);
46fc3d4c 1259}
a687059c 1260
c5df3096
Z
1261/*
1262=for apidoc Am|SV *|mess|const char *pat|...
1263
1264Take a sprintf-style format pattern and argument list. These are used to
1265generate a string message. If the message does not end with a newline,
1266then it will be extended with some indication of the current location
1267in the code, as described for L</mess_sv>.
1268
1269Normally, the resulting message is returned in a new mortal SV.
1270During global destruction a single SV may be shared between uses of
1271this function.
1272
1273=cut
1274*/
1275
5a844595
GS
1276#if defined(PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT)
1277SV *
1278Perl_mess_nocontext(const char *pat, ...)
1279{
1280 dTHX;
1281 SV *retval;
1282 va_list args;
7918f24d 1283 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_MESS_NOCONTEXT;
5a844595
GS
1284 va_start(args, pat);
1285 retval = vmess(pat, &args);
1286 va_end(args);
1287 return retval;
1288}
1289#endif /* PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT */
1290
06bf62c7 1291SV *
5a844595
GS
1292Perl_mess(pTHX_ const char *pat, ...)
1293{
1294 SV *retval;
1295 va_list args;
7918f24d 1296 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_MESS;
5a844595
GS
1297 va_start(args, pat);
1298 retval = vmess(pat, &args);
1299 va_end(args);
1300 return retval;
1301}
1302
25502127
FC
1303const COP*
1304Perl_closest_cop(pTHX_ const COP *cop, const OP *o, const OP *curop,
1305 bool opnext)
ae7d165c 1306{
25502127
FC
1307 /* Look for curop starting from o. cop is the last COP we've seen. */
1308 /* opnext means that curop is actually the ->op_next of the op we are
1309 seeking. */
ae7d165c 1310
7918f24d
NC
1311 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_CLOSEST_COP;
1312
25502127
FC
1313 if (!o || !curop || (
1314 opnext ? o->op_next == curop && o->op_type != OP_SCOPE : o == curop
1315 ))
fabdb6c0 1316 return cop;
ae7d165c
PJ
1317
1318 if (o->op_flags & OPf_KIDS) {
5f66b61c 1319 const OP *kid;
e6dae479 1320 for (kid = cUNOPo->op_first; kid; kid = OpSIBLING(kid)) {
5f66b61c 1321 const COP *new_cop;
ae7d165c
PJ
1322
1323 /* If the OP_NEXTSTATE has been optimised away we can still use it
1324 * the get the file and line number. */
1325
1326 if (kid->op_type == OP_NULL && kid->op_targ == OP_NEXTSTATE)
5f66b61c 1327 cop = (const COP *)kid;
ae7d165c
PJ
1328
1329 /* Keep searching, and return when we've found something. */
1330
25502127 1331 new_cop = closest_cop(cop, kid, curop, opnext);
fabdb6c0
AL
1332 if (new_cop)
1333 return new_cop;
ae7d165c
PJ
1334 }
1335 }
1336
1337 /* Nothing found. */
1338
5f66b61c 1339 return NULL;
ae7d165c
PJ
1340}
1341
c5df3096
Z
1342/*
1343=for apidoc Am|SV *|mess_sv|SV *basemsg|bool consume
1344
1345Expands a message, intended for the user, to include an indication of
1346the current location in the code, if the message does not already appear
1347to be complete.
1348
1349C<basemsg> is the initial message or object. If it is a reference, it
1350will be used as-is and will be the result of this function. Otherwise it
1351is used as a string, and if it already ends with a newline, it is taken
1352to be complete, and the result of this function will be the same string.
1353If the message does not end with a newline, then a segment such as C<at
1354foo.pl line 37> will be appended, and possibly other clauses indicating
1355the current state of execution. The resulting message will end with a
1356dot and a newline.
1357
1358Normally, the resulting message is returned in a new mortal SV.
1359During global destruction a single SV may be shared between uses of this
1360function. If C<consume> is true, then the function is permitted (but not
1361required) to modify and return C<basemsg> instead of allocating a new SV.
1362
1363=cut
1364*/
1365
5a844595 1366SV *
c5df3096 1367Perl_mess_sv(pTHX_ SV *basemsg, bool consume)
46fc3d4c 1368{
c5df3096 1369 SV *sv;
46fc3d4c 1370
0762e42f 1371#if defined(USE_C_BACKTRACE) && defined(USE_C_BACKTRACE_ON_ERROR)
470dd224
JH
1372 {
1373 char *ws;
22ff3130 1374 UV wi;
470dd224 1375 /* The PERL_C_BACKTRACE_ON_WARN must be an integer of one or more. */
22ff3130
HS
1376 if ((ws = PerlEnv_getenv("PERL_C_BACKTRACE_ON_ERROR"))
1377 && grok_atoUV(ws, &wi, NULL)
1378 && wi <= PERL_INT_MAX
1379 ) {
1380 Perl_dump_c_backtrace(aTHX_ Perl_debug_log, (int)wi, 1);
470dd224
JH
1381 }
1382 }
1383#endif
1384
c5df3096
Z
1385 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_MESS_SV;
1386
1387 if (SvROK(basemsg)) {
1388 if (consume) {
1389 sv = basemsg;
1390 }
1391 else {
1392 sv = mess_alloc();
1393 sv_setsv(sv, basemsg);
1394 }
1395 return sv;
1396 }
1397
1398 if (SvPOK(basemsg) && consume) {
1399 sv = basemsg;
1400 }
1401 else {
1402 sv = mess_alloc();
1403 sv_copypv(sv, basemsg);
1404 }
7918f24d 1405
46fc3d4c 1406 if (!SvCUR(sv) || *(SvEND(sv) - 1) != '\n') {
ae7d165c
PJ
1407 /*
1408 * Try and find the file and line for PL_op. This will usually be
1409 * PL_curcop, but it might be a cop that has been optimised away. We
1410 * can try to find such a cop by searching through the optree starting
1411 * from the sibling of PL_curcop.
1412 */
1413
25502127 1414 const COP *cop =
e6dae479 1415 closest_cop(PL_curcop, OpSIBLING(PL_curcop), PL_op, FALSE);
5f66b61c
AL
1416 if (!cop)
1417 cop = PL_curcop;
ae7d165c
PJ
1418
1419 if (CopLINE(cop))
ed094faf 1420 Perl_sv_catpvf(aTHX_ sv, " at %s line %"IVdf,
3aed30dc 1421 OutCopFILE(cop), (IV)CopLINE(cop));
191f87d5
DH
1422 /* Seems that GvIO() can be untrustworthy during global destruction. */
1423 if (GvIO(PL_last_in_gv) && (SvTYPE(GvIOp(PL_last_in_gv)) == SVt_PVIO)
1424 && IoLINES(GvIOp(PL_last_in_gv)))
1425 {
2748e602 1426 STRLEN l;
e1ec3a88 1427 const bool line_mode = (RsSIMPLE(PL_rs) &&
2748e602 1428 *SvPV_const(PL_rs,l) == '\n' && l == 1);
3b46b707
BF
1429 Perl_sv_catpvf(aTHX_ sv, ", <%"SVf"> %s %"IVdf,
1430 SVfARG(PL_last_in_gv == PL_argvgv
1431 ? &PL_sv_no
1432 : sv_2mortal(newSVhek(GvNAME_HEK(PL_last_in_gv)))),
edc2eac3
JH
1433 line_mode ? "line" : "chunk",
1434 (IV)IoLINES(GvIOp(PL_last_in_gv)));
a687059c 1435 }
627364f1 1436 if (PL_phase == PERL_PHASE_DESTRUCT)
5f66b61c
AL
1437 sv_catpvs(sv, " during global destruction");
1438 sv_catpvs(sv, ".\n");
a687059c 1439 }
06bf62c7 1440 return sv;
a687059c
LW
1441}
1442
c5df3096
Z
1443/*
1444=for apidoc Am|SV *|vmess|const char *pat|va_list *args
1445
1446C<pat> and C<args> are a sprintf-style format pattern and encapsulated
1447argument list. These are used to generate a string message. If the
1448message does not end with a newline, then it will be extended with
1449some indication of the current location in the code, as described for
1450L</mess_sv>.
1451
1452Normally, the resulting message is returned in a new mortal SV.
1453During global destruction a single SV may be shared between uses of
1454this function.
1455
1456=cut
1457*/
1458
1459SV *
1460Perl_vmess(pTHX_ const char *pat, va_list *args)
1461{
c5df3096
Z
1462 SV * const sv = mess_alloc();
1463
1464 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_VMESS;
1465
1466 sv_vsetpvfn(sv, pat, strlen(pat), args, NULL, 0, NULL);
1467 return mess_sv(sv, 1);
1468}
1469
7ff03255 1470void
7d0994e0 1471Perl_write_to_stderr(pTHX_ SV* msv)
7ff03255
SG
1472{
1473 IO *io;
1474 MAGIC *mg;
1475
7918f24d
NC
1476 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_WRITE_TO_STDERR;
1477
7ff03255
SG
1478 if (PL_stderrgv && SvREFCNT(PL_stderrgv)
1479 && (io = GvIO(PL_stderrgv))
daba3364 1480 && (mg = SvTIED_mg((const SV *)io, PERL_MAGIC_tiedscalar)))
36925d9e 1481 Perl_magic_methcall(aTHX_ MUTABLE_SV(io), mg, SV_CONST(PRINT),
d1d7a15d 1482 G_SCALAR | G_DISCARD | G_WRITING_TO_STDERR, 1, msv);
7ff03255 1483 else {
53c1dcc0 1484 PerlIO * const serr = Perl_error_log;
7ff03255 1485
83c55556 1486 do_print(msv, serr);
7ff03255 1487 (void)PerlIO_flush(serr);
7ff03255
SG
1488 }
1489}
1490
c5df3096
Z
1491/*
1492=head1 Warning and Dieing
1493*/
1494
1495/* Common code used in dieing and warning */
1496
1497STATIC SV *
1498S_with_queued_errors(pTHX_ SV *ex)
1499{
1500 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_WITH_QUEUED_ERRORS;
1501 if (PL_errors && SvCUR(PL_errors) && !SvROK(ex)) {
1502 sv_catsv(PL_errors, ex);
1503 ex = sv_mortalcopy(PL_errors);
1504 SvCUR_set(PL_errors, 0);
1505 }
1506 return ex;
1507}
3ab1ac99 1508
46d9c920 1509STATIC bool
c5df3096 1510S_invoke_exception_hook(pTHX_ SV *ex, bool warn)
63315e18
NC
1511{
1512 HV *stash;
1513 GV *gv;
1514 CV *cv;
46d9c920
NC
1515 SV **const hook = warn ? &PL_warnhook : &PL_diehook;
1516 /* sv_2cv might call Perl_croak() or Perl_warner() */
1517 SV * const oldhook = *hook;
1518
c5df3096
Z
1519 if (!oldhook)
1520 return FALSE;
63315e18 1521
63315e18 1522 ENTER;
46d9c920
NC
1523 SAVESPTR(*hook);
1524 *hook = NULL;
1525 cv = sv_2cv(oldhook, &stash, &gv, 0);
63315e18
NC
1526 LEAVE;
1527 if (cv && !CvDEPTH(cv) && (CvROOT(cv) || CvXSUB(cv))) {
1528 dSP;
c5df3096 1529 SV *exarg;
63315e18
NC
1530
1531 ENTER;
46d9c920
NC
1532 if (warn) {
1533 SAVESPTR(*hook);
1534 *hook = NULL;
1535 }
c5df3096
Z
1536 exarg = newSVsv(ex);
1537 SvREADONLY_on(exarg);
1538 SAVEFREESV(exarg);
63315e18 1539
46d9c920 1540 PUSHSTACKi(warn ? PERLSI_WARNHOOK : PERLSI_DIEHOOK);
63315e18 1541 PUSHMARK(SP);
c5df3096 1542 XPUSHs(exarg);
63315e18 1543 PUTBACK;
daba3364 1544 call_sv(MUTABLE_SV(cv), G_DISCARD);
63315e18
NC
1545 POPSTACK;
1546 LEAVE;
46d9c920 1547 return TRUE;
63315e18 1548 }
46d9c920 1549 return FALSE;
63315e18
NC
1550}
1551
c5df3096
Z
1552/*
1553=for apidoc Am|OP *|die_sv|SV *baseex
e07360fa 1554
c5df3096
Z
1555Behaves the same as L</croak_sv>, except for the return type.
1556It should be used only where the C<OP *> return type is required.
1557The function never actually returns.
e07360fa 1558
c5df3096
Z
1559=cut
1560*/
e07360fa 1561
f8d5a522
DD
1562#ifdef _MSC_VER
1563# pragma warning( push )
1564# pragma warning( disable : 4646 ) /* warning C4646: function declared with
1565 __declspec(noreturn) has non-void return type */
1566# pragma warning( disable : 4645 ) /* warning C4645: function declared with
1567__declspec(noreturn) has a return statement */
1568#endif
c5df3096
Z
1569OP *
1570Perl_die_sv(pTHX_ SV *baseex)
36477c24 1571{
c5df3096
Z
1572 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_DIE_SV;
1573 croak_sv(baseex);
e5964223 1574 /* NOTREACHED */
117af67d 1575 NORETURN_FUNCTION_END;
36477c24 1576}
f8d5a522
DD
1577#ifdef _MSC_VER
1578# pragma warning( pop )
1579#endif
36477c24 1580
c5df3096
Z
1581/*
1582=for apidoc Am|OP *|die|const char *pat|...
1583
1584Behaves the same as L</croak>, except for the return type.
1585It should be used only where the C<OP *> return type is required.
1586The function never actually returns.
1587
1588=cut
1589*/
1590
c5be433b 1591#if defined(PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT)
f8d5a522
DD
1592#ifdef _MSC_VER
1593# pragma warning( push )
1594# pragma warning( disable : 4646 ) /* warning C4646: function declared with
1595 __declspec(noreturn) has non-void return type */
1596# pragma warning( disable : 4645 ) /* warning C4645: function declared with
1597__declspec(noreturn) has a return statement */
1598#endif
cea2e8a9
GS
1599OP *
1600Perl_die_nocontext(const char* pat, ...)
a687059c 1601{
cea2e8a9 1602 dTHX;
a687059c 1603 va_list args;
cea2e8a9 1604 va_start(args, pat);
c5df3096 1605 vcroak(pat, &args);
e5964223 1606 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
cea2e8a9 1607 va_end(args);
117af67d 1608 NORETURN_FUNCTION_END;
cea2e8a9 1609}
f8d5a522
DD
1610#ifdef _MSC_VER
1611# pragma warning( pop )
1612#endif
c5be433b 1613#endif /* PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT */
cea2e8a9 1614
f8d5a522
DD
1615#ifdef _MSC_VER
1616# pragma warning( push )
1617# pragma warning( disable : 4646 ) /* warning C4646: function declared with
1618 __declspec(noreturn) has non-void return type */
1619# pragma warning( disable : 4645 ) /* warning C4645: function declared with
1620__declspec(noreturn) has a return statement */
1621#endif
cea2e8a9
GS
1622OP *
1623Perl_die(pTHX_ const char* pat, ...)
1624{
cea2e8a9
GS
1625 va_list args;
1626 va_start(args, pat);
c5df3096 1627 vcroak(pat, &args);
e5964223 1628 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
cea2e8a9 1629 va_end(args);
117af67d 1630 NORETURN_FUNCTION_END;
cea2e8a9 1631}
f8d5a522
DD
1632#ifdef _MSC_VER
1633# pragma warning( pop )
1634#endif
cea2e8a9 1635
c5df3096
Z
1636/*
1637=for apidoc Am|void|croak_sv|SV *baseex
1638
1639This is an XS interface to Perl's C<die> function.
1640
1641C<baseex> is the error message or object. If it is a reference, it
1642will be used as-is. Otherwise it is used as a string, and if it does
1643not end with a newline then it will be extended with some indication of
1644the current location in the code, as described for L</mess_sv>.
1645
1646The error message or object will be used as an exception, by default
1647returning control to the nearest enclosing C<eval>, but subject to
1648modification by a C<$SIG{__DIE__}> handler. In any case, the C<croak_sv>
1649function never returns normally.
1650
1651To die with a simple string message, the L</croak> function may be
1652more convenient.
1653
1654=cut
1655*/
1656
c5be433b 1657void
c5df3096 1658Perl_croak_sv(pTHX_ SV *baseex)
cea2e8a9 1659{
c5df3096
Z
1660 SV *ex = with_queued_errors(mess_sv(baseex, 0));
1661 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_CROAK_SV;
1662 invoke_exception_hook(ex, FALSE);
1663 die_unwind(ex);
1664}
1665
1666/*
1667=for apidoc Am|void|vcroak|const char *pat|va_list *args
1668
1669This is an XS interface to Perl's C<die> function.
1670
1671C<pat> and C<args> are a sprintf-style format pattern and encapsulated
1672argument list. These are used to generate a string message. If the
1673message does not end with a newline, then it will be extended with
1674some indication of the current location in the code, as described for
1675L</mess_sv>.
1676
1677The error message will be used as an exception, by default
1678returning control to the nearest enclosing C<eval>, but subject to
1679modification by a C<$SIG{__DIE__}> handler. In any case, the C<croak>
1680function never returns normally.
a687059c 1681
c5df3096
Z
1682For historical reasons, if C<pat> is null then the contents of C<ERRSV>
1683(C<$@>) will be used as an error message or object instead of building an
1684error message from arguments. If you want to throw a non-string object,
1685or build an error message in an SV yourself, it is preferable to use
1686the L</croak_sv> function, which does not involve clobbering C<ERRSV>.
5a844595 1687
c5df3096
Z
1688=cut
1689*/
1690
1691void
1692Perl_vcroak(pTHX_ const char* pat, va_list *args)
1693{
1694 SV *ex = with_queued_errors(pat ? vmess(pat, args) : mess_sv(ERRSV, 0));
1695 invoke_exception_hook(ex, FALSE);
1696 die_unwind(ex);
a687059c
LW
1697}
1698
c5df3096
Z
1699/*
1700=for apidoc Am|void|croak|const char *pat|...
1701
1702This is an XS interface to Perl's C<die> function.
1703
1704Take a sprintf-style format pattern and argument list. These are used to
1705generate a string message. If the message does not end with a newline,
1706then it will be extended with some indication of the current location
1707in the code, as described for L</mess_sv>.
1708
1709The error message will be used as an exception, by default
1710returning control to the nearest enclosing C<eval>, but subject to
1711modification by a C<$SIG{__DIE__}> handler. In any case, the C<croak>
1712function never returns normally.
1713
1714For historical reasons, if C<pat> is null then the contents of C<ERRSV>
1715(C<$@>) will be used as an error message or object instead of building an
1716error message from arguments. If you want to throw a non-string object,
1717or build an error message in an SV yourself, it is preferable to use
1718the L</croak_sv> function, which does not involve clobbering C<ERRSV>.
1719
1720=cut
1721*/
1722
c5be433b 1723#if defined(PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT)
8990e307 1724void
cea2e8a9 1725Perl_croak_nocontext(const char *pat, ...)
a687059c 1726{
cea2e8a9 1727 dTHX;
a687059c 1728 va_list args;
cea2e8a9 1729 va_start(args, pat);
c5be433b 1730 vcroak(pat, &args);
e5964223 1731 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
cea2e8a9
GS
1732 va_end(args);
1733}
1734#endif /* PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT */
1735
c5df3096
Z
1736void
1737Perl_croak(pTHX_ const char *pat, ...)
1738{
1739 va_list args;
1740 va_start(args, pat);
1741 vcroak(pat, &args);
e5964223 1742 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
c5df3096
Z
1743 va_end(args);
1744}
1745
954c1994 1746/*
6ad8f254
NC
1747=for apidoc Am|void|croak_no_modify
1748
1749Exactly equivalent to C<Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s", PL_no_modify)>, but generates
72d33970 1750terser object code than using C<Perl_croak>. Less code used on exception code
6ad8f254
NC
1751paths reduces CPU cache pressure.
1752
d8e47b5c 1753=cut
6ad8f254
NC
1754*/
1755
1756void
88772978 1757Perl_croak_no_modify(void)
6ad8f254 1758{
cb077ed2 1759 Perl_croak_nocontext( "%s", PL_no_modify);
6ad8f254
NC
1760}
1761
4cbe3a7d
DD
1762/* does not return, used in util.c perlio.c and win32.c
1763 This is typically called when malloc returns NULL.
1764*/
1765void
88772978 1766Perl_croak_no_mem(void)
4cbe3a7d
DD
1767{
1768 dTHX;
77c1c05b 1769
375ed12a
JH
1770 int fd = PerlIO_fileno(Perl_error_log);
1771 if (fd < 0)
1772 SETERRNO(EBADF,RMS_IFI);
1773 else {
1774 /* Can't use PerlIO to write as it allocates memory */
b469f1e0 1775 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(PerlLIO_write(fd, PL_no_mem, sizeof(PL_no_mem)-1));
375ed12a 1776 }
4cbe3a7d
DD
1777 my_exit(1);
1778}
1779
3d04513d
DD
1780/* does not return, used only in POPSTACK */
1781void
1782Perl_croak_popstack(void)
1783{
1784 dTHX;
1785 PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log, "panic: POPSTACK\n");
1786 my_exit(1);
1787}
1788
6ad8f254 1789/*
c5df3096 1790=for apidoc Am|void|warn_sv|SV *baseex
ccfc67b7 1791
c5df3096 1792This is an XS interface to Perl's C<warn> function.
954c1994 1793
c5df3096
Z
1794C<baseex> is the error message or object. If it is a reference, it
1795will be used as-is. Otherwise it is used as a string, and if it does
1796not end with a newline then it will be extended with some indication of
1797the current location in the code, as described for L</mess_sv>.
9983fa3c 1798
c5df3096
Z
1799The error message or object will by default be written to standard error,
1800but this is subject to modification by a C<$SIG{__WARN__}> handler.
9983fa3c 1801
c5df3096
Z
1802To warn with a simple string message, the L</warn> function may be
1803more convenient.
954c1994
GS
1804
1805=cut
1806*/
1807
cea2e8a9 1808void
c5df3096 1809Perl_warn_sv(pTHX_ SV *baseex)
cea2e8a9 1810{
c5df3096
Z
1811 SV *ex = mess_sv(baseex, 0);
1812 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_WARN_SV;
1813 if (!invoke_exception_hook(ex, TRUE))
1814 write_to_stderr(ex);
cea2e8a9
GS
1815}
1816
c5df3096
Z
1817/*
1818=for apidoc Am|void|vwarn|const char *pat|va_list *args
1819
1820This is an XS interface to Perl's C<warn> function.
1821
1822C<pat> and C<args> are a sprintf-style format pattern and encapsulated
1823argument list. These are used to generate a string message. If the
1824message does not end with a newline, then it will be extended with
1825some indication of the current location in the code, as described for
1826L</mess_sv>.
1827
1828The error message or object will by default be written to standard error,
1829but this is subject to modification by a C<$SIG{__WARN__}> handler.
1830
1831Unlike with L</vcroak>, C<pat> is not permitted to be null.
1832
1833=cut
1834*/
1835
c5be433b
GS
1836void
1837Perl_vwarn(pTHX_ const char* pat, va_list *args)
cea2e8a9 1838{
c5df3096 1839 SV *ex = vmess(pat, args);
7918f24d 1840 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_VWARN;
c5df3096
Z
1841 if (!invoke_exception_hook(ex, TRUE))
1842 write_to_stderr(ex);
1843}
7918f24d 1844
c5df3096
Z
1845/*
1846=for apidoc Am|void|warn|const char *pat|...
87582a92 1847
c5df3096
Z
1848This is an XS interface to Perl's C<warn> function.
1849
1850Take a sprintf-style format pattern and argument list. These are used to
1851generate a string message. If the message does not end with a newline,
1852then it will be extended with some indication of the current location
1853in the code, as described for L</mess_sv>.
1854
1855The error message or object will by default be written to standard error,
1856but this is subject to modification by a C<$SIG{__WARN__}> handler.
1857
1858Unlike with L</croak>, C<pat> is not permitted to be null.
1859
1860=cut
1861*/
8d063cd8 1862
c5be433b 1863#if defined(PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT)
cea2e8a9
GS
1864void
1865Perl_warn_nocontext(const char *pat, ...)
1866{
1867 dTHX;
1868 va_list args;
7918f24d 1869 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_WARN_NOCONTEXT;
cea2e8a9 1870 va_start(args, pat);
c5be433b 1871 vwarn(pat, &args);
cea2e8a9
GS
1872 va_end(args);
1873}
1874#endif /* PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT */
1875
1876void
1877Perl_warn(pTHX_ const char *pat, ...)
1878{
1879 va_list args;
7918f24d 1880 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_WARN;
cea2e8a9 1881 va_start(args, pat);
c5be433b 1882 vwarn(pat, &args);
cea2e8a9
GS
1883 va_end(args);
1884}
1885
c5be433b
GS
1886#if defined(PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT)
1887void
1888Perl_warner_nocontext(U32 err, const char *pat, ...)
1889{
27da23d5 1890 dTHX;
c5be433b 1891 va_list args;
7918f24d 1892 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_WARNER_NOCONTEXT;
c5be433b
GS
1893 va_start(args, pat);
1894 vwarner(err, pat, &args);
1895 va_end(args);
1896}
1897#endif /* PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT */
1898
599cee73 1899void
9b387841
NC
1900Perl_ck_warner_d(pTHX_ U32 err, const char* pat, ...)
1901{
1902 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_CK_WARNER_D;
1903
1904 if (Perl_ckwarn_d(aTHX_ err)) {
1905 va_list args;
1906 va_start(args, pat);
1907 vwarner(err, pat, &args);
1908 va_end(args);
1909 }
1910}
1911
1912void
a2a5de95
NC
1913Perl_ck_warner(pTHX_ U32 err, const char* pat, ...)
1914{
1915 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_CK_WARNER;
1916
1917 if (Perl_ckwarn(aTHX_ err)) {
1918 va_list args;
1919 va_start(args, pat);
1920 vwarner(err, pat, &args);
1921 va_end(args);
1922 }
1923}
1924
1925void
864dbfa3 1926Perl_warner(pTHX_ U32 err, const char* pat,...)
599cee73
PM
1927{
1928 va_list args;
7918f24d 1929 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_WARNER;
c5be433b
GS
1930 va_start(args, pat);
1931 vwarner(err, pat, &args);
1932 va_end(args);
1933}
1934
1935void
1936Perl_vwarner(pTHX_ U32 err, const char* pat, va_list* args)
1937{
27da23d5 1938 dVAR;
7918f24d 1939 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_VWARNER;
5f2d9966 1940 if (PL_warnhook == PERL_WARNHOOK_FATAL || ckDEAD(err)) {
a3b680e6 1941 SV * const msv = vmess(pat, args);
599cee73 1942
594b6fac
LM
1943 if (PL_parser && PL_parser->error_count) {
1944 qerror(msv);
1945 }
1946 else {
1947 invoke_exception_hook(msv, FALSE);
1948 die_unwind(msv);
1949 }
599cee73
PM
1950 }
1951 else {
d13b0d77 1952 Perl_vwarn(aTHX_ pat, args);
599cee73
PM
1953 }
1954}
1955
f54ba1c2
DM
1956/* implements the ckWARN? macros */
1957
1958bool
1959Perl_ckwarn(pTHX_ U32 w)
1960{
ad287e37 1961 /* If lexical warnings have not been set, use $^W. */
3c3f8cd6
AB
1962 if (isLEXWARN_off)
1963 return PL_dowarn & G_WARN_ON;
ad287e37 1964
26c7b074 1965 return ckwarn_common(w);
f54ba1c2
DM
1966}
1967
1968/* implements the ckWARN?_d macro */
1969
1970bool
1971Perl_ckwarn_d(pTHX_ U32 w)
1972{
ad287e37 1973 /* If lexical warnings have not been set then default classes warn. */
3c3f8cd6
AB
1974 if (isLEXWARN_off)
1975 return TRUE;
ad287e37 1976
26c7b074
NC
1977 return ckwarn_common(w);
1978}
1979
1980static bool
1981S_ckwarn_common(pTHX_ U32 w)
1982{
3c3f8cd6
AB
1983 if (PL_curcop->cop_warnings == pWARN_ALL)
1984 return TRUE;
ad287e37
NC
1985
1986 if (PL_curcop->cop_warnings == pWARN_NONE)
1987 return FALSE;
1988
98fe6610
NC
1989 /* Check the assumption that at least the first slot is non-zero. */
1990 assert(unpackWARN1(w));
1991
1992 /* Check the assumption that it is valid to stop as soon as a zero slot is
1993 seen. */
1994 if (!unpackWARN2(w)) {
1995 assert(!unpackWARN3(w));
1996 assert(!unpackWARN4(w));
1997 } else if (!unpackWARN3(w)) {
1998 assert(!unpackWARN4(w));
1999 }
2000
26c7b074
NC
2001 /* Right, dealt with all the special cases, which are implemented as non-
2002 pointers, so there is a pointer to a real warnings mask. */
98fe6610
NC
2003 do {
2004 if (isWARN_on(PL_curcop->cop_warnings, unpackWARN1(w)))
2005 return TRUE;
2006 } while (w >>= WARNshift);
2007
2008 return FALSE;
f54ba1c2
DM
2009}
2010
72dc9ed5
NC
2011/* Set buffer=NULL to get a new one. */
2012STRLEN *
8ee4cf24 2013Perl_new_warnings_bitfield(pTHX_ STRLEN *buffer, const char *const bits,
72dc9ed5 2014 STRLEN size) {
5af88345
FC
2015 const MEM_SIZE len_wanted =
2016 sizeof(STRLEN) + (size > WARNsize ? size : WARNsize);
35da51f7 2017 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
7918f24d 2018 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_NEW_WARNINGS_BITFIELD;
72dc9ed5 2019
10edeb5d
JH
2020 buffer = (STRLEN*)
2021 (specialWARN(buffer) ?
2022 PerlMemShared_malloc(len_wanted) :
2023 PerlMemShared_realloc(buffer, len_wanted));
72dc9ed5
NC
2024 buffer[0] = size;
2025 Copy(bits, (buffer + 1), size, char);
5af88345
FC
2026 if (size < WARNsize)
2027 Zero((char *)(buffer + 1) + size, WARNsize - size, char);
72dc9ed5
NC
2028 return buffer;
2029}
f54ba1c2 2030
e6587932
DM
2031/* since we've already done strlen() for both nam and val
2032 * we can use that info to make things faster than
2033 * sprintf(s, "%s=%s", nam, val)
2034 */
2035#define my_setenv_format(s, nam, nlen, val, vlen) \
2036 Copy(nam, s, nlen, char); \
2037 *(s+nlen) = '='; \
2038 Copy(val, s+(nlen+1), vlen, char); \
2039 *(s+(nlen+1+vlen)) = '\0'
2040
c5d12488
JH
2041#ifdef USE_ENVIRON_ARRAY
2042 /* VMS' my_setenv() is in vms.c */
2043#if !defined(WIN32) && !defined(NETWARE)
8d063cd8 2044void
e1ec3a88 2045Perl_my_setenv(pTHX_ const char *nam, const char *val)
8d063cd8 2046{
27da23d5 2047 dVAR;
4efc5df6
GS
2048#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
2049 /* only parent thread can modify process environment */
2050 if (PL_curinterp == aTHX)
2051#endif
2052 {
f2517201 2053#ifndef PERL_USE_SAFE_PUTENV
50acdf95 2054 if (!PL_use_safe_putenv) {
b7d87861
JH
2055 /* most putenv()s leak, so we manipulate environ directly */
2056 I32 i;
2057 const I32 len = strlen(nam);
2058 int nlen, vlen;
2059
2060 /* where does it go? */
2061 for (i = 0; environ[i]; i++) {
2062 if (strnEQ(environ[i],nam,len) && environ[i][len] == '=')
2063 break;
2064 }
c5d12488 2065
b7d87861
JH
2066 if (environ == PL_origenviron) { /* need we copy environment? */
2067 I32 j;
2068 I32 max;
2069 char **tmpenv;
2070
2071 max = i;
2072 while (environ[max])
2073 max++;
2074 tmpenv = (char**)safesysmalloc((max+2) * sizeof(char*));
2075 for (j=0; j<max; j++) { /* copy environment */
2076 const int len = strlen(environ[j]);
2077 tmpenv[j] = (char*)safesysmalloc((len+1)*sizeof(char));
2078 Copy(environ[j], tmpenv[j], len+1, char);
2079 }
2080 tmpenv[max] = NULL;
2081 environ = tmpenv; /* tell exec where it is now */
2082 }
2083 if (!val) {
2084 safesysfree(environ[i]);
2085 while (environ[i]) {
2086 environ[i] = environ[i+1];
2087 i++;
2088 }
2089 return;
2090 }
2091 if (!environ[i]) { /* does not exist yet */
2092 environ = (char**)safesysrealloc(environ, (i+2) * sizeof(char*));
2093 environ[i+1] = NULL; /* make sure it's null terminated */
2094 }
2095 else
2096 safesysfree(environ[i]);
2097 nlen = strlen(nam);
2098 vlen = strlen(val);
2099
2100 environ[i] = (char*)safesysmalloc((nlen+vlen+2) * sizeof(char));
2101 /* all that work just for this */
2102 my_setenv_format(environ[i], nam, nlen, val, vlen);
50acdf95 2103 } else {
c5d12488 2104# endif
235c1d5f
AD
2105 /* This next branch should only be called #if defined(HAS_SETENV), but
2106 Configure doesn't test for that yet. For Solaris, setenv() and unsetenv()
2107 were introduced in Solaris 9, so testing for HAS UNSETENV is sufficient.
2108 */
2109# if defined(__CYGWIN__)|| defined(__SYMBIAN32__) || defined(__riscos__) || (defined(__sun) && defined(HAS_UNSETENV))
88f5bc07
AB
2110# if defined(HAS_UNSETENV)
2111 if (val == NULL) {
2112 (void)unsetenv(nam);
2113 } else {
2114 (void)setenv(nam, val, 1);
2115 }
2116# else /* ! HAS_UNSETENV */
2117 (void)setenv(nam, val, 1);
2118# endif /* HAS_UNSETENV */
47dafe4d 2119# else
88f5bc07
AB
2120# if defined(HAS_UNSETENV)
2121 if (val == NULL) {
ba88ff58
MJ
2122 if (environ) /* old glibc can crash with null environ */
2123 (void)unsetenv(nam);
88f5bc07 2124 } else {
c4420975
AL
2125 const int nlen = strlen(nam);
2126 const int vlen = strlen(val);
2127 char * const new_env =
88f5bc07
AB
2128 (char*)safesysmalloc((nlen + vlen + 2) * sizeof(char));
2129 my_setenv_format(new_env, nam, nlen, val, vlen);
2130 (void)putenv(new_env);
2131 }
2132# else /* ! HAS_UNSETENV */
2133 char *new_env;
c4420975
AL
2134 const int nlen = strlen(nam);
2135 int vlen;
88f5bc07
AB
2136 if (!val) {
2137 val = "";
2138 }
2139 vlen = strlen(val);
2140 new_env = (char*)safesysmalloc((nlen + vlen + 2) * sizeof(char));
2141 /* all that work just for this */
2142 my_setenv_format(new_env, nam, nlen, val, vlen);
2143 (void)putenv(new_env);
2144# endif /* HAS_UNSETENV */
47dafe4d 2145# endif /* __CYGWIN__ */
50acdf95
MS
2146#ifndef PERL_USE_SAFE_PUTENV
2147 }
2148#endif
4efc5df6 2149 }
8d063cd8
LW
2150}
2151
c5d12488 2152#else /* WIN32 || NETWARE */
68dc0745
PP
2153
2154void
72229eff 2155Perl_my_setenv(pTHX_ const char *nam, const char *val)
68dc0745 2156{
27da23d5 2157 dVAR;
eb578fdb 2158 char *envstr;
c5d12488
JH
2159 const int nlen = strlen(nam);
2160 int vlen;
e6587932 2161
c5d12488
JH
2162 if (!val) {
2163 val = "";
ac5c734f 2164 }
c5d12488
JH
2165 vlen = strlen(val);
2166 Newx(envstr, nlen+vlen+2, char);
2167 my_setenv_format(envstr, nam, nlen, val, vlen);
2168 (void)PerlEnv_putenv(envstr);
2169 Safefree(envstr);
3e3baf6d
TB
2170}
2171
c5d12488 2172#endif /* WIN32 || NETWARE */
3e3baf6d 2173
739a0b84 2174#endif /* !VMS */
378cc40b 2175
16d20bd9 2176#ifdef UNLINK_ALL_VERSIONS
79072805 2177I32
6e732051 2178Perl_unlnk(pTHX_ const char *f) /* unlink all versions of a file */
378cc40b 2179{
35da51f7 2180 I32 retries = 0;
378cc40b 2181
7918f24d
NC
2182 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UNLNK;
2183
35da51f7
AL
2184 while (PerlLIO_unlink(f) >= 0)
2185 retries++;
2186 return retries ? 0 : -1;
378cc40b
LW
2187}
2188#endif
2189
7a3f2258 2190/* this is a drop-in replacement for bcopy() */
2253333f 2191#if (!defined(HAS_MEMCPY) && !defined(HAS_BCOPY)) || (!defined(HAS_MEMMOVE) && !defined(HAS_SAFE_MEMCPY) && !defined(HAS_SAFE_BCOPY))
378cc40b 2192char *
5aaab254 2193Perl_my_bcopy(const char *from, char *to, I32 len)
378cc40b 2194{
2d03de9c 2195 char * const retval = to;
378cc40b 2196
7918f24d
NC
2197 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_MY_BCOPY;
2198
223f01db
KW
2199 assert(len >= 0);
2200
7c0587c8
LW
2201 if (from - to >= 0) {
2202 while (len--)
2203 *to++ = *from++;
2204 }
2205 else {
2206 to += len;
2207 from += len;
2208 while (len--)
faf8582f 2209 *(--to) = *(--from);
7c0587c8 2210 }
378cc40b
LW
2211 return retval;
2212}
ffed7fef 2213#endif
378cc40b 2214
7a3f2258 2215/* this is a drop-in replacement for memset() */
fc36a67e
PP
2216#ifndef HAS_MEMSET
2217void *
5aaab254 2218Perl_my_memset(char *loc, I32 ch, I32 len)
fc36a67e 2219{
2d03de9c 2220 char * const retval = loc;
fc36a67e 2221
7918f24d
NC
2222 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_MY_MEMSET;
2223
223f01db
KW
2224 assert(len >= 0);
2225
fc36a67e
PP
2226 while (len--)
2227 *loc++ = ch;
2228 return retval;
2229}
2230#endif
2231
7a3f2258 2232/* this is a drop-in replacement for bzero() */
7c0587c8 2233#if !defined(HAS_BZERO) && !defined(HAS_MEMSET)
378cc40b 2234char *
5aaab254 2235Perl_my_bzero(char *loc, I32 len)
378cc40b 2236{
2d03de9c 2237 char * const retval = loc;
378cc40b 2238
7918f24d
NC
2239 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_MY_BZERO;
2240
223f01db
KW
2241 assert(len >= 0);
2242
378cc40b
LW
2243 while (len--)
2244 *loc++ = 0;
2245 return retval;
2246}
2247#endif
7c0587c8 2248
7a3f2258 2249/* this is a drop-in replacement for memcmp() */
36477c24 2250#if !defined(HAS_MEMCMP) || !defined(HAS_SANE_MEMCMP)
79072805 2251I32
5aaab254 2252Perl_my_memcmp(const char *s1, const char *s2, I32 len)
7c0587c8 2253{
eb578fdb
KW
2254 const U8 *a = (const U8 *)s1;
2255 const U8 *b = (const U8 *)s2;
2256 I32 tmp;
7c0587c8 2257
7918f24d
NC
2258 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_MY_MEMCMP;
2259
223f01db
KW
2260 assert(len >= 0);
2261
7c0587c8 2262 while (len--) {
27da23d5 2263 if ((tmp = *a++ - *b++))
7c0587c8
LW
2264 return tmp;
2265 }
2266 return 0;
2267}
36477c24 2268#endif /* !HAS_MEMCMP || !HAS_SANE_MEMCMP */
a687059c 2269
fe14fcc3 2270#ifndef HAS_VPRINTF
d05d9be5
AD
2271/* This vsprintf replacement should generally never get used, since
2272 vsprintf was available in both System V and BSD 2.11. (There may
2273 be some cross-compilation or embedded set-ups where it is needed,
2274 however.)
2275
2276 If you encounter a problem in this function, it's probably a symptom
2277 that Configure failed to detect your system's vprintf() function.
2278 See the section on "item vsprintf" in the INSTALL file.
2279
2280 This version may compile on systems with BSD-ish <stdio.h>,
2281 but probably won't on others.
2282*/
a687059c 2283
85e6fe83 2284#ifdef USE_CHAR_VSPRINTF
a687059c
LW
2285char *
2286#else
2287int
2288#endif
d05d9be5 2289vsprintf(char *dest, const char *pat, void *args)
a687059c
LW
2290{
2291 FILE fakebuf;
2292
d05d9be5
AD
2293#if defined(STDIO_PTR_LVALUE) && defined(STDIO_CNT_LVALUE)
2294 FILE_ptr(&fakebuf) = (STDCHAR *) dest;
2295 FILE_cnt(&fakebuf) = 32767;
2296#else
2297 /* These probably won't compile -- If you really need
2298 this, you'll have to figure out some other method. */
a687059c
LW
2299 fakebuf._ptr = dest;
2300 fakebuf._cnt = 32767;
d05d9be5 2301#endif
35c8bce7
LW
2302#ifndef _IOSTRG
2303#define _IOSTRG 0
2304#endif
a687059c
LW
2305 fakebuf._flag = _IOWRT|_IOSTRG;
2306 _doprnt(pat, args, &fakebuf); /* what a kludge */
d05d9be5
AD
2307#if defined(STDIO_PTR_LVALUE)
2308 *(FILE_ptr(&fakebuf)++) = '\0';
2309#else
2310 /* PerlIO has probably #defined away fputc, but we want it here. */
2311# ifdef fputc
2312# undef fputc /* XXX Should really restore it later */
2313# endif
2314 (void)fputc('\0', &fakebuf);
2315#endif
85e6fe83 2316#ifdef USE_CHAR_VSPRINTF
a687059c
LW
2317 return(dest);
2318#else
2319 return 0; /* perl doesn't use return value */
2320#endif
2321}
2322
fe14fcc3 2323#endif /* HAS_VPRINTF */
a687059c 2324
4a7d1889 2325PerlIO *
c9289b7b 2326Perl_my_popen_list(pTHX_ const char *mode, int n, SV **args)
4a7d1889 2327{
739a0b84 2328#if (!defined(DOSISH) || defined(HAS_FORK) || defined(AMIGAOS)) && !defined(OS2) && !defined(VMS) && !defined(NETWARE) && !defined(__LIBCATAMOUNT__)
1f852d0d 2329 int p[2];
eb578fdb
KW
2330 I32 This, that;
2331 Pid_t pid;
1f852d0d
NIS
2332 SV *sv;
2333 I32 did_pipes = 0;
2334 int pp[2];
2335
7918f24d
NC
2336 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_MY_POPEN_LIST;
2337
1f852d0d
NIS
2338 PERL_FLUSHALL_FOR_CHILD;
2339 This = (*mode == 'w');
2340 that = !This;
284167a5 2341 if (TAINTING_get) {
1f852d0d
NIS
2342 taint_env();
2343 taint_proper("Insecure %s%s", "EXEC");
2344 }
2345 if (PerlProc_pipe(p) < 0)
4608196e 2346 return NULL;
1f852d0d
NIS
2347 /* Try for another pipe pair for error return */
2348 if (PerlProc_pipe(pp) >= 0)
2349 did_pipes = 1;
52e18b1f 2350 while ((pid = PerlProc_fork()) < 0) {
1f852d0d
NIS
2351 if (errno != EAGAIN) {
2352 PerlLIO_close(p[This]);
4e6dfe71 2353 PerlLIO_close(p[that]);
1f852d0d
NIS
2354 if (did_pipes) {
2355 PerlLIO_close(pp[0]);
2356 PerlLIO_close(pp[1]);
2357 }
4608196e 2358 return NULL;
1f852d0d 2359 }
a2a5de95 2360 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_PIPE), "Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds");
1f852d0d
NIS
2361 sleep(5);
2362 }
2363 if (pid == 0) {
2364 /* Child */
1f852d0d
NIS
2365#undef THIS
2366#undef THAT
2367#define THIS that
2368#define THAT This
1f852d0d
NIS
2369 /* Close parent's end of error status pipe (if any) */
2370 if (did_pipes) {
2371 PerlLIO_close(pp[0]);
2372#if defined(HAS_FCNTL) && defined(F_SETFD)
2373 /* Close error pipe automatically if exec works */
375ed12a
JH
2374 if (fcntl(pp[1], F_SETFD, FD_CLOEXEC) < 0)
2375 return NULL;
1f852d0d
NIS
2376#endif
2377 }
2378 /* Now dup our end of _the_ pipe to right position */
2379 if (p[THIS] != (*mode == 'r')) {
2380 PerlLIO_dup2(p[THIS], *mode == 'r');
2381 PerlLIO_close(p[THIS]);
4e6dfe71
GS
2382 if (p[THAT] != (*mode == 'r')) /* if dup2() didn't close it */
2383 PerlLIO_close(p[THAT]); /* close parent's end of _the_ pipe */
1f852d0d 2384 }
4e6dfe71
GS
2385 else
2386 PerlLIO_close(p[THAT]); /* close parent's end of _the_ pipe */
1f852d0d
NIS
2387#if !defined(HAS_FCNTL) || !defined(F_SETFD)
2388 /* No automatic close - do it by hand */
b7953727
JH
2389# ifndef NOFILE
2390# define NOFILE 20
2391# endif
a080fe3d
NIS
2392 {
2393 int fd;
2394
2395 for (fd = PL_maxsysfd + 1; fd < NOFILE; fd++) {
3aed30dc 2396 if (fd != pp[1])
a080fe3d
NIS
2397 PerlLIO_close(fd);
2398 }
1f852d0d
NIS
2399 }
2400#endif
a0714e2c 2401 do_aexec5(NULL, args-1, args-1+n, pp[1], did_pipes);
1f852d0d
NIS
2402 PerlProc__exit(1);
2403#undef THIS
2404#undef THAT
2405 }
2406 /* Parent */
52e18b1f 2407 do_execfree(); /* free any memory malloced by child on fork */
1f852d0d
NIS
2408 if (did_pipes)
2409 PerlLIO_close(pp[1]);
2410 /* Keep the lower of the two fd numbers */
2411 if (p[that] < p[This]) {
2412 PerlLIO_dup2(p[This], p[that]);
2413 PerlLIO_close(p[This]);
2414 p[This] = p[that];
2415 }
4e6dfe71
GS
2416 else
2417 PerlLIO_close(p[that]); /* close child's end of pipe */
2418
1f852d0d 2419 sv = *av_fetch(PL_fdpid,p[This],TRUE);
862a34c6 2420 SvUPGRADE(sv,SVt_IV);
45977657 2421 SvIV_set(sv, pid);
1f852d0d
NIS
2422 PL_forkprocess = pid;
2423 /* If we managed to get status pipe check for exec fail */
2424 if (did_pipes && pid > 0) {
2425 int errkid;
bb7a0f54
MHM
2426 unsigned n = 0;
2427 SSize_t n1;
1f852d0d
NIS
2428
2429 while (n < sizeof(int)) {
2430 n1 = PerlLIO_read(pp[0],
2431 (void*)(((char*)&errkid)+n),
2432 (sizeof(int)) - n);
2433 if (n1 <= 0)
2434 break;
2435 n += n1;
2436 }
2437 PerlLIO_close(pp[0]);
2438 did_pipes = 0;
2439 if (n) { /* Error */
2440 int pid2, status;
8c51524e 2441 PerlLIO_close(p[This]);
1f852d0d 2442 if (n != sizeof(int))
5637ef5b 2443 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: kid popen errno read, n=%u", n);
1f852d0d
NIS
2444 do {
2445 pid2 = wait4pid(pid, &status, 0);
2446 } while (pid2 == -1 && errno == EINTR);
2447 errno = errkid; /* Propagate errno from kid */
4608196e 2448 return NULL;
1f852d0d
NIS
2449 }
2450 }
2451 if (did_pipes)
2452 PerlLIO_close(pp[0]);
2453 return PerlIO_fdopen(p[This], mode);
2454#else
8492b23f 2455# if defined(OS2) /* Same, without fork()ing and all extra overhead... */
4e205ed6 2456 return my_syspopen4(aTHX_ NULL, mode, n, args);
8492b23f
TC
2457# elif defined(WIN32)
2458 return win32_popenlist(mode, n, args);
9d419b5f 2459# else
4a7d1889
NIS
2460 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "List form of piped open not implemented");
2461 return (PerlIO *) NULL;
9d419b5f 2462# endif
1f852d0d 2463#endif
4a7d1889
NIS
2464}
2465
5f05dabc 2466 /* VMS' my_popen() is in VMS.c, same with OS/2. */
739a0b84 2467#if (!defined(DOSISH) || defined(HAS_FORK) || defined(AMIGAOS)) && !defined(VMS) && !defined(__LIBCATAMOUNT__)
760ac839 2468PerlIO *
3dd43144 2469Perl_my_popen(pTHX_ const char *cmd, const char *mode)
a687059c
LW
2470{
2471 int p[2];
eb578fdb
KW
2472 I32 This, that;
2473 Pid_t pid;
79072805 2474 SV *sv;
bfce84ec 2475 const I32 doexec = !(*cmd == '-' && cmd[1] == '\0');
e446cec8
IZ
2476 I32 did_pipes = 0;
2477 int pp[2];
a687059c 2478
7918f24d
NC
2479 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_MY_POPEN;
2480
45bc9206 2481 PERL_FLUSHALL_FOR_CHILD;
ddcf38b7
IZ
2482#ifdef OS2
2483 if (doexec) {
23da6c43 2484 return my_syspopen(aTHX_ cmd,mode);
ddcf38b7 2485 }
a1d180c4 2486#endif
8ac85365
NIS
2487 This = (*mode == 'w');
2488 that = !This;
284167a5 2489 if (doexec && TAINTING_get) {
bbce6d69
PP
2490 taint_env();
2491 taint_proper("Insecure %s%s", "EXEC");
d48672a2 2492 }
c2267164 2493 if (PerlProc_pipe(p) < 0)
4608196e 2494 return NULL;
e446cec8
IZ
2495 if (doexec && PerlProc_pipe(pp) >= 0)
2496 did_pipes = 1;
52e18b1f 2497 while ((pid = PerlProc_fork()) < 0) {
a687059c 2498 if (errno != EAGAIN) {
6ad3d225 2499 PerlLIO_close(p[This]);
b5ac89c3 2500 PerlLIO_close(p[that]);
e446cec8
IZ
2501 if (did_pipes) {
2502 PerlLIO_close(pp[0]);
2503 PerlLIO_close(pp[1]);
2504 }
a687059c 2505 if (!doexec)
b3647a36 2506 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't fork: %s", Strerror(errno));
4608196e 2507 return NULL;
a687059c 2508 }
a2a5de95 2509 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_PIPE), "Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds");
a687059c
LW
2510 sleep(5);
2511 }
2512 if (pid == 0) {
79072805 2513
30ac6d9b
GS
2514#undef THIS
2515#undef THAT
a687059c 2516#define THIS that
8ac85365 2517#define THAT This
e446cec8
IZ
2518 if (did_pipes) {
2519 PerlLIO_close(pp[0]);
2520#if defined(HAS_FCNTL) && defined(F_SETFD)
375ed12a
JH
2521 if (fcntl(pp[1], F_SETFD, FD_CLOEXEC) < 0)
2522 return NULL;
e446cec8
IZ
2523#endif
2524 }
a687059c 2525 if (p[THIS] != (*mode == 'r')) {
6ad3d225
GS
2526 PerlLIO_dup2(p[THIS], *mode == 'r');
2527 PerlLIO_close(p[THIS]);
b5ac89c3
NIS
2528 if (p[THAT] != (*mode == 'r')) /* if dup2() didn't close it */
2529 PerlLIO_close(p[THAT]);
a687059c 2530 }
b5ac89c3
NIS
2531 else
2532 PerlLIO_close(p[THAT]);
4435c477 2533#ifndef OS2
a687059c 2534 if (doexec) {
a0d0e21e 2535#if !defined(HAS_FCNTL) || !defined(F_SETFD)
ae986130
LW
2536#ifndef NOFILE
2537#define NOFILE 20
2538#endif
a080fe3d 2539 {
3aed30dc 2540 int fd;
a080fe3d
NIS
2541
2542 for (fd = PL_maxsysfd + 1; fd < NOFILE; fd++)
2543 if (fd != pp[1])
3aed30dc 2544 PerlLIO_close(fd);
a080fe3d 2545 }
ae986130 2546#endif
a080fe3d
NIS
2547 /* may or may not use the shell */
2548 do_exec3(cmd, pp[1], did_pipes);
6ad3d225 2549 PerlProc__exit(1);
a687059c 2550 }
4435c477 2551#endif /* defined OS2 */
713cef20
IZ
2552
2553#ifdef PERLIO_USING_CRLF
2554 /* Since we circumvent IO layers when we manipulate low-level
2555 filedescriptors directly, need to manually switch to the
2556 default, binary, low-level mode; see PerlIOBuf_open(). */
2557 PerlLIO_setmode((*mode == 'r'), O_BINARY);
2558#endif
3280af22 2559 PL_forkprocess = 0;
ca0c25f6 2560#ifdef PERL_USES_PL_PIDSTATUS
3280af22 2561 hv_clear(PL_pidstatus); /* we have no children */
ca0c25f6 2562#endif
4608196e 2563 return NULL;
a687059c
LW
2564#undef THIS
2565#undef THAT
2566 }
b5ac89c3 2567 do_execfree(); /* free any memory malloced by child on vfork */
e446cec8
IZ
2568 if (did_pipes)
2569 PerlLIO_close(pp[1]);
8ac85365 2570 if (p[that] < p[This]) {
6ad3d225
GS
2571 PerlLIO_dup2(p[This], p[that]);
2572 PerlLIO_close(p[This]);
8ac85365 2573 p[This] = p[that];
62b28dd9 2574 }
b5ac89c3
NIS
2575 else
2576 PerlLIO_close(p[that]);
2577
3280af22 2578 sv = *av_fetch(PL_fdpid,p[This],TRUE);
862a34c6 2579 SvUPGRADE(sv,SVt_IV);
45977657 2580 SvIV_set(sv, pid);
3280af22 2581 PL_forkprocess = pid;
e446cec8
IZ
2582 if (did_pipes && pid > 0) {
2583 int errkid;
bb7a0f54
MHM
2584 unsigned n = 0;
2585 SSize_t n1;
e446cec8
IZ
2586
2587 while (n < sizeof(int)) {
2588 n1 = PerlLIO_read(pp[0],
2589 (void*)(((char*)&errkid)+n),
2590 (sizeof(int)) - n);
2591 if (n1 <= 0)
2592 break;
2593 n += n1;
2594 }
2f96c702
IZ
2595 PerlLIO_close(pp[0]);
2596 did_pipes = 0;
e446cec8 2597 if (n) { /* Error */
faa466a7 2598 int pid2, status;
8c51524e 2599 PerlLIO_close(p[This]);
e446cec8 2600 if (n != sizeof(int))
5637ef5b 2601 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: kid popen errno read, n=%u", n);
faa466a7
RG
2602 do {
2603 pid2 = wait4pid(pid, &status, 0);
2604 } while (pid2 == -1 && errno == EINTR);
e446cec8 2605 errno = errkid; /* Propagate errno from kid */
4608196e 2606 return NULL;
e446cec8
IZ
2607 }
2608 }
2609 if (did_pipes)
2610 PerlLIO_close(pp[0]);
8ac85365 2611 return PerlIO_fdopen(p[This], mode);
a687059c 2612}
7c0587c8 2613#else
2b96b0a5
JH
2614#if defined(DJGPP)
2615FILE *djgpp_popen();
2616PerlIO *
cef6ea9d 2617Perl_my_popen(pTHX_ const char *cmd, const char *mode)
2b96b0a5
JH
2618{
2619 PERL_FLUSHALL_FOR_CHILD;
2620 /* Call system's popen() to get a FILE *, then import it.
2621 used 0 for 2nd parameter to PerlIO_importFILE;
2622 apparently not used
2623 */
2624 return PerlIO_importFILE(djgpp_popen(cmd, mode), 0);
2625}
9c12f1e5
RGS
2626#else
2627#if defined(__LIBCATAMOUNT__)
2628PerlIO *
2629Perl_my_popen(pTHX_ const char *cmd, const char *mode)
2630{
2631 return NULL;
2632}
2633#endif
2b96b0a5 2634#endif
7c0587c8
LW
2635
2636#endif /* !DOSISH */
a687059c 2637
52e18b1f
GS
2638/* this is called in parent before the fork() */
2639void
2640Perl_atfork_lock(void)
2641{
3db8f154 2642#if defined(USE_ITHREADS)
20b7effb 2643 dVAR;
52e18b1f 2644 /* locks must be held in locking order (if any) */
4da80956
P
2645# ifdef USE_PERLIO
2646 MUTEX_LOCK(&PL_perlio_mutex);
2647# endif
52e18b1f
GS
2648# ifdef MYMALLOC
2649 MUTEX_LOCK(&PL_malloc_mutex);
2650# endif
2651 OP_REFCNT_LOCK;
2652#endif
2653}
2654
2655/* this is called in both parent and child after the fork() */
2656void
2657Perl_atfork_unlock(void)
2658{
3db8f154 2659#if defined(USE_ITHREADS)
20b7effb 2660 dVAR;
52e18b1f 2661 /* locks must be released in same order as in atfork_lock() */
4da80956
P
2662# ifdef USE_PERLIO
2663 MUTEX_UNLOCK(&PL_perlio_mutex);
2664# endif
52e18b1f
GS
2665# ifdef MYMALLOC
2666 MUTEX_UNLOCK(&PL_malloc_mutex);
2667# endif
2668 OP_REFCNT_UNLOCK;
2669#endif
2670}
2671
2672Pid_t
2673Perl_my_fork(void)
2674{
2675#if defined(HAS_FORK)
2676 Pid_t pid;
3db8f154 2677#if defined(USE_ITHREADS) && !defined(HAS_PTHREAD_ATFORK)
52e18b1f
GS
2678 atfork_lock();
2679 pid = fork();
2680 atfork_unlock();
2681#else
2682 /* atfork_lock() and atfork_unlock() are installed as pthread_atfork()
2683 * handlers elsewhere in the code */
2684 pid = fork();
2685#endif
2686 return pid;
2687#else
2688 /* this "canna happen" since nothing should be calling here if !HAS_FORK */
2689 Perl_croak_nocontext("fork() not available");
b961a566 2690 return 0;
52e18b1f
GS
2691#endif /* HAS_FORK */
2692}
2693
fe14fcc3 2694#ifndef HAS_DUP2
fec02dd3 2695int
ba106d47 2696dup2(int oldfd, int newfd)
a687059c 2697{
a0d0e21e 2698#if defined(HAS_FCNTL) && defined(F_DUPFD)
fec02dd3
AD
2699 if (oldfd == newfd)
2700 return oldfd;
6ad3d225 2701 PerlLIO_close(newfd);
fec02dd3 2702 return fcntl(oldfd, F_DUPFD, newfd);
62b28dd9 2703#else
fc36a67e
PP
2704#define DUP2_MAX_FDS 256
2705 int fdtmp[DUP2_MAX_FDS];
79072805 2706 I32 fdx = 0;
ae986130
LW
2707 int fd;
2708
fe14fcc3 2709 if (oldfd == newfd)
fec02dd3 2710 return oldfd;
6ad3d225 2711 PerlLIO_close(newfd);
fc36a67e 2712 /* good enough for low fd's... */
6ad3d225 2713 while ((fd = PerlLIO_dup(oldfd)) != newfd && fd >= 0) {
fc36a67e 2714 if (fdx >= DUP2_MAX_FDS) {
6ad3d225 2715 PerlLIO_close(fd);
fc36a67e
PP
2716 fd = -1;
2717 break;
2718 }
ae986130 2719 fdtmp[fdx++] = fd;
fc36a67e 2720 }
ae986130 2721 while (fdx > 0)
6ad3d225 2722 PerlLIO_close(fdtmp[--fdx]);
fec02dd3 2723 return fd;
62b28dd9 2724#endif
a687059c
LW
2725}
2726#endif
2727
64ca3a65 2728#ifndef PERL_MICRO
ff68c719
PP
2729#ifdef HAS_SIGACTION
2730
2731Sighandler_t
864dbfa3 2732Perl_rsignal(pTHX_ int signo, Sighandler_t handler)
ff68c719
PP
2733{
2734 struct sigaction act, oact;
2735
a10b1e10 2736#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
20b7effb 2737 dVAR;
a10b1e10
JH
2738 /* only "parent" interpreter can diddle signals */
2739 if (PL_curinterp != aTHX)
8aad04aa 2740 return (Sighandler_t) SIG_ERR;
a10b1e10
JH
2741#endif
2742
8aad04aa 2743 act.sa_handler = (void(*)(int))handler;
ff68c719
PP
2744 sigemptyset(&act.sa_mask);
2745 act.sa_flags = 0;
2746#ifdef SA_RESTART
4ffa73a3
JH
2747 if (PL_signals & PERL_SIGNALS_UNSAFE_FLAG)
2748 act.sa_flags |= SA_RESTART; /* SVR4, 4.3+BSD */
0a8e0eff 2749#endif
358837b8 2750#if defined(SA_NOCLDWAIT) && !defined(BSDish) /* See [perl #18849] */
8aad04aa 2751 if (signo == SIGCHLD && handler == (Sighandler_t) SIG_IGN)
85264bed
CS
2752 act.sa_flags |= SA_NOCLDWAIT;
2753#endif
ff68c719 2754 if (sigaction(signo, &act, &oact) == -1)
8aad04aa 2755 return (Sighandler_t) SIG_ERR;
ff68c719 2756 else
8aad04aa 2757 return (Sighandler_t) oact.sa_handler;
ff68c719
PP
2758}
2759
2760Sighandler_t
864dbfa3 2761Perl_rsignal_state(pTHX_ int signo)
ff68c719
PP
2762{
2763 struct sigaction oact;
96a5add6 2764 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
ff68c719
PP
2765
2766 if (sigaction(signo, (struct sigaction *)NULL, &oact) == -1)
8aad04aa 2767 return (Sighandler_t) SIG_ERR;
ff68c719 2768 else
8aad04aa 2769 return (Sighandler_t) oact.sa_handler;
ff68c719
PP
2770}
2771
2772int
864dbfa3 2773Perl_rsignal_save(pTHX_ int signo, Sighandler_t handler, Sigsave_t *save)
ff68c719 2774{
20b7effb 2775#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
27da23d5 2776 dVAR;
20b7effb 2777#endif
ff68c719
PP
2778 struct sigaction act;
2779
7918f24d
NC
2780 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_RSIGNAL_SAVE;
2781
a10b1e10
JH
2782#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
2783 /* only "parent" interpreter can diddle signals */
2784 if (PL_curinterp != aTHX)
2785 return -1;
2786#endif
2787
8aad04aa 2788 act.sa_handler = (void(*)(int))handler;
ff68c719
PP
2789 sigemptyset(&act.sa_mask);
2790 act.sa_flags = 0;
2791#ifdef SA_RESTART
4ffa73a3
JH
2792 if (PL_signals & PERL_SIGNALS_UNSAFE_FLAG)
2793 act.sa_flags |= SA_RESTART; /* SVR4, 4.3+BSD */
0a8e0eff 2794#endif
36b5d377 2795#if defined(SA_NOCLDWAIT) && !defined(BSDish) /* See [perl #18849] */
8aad04aa 2796 if (signo == SIGCHLD && handler == (Sighandler_t) SIG_IGN)
85264bed
CS
2797 act.sa_flags |= SA_NOCLDWAIT;
2798#endif
ff68c719
PP
2799 return sigaction(signo, &act, save);
2800}
2801
2802int
864dbfa3 2803Perl_rsignal_restore(pTHX_ int signo, Sigsave_t *save)
ff68c719 2804{
20b7effb 2805#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
27da23d5 2806 dVAR;
20b7effb
JH
2807#endif
2808 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
a10b1e10
JH
2809#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
2810 /* only "parent" interpreter can diddle signals */
2811 if (PL_curinterp != aTHX)
2812 return -1;
2813#endif
2814
ff68c719
PP
2815 return sigaction(signo, save, (struct sigaction *)NULL);
2816}
2817
2818#else /* !HAS_SIGACTION */
2819
2820Sighandler_t
864dbfa3 2821Perl_rsignal(pTHX_ int signo, Sighandler_t handler)
ff68c719 2822{
39f1703b 2823#if defined(USE_ITHREADS) && !defined(WIN32)
a10b1e10
JH
2824 /* only "parent" interpreter can diddle signals */
2825 if (PL_curinterp != aTHX)
8aad04aa 2826 return (Sighandler_t) SIG_ERR;
a10b1e10
JH
2827#endif
2828
6ad3d225 2829 return PerlProc_signal(signo, handler);
ff68c719
PP
2830}
2831
fabdb6c0 2832static Signal_t
4e35701f 2833sig_trap(int signo)
ff68c719 2834{
27da23d5
JH
2835 dVAR;
2836 PL_sig_trapped++;
ff68c719
PP
2837}
2838
2839Sighandler_t
864dbfa3 2840Perl_rsignal_state(pTHX_ int signo)
ff68c719 2841{
27da23d5 2842 dVAR;
ff68c719
PP
2843 Sighandler_t oldsig;
2844
39f1703b 2845#if defined(USE_ITHREADS) && !defined(WIN32)
a10b1e10
JH
2846 /* only "parent" interpreter can diddle signals */
2847 if (PL_curinterp != aTHX)
8aad04aa 2848 return (Sighandler_t) SIG_ERR;
a10b1e10
JH
2849#endif
2850
27da23d5 2851 PL_sig_trapped = 0;
6ad3d225
GS
2852 oldsig = PerlProc_signal(signo, sig_trap);
2853 PerlProc_signal(signo, oldsig);
27da23d5 2854 if (PL_sig_trapped)
3aed30dc 2855 PerlProc_kill(PerlProc_getpid(), signo);
ff68c719
PP
2856 return oldsig;
2857}
2858
2859int
864dbfa3 2860Perl_rsignal_save(pTHX_ int signo, Sighandler_t handler, Sigsave_t *save)
ff68c719 2861{
39f1703b 2862#if defined(USE_ITHREADS) && !defined(WIN32)
a10b1e10
JH
2863 /* only "parent" interpreter can diddle signals */
2864 if (PL_curinterp != aTHX)
2865 return -1;
2866#endif
6ad3d225 2867 *save = PerlProc_signal(signo, handler);
8aad04aa 2868 return (*save == (Sighandler_t) SIG_ERR) ? -1 : 0;
ff68c719
PP
2869}
2870
2871int
864dbfa3 2872Perl_rsignal_restore(pTHX_ int signo, Sigsave_t *save)
ff68c719 2873{
39f1703b 2874#if defined(USE_ITHREADS) && !defined(WIN32)
a10b1e10
JH
2875 /* only "parent" interpreter can diddle signals */
2876 if (PL_curinterp != aTHX)
2877 return -1;
2878#endif
8aad04aa 2879 return (PerlProc_signal(signo, *save) == (Sighandler_t) SIG_ERR) ? -1 : 0;
ff68c719
PP
2880}
2881
2882#endif /* !HAS_SIGACTION */
64ca3a65 2883#endif /* !PERL_MICRO */
ff68c719 2884
5f05dabc 2885 /* VMS' my_pclose() is in VMS.c; same with OS/2 */
739a0b84 2886#if (!defined(DOSISH) || defined(HAS_FORK) || defined(AMIGAOS)) && !defined(VMS) && !defined(__LIBCATAMOUNT__)
79072805 2887I32
864dbfa3 2888Perl_my_pclose(pTHX_ PerlIO *ptr)
a687059c 2889{
a687059c 2890 int status;
a0d0e21e 2891 SV **svp;
d8a83dd3 2892 Pid_t pid;
2e0cfa16 2893 Pid_t pid2 = 0;
03136e13 2894 bool close_failed;
4ee39169 2895 dSAVEDERRNO;
2e0cfa16 2896 const int fd = PerlIO_fileno(ptr);
e9d373c4
TC
2897 bool should_wait;
2898
2899 svp = av_fetch(PL_fdpid,fd,TRUE);
2900 pid = (SvTYPE(*svp) == SVt_IV) ? SvIVX(*svp) : -1;
2901 SvREFCNT_dec(*svp);
2902 *svp = NULL;
2e0cfa16 2903
97cb92d6 2904#if defined(USE_PERLIO)
2e0cfa16
FC
2905 /* Find out whether the refcount is low enough for us to wait for the
2906 child proc without blocking. */
e9d373c4 2907 should_wait = PerlIOUnix_refcnt(fd) == 1 && pid > 0;
b6ae43b7 2908#else
e9d373c4 2909 should_wait = pid > 0;
b6ae43b7 2910#endif
a687059c 2911
ddcf38b7
IZ
2912#ifdef OS2
2913 if (pid == -1) { /* Opened by popen. */
2914 return my_syspclose(ptr);
2915 }
a1d180c4 2916#endif
f1618b10
CS
2917 close_failed = (PerlIO_close(ptr) == EOF);
2918 SAVE_ERRNO;
2e0cfa16 2919 if (should_wait) do {
1d3434b8
GS
2920 pid2 = wait4pid(pid, &status, 0);
2921 } while (pid2 == -1 && errno == EINTR);
03136e13 2922 if (close_failed) {
4ee39169 2923 RESTORE_ERRNO;
03136e13
CS
2924 return -1;
2925 }
2e0cfa16
FC
2926 return(
2927 should_wait
2928 ? pid2 < 0 ? pid2 : status == 0 ? 0 : (errno = 0, status)
2929 : 0
2930 );
20188a90 2931}
9c12f1e5
RGS
2932#else
2933#if defined(__LIBCATAMOUNT__)
2934I32
2935Perl_my_pclose(pTHX_ PerlIO *ptr)
2936{
2937 return -1;
2938}
2939#endif
4633a7c4
LW
2940#endif /* !DOSISH */
2941
e37778c2 2942#if (!defined(DOSISH) || defined(OS2) || defined(WIN32) || defined(NETWARE)) && !defined(__LIBCATAMOUNT__)
79072805 2943I32
d8a83dd3 2944Perl_wait4pid(pTHX_ Pid_t pid, int *statusp, int flags)
20188a90 2945{
27da23d5 2946 I32 result = 0;
7918f24d 2947 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_WAIT4PID;
ca0c25f6 2948#ifdef PERL_USES_PL_PIDSTATUS
d4c02743
TC
2949 if (!pid) {
2950 /* PERL_USES_PL_PIDSTATUS is only defined when neither
2951 waitpid() nor wait4() is available, or on OS/2, which
2952 doesn't appear to support waiting for a progress group
2953 member, so we can only treat a 0 pid as an unknown child.
2954 */
2955 errno = ECHILD;
2956 return -1;
2957 }
b7953727 2958 {
3aed30dc 2959 if (pid > 0) {
12072db5
NC
2960 /* The keys in PL_pidstatus are now the raw 4 (or 8) bytes of the
2961 pid, rather than a string form. */
c4420975 2962 SV * const * const svp = hv_fetch(PL_pidstatus,(const char*) &pid,sizeof(Pid_t),FALSE);
3aed30dc
HS
2963 if (svp && *svp != &PL_sv_undef) {
2964 *statusp = SvIVX(*svp);
12072db5
NC
2965 (void)hv_delete(PL_pidstatus,(const char*) &pid,sizeof(Pid_t),
2966 G_DISCARD);
3aed30dc
HS
2967 return pid;
2968 }
2969 }
2970 else {
2971 HE *entry;
2972
2973 hv_iterinit(PL_pidstatus);
2974 if ((entry = hv_iternext(PL_pidstatus))) {
c4420975 2975 SV * const sv = hv_iterval(PL_pidstatus,entry);
7ea75b61 2976 I32 len;
0bcc34c2 2977 const char * const spid = hv_iterkey(entry,&len);
27da23d5 2978
12072db5
NC
2979 assert (len == sizeof(Pid_t));
2980 memcpy((char *)&pid, spid, len);
3aed30dc 2981 *statusp = SvIVX(sv);
7b9a3241
NC
2982 /* The hash iterator is currently on this entry, so simply
2983 calling hv_delete would trigger the lazy delete, which on
f6bab5f6 2984 aggregate does more work, because next call to hv_iterinit()
7b9a3241
NC
2985 would spot the flag, and have to call the delete routine,
2986 while in the meantime any new entries can't re-use that
2987 memory. */
2988 hv_iterinit(PL_pidstatus);
7ea75b61 2989 (void)hv_delete(PL_pidstatus,spid,len,G_DISCARD);
3aed30dc
HS
2990 return pid;
2991 }
20188a90
LW
2992 }
2993 }
68a29c53 2994#endif
79072805 2995#ifdef HAS_WAITPID
367f3c24
IZ
2996# ifdef HAS_WAITPID_RUNTIME
2997 if (!HAS_WAITPID_RUNTIME)
2998 goto hard_way;
2999# endif
cddd4526 3000 result = PerlProc_waitpid(pid,statusp,flags);
dfcfdb64 3001 goto finish;
367f3c24
IZ
3002#endif
3003#if !defined(HAS_WAITPID) && defined(HAS_WAIT4)
d4c02743 3004 result = wait4(pid,statusp,flags,NULL);
dfcfdb64 3005 goto finish;
367f3c24 3006#endif
ca0c25f6 3007#ifdef PERL_USES_PL_PIDSTATUS
27da23d5 3008#if defined(HAS_WAITPID) && defined(HAS_WAITPID_RUNTIME)
367f3c24 3009 hard_way:
27da23d5 3010#endif
a0d0e21e 3011 {
a0d0e21e 3012 if (flags)
cea2e8a9 3013 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't do waitpid with flags");
a0d0e21e 3014 else {
76e3520e 3015 while ((result = PerlProc_wait(statusp)) != pid && pid > 0 && result >= 0)
a0d0e21e
LW
3016 pidgone(result,*statusp);
3017 if (result < 0)
3018 *statusp = -1;
3019 }
a687059c
LW
3020 }
3021#endif
27da23d5 3022#if defined(HAS_WAITPID) || defined(HAS_WAIT4)
dfcfdb64 3023 finish:
27da23d5 3024#endif
cddd4526
NIS
3025 if (result < 0 && errno == EINTR) {
3026 PERL_ASYNC_CHECK();
48dbb59e 3027 errno = EINTR; /* reset in case a signal handler changed $! */
cddd4526
NIS
3028 }
3029 return result;
a687059c 3030}
2986a63f 3031#endif /* !DOSISH || OS2 || WIN32 || NETWARE */
a687059c 3032
ca0c25f6 3033#ifdef PERL_USES_PL_PIDSTATUS
7c0587c8 3034void
ed4173ef 3035S_pidgone(pTHX_ Pid_t pid, int status)
a687059c 3036{
eb578fdb 3037 SV *sv;
a687059c 3038
12072db5 3039 sv = *hv_fetch(PL_pidstatus,(const char*)&pid,sizeof(Pid_t),TRUE);
862a34c6 3040 SvUPGRADE(sv,SVt_IV);
45977657 3041 SvIV_set(sv, status);
20188a90 3042 return;
a687059c 3043}
ca0c25f6 3044#endif
a687059c 3045
739a0b84 3046#if defined(OS2)
7c0587c8 3047int pclose();
ddcf38b7
IZ
3048#ifdef HAS_FORK
3049int /* Cannot prototype with I32
3050 in os2ish.h. */
ba106d47 3051my_syspclose(PerlIO *ptr)
ddcf38b7 3052#else
79072805 3053I32
864dbfa3 3054Perl_my_pclose(pTHX_ PerlIO *ptr)
a1d180c4 3055#endif
a687059c 3056{
760ac839 3057 /* Needs work for PerlIO ! */
c4420975 3058 FILE * const f = PerlIO_findFILE(ptr);
7452cf6a 3059 const I32 result = pclose(f);
2b96b0a5
JH
3060 PerlIO_releaseFILE(ptr,f);
3061 return result;
3062}
3063#endif
3064
933fea7f 3065#if defined(DJGPP)
2b96b0a5
JH
3066int djgpp_pclose();
3067I32
3068Perl_my_pclose(pTHX_ PerlIO *ptr)
3069{
3070 /* Needs work for PerlIO ! */
c4420975 3071 FILE * const f = PerlIO_findFILE(ptr);
2b96b0a5 3072 I32 result = djgpp_pclose(f);
933fea7f 3073 result = (result << 8) & 0xff00;
760ac839
LW
3074 PerlIO_releaseFILE(ptr,f);
3075 return result;
a687059c 3076}
7c0587c8 3077#endif
9f68db38 3078
16fa5c11 3079#define PERL_REPEATCPY_LINEAR 4
9f68db38 3080void
5aaab254 3081Perl_repeatcpy(char *to, const char *from, I32 len, IV count)
9f68db38 3082{
7918f24d
NC
3083 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_REPEATCPY;
3084
223f01db
KW
3085 assert(len >= 0);
3086
2709980d 3087 if (count < 0)
d1decf2b 3088 croak_memory_wrap();
2709980d 3089
16fa5c11
VP
3090 if (len == 1)
3091 memset(to, *from, count);
3092 else if (count) {
eb578fdb 3093 char *p = to;
26e1303d 3094 IV items, linear, half;
16fa5c11
VP
3095
3096 linear = count < PERL_REPEATCPY_LINEAR ? count : PERL_REPEATCPY_LINEAR;
3097 for (items = 0; items < linear; ++items) {
eb578fdb 3098 const char *q = from;
26e1303d 3099 IV todo;
16fa5c11
VP
3100 for (todo = len; todo > 0; todo--)
3101 *p++ = *q++;
3102 }
3103
3104 half = count / 2;
3105 while (items <= half) {
26e1303d 3106 IV size = items * len;
16fa5c11
VP
3107 memcpy(p, to, size);
3108 p += size;
3109 items *= 2;
9f68db38 3110 }
16fa5c11
VP
3111
3112 if (count > items)
3113 memcpy(p, to, (count - items) * len);
9f68db38
LW
3114 }
3115}
0f85fab0 3116
fe14fcc3 3117#ifndef HAS_RENAME
79072805 3118I32
4373e329 3119Perl_same_dirent(pTHX_ const char *a, const char *b)
62b28dd9 3120{
93a17b20
LW
3121 char *fa = strrchr(a,'/');
3122 char *fb = strrchr(b,'/');
c623ac67
GS
3123 Stat_t tmpstatbuf1;
3124 Stat_t tmpstatbuf2;
c4420975 3125 SV * const tmpsv = sv_newmortal();
62b28dd9 3126
7918f24d
NC
3127 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SAME_DIRENT;
3128
62b28dd9
LW
3129 if (fa)
3130 fa++;
3131 else
3132 fa = a;
3133 if (fb)
3134 fb++;
3135 else
3136 fb = b;
3137 if (strNE(a,b))
3138 return FALSE;
3139 if (fa == a)
76f68e9b 3140 sv_setpvs(tmpsv, ".");
62b28dd9 3141 else
46fc3d4c 3142 sv_setpvn(tmpsv, a, fa - a);
95a20fc0 3143 if (PerlLIO_stat(SvPVX_const(tmpsv), &tmpstatbuf1) < 0)
62b28dd9
LW
3144 return FALSE;
3145 if (fb == b)
76f68e9b 3146 sv_setpvs(tmpsv, ".");
62b28dd9 3147 else
46fc3d4c 3148 sv_setpvn(tmpsv, b, fb - b);
95a20fc0 3149 if (PerlLIO_stat(SvPVX_const(tmpsv), &tmpstatbuf2) < 0)
62b28dd9
LW
3150 return FALSE;
3151 return tmpstatbuf1.st_dev == tmpstatbuf2.st_dev &&
3152 tmpstatbuf1.st_ino == tmpstatbuf2.st_ino;
3153}
fe14fcc3
LW
3154#endif /* !HAS_RENAME */
3155
491527d0 3156char*
7f315aed
NC
3157Perl_find_script(pTHX_ const char *scriptname, bool dosearch,
3158 const char *const *const search_ext, I32 flags)
491527d0 3159{
bd61b366
SS
3160 const char *xfound = NULL;
3161 char *xfailed = NULL;
0f31cffe 3162 char tmpbuf[MAXPATHLEN];
eb578fdb 3163 char *s;
5f74f29c 3164 I32 len = 0;
491527d0 3165 int retval;
39a02377 3166 char *bufend;
7c458fae 3167#if defined(DOSISH) && !defined(OS2)
491527d0
GS
3168# define SEARCH_EXTS ".bat", ".cmd", NULL
3169# define MAX_EXT_LEN 4
3170#endif
3171#ifdef OS2
3172# define SEARCH_EXTS ".cmd", ".btm", ".bat", ".pl", NULL
3173# define MAX_EXT_LEN 4
3174#endif
3175#ifdef VMS
3176# define SEARCH_EXTS ".pl", ".com", NULL
3177# define MAX_EXT_LEN 4
3178#endif
3179 /* additional extensions to try in each dir if scriptname not found */
3180#ifdef SEARCH_EXTS
0bcc34c2 3181 static const char *const exts[] = { SEARCH_EXTS };
7f315aed 3182 const char *const *const ext = search_ext ? search_ext : exts;
491527d0 3183 int extidx = 0, i = 0;
bd61b366 3184 const char *curext = NULL;
491527d0 3185#else
53c1dcc0 3186 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(search_ext);
491527d0
GS
3187# define MAX_EXT_LEN 0
3188#endif
3189
7918f24d
NC
3190 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_FIND_SCRIPT;
3191
491527d0
GS
3192 /*
3193 * If dosearch is true and if scriptname does not contain path
3194 * delimiters, search the PATH for scriptname.
3195 *
3196 * If SEARCH_EXTS is also defined, will look for each
3197 * scriptname{SEARCH_EXTS} whenever scriptname is not found
3198 * while searching the PATH.
3199 *
3200 * Assuming SEARCH_EXTS is C<".foo",".bar",NULL>, PATH search
3201 * proceeds as follows:
3202 * If DOSISH or VMSISH:
3203 * + look for ./scriptname{,.foo,.bar}
3204 * + search the PATH for scriptname{,.foo,.bar}
3205 *
3206 * If !DOSISH:
3207 * + look *only* in the PATH for scriptname{,.foo,.bar} (note
3208 * this will not look in '.' if it's not in the PATH)
3209 */
84486fc6 3210 tmpbuf[0] = '\0';
491527d0
GS
3211
3212#ifdef VMS
3213# ifdef ALWAYS_DEFTYPES
3214 len = strlen(scriptname);
3215 if (!(len == 1 && *scriptname == '-') && scriptname[len-1] != ':') {
c4420975 3216 int idx = 0, deftypes = 1;
491527d0
GS
3217 bool seen_dot = 1;
3218
bd61b366 3219 const int hasdir = !dosearch || (strpbrk(scriptname,":[</") != NULL);
491527d0
GS
3220# else
3221 if (dosearch) {
c4420975 3222 int idx = 0, deftypes = 1;
491527d0
GS
3223 bool seen_dot = 1;
3224
bd61b366 3225 const int hasdir = (strpbrk(scriptname,":[</") != NULL);
491527d0
GS
3226# endif
3227 /* The first time through, just add SEARCH_EXTS to whatever we
3228 * already have, so we can check for default file types. */
3229 while (deftypes ||
84486fc6 3230 (!hasdir && my_trnlnm("DCL$PATH",tmpbuf,idx++)) )
491527d0
GS
3231 {
3232 if (deftypes) {
3233 deftypes = 0;
84486fc6 3234 *tmpbuf = '\0';
491527d0 3235 }
84486fc6
GS
3236 if ((strlen(tmpbuf) + strlen(scriptname)
3237 + MAX_EXT_LEN) >= sizeof tmpbuf)
491527d0 3238 continue; /* don't search dir with too-long name */
6fca0082 3239 my_strlcat(tmpbuf, scriptname, sizeof(tmpbuf));
491527d0
GS
3240#else /* !VMS */
3241
3242#ifdef DOSISH
3243 if (strEQ(scriptname, "-"))
3244 dosearch = 0;
3245 if (dosearch) { /* Look in '.' first. */
fe2774ed 3246 const char *cur = scriptname;
491527d0
GS
3247#ifdef SEARCH_EXTS
3248 if ((curext = strrchr(scriptname,'.'))) /* possible current ext */
3249 while (ext[i])
3250 if (strEQ(ext[i++],curext)) {
3251 extidx = -1; /* already has an ext */
3252 break;
3253 }
3254 do {
3255#endif
3256 DEBUG_p(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
3257 "Looking for %s\n",cur));
017f25f1
IZ
3258 if (PerlLIO_stat(cur,&PL_statbuf) >= 0
3259 && !S_ISDIR(PL_statbuf.st_mode)) {
491527d0
GS
3260 dosearch = 0;
3261 scriptname = cur;
3262#ifdef SEARCH_EXTS
3263 break;
3264#endif
3265 }
3266#ifdef SEARCH_EXTS
3267 if (cur == scriptname) {
3268 len = strlen(scriptname);
84486fc6 3269 if (len+MAX_EXT_LEN+1 >= sizeof(tmpbuf))
491527d0 3270 break;
9e4425f7
SH
3271 my_strlcpy(tmpbuf, scriptname, sizeof(tmpbuf));
3272 cur = tmpbuf;
491527d0
GS
3273 }
3274 } while (extidx >= 0 && ext[extidx] /* try an extension? */
6fca0082 3275 && my_strlcpy(tmpbuf+len, ext[extidx++], sizeof(tmpbuf) - len));
491527d0
GS
3276#endif
3277 }
3278#endif
3279
3280 if (dosearch && !strchr(scriptname, '/')
3281#ifdef DOSISH
3282 && !strchr(scriptname, '\\')
3283#endif
cd39f2b6 3284 && (s = PerlEnv_getenv("PATH")))
cd39f2b6 3285 {
491527d0 3286 bool seen_dot = 0;
92f0c265 3287
39a02377
DM
3288 bufend = s + strlen(s);
3289 while (s < bufend) {
7c458fae 3290# ifdef DOSISH
491527d0 3291 for (len = 0; *s
491527d0 3292 && *s != ';'; len++, s++) {
84486fc6
GS
3293 if (len < sizeof tmpbuf)
3294 tmpbuf[len] = *s;
491527d0 3295 }
84486fc6
GS
3296 if (len < sizeof tmpbuf)
3297 tmpbuf[len] = '\0';
7c458fae 3298# else
39a02377 3299 s = delimcpy(tmpbuf, tmpbuf + sizeof tmpbuf, s, bufend,
491527d0
GS
3300 ':',
3301 &len);
7c458fae 3302# endif
39a02377 3303 if (s < bufend)
491527d0 3304 s++;
84486fc6 3305 if (len + 1 + strlen(scriptname) + MAX_EXT_LEN >= sizeof tmpbuf)
491527d0
GS
3306 continue; /* don't search dir with too-long name */
3307 if (len
7c458fae 3308# ifdef DOSISH
84486fc6
GS
3309 && tmpbuf[len - 1] != '/'
3310 && tmpbuf[len - 1] != '\\'
490a0e98 3311# endif
491527d0 3312 )
84486fc6
GS
3313 tmpbuf[len++] = '/';
3314 if (len == 2 && tmpbuf[0] == '.')
491527d0 3315 seen_dot = 1;
28f0d0ec 3316 (void)my_strlcpy(tmpbuf + len, scriptname, sizeof(tmpbuf) - len);
491527d0
GS
3317#endif /* !VMS */
3318
3319#ifdef SEARCH_EXTS
84486fc6 3320 len = strlen(tmpbuf);
491527d0
GS
3321 if (extidx > 0) /* reset after previous loop */
3322 extidx = 0;
3323 do {
3324#endif
84486fc6 3325 DEBUG_p(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Looking for %s\n",tmpbuf));
3280af22 3326 retval = PerlLIO_stat(tmpbuf,&PL_statbuf);
017f25f1
IZ
3327 if (S_ISDIR(PL_statbuf.st_mode)) {
3328 retval = -1;
3329 }
491527d0
GS
3330#ifdef SEARCH_EXTS
3331 } while ( retval < 0 /* not there */
3332 && extidx>=0 && ext[extidx] /* try an extension? */
6fca0082 3333 && my_strlcpy(tmpbuf+len, ext[extidx++], sizeof(tmpbuf) - len)
491527d0
GS
3334 );
3335#endif
3336 if (retval < 0)
3337 continue;
3280af22
NIS
3338 if (S_ISREG(PL_statbuf.st_mode)
3339 && cando(S_IRUSR,TRUE,&PL_statbuf)
e37778c2 3340#if !defined(DOSISH)
3280af22 3341 && cando(S_IXUSR,TRUE,&PL_statbuf)
491527d0
GS
3342#endif
3343 )
3344 {
3aed30dc 3345 xfound = tmpbuf; /* bingo! */
491527d0
GS
3346 break;
3347 }
3348 if (!xfailed)
84486fc6 3349 xfailed = savepv(tmpbuf);
491527d0
GS
3350 }
3351#ifndef DOSISH
017f25f1 3352 if (!xfound && !seen_dot && !xfailed &&
a1d180c4 3353 (PerlLIO_stat(scriptname,&PL_statbuf) < 0
017f25f1 3354 || S_ISDIR(PL_statbuf.st_mode)))
491527d0
GS
3355#endif
3356 seen_dot = 1; /* Disable message. */
9ccb31f9
GS
3357 if (!xfound) {
3358 if (flags & 1) { /* do or die? */
6ad282c7 3359 /* diag_listed_as: Can't execute %s */
3aed30dc 3360 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't %s %s%s%s",
9ccb31f9
GS
3361 (xfailed ? "execute" : "find"),
3362 (xfailed ? xfailed : scriptname),
3363 (xfailed ? "" : " on PATH"),
3364 (xfailed || seen_dot) ? "" : ", '.' not in PATH");
3365 }
bd61b366 3366 scriptname = NULL;
9ccb31f9 3367 }
43c5f42d 3368 Safefree(xfailed);
491527d0
GS
3369 scriptname = xfound;
3370 }
bd61b366 3371 return (scriptname ? savepv(scriptname) : NULL);
491527d0
GS
3372}
3373
ba869deb
GS
3374#ifndef PERL_GET_CONTEXT_DEFINED
3375
3376void *
3377Perl_get_context(void)
3378{
3db8f154 3379#if defined(USE_ITHREADS)
20b7effb 3380 dVAR;
ba869deb
GS
3381# ifdef OLD_PTHREADS_API
3382 pthread_addr_t t;
5637ef5b
NC
3383 int error = pthread_getspecific(PL_thr_key, &t)
3384 if (error)
3385 Perl_croak_nocontext("panic: pthread_getspecific, error=%d", error);
ba869deb
GS
3386 return (void*)t;
3387# else
bce813aa 3388# ifdef I_MACH_CTHREADS
8b8b35ab 3389 return (void*)cthread_data(cthread_self());
bce813aa 3390# else
8b8b35ab
JH
3391 return (void*)PTHREAD_GETSPECIFIC(PL_thr_key);
3392# endif
c44d3fdb 3393# endif
ba869deb
GS
3394#else
3395 return (void*)NULL;
3396#endif
3397}
3398
3399void
3400Perl_set_context(void *t)
3401{
20b7effb 3402#if defined(USE_ITHREADS)
8772537c 3403 dVAR;
20b7effb 3404#endif
7918f24d 3405 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SET_CONTEXT;
3db8f154 3406#if defined(USE_ITHREADS)
c44d3fdb
GS
3407# ifdef I_MACH_CTHREADS
3408 cthread_set_data(cthread_self(), t);
3409# else
5637ef5b
NC
3410 {
3411 const int error = pthread_setspecific(PL_thr_key, t);
3412 if (error)
3413 Perl_croak_nocontext("panic: pthread_setspecific, error=%d", error);
3414 }
c44d3fdb 3415# endif
b464bac0 3416#else
8772537c 3417 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(t);
ba869deb
GS
3418#endif
3419}
3420
3421#endif /* !PERL_GET_CONTEXT_DEFINED */
491527d0 3422
27da23d5 3423#if defined(PERL_GLOBAL_STRUCT) && !defined(PERL_GLOBAL_STRUCT_PRIVATE)
22239a37 3424struct perl_vars *
864dbfa3 3425Perl_GetVars(pTHX)
22239a37 3426{
23491f1d
JH
3427 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
3428 return &PL_Vars;
22239a37 3429}
31fb1209
NIS
3430#endif
3431
1cb0ed9b 3432char **
864dbfa3 3433Perl_get_op_names(pTHX)
31fb1209 3434{
96a5add6
AL
3435 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
3436 return (char **)PL_op_name;
31fb1209
NIS
3437}
3438
1cb0ed9b 3439char **
864dbfa3 3440Perl_get_op_descs(pTHX)
31fb1209 3441{
96a5add6
AL
3442 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
3443 return (char **)PL_op_desc;
31fb1209 3444}
9e6b2b00 3445
e1ec3a88 3446const char *
864dbfa3 3447Perl_get_no_modify(pTHX)
9e6b2b00 3448{
96a5add6
AL
3449 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
3450 return PL_no_modify;
9e6b2b00
GS
3451}
3452
3453U32 *
864dbfa3 3454Perl_get_opargs(pTHX)
9e6b2b00 3455{
96a5add6
AL
3456 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
3457 return (U32 *)PL_opargs;
9e6b2b00 3458}
51aa15f3 3459
0cb96387
GS
3460PPADDR_t*
3461Perl_get_ppaddr(pTHX)
3462{
96a5add6
AL
3463 dVAR;
3464 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
3465 return (PPADDR_t*)PL_ppaddr;
0cb96387
GS
3466}
3467
a6c40364
GS
3468#ifndef HAS_GETENV_LEN
3469char *
bf4acbe4 3470Perl_getenv_len(pTHX_ const char *env_elem, unsigned long *len)
a6c40364 3471{
8772537c 3472 char * const env_trans = PerlEnv_getenv(env_elem);
96a5add6 3473 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
7918f24d 3474 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_GETENV_LEN;
a6c40364
GS
3475 if (env_trans)
3476 *len = strlen(env_trans);
3477 return env_trans;
f675dbe5
CB
3478}
3479#endif
3480
dc9e4912
GS
3481
3482MGVTBL*
864dbfa3 3483Perl_get_vtbl(pTHX_ int vtbl_id)
dc9e4912 3484{
96a5add6 3485 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
dc9e4912 3486
c7fdacb9 3487 return (vtbl_id < 0 || vtbl_id >= magic_vtable_max)
31114fe9 3488 ? NULL : (MGVTBL*)PL_magic_vtables + vtbl_id;
dc9e4912
GS
3489}
3490
767df6a1 3491I32
864dbfa3 3492Perl_my_fflush_all(pTHX)
767df6a1 3493{
97cb92d6 3494#if defined(USE_PERLIO) || defined(FFLUSH_NULL)
ce720889 3495 return PerlIO_flush(NULL);
767df6a1 3496#else
8fbdfb7c 3497# if defined(HAS__FWALK)
f13a2bc0 3498 extern int fflush(FILE *);
74cac757
JH
3499 /* undocumented, unprototyped, but very useful BSDism */
3500 extern void _fwalk(int (*)(FILE *));
8fbdfb7c 3501 _fwalk(&fflush);
74cac757 3502 return 0;
8fa7f367 3503# else
8fbdfb7c 3504# if defined(FFLUSH_ALL) && defined(HAS_STDIO_STREAM_ARRAY)
8fa7f367 3505 long open_max = -1;
8fbdfb7c 3506# ifdef PERL_FFLUSH_ALL_FOPEN_MAX
d2201af2 3507 open_max = PERL_FFLUSH_ALL_FOPEN_MAX;
8fbdfb7c 3508# else
8fa7f367 3509# if defined(HAS_SYSCONF) && defined(_SC_OPEN_MAX)
767df6a1 3510 open_max = sysconf(_SC_OPEN_MAX);
8fa7f367
JH
3511# else
3512# ifdef FOPEN_MAX
74cac757 3513 open_max = FOPEN_MAX;
8fa7f367
JH
3514# else
3515# ifdef OPEN_MAX
74cac757 3516 open_max = OPEN_MAX;
8fa7f367
JH
3517# else
3518# ifdef _NFILE
d2201af2 3519 open_max = _NFILE;
8fa7f367
JH
3520# endif
3521# endif
74cac757 3522# endif
767df6a1
JH
3523# endif
3524# endif
767df6a1
JH
3525 if (open_max > 0) {
3526 long i;
3527 for (i = 0; i < open_max; i++)
d2201af2
AD
3528 if (STDIO_STREAM_ARRAY[i]._file >= 0 &&
3529 STDIO_STREAM_ARRAY[i]._file < open_max &&
3530 STDIO_STREAM_ARRAY[i]._flag)
3531 PerlIO_flush(&STDIO_STREAM_ARRAY[i]);
767df6a1
JH
3532 return 0;
3533 }
8fbdfb7c 3534# endif
93189314 3535 SETERRNO(EBADF,RMS_IFI);
767df6a1 3536 return EOF;
74cac757 3537# endif
767df6a1
JH
3538#endif
3539}
097ee67d 3540
69282e91 3541void
45219de6 3542Perl_report_wrongway_fh(pTHX_ const GV *gv, const char have)
a5390457
NC
3543{
3544 if (ckWARN(WARN_IO)) {
0223a801 3545 HEK * const name
c6e4ff34 3546 = gv && (isGV_with_GP(gv))
0223a801 3547 ? GvENAME_HEK((gv))
3b46b707 3548 : NULL;
a5390457
NC
3549 const char * const direction = have == '>' ? "out" : "in";
3550
b3c81598 3551 if (name && HEK_LEN(name))
a5390457 3552 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_IO),
0223a801 3553 "Filehandle %"HEKf" opened only for %sput",
10bafe90 3554 HEKfARG(name), direction);
a5390457
NC
3555 else
3556 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_IO),
3557 "Filehandle opened only for %sput", direction);
3558 }
3559}
3560
3561void