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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
4
5=head1 NAME
6
7README.aix - Perl version 5 on IBM Unix (AIX) systems
8
9=head1 DESCRIPTION
10
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11This document describes various features of IBM's Unix operating
12system (AIX) that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl)
13is compiled and/or runs.
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14
15=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on AIX
16
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17For information on compilers on older versions of AIX, see L<Compiling
18Perl 5 on older AIX versions up to 4.3.3>.
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19
20When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship
21an ANSI compliant C-compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of
22gcc for AIX are widely available.
23
24=head2 Supported Compilers
25
26Currently all versions of IBM's "xlc", "xlc_r", "cc", "cc_r" or
c5252117 27"vac" ANSI/C compiler will work for building Perl if that compiler
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28works on your system.
29
c5252117 30If you plan to link Perl to any module that requires thread-support,
e1051f11 31like DBD::Oracle, it is better to use the _r version of the compiler.
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32This will not build a threaded Perl, but a thread-enabled Perl. See
33also L<Threaded Perl> later on.
e1051f11 34
e37e7c83 35As of writing (2009-08) only the IBM XL C for AIX or XL C/C++ for AIX
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36compiler is supported by IBM on AIX 5L/6.1.
37
38The following compiler versions are supported by IBM:
39
40XL C and XL C/C++ V7, V8, V9, V10
41
42The XL C for AIX is integrated in the XL C/C++ for AIX compiler.
43
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44If you choose XL C/C++ V9 you need APAR IZ35785 installed
45otherwise the integrated SDBM_File do not compile correctly due
46to an optimization bug. You can circumvent this problem by
47adding -qipa to the optimization flags (-Doptimize='-O -qipa').
48The PTF for APAR IZ35785 which solves this problem is available
e3c125ff 49from IBM (April 2009 PTF for XL C/C++ Enterprise Edition for AIX, V9.0).
7fabfece 50
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51Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.
52The former is recommended, as not only it can compile Perl with no
53difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later
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54that require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
55
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56If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
57complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
58details. Please report any hoops you had to jump through to the
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59development team.
60
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61=head2 Incompatibility with AIX Toolbox lib gdbm
62
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63If the AIX Toolbox version of lib gdbm < 1.8.3-5 is installed on your
64system then Perl will not work. This library contains the header files
65/opt/freeware/include/gdbm/dbm.h|ndbm.h which conflict with the AIX
66system versions. The lib gdbm will be automatically removed from the
67wanted libraries if the presence of one of these two header files is
68detected. If you want to bild Perl with GDBM support then please install
69at leas gdbm-devel-1.8.3-5 (or higher).
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70
71=head2 Perl 5.10 was successfully compiled and tested on:
72
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73 AIX Level | Compiler Level | w th | w/o th
74 --------------------------+-------------------------+------+-------
75 5.1 TL9 32 bit | XL C/C++ V7 | OK | OK
76 5.1 TL9 32 bit | gcc 3.2.2 | OK | OK
77 5.1 TL9 64 bit | XL C/C++ V7 | OK | OK
78 5.2 TL10 32 bit | XL C/C++ V8 | OK | OK
e3c125ff 79 5.2 TL8 64 bit | VA C/C++ V6 | OK | OK
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80 5.2 TL10 64 bit | XL C/C++ V8 | OK | OK
81 5.3 TL7 32 bit | XL C/C++ V9 + IZ35785 | OK | OK
82 5.3 TL7 32 bit | gcc 4.2.4 | OK | OK
83 5.3 TL7 64 bit | XL C/C++ V9 + IZ35785 | OK | OK
84 6.1 TL1 32 bit | XL C/C++ V10 | OK | OK
85 6.1 TL1 64 bit + IZ39077 | XL C/C++ V10 | OK | OK
e3c125ff 86
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87 w th = with thread
88 w/o th = without thread
e3c125ff 89 OK = tested
fe5460cc 90
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91Successfully tested means that all "make test" runs finish with an
92result of 100% OK. All tests were conducted with -Duseshrplib set.
fe5460cc 93
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94=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX
95
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96Starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.x / 5.10.x) and AIX 4.3
97or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface in the so
98called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface that was
99used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases 4.2 and
100earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with compiled
101modules from earlier Perl releases. The change was made to make Perl
102more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are
103using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of
104C++ code with static constructors and destructors in Perl extensions,
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105which was not possible using the emulated interface.
106
107It is highly recommended to use the new interface.
108
109=head2 Using Large Files with Perl
110
111Should yield no problems.
112
113=head2 Threaded Perl
114
81189653 115Should yield no problems with AIX 5.1 / 5.2 / 5.3 and 6.1.
7fabfece 116
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117IBM uses the AIX system Perl (V5.6.0 on AIX 5.1 and V5.8.2 on
118AIX 5.2 / 5.3 and 6.1) for some AIX
119system scripts. If you switch the links in /usr/bin from the
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120AIX system Perl (/usr/opt/perl5) to the newly build Perl then you
121get the same features as with the IBM AIX system Perl if the
122threaded options are used.
123
c5252117 124The threaded Perl build works also on AIX 5.1 but the IBM Perl
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125build (Perl v5.6.0) is not threaded on AIX 5.1.
126
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127=head2 64-bit Perl
128
129If your AIX system is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit
130configurations to work. If you want to use 64-bit Perl on AIX 6.1
131you need a APAR for a libc.a bug which affects (n)dbm_XXX functions.
81189653 132The APAR number for this problem is IZ39077.
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133
134If you need more memory (larger data segment) for your Perl programs you
135can set:
136
137 /etc/security/limits
138 default: (or your user)
e3c125ff 139 data = -1 (default is 262144 * 512 byte)
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140
141With the default setting the size is limited to 128MB.
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142The -1 removes this limit. If the "make test" fails please change
143your /etc/security/limits as stated above.
7fabfece 144
e1051f11 145=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1 (threaded/32-bit)
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146
147With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which
148passes all make tests in threaded 32-bit mode, which is the default
c5252117 149configuration for the Perl builds that AIX ships with.
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150
151 rm config.sh
152 ./Configure \
153 -d \
154 -Dcc=cc_r \
155 -Duseshrplib \
156 -Dusethreads \
157 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
158
fe5460cc 159The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
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160IBM AIX system Perl installation.
161
162=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1 (32-bit)
163
fe5460cc 164With the following options you get a Perl version which passes
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165all make tests in 32-bit mode.
166
167 rm config.sh
168 ./Configure \
169 -d \
170 -Dcc=cc_r \
171 -Duseshrplib \
172 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
173
174The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
175IBM AIX system Perl installation.
176
e1051f11 177=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1 (threaded/64-bit)
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178
179With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which
180passes all make tests in 64-bit mode.
181
182 export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell)
183
184 rm config.sh
185 ./Configure \
186 -d \
187 -Dcc=cc_r \
188 -Duseshrplib \
189 -Dusethreads \
190 -Duse64bitall \
191 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
192
193=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1(64-bit)
194
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195With the following options you get a Perl version which passes all
196make tests in 64-bit mode.
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197
198 export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell)
e3c125ff 199
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200 rm config.sh
201 ./Configure \
202 -d \
203 -Dcc=cc_r \
204 -Duseshrplib \
205 -Duse64bitall \
206 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
207
fe5460cc 208The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
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209IBM AIX system Perl installation.
210
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211If you choose gcc to compile 64-bit Perl then you need to add the
212following option:
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213
214 -Dcc='gcc -maix64'
215
216
217=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on older AIX versions up to 4.3.3
218
219Due to the fact that AIX 4.3.3 reached end-of-service in December 31,
2202003 this information is provided as is. The Perl versions prior to
221Perl 5.8.9 could be compiled on AIX up to 4.3.3 with the following
222settings (your mileage may vary):
7fabfece 223
d5d9880c 224When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship
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225an ANSI compliant C-compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of
226gcc for AIX are widely available.
227
228At the moment of writing, AIX supports two different native C compilers,
4951a6f9 229for which you have to pay: B<xlC> and B<vac>. If you decide to use either
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230of these two (which is quite a lot easier than using gcc), be sure to
231upgrade to the latest available patch level. Currently:
232
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233 xlC.C 3.1.4.10 or 3.6.6.0 or 4.0.2.2 or 5.0.2.9 or 6.0.0.3
234 vac.C 4.4.0.3 or 5.0.2.6 or 6.0.0.1
235
236note that xlC has the OS version in the name as of version 4.0.2.0, so
237you will find xlC.C for AIX-5.0 as package
238
239 xlC.aix50.rte 5.0.2.0 or 6.0.0.3
240
66a1b24b 241subversions are not the same "latest" on all OS versions. For example,
c67773d0 242the latest xlC-5 on aix41 is 5.0.2.9, while on aix43, it is 5.0.2.7.
20d11268 243
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244Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.
245The former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no
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246difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
247require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
248
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249The IBM's compiler patch levels 5.0.0.0 and 5.0.1.0 have compiler
250optimization bugs that affect compiling perl.c and regcomp.c,
251respectively. If Perl's configuration detects those compiler patch
252levels, optimization is turned off for the said source code files.
253Upgrading to at least 5.0.2.0 is recommended.
254
20d11268 255If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
eed1f4d3 256complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
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257details. Please report any hoops you had to jump through to the development
258team.
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259
260=head2 OS level
261
262Before installing the patches to the IBM C-compiler you need to know the
263level of patching for the Operating System. IBM's command 'oslevel' will
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264show the base, but is not always complete (in this example oslevel shows
2654.3.NULL, whereas the system might run most of 4.3.THREE):
1a3e4d88 266
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267 # oslevel
268 4.3.0.0
269 # lslpp -l | grep 'bos.rte '
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270 bos.rte 4.3.3.75 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime
271 bos.rte 4.3.2.0 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime
272 #
273
c5252117 274The same might happen to AIX 5.1 or other OS levels. As a side note, Perl
64cb7701 275cannot be built without bos.adt.syscalls and bos.adt.libm installed
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276
277 # lslpp -l | egrep "syscalls|libm"
278 bos.adt.libm 5.1.0.25 COMMITTED Base Application Development
c67773d0 279 bos.adt.syscalls 5.1.0.36 COMMITTED System Calls Application
64cb7701 280 #
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281
282=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX
283
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284AIX supports dynamically loadable objects as well as shared libraries.
285Shared libraries by convention end with the suffix .a, which is a bit
286misleading, as an archive can contain static as well as dynamic members.
c5252117 287For Perl dynamically loaded objects we use the .so suffix also used on
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288many other platforms.
289
290Note that starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.0) and AIX 4.3
291or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface in the so
292called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface that was
293used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases 4.2 and
294earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with compiled
c5252117 295modules from earlier Perl releases. The change was made to make Perl
efc3b6b5 296more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are
8218ea5d 297using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of C++
c5252117 298code with static constructors and destructors in Perl extensions, which
8218ea5d 299was not possible using the emulated interface.
12f54d27 300
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301=head2 The IBM ANSI C Compiler
302
303All defaults for Configure can be used.
304
305If you've chosen to use vac 4, be sure to run 4.4.0.3. Older versions
4951a6f9 306will turn up nasty later on. For vac 5 be sure to run at least 5.0.1.0,
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307but vac 5.0.2.6 or up is highly recommended. Note that since IBM has
308removed vac 5.0.2.1 through 5.0.2.5 from the software depot, these
309versions should be considered obsolete.
20d11268 310
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311Here's a brief lead of how to upgrade the compiler to the latest
312level. Of course this is subject to changes. You can only upgrade
313versions from ftp-available updates if the first three digit groups
314are the same (in where you can skip intermediate unlike the patches
c5252117 315in the developer snapshots of Perl), or to one version up where the
66a1b24b 316"base" is available. In other words, the AIX compiler patches are
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317cumulative.
318
319 vac.C.4.4.0.1 => vac.C.4.4.0.3 is OK (vac.C.4.4.0.2 not needed)
320 xlC.C.3.1.3.3 => xlC.C.3.1.4.10 is NOT OK (xlC.C.3.1.4.0 is not available)
321
322 # ftp ftp.software.ibm.com
323 Connected to service.boulder.ibm.com.
324 : welcome message ...
325 Name (ftp.software.ibm.com:merijn): anonymous
326 331 Guest login ok, send your complete e-mail address as password.
327 Password:
328 ... accepted login stuff
329 ftp> cd /aix/fixes/v4/
330 ftp> dir other other.ll
331 output to local-file: other.ll? y
332 200 PORT command successful.
333 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
334 226 Transfer complete.
335 ftp> dir xlc xlc.ll
336 output to local-file: xlc.ll? y
337 200 PORT command successful.
338 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
339 226 Transfer complete.
340 ftp> bye
341 ... goodbye messages
342 # ls -l *.ll
343 -rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 1169432 Nov 2 17:29 other.ll
344 -rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 29170 Nov 2 17:29 xlc.ll
345
346On AIX 4.2 using xlC, we continue:
347
348 # lslpp -l | fgrep 'xlC.C '
349 xlC.C 3.1.4.9 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
350 xlC.C 3.1.4.0 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
351 # grep 'xlC.C.3.1.4.*.bff' xlc.ll
352 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6286336 Jul 22 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.1.bff
353 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6173696 Aug 24 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.10.bff
354 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6319104 Aug 14 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.2.bff
355 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6316032 Oct 21 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.3.bff
356 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6315008 Dec 20 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.4.bff
357 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6178816 Mar 28 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.5.bff
358 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6188032 May 22 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.6.bff
359 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6191104 Sep 5 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.7.bff
360 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6185984 Jan 13 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.8.bff
361 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6169600 May 27 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.9.bff
362 # wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/xlc/xlC.C.3.1.4.10.bff
363 #
364
365On AIX 4.3 using vac, we continue:
366
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367 # lslpp -l | grep 'vac.C '
368 vac.C 5.0.2.2 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
369 vac.C 5.0.2.0 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
370 # grep 'vac.C.5.0.2.*.bff' other.ll
371 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 13592576 Apr 16 2001 vac.C.5.0.2.0.bff
372 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14133248 Apr 9 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.3.bff
373 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14173184 May 20 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.4.bff
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374 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14192640 Nov 22 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff
375 # wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/other/vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff
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376 #
377
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378Likewise on all other OS levels. Then execute the following command, and
379fill in its choices
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380
381 # smit install_update
382 -> Install and Update from LATEST Available Software
c67773d0 383 * INPUT device / directory for software [ vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff ]
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384 [ OK ]
385 [ OK ]
386
387Follow the messages ... and you're done.
388
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389If you like a more web-like approach, a good start point can be
390http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/download/downloadaz.jsp and click
391"C for AIX", and follow the instructions.
392
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393=head2 The usenm option
394
395If linking miniperl
396
397 cc -o miniperl ... miniperlmain.o opmini.o perl.o ... -lm -lc ...
398
399causes error like this
400
401 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .aintl
402 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .copysignl
403 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .syscall
404 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .eaccess
405 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresuid
406 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresgid
407 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setproctitle
408 ld: 0711-345 Use the -bloadmap or -bnoquiet option to obtain more information.
409
410you could retry with
411
412 make realclean
413 rm config.sh
414 ./Configure -Dusenm ...
415
416which makes Configure to use the C<nm> tool when scanning for library
417symbols, which usually is not done in AIX.
418
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419Related to this, you probably should not use the C<-r> option of
420Configure in AIX, because that affects of how the C<nm> tool is used.
421
c5252117 422=head2 Using GNU's gcc for building Perl
20d11268 423
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424Using gcc-3.x (tested with 3.0.4, 3.1, and 3.2) now works out of the box,
425as do recent gcc-2.9 builds available directly from IBM as part of their
426Linux compatibility packages, available here:
818c4caa 427
4238f5a6 428 http://www.ibm.com/servers/aix/products/aixos/linux/
20d11268 429
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430=head2 Using Large Files with Perl
431
60ecc970 432Should yield no problems.
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433
434=head2 Threaded Perl
435
60ecc970 436Threads seem to work OK, though at the moment not all tests pass when
1d69df2b 437threads are used in combination with 64-bit configurations.
20d11268 438
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439You may get a warning when doing a threaded build:
440
441 "pp_sys.c", line 4640.39: 1506-280 (W) Function argument assignment between types "unsigned char*" and "const void*" is not allowed.
442
443The exact line number may vary, but if the warning (W) comes from a line
444line this
445
446 hent = PerlSock_gethostbyaddr(addr, (Netdb_hlen_t) addrlen, addrtype);
447
448in the "pp_ghostent" function, you may ignore it safely. The warning
449is caused by the reentrant variant of gethostbyaddr() having a slightly
450different prototype than its non-reentrant variant, but the difference
451is not really significant here.
452
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453=head2 64-bit Perl
454
1d69df2b 455If your AIX is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit
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456configurations to work. In combination with threads some tests might
457still fail.
20d11268 458
12f54d27 459=head2 AIX 4.2 and extensions using C++ with statics
20d11268 460
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461In AIX 4.2 Perl extensions that use C++ functions that use statics
462may have problems in that the statics are not getting initialized.
463In newer AIX releases this has been solved by linking Perl with
464the libC_r library, but unfortunately in AIX 4.2 the said library
465has an obscure bug where the various functions related to time
466(such as time() and gettimeofday()) return broken values, and
467therefore in AIX 4.2 Perl is not linked against the libC_r.
20d11268 468
7fabfece 469=head1 AUTHORS
20d11268 470
3bd76f0a 471H.Merijn Brand <h.m.brand@xs4all.nl>
7fabfece 472Rainer Tammer <tammer@tammer.net>
20d11268 473
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474=head1 DATE
475
d549c43d 476Version 0.0.11: 18 Jan 2010
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477
478=cut