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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
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88(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
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92=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
93
94(W ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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95bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
96(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
97like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
98assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
99clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
100really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 101
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102=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
103
104(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
105asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
106named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
107the varable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
108function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
109and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
110
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111=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
112
113=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 114
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115(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo
116represents the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for
117element number 2 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write
118C<$foo[2]>, or you might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to
119the function named foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it
120returns. If you meant that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
121
122In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
123to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
124C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length>
125followed by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what
126you want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/>
127to the unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to
128something that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by
129simply turning off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 130
bdac9d71 131=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
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132
133(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
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134string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
135the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
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136write C<-foo()>.
137
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138=item Ambiguous use of 's//le...' resolved as 's// le...'; Rewrite as 's//el' if you meant 'use locale rules and evaluate rhs as an expression'. In Perl 5.16, it will be resolved the other way
139
140(W deprecated, ambiguous) You wrote a pattern match with substitution
141immediately followed by "le". In Perl 5.14 and earlier, this is
142resolved as meaning to take the result of the substitution, and see if
143it is stringwise less-than-or-equal-to what follows in the expression.
144Having the "le" immediately following a pattern is deprecated behavior,
145so in Perl 5.16, this expression will be resolved as meaning to do the
146pattern match using the rules of the current locale, and evaluate the
147rhs as an expression when doing the substitution. In 5.14, if you want
148the latter interpretation, you can simply write "el" instead.
149
6df41af2 150=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 151
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152(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
153redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
154redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 155
6df41af2 156=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 157
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158(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
159redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
160into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
161though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
162which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 163
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164 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
165 while (<STDIN>) {
166 print;
167 print OUT;
168 }
169 close OUT;
c9f97d15 170
6df41af2 171=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 172
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173(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
174transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 175one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 176a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
177hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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178you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
179alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 180
6df41af2 181=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 182
6df41af2 183(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 184
b0fdf69e 185=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 186
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187(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
188subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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189
190 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 191 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 192 &do_something
a0d0e21e 193
8ea97a1e 194=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 195
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196(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
197such as:
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198
199 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 200 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 201
8ea97a1e 202or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 203
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204 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
205 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 206
6df41af2 207=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 208
6df41af2 209(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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210name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
211error.
a0d0e21e 212
f86702cc 213=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 214
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215(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
216that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
217will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 218
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219=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
220
221(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
222forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
223data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
224the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
225If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
226the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
227
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228=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
229
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230(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
231spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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232
233=item assertion botched: %s
234
235(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
236
237=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
238
239(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
240
241=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
242
243(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
244must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
245know which context to supply to the right side.
246
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247=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
248
4447dfc1 249(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
96ebfdd7 250thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
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251Usually it's a good idea first to collect the return values of the
252created threads by joining them, and only then to exit from the main
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253thread. See L<threads>.
254
2393f1b9 255=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 256
49293501 257(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 258the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 259
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260=item Attempt to bless into a reference
261
262(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
263the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
264supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
265
266 bless $self, $proto;
267
268when you intended
269
270 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
271
272If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
273of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
274example by:
275
276 bless $self, "$proto";
277
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278=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
279
280(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
281which is not in its key set.
282
283=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
284
285(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
286declared readonly from a restricted hash.
287
de42a5a9 288=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 289
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290(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
291that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
292outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 293
54310121 294=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 295
111a855e 296(P internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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297strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
298strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
299of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 300
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301=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
302
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303(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
304free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
305SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
306free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
307try to free it.
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308
309=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
310
e476b1b5 311(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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312
313=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
314
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315(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
316see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
317earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
318This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
319that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
320mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
321corrupted.
a0d0e21e 322
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323=item Attempt to join self
324
325(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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326impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
327to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 328
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329=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
330
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331(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
332function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
333means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
334invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
335literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
336avoid this warning.
84902520 337
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338=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
339
340(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
341compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
342unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
343L<perlvar/%INC>.
344
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345=item Attempt to set length of freed array
346
347(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
348can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
349of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
350
351 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
352 $$r = 503
353
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354=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
355
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356(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
357used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
358dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 359
c32124fe
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360=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
361
111a855e 362(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "locked"
c32124fe 363attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no
a5547419 364effect since 5005 threads were removed, and will be removed in a future
c32124fe
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365release of Perl 5.
366
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367=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
368
111a855e 369(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "unique"
b7a2910f 370attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference. The :unique attribute has
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371had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in a future release
372of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 373
de42a5a9 374=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 375
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376(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
377or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 378S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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379S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
380
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381=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
382
496a33f5 383(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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384substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
385most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
386
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387=item Bad filehandle: %s
388
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389(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
390symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
391open(), or did it in another package.
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392
393=item Bad free() ignored
394
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395(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
396been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 397setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 398
9ea8bc6d 399This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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400dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
401which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 402
aa689395
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403=item Bad hash
404
405(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
406
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407=item Badly placed ()'s
408
409(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
410of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
411Perl yourself.
412
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413=item Bad name after %s::
414
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415(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
416didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
417of quotes, so
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418
419 $var = 'myvar';
420 $sym = mypack::$var;
421
422is not the same as
423
424 $var = 'myvar';
425 $sym = "mypack::$var";
426
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427=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
428
429(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
430plugin API.
431
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432=item Bad realloc() ignored
433
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434(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
435never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
4dcecea4 436by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 437
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438=item Bad symbol for array
439
440(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
441wasn't a symbol table entry.
442
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443=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
444
445(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
446that wasn't a symbol table entry.
447
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448=item Bad symbol for filehandle
449
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450(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
451that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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452
453=item Bad symbol for hash
454
455(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
456wasn't a symbol table entry.
457
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458=item Bareword found in conditional
459
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460(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
461conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
462of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
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463
464 open FOO || die;
465
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466It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
467a bareword:
34d09196
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468
469 use constant TYPO => 1;
470 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
471
472The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
473
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474=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
475
476(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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477subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
478symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
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479
480=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
481
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482(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
483compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
484you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 485
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486=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
487
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488(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
489subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
490exited.
a0d0e21e 491
68dc0745
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492=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
493
494(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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495implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
496occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
497be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
498depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 499
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500=item \1 better written as $1
501
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502(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
503The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
504substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
505because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
506there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 507
252aa082
JH
508=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
509
e476b1b5 510(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
511(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
512L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 513
69282e91 514=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 515
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516(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
517check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 518
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519=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
520
521(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 522Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 523
f866a7cd
FC
524=item "\b{" is deprecated; use "\b\{" instead
525
526=item "\B{" is deprecated; use "\B\{" instead
527
528(W deprecated, regexp) Use of an unescaped "{" immediately following a
529C<\b> or C<\B> is now deprecated so as to reserve its use for Perl
530itself in a future release.
531
c5a0f51a
JH
532=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
533
e476b1b5 534(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 535
4633a7c4
LW
536=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
537
be771a83 538(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
4dcecea4 539copiable.
4633a7c4 540
f675dbe5
CB
541=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
542
be771a83
GS
543(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
544iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
545which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 546
a0d0e21e
LW
547=item Callback called exit
548
4929bf7b 549(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
550exited by calling exit.
551
6df41af2 552=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 553
be771a83
GS
554(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
555parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
556that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
557early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
558subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
559checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
560function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
561the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 562
49704364 563=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
564
565(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
566compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
567attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
568See L<perlfunc/pack>.
569
49704364 570=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
571
572(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
573format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
574
5c1f4d79
NC
575=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
576
577(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
578then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
579triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
580from that type of reference to a typeglob.
581
ba2fdce6
NC
582=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
583
584(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 585be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 586
b5d97229
RGS
587=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
588
589(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
590either with open() or binmode().
591
96ebfdd7
RK
592=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
593
594(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
595integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
596to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
597
a0d0e21e
LW
598=item Can't bless non-reference value
599
600(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
601encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
602
dc57907a
RGS
603=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
604
0d863452
RH
605(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
606a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
607
608=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 609
0d863452
RH
610(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
611
6df41af2
GS
612=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
613
614(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
615object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
616like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
617
618 $BADREF = undef;
619 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
620 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
621
a0d0e21e
LW
622=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
623
54310121 624(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
625ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
626didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
627object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
628
629=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
630
631(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
632object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
633defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
634Something like this will reproduce the error:
635
636 $BADREF = 42;
637 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
638 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
639
a0d0e21e
LW
640=item Can't chdir to %s
641
642(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
643that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
644
0545a864 645=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 646
be771a83
GS
647(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
648nosuid.
104d25b7 649
22e74366 650=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
651
652(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 653(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
654say things like:
655
656 *foo += 1;
657
658You CAN say
659
660 $foo = *foo;
661 $foo += 1;
662
663but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
664
0d863452 665=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 666
0d863452
RH
667(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
668or C<default> block.
669
a0d0e21e
LW
670=item Can't create pipe mailbox
671
be771a83
GS
672(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
673quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 674
eb64745e
GS
675=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
676
30c282f6
NC
677(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
678"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 679
6df41af2
GS
680=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
681
be771a83
GS
682(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
683a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 684
a0d0e21e
LW
685=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
686
be771a83
GS
687(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
688reason.
a0d0e21e 689
54310121 690=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 691
be771a83
GS
692(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
693reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
694C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 695
10f9c03d 696=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 697
e476b1b5 698(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
699characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
700inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 701
7253e4e3 702=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 703
b45f050a 704(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 705regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 706regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 707
a0d0e21e
LW
708=item Can't do waitpid with flags
709
be771a83
GS
710(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
711waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 712
a0d0e21e
LW
713=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
714
be771a83
GS
715(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
716point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
717line.
a0d0e21e 718
1109a392
MHM
719=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
720
721(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
722or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
723little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
724See L<perlfunc/pack>.
725
a0d0e21e
LW
726=item Can't exec "%s": %s
727
d1be9408 728(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
729named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
730permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
731C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
732architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
733can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
734#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
735
736=item Can't exec %s
737
be771a83
GS
738(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
739that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
740need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
741
742=item Can't execute %s
743
be771a83
GS
744(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
745found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 746
6df41af2 747=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 748
be771a83
GS
749(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
750is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 751
56ca2fc0
JH
752=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
753
754(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
e1b711da
KW
755could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
756See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
757for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 758
6df41af2
GS
759=item Can't find label %s
760
be771a83
GS
761(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
762possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
763
764=item Can't find %s on PATH
765
be771a83
GS
766(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
767found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 768
6df41af2 769=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 770
be771a83
GS
771(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
772found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
773script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
774
775=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
776
be771a83
GS
777(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
778that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
779nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 780
fb73857a
PP
781 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
782
97b3d10f 783If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
784included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
785may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
786a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
787L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 788
660a4616
ST
789=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
790
5f8ad6b6
FC
791(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode
792property (for example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase
793letters). If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
e1b711da 794L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
5f8ad6b6
FC
795for a complete list of available properties. If you didn't
796mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either by C<\\p>
797(just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
798until C<\E>).
660a4616 799
b3647a36 800=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 801
be771a83
GS
802(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
803pipeline.
a0d0e21e 804
b3647a36
SR
805=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
806
c973c02e 807(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
808after five seconds.
809
748a9306
LW
810=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
811
be771a83
GS
812(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
813between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
814Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
815the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
816account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
817the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 818the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
819the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
820if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
821because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
822appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
823and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
824routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
825shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
826only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 827
a0d0e21e
LW
828=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
829
be771a83
GS
830(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
831pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
832
833=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
834
748a9306
LW
835(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
836mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 837
6df41af2 838=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 839
be771a83
GS
840(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
841loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
842
843=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
844
be771a83
GS
845(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
846a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
847you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
848See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 849
9850bf21 850=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 851
9850bf21
RH
852(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
853comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
854as the reduce() function in List::Util).
855
c74ace89 856=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 857
be771a83 858(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 859"string" or block.
b150fb22 860
6df41af2
GS
861=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
862
be771a83
GS
863(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
864subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
865cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
866routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 867
0b5b802d
GS
868=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
869
be771a83
GS
870(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
871signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
872signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
873processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
874situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
875may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 876
e2c0f81f
DG
877=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
878
879(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
880attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
881process identifier.
882
6df41af2 883=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 884
6df41af2 885(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
886except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
887block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
888block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
889usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
890inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
891L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 892
2c7d6b9c
RGS
893=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
894
895(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
896package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
897
b8170e59
JB
898=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
899
900(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
901may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
902incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
903between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 904extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
905installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
906extensions.
907
748a9306
LW
908=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
909
2ba9eb46 910(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 911lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
912localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
913package name.
914
6df41af2 915=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 916
6df41af2
GS
917(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
918handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 919pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 920that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 921
ea071790 922=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
923
924(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
925found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
926unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
927need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
928the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
929to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
930L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 931
6df41af2
GS
932=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
933
be771a83
GS
934(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
935autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
936are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
937the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 938
b8170e59
JB
939=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
940
941(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
942for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
943unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
944
a0d0e21e
LW
945=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
946
947(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
948functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 949method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
950
951=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
952
be771a83
GS
953(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
954doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 955
2f7da168
RK
956=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
957
958(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
959e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
960
3e3baf6d
TB
961=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
962
be771a83
GS
963(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
964VMS.
3e3baf6d 965
a0d0e21e
LW
966=item Can't modify %s in %s
967
be771a83
GS
968(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
969to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 970
54310121 971=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
972
973(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
974a NULL.
975
6df41af2
GS
976=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
977
978(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 979such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 980
5f05dabc 981=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 982
5f05dabc 983(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
984buffer.
985
6df41af2
GS
986=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
987
988(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
989there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
990count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
991grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
992though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
993once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 994
a0d0e21e
LW
995=item Can't open %s: %s
996
c47ff5f1 997(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
998filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
999switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
1000is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
1001the command line.
a0d0e21e 1002
9a869a14
RGS
1003=item Can't open a reference
1004
1005(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1006using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1007
1008 open FH, '>', $ref;
1009
1010but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1011open is not supported.
1012
a0d0e21e
LW
1013=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1014
be771a83
GS
1015(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1016You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1017as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1018">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1019
748a9306
LW
1020=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1021
be771a83
GS
1022(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1023redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1024the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1025
1026=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1027
be771a83
GS
1028(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1029redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1030command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1031
1032=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1033
be771a83
GS
1034(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1035redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1036the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1037
1038=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1039
be771a83
GS
1040(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1041redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1042for stdout.
748a9306 1043
2b8ca739 1044=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
1045
1046(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1047
fa3aa65a
JC
1048If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1049shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1050you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1051
6df41af2
GS
1052=item Can't read CRTL environ
1053
1054(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1055from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1056missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1057or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1058searched.
6df41af2 1059
6df41af2
GS
1060=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1061
1062(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1063there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1064count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1065or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1066though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1067loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1068
64977eb6 1069=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1070
be771a83
GS
1071(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1072file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1073the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1074
a0d0e21e
LW
1075=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1076
e476b1b5 1077(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1078probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1079
748a9306
LW
1080=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1081
be771a83
GS
1082(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1083to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1084
fe13d51d 1085=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1086
be771a83
GS
1087(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
1088to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
2fe2bdfd 1089the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1090
cd06dffe
GS
1091=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1092
be771a83
GS
1093(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1094temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1095is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1096
96ebfdd7
RK
1097=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1098
1099(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1100there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1101
78f9721b
SM
1102=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1103
1104(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1105but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1106to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1107the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1108list context.
1109
a0d0e21e
LW
1110=item Can't stat script "%s"
1111
be771a83
GS
1112(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1113open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1114
a0d0e21e
LW
1115=item Can't take log of %g
1116
fb73857a
PP
1117(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1118negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1119standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1120negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1121
1122=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1123
1124(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1125negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1126with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1127
1128=item Can't undef active subroutine
1129
1130(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1131however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1132redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1133
c81225bc 1134=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1135
be771a83
GS
1136(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1137into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1138specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1139indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1140
1db89ea5
BS
1141=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1142
e27ad1f2 1143(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1144table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1145for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1146
96ebfdd7
RK
1147=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1148
1149(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1150be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1151
6df41af2
GS
1152=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1153
be771a83
GS
1154(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1155references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1156
90b75b61 1157=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1158
1159(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1160Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1161provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1162
1109a392
MHM
1163=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1164
1165(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1166byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1167allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1168
6df41af2
GS
1169=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1170
be771a83
GS
1171(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1172foreach.
6df41af2 1173
aab6a793 1174=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1175
be771a83
GS
1176(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1177is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1178(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1179have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1180weren't.
1181
6d3b25aa
RGS
1182=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1183
1184(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1185that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1186For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1187is inside a big-endian group.
1188
c07a80fd
PP
1189=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1190
1191(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1192You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1193and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1194Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1195lexical variable.
1196
a0d0e21e
LW
1197=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1198
1199(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1200reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1201test the type of the reference, if need be.
1202
748a9306 1203=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1204
be771a83
GS
1205(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1206references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1207
748a9306
LW
1208=item Can't use subscript on %s
1209
1210(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1211subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1212didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1213
6df41af2
GS
1214=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1215
75b44862
GS
1216(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1217creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1218backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1219expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1220value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1221instead.
6df41af2 1222
0d863452 1223=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1224
0d863452
RH
1225(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1226loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1227from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1228or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1229
810b8aa5
GS
1230=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1231
1232(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1233references can be weakened.
1234
5f05dabc 1235=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1236
be771a83
GS
1237(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1238with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1239Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1240
4a68bf9d 1241=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1242
17a3df4c
KW
1243(F|W deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
1244It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl 5.16. In the
1245cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
1246derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1247
1248Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well.
f9d13529 1249
f337b084 1250=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1251
1252(W pack) You said
1253
1254 pack("C", $x)
1255
1256where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1257only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1258and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1259
1260 pack("C", $x & 255)
1261
1262If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1263instead.
1264
f337b084
TH
1265=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1266
1267(W pack) You said
1268
1269 pack("U0W", $x)
1270
1271where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1272all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1273meant:
1274
1275 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1276
1277=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1278
1279(W pack) You said
1280
1281 pack("c", $x)
1282
1283where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1284is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1285and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1286
1287 pack("c", $x & 255);
1288
1289If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1290instead.
1291
f337b084
TH
1292=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1293
1294(W unpack) You tried something like
1295
1296 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1297
1a147d38 1298where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1299below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1300modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1301
1302 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1303
1304=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1305
1306(W pack) You tried something like
1307
1308 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1309
1a147d38
YO
1310where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1311value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1312uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1313
1314 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1315
1316=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1317
1318(W unpack) You tried something like
1319
1320 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1321
1a147d38
YO
1322where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1323value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1324uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1325
1326 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1327
f866a7cd
FC
1328=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1329
1330(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1331to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1332evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
1333ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.16. Just use a
1334semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1335
1336=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1337
1338(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1339non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1340written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1341characters.
1342
96ebfdd7
RK
1343=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1344
1345(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1346
abc7ecad
SP
1347=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1348
1349(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1350a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1351
541ed3a9
FC
1352=item Closure prototype called
1353
1354(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1355handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1356This subroutine cannot be called.
1357
49704364
LW
1358=item Code missing after '/'
1359
1360(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1361template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1362
0876b9a0
KW
1363=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1364
9ae3ac1a
KW
1365=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, no properties match it; all inverse properties do
1366
8457b38f 1367(W utf8, non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum of U+10FFFF.
0876b9a0
KW
1368
1369Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code
1370points, up to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on
1371your system, but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems.
1372At one time, it was legal in some standards to have code points up to
13730x7FFF_FFFF, but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require
1374larger than a 32 bit word.
1375
9ae3ac1a
KW
1376None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1377code point. For example,
1378
1379 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1380
1381will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1382
1383 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1384
1385will match.
1386
6df41af2
GS
1387=item %s: Command not found
1388
be771a83
GS
1389(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1390Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1391
7a2e2cd6
PP
1392=item Compilation failed in require
1393
1394(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1395Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1396encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1397
c3464db5
DD
1398=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1399
be771a83
GS
1400(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1401situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1402to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1403arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1404recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1405under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1406in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1407that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1408on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1409
38875929
DM
1410=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1411
1412(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1413cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
a568ca76 1414function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
38875929 1415cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
a568ca76
FC
1416has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread
1417first to wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
38875929
DM
1418after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1419lock.
1420
38875929
DM
1421=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1422
1423(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1424cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
a568ca76 1425function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
38875929 1426cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
a568ca76
FC
1427has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread
1428first to wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
38875929
DM
1429after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1430lock.
1431
69282e91 1432=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1433
be771a83
GS
1434(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1435to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1436L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1437
41ab332f 1438=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1439
be771a83
GS
1440(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1441an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1442specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1443corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1444L<overload>.
6df41af2 1445
fc8cd66c
YO
1446=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1447
1a147d38
YO
1448(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1449the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1450forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1451See L<charnames>.
1452
779c5bc9
GS
1453=item Constant is not %s reference
1454
1455(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1456is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1457The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1458usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1459See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1460
4cee8e80
CS
1461=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1462
bb028877 1463(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1464eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1465commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1466
9607fc9c
PP
1467=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1468
be771a83
GS
1469(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1470for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1471workarounds.
9607fc9c 1472
e7ea3e70
IZ
1473=item Copy method did not return a reference
1474
64977eb6 1475(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1476L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1477
6798c92b
GS
1478=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1479
1480(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1481
a0d0e21e
LW
1482=item corrupted regexp pointers
1483
1484(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1485expression compiler gave it.
1486
1487=item corrupted regexp program
1488
be771a83
GS
1489(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1490valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1491
de42a5a9 1492=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1493
1494(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1495
49704364
LW
1496=item Count after length/code in unpack
1497
1498(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1499you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1500L<perlfunc/pack>.
1501
a0d0e21e
LW
1502=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1503
be771a83
GS
1504(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1505100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1506infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1507which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1508
aad1d01f
NC
1509This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1510setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1511
f10b0346 1512=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1513
be771a83
GS
1514(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1515checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1516array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1517
f10b0346 1518=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1519
79b7f449
FC
1520(D deprecated) C<defined()> is not usually useful on hashes, because it
1521is not a reliable check for anything. Sometimes it returns true on
1522an empty hash, and sometimes false. If a non-empty check is what you
1523want then just use:
16546e45
KR
1524
1525 if (%hash) {
1526 # not empty
1527 }
1528
1529If you had C<defined(%Foo::Bar::QUUX)> to check whether such a
1530package variable exists, then it has never actually done that,
1531but instead creates the hash if necessary (autovivification)
1532then tests for non-empty. If you really want to check
1533existence of a package variable then look at the glob slot
1534with C<defined *Foo::Bar::QUUX{HASH}> (see L<perlref>).
69794302 1535
bcb95744
FC
1536=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1537
1538(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
1539most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1540of the C<....> part.
1541
1542The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1543discovered.
1544
62658f4d
PM
1545=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1546
1547(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1548there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1549
fc36a67e
PP
1550=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1551
be771a83
GS
1552(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1553long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1554that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1555
4a68bf9d 1556=item Deprecated character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s<-- HERE %s
cb233ae3
KW
1557
1558(D deprecated) Just about anything is legal for the C<...> in C<\N{...}>.
5fca8acb
FC
1559But starting in 5.12, non-reasonable ones that don't look like names
1560are deprecated. A reasonable name begins with an alphabetic character
1561and continues with any combination of alphanumerics, dashes, spaces,
1562parentheses or colons.
cb233ae3 1563
6d3b25aa
RGS
1564=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1565
1566(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1567There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1568not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1569conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1570static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1571relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1572declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1573
6d3b25aa
RGS
1574 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1575
1576becomes
1577
1578 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1579
36fb85f3
RGS
1580Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1581have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1582
1583 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1584
500ab966
RGS
1585=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1586
1587(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1588just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1589to create a dangling reference.
1590
3cdd684c
TP
1591=item Did not produce a valid header
1592
1593See Server error.
1594
6df41af2
GS
1595=item %s did not return a true value
1596
1597(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1598it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1599traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1600do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1601
cc507455 1602=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1603
413ff9f6
FC
1604(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1605some such.
4633a7c4 1606
cc507455 1607=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1608
be771a83
GS
1609(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1610variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1611seems superfluous.
33633739 1612
cc507455 1613=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1614
be771a83
GS
1615(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1616@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1617carried away.
748a9306 1618
7e1af8bc 1619=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1620
1621(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 1622you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 1623
3cdd684c
TP
1624=item Document contains no data
1625
1626See Server error.
1627
62658f4d
PM
1628=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1629
1630(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1631define a C<$VERSION.>
1632
49704364
LW
1633=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1634
1635(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1636See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1637
a0d0e21e
LW
1638=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1639
1640(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1641
1642=item do_study: out of memory
1643
1644(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1645
6df41af2
GS
1646=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1647
56da5a46
RGS
1648(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1649"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1650name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1651because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1652"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1653something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1654subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1655"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1656
ac206dc8
RGS
1657=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1658
1659(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1660qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1661
84d78eb7
YO
1662=item dump is not supported
1663
1664(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1665
a0d0e21e
LW
1666=item Duplicate free() ignored
1667
be771a83
GS
1668(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1669already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1670
1109a392
MHM
1671=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1672
1673(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1674in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1675
4633a7c4
LW
1676=item elseif should be elsif
1677
56da5a46
RGS
1678(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1679ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1680"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1681unlikely to be what you want.
1682
ab13f0c7
JH
1683=item Empty %s
1684
af6f566e
HS
1685(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1686described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1687a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1688
85ab1d1d 1689=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1690
85ab1d1d 1691(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1692effective uids or gids failed.
1693
c038024b
RGS
1694=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1695
1696(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1697aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1698program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1699
748a9306
LW
1700=item Error converting file specification %s
1701
5f05dabc 1702(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1703specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1704single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1705an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1706conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1707
e4d48cc9
GS
1708=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1709
be771a83
GS
1710(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1711expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1712is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1713
fc8f615e 1714=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1715
be771a83
GS
1716(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1717C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
1718pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
1719it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
1720C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
1721interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
1722L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1723
6df41af2
GS
1724=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1725
be771a83
GS
1726(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1727assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1728pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1729
1a147d38
YO
1730=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1731
1732(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1733any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1734
1735The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1736discovered.
1737
fc36a67e
PP
1738=item Excessively long <> operator
1739
1740(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1741Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1742filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1743variable and glob that.
1744
ed9aa3b7
SG
1745=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1746
af8bb25a
FC
1747(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
1748OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 1749
fe13d51d 1750=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1751
1752(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1753
1754=item Exiting eval via %s
1755
be771a83
GS
1756(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1757goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1758
1759=item Exiting format via %s
1760
9a2ff54b 1761(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1762goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1763
0a753a76
PP
1764=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1765
be771a83
GS
1766(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1767sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1768loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1769
a0d0e21e
LW
1770=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1771
be771a83
GS
1772(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1773as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1774
1775=item Exiting substitution via %s
1776
be771a83
GS
1777(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1778as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1779
7b8d334a
GS
1780=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1781
be771a83
GS
1782(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1783the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1784usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1785e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1786
6df41af2
GS
1787=item %s: Expression syntax
1788
be771a83
GS
1789(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1790Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1791
1792=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1793
3c10abe3
AG
1794(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1795CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1796queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1797
7253e4e3 1798=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1799
be771a83 1800(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1801character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1802in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1803"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1804problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1805
1b1ee2ef 1806=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1807
be771a83
GS
1808(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1809system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1810details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1811you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1812
1813=item fcntl is not implemented
1814
1815(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1816PDP-11 or something?
1817
22846ab4
AB
1818=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1819
1820(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1821is not possible.
1822
f337b084
TH
1823=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1824
1825(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1826which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1827a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 1828C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 1829
af8c498a 1830=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1831
6c8d78fb
HS
1832(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1833it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1834"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1835write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1836
af8c498a 1837=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1838
6c8d78fb
HS
1839(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1840you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
1841with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
1842read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
1843is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
1844output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1845
1846=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1847
1848(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1849as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1850previously.
1851
1852=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1853
1854(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1855as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1856
1857=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1858
1859(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1860a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1861happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1862name.
a0d0e21e 1863
56e90b21
GS
1864=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1865
be771a83 1866(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1867some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1868filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1869same name?
56e90b21 1870
6df41af2
GS
1871=item Format not terminated
1872
1873(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1874to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1875
a0d0e21e
LW
1876=item Format %s redefined
1877
e476b1b5 1878(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1879
1880 {
271595cc 1881 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1882 eval "format NAME =...";
1883 }
1884
a0d0e21e
LW
1885=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1886
e476b1b5 1887(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1888
1889 if ($foo = 123)
1890
1891when you meant
1892
1893 if ($foo == 123)
1894
1895(or something like that).
1896
6df41af2
GS
1897=item %s found where operator expected
1898
56da5a46
RGS
1899(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1900If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1901operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1902operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1903
a0d0e21e
LW
1904=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1905
1906(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1907
1908=item gethostent not implemented
1909
1910(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1911because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1912on the Internet.
1913
69282e91 1914=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1915
be771a83
GS
1916(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1917socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1918
748a9306
LW
1919=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1920
1921(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1922C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1923
6df41af2
GS
1924=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1925
be771a83
GS
1926(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1927forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1928L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1929
1930=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1931
a4edf47d 1932(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1933that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1934declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1935which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1936
e476b1b5
GS
1937=item glob failed (%s)
1938
be771a83
GS
1939(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1940C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1941C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1942nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1943resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1944broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1945config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1946were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1947empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1948think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1949C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1950
a0d0e21e
LW
1951=item Glob not terminated
1952
1953(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1954a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1955not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1956earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1957
bcd05b94 1958=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 1959
e9200be3 1960(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b
MS
1961it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1962date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1963not-a-number value).
1964
bcd05b94 1965=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 1966
e9200be3 1967(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
fc003d4b
MS
1968it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1969date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1970not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 1971
6df41af2 1972=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1973
6df41af2
GS
1974(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1975version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1976
1977=item goto must have label
1978
1979(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1980unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1981
49704364 1982=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1983
bca4a986
FC
1984(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
1985something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 1986
fe13d51d 1987=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
1988
1989(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1990
a0d0e21e
LW
1991=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1992
be771a83
GS
1993(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1994to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1995created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1996
1997=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1998
be771a83
GS
1999(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
2000spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 2001
6df41af2
GS
2002=item %s has too many errors
2003
2004(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2005Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2006
e6897b1a
KW
2007=item Having no space between pattern and following word is deprecated
2008
2009(D syntax)
2010
bd0e971a 2011You had a word that isn't a regex modifier immediately following a
b6fa137b
FC
2012pattern without an intervening space. If you are trying to use the C</le>
2013flags on a substitution, use C</el> instead. Otherwise, add white space
2014between the pattern and following word to eliminate the warning. As an
2015example of the latter, the two constructs:
e6897b1a
KW
2016
2017 $a =~ m/$foo/sand $bar
2018 $a =~ m/$foo/s and $bar
2019
21356872
FC
2020both currently mean the same thing, but it is planned to disallow the first
2021form in Perl 5.16. And,
e6897b1a
KW
2022
2023 $a =~ m/$foo/and $bar
2024
2025will be disallowed too.
2026
252aa082
JH
2027=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2028
e476b1b5 2029(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2030(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2031L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2032
8903cb82
PP
2033=item Identifier too long
2034
2035(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2036about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2037names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2038of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2039
c3c41406 2040=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 2041
ff3f963a
KW
2042(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return a
2043zero length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 2044its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2045been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2046
6df41af2 2047=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2048
6df41af2 2049(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2050
6df41af2 2051=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2052
be771a83
GS
2053(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2054binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2055offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2056
6597eb22
FC
2057=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2058
2059(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2060Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
2061
78d0fecf 2062=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2063
d5898338 2064(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2065would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2066when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2067version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2068to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2069
d37a9538
ST
2070=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2071
197afce1 2072(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2073Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
d37a9538 2074
904d85c5
RGS
2075=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2076
2077(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
2078you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
2079
8e742a20
MHM
2080=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2081
2082(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
2083
a0d0e21e
LW
2084=item Illegal division by zero
2085
be771a83
GS
2086(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2087your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2088meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2089
6df41af2
GS
2090=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2091
be771a83
GS
2092(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2093A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2094number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2095
a0d0e21e
LW
2096=item Illegal modulus zero
2097
be771a83
GS
2098(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2099numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2100
6df41af2 2101=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2102
6df41af2
GS
2103(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2104two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2105
2106=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2107
d1be9408 2108(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2109
399388f4 2110=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2111
d1be9408 2112(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2113Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2114
fe13d51d 2115=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2116
6df41af2 2117(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2118following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2119
6df41af2 2120=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2121
75b44862 2122(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2123internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2124delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2125
6df41af2 2126=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2127
be771a83
GS
2128(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2129name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2130didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2131ignored.
54310121 2132
6df41af2 2133=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2134
be771a83
GS
2135(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2136the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2137system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2138times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2139would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2140
be771a83
GS
2141Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2142also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2143
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2144=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2145
2146(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2147C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2148documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2149
979699d9
JH
2150=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2151
2152(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2153Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2154encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2155
1a147d38
YO
2156=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2157
2158(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
2159text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
2160either consume text or fail.
2161
2162The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2163discovered.
2164
6dbe9451
NC
2165=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2166
2167(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2168of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2169C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2170as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2171
a0d0e21e
LW
2172=item Insecure dependency in %s
2173
8b1a09fc 2174(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2175The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2176setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2177tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2178from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2179such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2180L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2181
2182=item Insecure directory in %s
2183
be771a83
GS
2184(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2185setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2186the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2187See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2188
62f468fc 2189=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2190
2191(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2192setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2193C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2194supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2195the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2196
0e9be77f
DM
2197=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2198
2199(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2200expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2201function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2202See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2203
b9ef414d
FC
2204=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2205
2206(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2207or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2208integers for your architecture.
2209
a7ae9550
GS
2210=item Integer overflow in %s number
2211
75b44862 2212(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2213either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2214your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2215On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2216representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
22170b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2218transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2219internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2220operations.
bbce6d69 2221
46314c13
JP
2222=item Integer overflow in version
2223
2224(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2225size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2226because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2227element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2228trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2229100/9.
2230
7253e4e3 2231=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2232
2233(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2234The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2235discovered.
2236
748a9306
LW
2237=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2238
be771a83
GS
2239(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2240you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2241to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2242L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2243Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2244terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2245
7253e4e3 2246=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2247
7253e4e3
RK
2248(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2249<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2250discovered.
a0d0e21e 2251
6df41af2
GS
2252=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2253
75b44862 2254(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2255followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2256operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2257L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2258
09bef843
SB
2259=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2260
a4a4c9e2 2261(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2262by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2263
2264=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2265
a4a4c9e2 2266(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2267recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2268
c635e13b
PP
2269=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2270
be771a83
GS
2271(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2272L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2273
9e08bc66
ST
2274=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2275
2276(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2277didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2278from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2279The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2280The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2281escape was discovered.
2282
8149aa9f
FC
2283=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2284
2285(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2286number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
22870 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2288
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2289=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2290
162a3e34
FC
2291(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2292where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2293the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2294a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2295
7253e4e3 2296=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2297
2298(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2299greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2300C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2301up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2302problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2303
d1573ac7 2304=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2305
2306(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2307character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2308
09bef843
SB
2309=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2310
0120eecf 2311(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2312elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2313parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2314See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2315
b4581f09
JH
2316=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2317
2bfc5f71
FC
2318(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2319than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2320If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2321list was terminated too soon.
2322
2c86d456
DG
2323=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2324
2325(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2326A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2327decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2328v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2329The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2330See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2331
49704364 2332=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2333
49704364
LW
2334(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2335See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2336(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2337silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2338
2c86d456
DG
2339=item Invalid version format (%s)
2340
2341(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2342A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2343decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
9da2b86b
FC
2344v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it must
2345have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is optional.
2346Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a trailing "alpha"
2c86d456
DG
2347component separated by an underscore character after a fractional or
2348dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized text indicates which
a6485a24 2349criteria were not met. See the L<version> module for more details on
2c86d456 2350allowed version formats.
46314c13 2351
798ae1b7
DG
2352=item Invalid version object
2353
2354(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid. Perhaps
2355the internals were modified directly in some way or an arbitrary reference
2356was blessed into the "version" class.
2357
a0d0e21e
LW
2358=item ioctl is not implemented
2359
2360(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2361strange for a machine that supports C.
2362
c289d2f7
JH
2363=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2364
2365(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2366Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2367
fe13d51d 2368=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2369
2370(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 2371you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
2372with 'useperlio'.
2373
80cbd5ad
JH
2374=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2375
2376(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 2377neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 2378
b4581f09
JH
2379=item $* is no longer supported
2380
a58ac25e
FC
2381(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
2382perls, has been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In
2383previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
2384matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
2385
2386Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
570dedd4
FC
2387modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
2388with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
2389then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2390
8ae1fe26
RGS
2391=item $# is no longer supported
2392
a58ac25e
FC
2393(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
2394perls, has been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You
2395should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 2396
6ad11d81
JH
2397=item `%s' is not a code reference
2398
04a80ee0
RGS
2399(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2400needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2401to a subroutine.
2402
2403=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2404
04a80ee0
RGS
2405(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2406unaware of.
6ad11d81 2407
a0d0e21e
LW
2408=item junk on end of regexp
2409
2410(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2411
2412=item Label not found for "last %s"
2413
be771a83
GS
2414(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2415of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2416L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2417
2418=item Label not found for "next %s"
2419
2420(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2421that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2422L<perlfunc/last>.
2423
2424=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2425
2426(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2427that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2428L<perlfunc/last>.
2429
85ab1d1d 2430=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2431
85ab1d1d 2432(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2433effective uids or gids failed.
2434
49704364
LW
2435=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2436
d7f8936a 2437(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
LW
2438length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2439an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2440
f0e67a1d
Z
2441=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2442
2443(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
96090e4f 2444(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character
d35a2c71
FC
2445that couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
2446of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where it
2447is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
2448
2449=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2450
2451(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2452detectable way.
2453
69282e91 2454=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2455
be771a83
GS
2456(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2457to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2458L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2459
bcd05b94 2460=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2461
e9200be3 2462(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
fc003d4b
MS
2463than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2464wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2465not-a-number value).
2466
bcd05b94 2467=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2468
e9200be3 2469(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
fc003d4b
MS
2470than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2471wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2472not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 2473
58e23c8d 2474=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2475
2476(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2477handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2478
b88df990
NC
2479=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2480
2481(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2482for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2483hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2484because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2485are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2486You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2487
2f7da168
RK
2488=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2489
2490(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2491by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2492instead on the filehandle.)
2493
bb3abb05
FC
2494=item lvalue attribute cannot be removed after the subroutine has been defined
2495
2496(W misc) The lvalue attribute on a Perl subroutine cannot be turned off
2497once the subroutine is defined.
2498
885ef6f5
GG
2499=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2500
bb3abb05
FC
2501(W misc) Making a Perl subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been
2502defined, whether by declaring the subroutine with an lvalue attribute
2503or by using L<attributes.pm|attributes>, is not possible. To make the subroutine an
2504lvalue subroutine, add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put
2505the declaration before the definition.
885ef6f5 2506
2db62bbc 2507=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 2508
2db62bbc 2509(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2510are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2511
2512=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2513
2db62bbc 2514(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2515are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2516
6df41af2
GS
2517=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2518
2519(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2520
2521 prefix1;prefix2
2522
2523or
6df41af2
GS
2524 prefix1 prefix2
2525
be771a83
GS
2526with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2527a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2528appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2529"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2530
2f758a16
ST
2531=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2532
d37a9538
ST
2533(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2534syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2535obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2536when the function is called.
2f758a16 2537
ba210ebe
JH
2538=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2539
2575c402
JW
2540(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2541encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2542
2575c402
JW
2543One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2544you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
25458-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2546
2547If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2548sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2549set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2550message.
2551
2552See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2553
ff3f963a
KW
2554=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N
2555
2556(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2557
4a5d3a93
FC
2558=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2559
2560(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2561rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2562
f337b084
TH
2563=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2564
2565(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2566rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2567
2568=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2569
2570(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2571rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2572
4a5d3a93 2573=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 2574
4a5d3a93
FC
2575(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2576doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2577
2578=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2579
2580(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
2581regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2582shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2583See L<perlre>.
f337b084 2584
de42a5a9 2585=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2586
2db62bbc 2587(F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2588usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2589too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2590resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2591safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2592
25f58aea
PN
2593=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2594
2595(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2596interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2597"use" or "my".
2598
49704364 2599=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2600
2601(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2602checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2603See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2604
a0d0e21e
LW
2605=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2606
2607(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2608doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2609
3cdd684c
TP
2610=item Method %s not permitted
2611
2612See Server error.
2613
a0d0e21e
LW
2614=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2615
2616(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2617by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2618ended earlier on the current line.
2619
2620=item Misplaced _ in number
2621
d4ced10d
JH
2622(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2623separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2624
7baa4690
HS
2625=item Missing argument in %s
2626
2627(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2628supplied.
2629
9e81e6a1
RGS
2630=item Missing argument to -%c
2631
2632(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2633immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2634
ff3f963a 2635=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2636
4a2d328f 2637(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
532cb70d
FC
2638double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space
2639(or comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2640This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately
2641follow the C<\N>.
423cee85 2642
f0a2b745
KW
2643=item Missing braces on \o{}
2644
2645(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2646
a0d0e21e
LW
2647=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2648
2649(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2650"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2651
06eaf0bc
GS
2652=item Missing command in piped open
2653
be771a83
GS
2654(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2655C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2656blank.
06eaf0bc 2657
961ce445
RGS
2658=item Missing control char name in \c
2659
2660(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2661character name.
2662
6df41af2
GS
2663=item Missing name in "my sub"
2664
be771a83
GS
2665(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2666they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2667
2668=item Missing $ on loop variable
2669
be771a83
GS
2670(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2671are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2672can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2673
cc507455 2674=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2675
56da5a46
RGS
2676(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2677"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2678
ab13f0c7
JH
2679=item Missing right brace on %s
2680
ff3f963a
KW
2681(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2682
4a68bf9d 2683=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2684
d32207c9
FC
2685(F) C<\N> has two meanings.
2686
2687The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed in braces,
2688meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that
2689name. Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
2690double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns,
2691it doesn't have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
2692
2693Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only)
2694in patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short
2695for C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
2696
2697This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately
2698by a left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if the braces
2699form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes that this
2700means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
27013; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a
2702C<\N{> and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2703
2704However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was
2705mistakenly omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and raises this error.
2706If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant the latter,
2707escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2708
d98d5fff 2709=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2710
be771a83
GS
2711(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2712ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2713were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2714
6df41af2
GS
2715=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2716
56da5a46
RGS
2717(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2718"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2719the previous line just because you saw this message.
2720
a0d0e21e
LW
2721=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2722
2723(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2724constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2725catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2726
2727 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2728 mod(2);
2729
2730Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2731
c5674021
PDF
2732Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2733is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2734
2735 $x = 1;
2736 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2737 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2738 }
c5674021 2739
7a4340ed 2740=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2741
2742(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2743subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2744backwards.
2745
7a4340ed 2746=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2747
be771a83
GS
2748(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2749couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2750
2751=item Module name must be constant
2752
2753(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2754
be98fb35 2755=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2756
be98fb35
GS
2757(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2758you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2759about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2760
fe13d51d 2761=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7
SG
2762
2763(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2764can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2765list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2766See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2767
a0d0e21e
LW
2768=item msg%s not implemented
2769
2770(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2771
2772=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2773
75b44862
GS
2774(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2775They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2776
49704364 2777=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2778
49704364
LW
2779(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2780follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2781See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2782
2783=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2784
be771a83
GS
2785(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2786that yet.
6df41af2 2787
fd1b7234 2788=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2789
be771a83
GS
2790(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2791sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2792local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2793
8149aa9f
FC
2794=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2795
2796(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
2797If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2798again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
2799provided for this purpose.
2800
2801NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2802%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2803the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2804will not trigger this warning.
2805
4a68bf9d 2806=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...}
ff3f963a 2807
c3c41406 2808(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
f4e361c7
FC
2809character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses
2810its specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not
2811what you want.
c3c41406 2812
4a68bf9d 2813=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer
c3c41406 2814
f4e361c7
FC
2815(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or
2816sequence was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that
2817bypass the lexer, such as using single-quotish context, or an extra
7fae04b9 2818backslash in double-quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2819
2820 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2821 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2822 /$re/;
2823
b09c05e6 2824Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2825
2826 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2827 /$re/;
2828
2829The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2830components:
2831
2832 $re = '\N';
2833 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2834
2835It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2836doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2837
2838Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
2839C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
2840
2841 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
2842 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 2843
49704364
LW
2844=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2845
2846(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2847negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2848
a0d0e21e
LW
2849=item Negative length
2850
be771a83
GS
2851(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2852length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2853
ed9aa3b7
SG
2854=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2855
2856(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2857greater than or equal to zero.
2858
7253e4e3 2859=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2860
b45f050a 2861(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2862things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2863expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2864
7253e4e3 2865Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2866C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2867
6df41af2 2868=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2869
be771a83
GS
2870(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2871scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2872
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2873=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2874
2875(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2876real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2877See L<mro>.
2878
a0d0e21e
LW
2879=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2880
be771a83
GS
2881(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2882setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2883will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2884securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2885
a0d0e21e
LW
2886=item No comma allowed after %s
2887
2888(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2889allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2890Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2891
0a753a76
PP
2892One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2893constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2894importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2895does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
f7af5ce1 2896explicit import list for the constants you expect to see; please see
0a753a76
PP
2897L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2898would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2899remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2900constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2901list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2902this error was triggered?
2903
748a9306
LW
2904=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2905
be771a83
GS
2906(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2907redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2908doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2909
a0d0e21e
LW
2910=item No DB::DB routine defined
2911
be771a83 2912(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
f7af5ce1 2913for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
ccafdc96
RGS
2914module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2915statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2916
2917=item No dbm on this machine
2918
2919(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2920supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2921
ccafdc96 2922=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2923
ccafdc96
RGS
2924(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2925for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2926module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2927of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2928
c47ff5f1 2929=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2930
be771a83
GS
2931(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2932redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2933find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2934
49704364
LW
2935=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2936
2937(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2938matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2939
c47ff5f1 2940=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2941
be771a83
GS
2942(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2943redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2944name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2945
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2946=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2947
2948(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2949in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2950it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2951or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2952
6df41af2
GS
2953=item "no" not allowed in expression
2954
be771a83
GS
2955(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2956returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2957
c47ff5f1 2958=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2959
be771a83
GS
2960(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2961redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2962doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2963
c47ff5f1 2964=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2965
be771a83
GS
2966(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2967redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2968find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2969
1ec3e8de
GS
2970=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2971
be771a83
GS
2972(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2973declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2974semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2975
a0d0e21e
LW
2976=item No Perl script found in input
2977
2978(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2979with #! and containing the word "perl".
2980
2981=item No setregid available
2982
2983(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2984your system.
2985
2986=item No setreuid available
2987
2988(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2989your system.
2990
6df41af2
GS
2991=item No %s specified for -%c
2992
2993(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2994you haven't specified one.
f7af5ce1 2995
e75d1f10
RD
2996=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
2997
2998(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
2999but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
3000package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
3001
2c692339
RGS
3002=item No such class %s
3003
dc7e5945
FC
3004(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state"
3005declaration, but this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2c692339 3006
3c20a832
SP
3007=item No such hook: %s
3008
dc7e5945
FC
3009(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl.
3010Currently, Perl accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks.
3c20a832 3011
6df41af2
GS
3012=item No such pipe open
3013
3014(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
3015close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
3016earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 3017
a0d0e21e
LW
3018=item No such signal: SIG%s
3019
be771a83
GS
3020(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
3021not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
3022names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
3023
3024=item Not a CODE reference
3025
3026(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3027subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3028use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3029also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3030
3031=item Not a format reference
3032
3033(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
3034format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
3035
3036=item Not a GLOB reference
3037
be771a83
GS
3038(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
3039symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
3040something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
3041kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3042
3043=item Not a HASH reference
3044
be771a83
GS
3045(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
3046reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
3047find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3048
6df41af2
GS
3049=item Not an ARRAY reference
3050
be771a83
GS
3051(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
3052a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3053to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 3054
d4fc4415
FC
3055=item Not an unblessed ARRAY reference
3056
3057(F) You passed a reference to a blessed array to C<push>, C<shift> or
3058another array function. These only accept unblessed array references
3059or arrays beginning explicitly with C<@>.
3060
a0d0e21e
LW
3061=item Not a SCALAR reference
3062
be771a83
GS
3063(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
3064a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3065to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3066
3067=item Not a subroutine reference
3068
3069(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3070subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3071use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3072also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3073
e7ea3e70 3074=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
3075
3076(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 3077doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3078
a0d0e21e
LW
3079=item Not enough arguments for %s
3080
3081(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
3082
6df41af2
GS
3083=item Not enough format arguments
3084
be771a83
GS
3085(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3086supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3087
3088=item %s: not found
3089
be771a83
GS
3090(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3091of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3092yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3093
3094=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3095
6df41af2
GS
3096(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3097timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3098to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3099F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3100need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 3101
f0a2b745
KW
3102=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3103
5493e060
FC
3104(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was
3105unexpectedly encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value is as
3106indicated.
f0a2b745 3107
4ef2275c
GA
3108=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3109
3110(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3111Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
bc4b151d 3112select. See L<perlfunc/select>.
4ef2275c 3113
a0d0e21e
LW
3114=item Null filename used
3115
be771a83
GS
3116(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
3117machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 3118
6df41af2
GS
3119=item NULL OP IN RUN
3120
be771a83
GS
3121(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
3122pointer.
6df41af2 3123
55497cff
PP
3124=item Null picture in formline
3125
3126(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
3127specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
3128supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
3129
a0d0e21e
LW
3130=item Null realloc
3131
3132(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
3133
3134=item NULL regexp argument
3135
5f05dabc 3136(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
3137
3138=item NULL regexp parameter
3139
3140(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
3141
fc36a67e
PP
3142=item Number too long
3143
be771a83 3144(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 3145about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
3146versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
3147the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
3148"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 3149
f0a2b745
KW
3150=item Number with no digits
3151
1043934d
FC
3152(F) Perl was looking for a number but found nothing that looked like
3153a number. This happens, for example with C<\o{}>, with no number between
3154the braces.
f0a2b745 3155
6df41af2
GS
3156=item Octal number in vector unsupported
3157
be771a83
GS
3158(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
3159The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
3160future version.
6df41af2 3161
252aa082
JH
3162=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
3163
75b44862 3164(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
3165(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
3166L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 3167
6ad11d81
JH
3168=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
3169
04a80ee0
RGS
3170(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
3171arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 3172
b21befc1
MG
3173=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
3174
3175(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3176which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
3177
1930e939 3178=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 3179
be771a83
GS
3180(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3181which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 3182
bbce6d69
PP
3183=item Offset outside string
3184
a4a4c9e2 3185(F|W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
42bc49da 3186with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
3187imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
3188take place when going past the end of the string when either
3189C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
3190for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
3191with real files).
bbce6d69 3192
c289d2f7 3193=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
3194
3195(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
3196never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
3197call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
3198
96ebfdd7
RK
3199=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
3200
3201(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
3202that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
3203
a0d0e21e
LW
3204=item oops: oopsAV
3205
e476b1b5 3206(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
3207
3208=item oops: oopsHV
3209
e476b1b5 3210(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 3211
abc718f2
RGS
3212=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
3213
a4a4c9e2 3214(W io, deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3215a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
3216Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3217and is deprecated.
3218
3219=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
3220
a4a4c9e2 3221(W io, deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3222a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
3223Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3224and is deprecated.
3225
a0288114 3226=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 3227
be771a83
GS
3228(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
3229handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
3230of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
e4aad80d 3231the C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 3232
5ff1373f 3233=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for non-Unicode code point 0x%X
9ae3ac1a 3234
8457b38f
KW
3235(W utf8, non_unicode) You performed an operation requiring Unicode
3236semantics on a code
5ff1373f
FC
3237point that is not in Unicode, so what it should do is not defined. Perl
3238has chosen to have it do nothing, and warn you.
9ae3ac1a
KW
3239
3240If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3241matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3242
3243If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
8457b38f 3244C<no warnings 'non_unicode';>.
9ae3ac1a 3245
5ff1373f 3246=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for UTF-16 surrogate U+%X
9ae3ac1a 3247
8457b38f
KW
3248(W utf8, surrogate) You performed an operation requiring Unicode
3249semantics on a Unicode
5ff1373f
FC
3250surrogate. Unicode frowns upon the use of surrogates for anything but
3251storing strings in UTF-16, but semantics are (reluctantly) defined for
3252the surrogates, and they are to do nothing for this operation. Because
3253the use of surrogates can be dangerous, Perl warns.
9ae3ac1a
KW
3254
3255If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3256matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3257
3258If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
8457b38f 3259C<no warnings 'surrogate';>.
9ae3ac1a 3260
748a9306
LW
3261=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
3262
be771a83
GS
3263(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
3264was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
3265use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
3266example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
3267"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 3268
6df41af2
GS
3269=item "our" variable %s redeclared
3270
be771a83
GS
3271(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
3272in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 3273
a80b8354
GS
3274=item Out of memory!
3275
3276(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
3277remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
3278no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 3279
19a52907
JH
3280At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
3281process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
3282C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
3283the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
3284and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
3285
6d3b25aa
RGS
3286=item Out of memory during %s extend
3287
3288(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
3289the largest possible memory allocation.
3290
6df41af2 3291=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 3292
6df41af2
GS
3293(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
3294remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
3295the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
3296possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 3297
1b979e0a 3298=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 3299
be771a83
GS
3300(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
3301insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
3302request.
eff9c6e2
CS
3303
3304The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
3305depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
3306However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
3307emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
3308is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
3309where the failed request happened.
55497cff 3310
1b979e0a
IZ
3311=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
3312
3313(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
3314is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
3315C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 3316
6df41af2
GS
3317=item Out of memory for yacc stack
3318
be771a83
GS
3319(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
3320parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
3321otherwise.
6df41af2 3322
28be1210
TH
3323=item '.' outside of string in pack
3324
3325(F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working
3326position to before the start of the packed string being built.
3327
49704364 3328=item '@' outside of string in unpack
6df41af2 3329
49704364 3330(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
6df41af2
GS
3331the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3332
f337b084
TH
3333=item '@' outside of string with malformed UTF-8 in unpack
3334
3335(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
3336the string being unpacked. The string being unpacked was also invalid
3337UTF-8. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3338
7cb0cfe6
BM
3339=item Overloaded dereference did not return a reference
3340
3341(F) An object with an overloaded dereference operator was dereferenced,
3342but the overloaded operation did not return a reference. See
3343L<overload>.
3344
3345=item Overloaded qr did not return a REGEXP
3346
3347(F) An object with a C<qr> overload was used as part of a match, but the
3348overloaded operation didn't return a compiled regexp. See L<overload>.
3349