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Add one possible explanation for the "Invalid [] range" error.
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
e476b1b5 12 (S) A severe warning (default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
30Default warnings are always enabled unless they are explicitly disabled
31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
6df41af2 53=item Allocation too large: %lx
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
f61d411c 57=item '!' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The '!' is allowed in pack() and unpack() only after certain types.
60See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
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74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or by declaring the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
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88(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
6df41af2 92=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 93
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94(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
95redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
96redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 97
6df41af2 98=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 99
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100(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
101redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
102into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
103though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
104which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 105
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106 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
107 while (<STDIN>) {
108 print;
109 print OUT;
110 }
111 close OUT;
c9f97d15 112
6df41af2 113=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 114
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115(W misc) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and
116transliteration (tr///) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
117one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
118a scalar value -- the length of an array, or the population info of a
119hash -- and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
120you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
121alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 122
6df41af2 123=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 124
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125(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
126with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
127impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
128for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 129
6df41af2 130=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 131
6df41af2 132(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 133
8ea97a1e 134=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element
a0d0e21e 135
8ea97a1e 136(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element, such as:
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137
138 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 139 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
a0d0e21e 140
8ea97a1e 141=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 142
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143(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
144such as:
5f05dabc 145
146 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 147 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 148
8ea97a1e 149or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 150
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151 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
152 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 153
6df41af2 154=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 155
6df41af2 156(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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157name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
158error.
a0d0e21e 159
f86702cc 160=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 161
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162(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
163that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
164will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
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165
166=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
167
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168(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
169spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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170
171=item assertion botched: %s
172
173(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
174
175=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
176
177(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
178
179=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
180
181(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
182must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
183know which context to supply to the right side.
184
5243b939 185=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
fe58ced6 186
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187(F) When vec is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
188greater than or equal to zero.
fe58ced6 189
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190=item Attempt to bless into a reference
191
192(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
193the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
194supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
195
196 bless $self, $proto;
197
198when you intended
199
200 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
201
202If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
203of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
204example by:
205
206 bless $self, "$proto";
207
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208=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
209
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210(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
211that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
212outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 213
54310121 214=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 215
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216(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of
217strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
218strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
219of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 220
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221=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
222
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223(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
224free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
225SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
226free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
227try to free it.
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228
229=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
230
e476b1b5 231(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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232
233=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
234
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235(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
236see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
237earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
238This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
239that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
240mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
241corrupted.
a0d0e21e 242
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243=item Attempt to join self
244
245(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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246impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
247to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 248
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249=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
250
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251(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
252function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
253means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
254invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
255literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
256avoid this warning.
84902520 257
b7a902f4 258=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
259
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260(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
261used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
262dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 263
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264=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
265
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266(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
267or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 268S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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269S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
270
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271=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
272
273(F) You've used the /e switch to evaluate the replacement for a
274substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
275most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
276
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277=item Bad filehandle: %s
278
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279(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
280symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
281open(), or did it in another package.
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282
283=item Bad free() ignored
284
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285(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
286been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 287setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 288
9ea8bc6d 289This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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290dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
291which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 292
aa689395 293=item Bad hash
294
295(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
296
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297=item Bad index while coercing array into hash
298
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299(F) The index looked up in the hash found as the 0'th element of a
300pseudo-hash is not legal. Index values must be at 1 or greater.
301See L<perlref>.
57079c46 302
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303=item Badly placed ()'s
304
305(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
306of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
307Perl yourself.
308
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309=item Bad name after %s::
310
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311(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
312didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
313of quotes, so
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314
315 $var = 'myvar';
316 $sym = mypack::$var;
317
318is not the same as
319
320 $var = 'myvar';
321 $sym = "mypack::$var";
322
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323=item Bad realloc() ignored
324
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325(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
326never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
327by setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 328
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329=item Bad symbol for array
330
331(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
332wasn't a symbol table entry.
333
334=item Bad symbol for filehandle
335
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336(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
337that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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338
339=item Bad symbol for hash
340
341(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
342wasn't a symbol table entry.
343
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344=item Bareword found in conditional
345
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346(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
347conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
348of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
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349
350 open FOO || die;
351
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352It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
353a bareword:
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354
355 use constant TYPO => 1;
356 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
357
358The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
359
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360=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
361
362(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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363subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
364symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
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365
366=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
367
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368(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
369compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
370you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 371
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372=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
373
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374(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
375subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
376exited.
a0d0e21e 377
68dc0745 378=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
379
380(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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381implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
382occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
383be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
384depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 385
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386=item \1 better written as $1
387
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388(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
389The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
390substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
391because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
392there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 393
252aa082
JH
394=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
395
e476b1b5 396(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
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397(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
398L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 399
69282e91 400=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 401
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402(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
403check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 404
c289d2f7
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405=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
406
407(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
408Check you control flow and number of arguments.
409
c5a0f51a
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410=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
411
e476b1b5 412(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 413
4633a7c4
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414=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
415
be771a83 416(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
b45f050a 417copyable.
4633a7c4 418
6df41af2
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419=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
420
421(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
422which provides a race condition that breaks security.
423
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424=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
425
be771a83
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426(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
427iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
428which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 429
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430=item Callback called exit
431
4929bf7b 432(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
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433exited by calling exit.
434
6df41af2 435=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 436
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437(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
438parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
439that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
440early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
441subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
442checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
443function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
444the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 445
6df41af2 446=item / cannot take a count
a0d0e21e 447
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448(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
449you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
450L<perlfunc/pack>.
a0d0e21e
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451
452=item Can't bless non-reference value
453
454(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
455encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
456
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457=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
458
459(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
460functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
461in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
462
6df41af2
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463=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
464
465(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
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466object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
467like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
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468
469 $BADREF = undef;
470 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
471 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
472
a0d0e21e
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473=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
474
54310121 475(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
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476ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
477didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
478object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
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479
480=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
481
482(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
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483object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
484defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
485Something like this will reproduce the error:
486
487 $BADREF = 42;
488 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
489 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
490
a0d0e21e
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491=item Can't chdir to %s
492
493(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
494that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
495
0545a864 496=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 497
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498(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
499nosuid.
104d25b7 500
6df41af2
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501=item Can't coerce array into hash
502
503(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
504information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
505only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
506
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507=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
508
509(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 510(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
511say things like:
512
513 *foo += 1;
514
515You CAN say
516
517 $foo = *foo;
518 $foo += 1;
519
520but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
521
522=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
523
524(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 525(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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526
527=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
528
529(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 530(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
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531
532=item Can't create pipe mailbox
533
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534(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
535quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 536
eb64745e 537=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 538
eb64745e
GS
539(S) Currently, only scalar variables can declared with a specific class
540qualifier in a "my" or "our" declaration. The semantics may be extended
541for other types of variables in future.
542
543=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
544
545(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my" or
546"our" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 547
6df41af2
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548=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
549
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GS
550(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
551a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 552
a0d0e21e
LW
553=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
554
be771a83
GS
555(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
556reason.
a0d0e21e 557
54310121 558=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 559
be771a83
GS
560(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
561reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
562C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 563
10f9c03d 564=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 565
e476b1b5 566(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
567characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
568inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 569
79eeca27 570=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m before << HERE in regex m/%s/
a0d0e21e 571
b45f050a 572(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
79eeca27 573regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The << HERE shows in the
b45f050a 574regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
575
576=item Can't do setegid!
577
be771a83
GS
578(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
579suidperl.
a0d0e21e
LW
580
581=item Can't do seteuid!
582
583(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
584
585=item Can't do setuid
586
be771a83
GS
587(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to do
588setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the form
589sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides under
590the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines. If the
591file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask your
592sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
a0d0e21e
LW
593
594=item Can't do waitpid with flags
595
be771a83
GS
596(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
597waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 598
a0d0e21e
LW
599=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
600
be771a83
GS
601(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
602point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
603line.
a0d0e21e
LW
604
605=item Can't exec "%s": %s
606
be771a83
GS
607(W exec) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
608named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
609permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
610C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
611architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
612can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
613#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
614
615=item Can't exec %s
616
be771a83
GS
617(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
618that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
619need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
620
621=item Can't execute %s
622
be771a83
GS
623(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
624found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 625
6df41af2 626=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 627
be771a83
GS
628(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
629is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2
GS
630
631=item Can't find label %s
632
be771a83
GS
633(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
634possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
635
636=item Can't find %s on PATH
637
be771a83
GS
638(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
639found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 640
6df41af2 641=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 642
be771a83
GS
643(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
644found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
645script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
646
647=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
648
be771a83
GS
649(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
650that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
651nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 652
fb73857a 653 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
654
be771a83
GS
655If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
656unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
657editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 658
64977eb6 659=item Can't find %s property definition %s
0103b764 660
f91328b7
JH
661(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode property for
662example \p{Lu} is all uppercase letters. Escape the C<\p>, either
663C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, until
664possible C<\E>).
0103b764 665
a0d0e21e
LW
666=item Can't fork
667
be771a83
GS
668(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
669pipeline.
a0d0e21e 670
748a9306
LW
671=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
672
be771a83
GS
673(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
674between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
675Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
676the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
677account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
678the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
679the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
680the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
681if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
682because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
683appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
684and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
685routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
686shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
687only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 688
a0d0e21e
LW
689=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
690
be771a83
GS
691(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
692pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
693
694=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
695
748a9306
LW
696(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
697mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 698
6df41af2 699=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 700
be771a83
GS
701(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
702loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
703
704=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
705
be771a83
GS
706(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
707a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
708you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
709See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 710
b150fb22
RH
711=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
712
be771a83
GS
713(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
714"string". (You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you
715probably don't want to.)
b150fb22 716
6df41af2
GS
717=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
718
be771a83
GS
719(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
720subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
721cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
722routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 723
0b5b802d
GS
724=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
725
be771a83
GS
726(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
727signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
728signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
729processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
730situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
731may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 732
6df41af2 733=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 734
6df41af2 735(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
736except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
737block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
738block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
739usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
740inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
741L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 742
748a9306
LW
743=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
744
2ba9eb46 745(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
746lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
747localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
748package name.
749
0ebe0038
SM
750=item Can't localize pseudo-hash element
751
be771a83
GS
752(F) You said something like C<< local $ar->{'key'} >>, where $ar is a
753reference to a pseudo-hash. That hasn't been implemented yet, but you
754can get a similar effect by localizing the corresponding array element
755directly -- C<< local $ar->[$ar->[0]{'key'}] >>.
0ebe0038 756
6df41af2 757=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 758
6df41af2
GS
759(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
760handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 761pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 762that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 763
ec889f3a
GS
764=item Can't locate %s
765
766(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
767found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
768unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
769need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
770the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
771to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
772L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 773
6df41af2
GS
774=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
775
be771a83
GS
776(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
777autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
778are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
779the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 780
a0d0e21e
LW
781=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
782
783(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
784functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 785method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e 786
c1899e02
GS
787=item (perhaps you forgot to load "%s"?)
788
789(F) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
790"Can't locate object method \"%s\" via package \"%s\"". It often means
791that a method requires a package that has not been loaded.
792
a0d0e21e
LW
793=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
794
be771a83
GS
795(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
796doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 797
3e3baf6d
TB
798=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
799
be771a83
GS
800(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
801VMS.
3e3baf6d 802
a0d0e21e
LW
803=item Can't modify %s in %s
804
be771a83
GS
805(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
806to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 807
54310121 808=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
809
810(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
811a NULL.
812
6df41af2
GS
813=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
814
815(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
816such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
817
5f05dabc 818=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 819
5f05dabc 820(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
821buffer.
822
6df41af2
GS
823=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
824
825(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
826there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
827count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
828grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
829though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
830once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 831
a0d0e21e
LW
832=item Can't open %s: %s
833
c47ff5f1 834(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
835filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
836switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
837is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
838the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
839
840=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
841
be771a83
GS
842(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
843You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
844as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
845">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 846
748a9306
LW
847=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
848
be771a83
GS
849(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
850redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
851the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
852
853=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
854
be771a83
GS
855(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
856redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
857command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
858
859=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
860
be771a83
GS
861(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
862redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
863the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
864
865=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
866
be771a83
GS
867(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
868redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
869for stdout.
748a9306 870
584d69ec 871=item Can't open perl script%s: %s
a0d0e21e
LW
872
873(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
874
6df41af2
GS
875=item Can't read CRTL environ
876
877(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
878from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
879missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
880or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
881searched.
6df41af2 882
7bac28a0 883=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
884
885(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
be771a83
GS
886pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when
887it was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
7bac28a0 888this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
889
6df41af2
GS
890=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
891
892(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
893there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
894count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
895or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
896though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
897loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
898
64977eb6 899=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 900
be771a83
GS
901(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
902file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
903the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 904
a0d0e21e
LW
905=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
906
e476b1b5 907(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 908probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 909
748a9306
LW
910=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
911
be771a83
GS
912(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
913to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 914
6df41af2
GS
915=item Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
916
be771a83
GS
917(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
918to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
919method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 920
a0d0e21e
LW
921=item Can't reswap uid and euid
922
be771a83
GS
923(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
924suidperl.
a0d0e21e 925
cd06dffe
GS
926=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
927
be771a83
GS
928(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
929temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
930is not allowed.
cd06dffe 931
78f9721b
SM
932=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
933
934(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
935but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
936to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
937the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
938list context.
939
6df41af2
GS
940=item Can't return outside a subroutine
941
942(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
943there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
944
a0d0e21e
LW
945=item Can't stat script "%s"
946
be771a83
GS
947(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
948open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e
LW
949
950=item Can't swap uid and euid
951
be771a83
GS
952(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of
953suidperl.
a0d0e21e
LW
954
955=item Can't take log of %g
956
fb73857a 957(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
958negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
959standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
960negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
961
962=item Can't take sqrt of %g
963
964(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a 965negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
966with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
967
968=item Can't undef active subroutine
969
970(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
971however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
972redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
973
974=item Can't unshift
975
976(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
977as the main Perl stack.
978
979=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
980
be771a83
GS
981(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
982into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
983specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
984indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e
LW
985
986=item Can't upgrade to undef
987
be771a83
GS
988(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme of
989upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the code
990calling sv_upgrade.
a0d0e21e 991
6df41af2
GS
992=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
993
994(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
995be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
996
1db89ea5
BS
997=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
998
999(P) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1000table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1001for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1002
6df41af2
GS
1003=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1004
be771a83
GS
1005(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1006references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1007
90b75b61 1008=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1009
1010(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1011Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1012provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1013
6df41af2
GS
1014=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1015
be771a83
GS
1016(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1017foreach.
6df41af2
GS
1018
1019=item Can't use global %s in "my"
1020
be771a83
GS
1021(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1022is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1023(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1024have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1025weren't.
1026
c07a80fd 1027=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1028
1029(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1030You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd 1031and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1032Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1033lexical variable.
1034
a0d0e21e
LW
1035=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1036
1037(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1038reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1039test the type of the reference, if need be.
1040
748a9306 1041=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1042
be771a83
GS
1043(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1044references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1045
748a9306
LW
1046=item Can't use subscript on %s
1047
1048(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1049subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
1050didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
1051
6df41af2
GS
1052=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1053
75b44862
GS
1054(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1055creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1056backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1057expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1058value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1059instead.
6df41af2 1060
810b8aa5
GS
1061=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1062
1063(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1064references can be weakened.
1065
5f05dabc 1066=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1067
be771a83
GS
1068(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1069with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1070Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1071
5a211162 1072=item chmod() mode argument is missing initial 0
a0d0e21e 1073
e476b1b5 1074(W chmod) A novice will sometimes say
a0d0e21e
LW
1075
1076 chmod 777, $filename
1077
be771a83
GS
1078not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number,
1079equivalent to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in
1080Perl, as in C.
a0d0e21e 1081
9ddeeac9 1082=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 1083
e476b1b5 1084(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
a0d0e21e 1085
6df41af2
GS
1086=item %s: Command not found
1087
be771a83
GS
1088(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1089Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1090
7a2e2cd6 1091=item Compilation failed in require
1092
1093(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1094Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1095encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1096
c3464db5
DD
1097=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1098
be771a83
GS
1099(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1100situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1101to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1102arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1103recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1104under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1105in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1106that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1107on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1108
69282e91 1109=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1110
be771a83
GS
1111(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1112to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1113L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1114
41ab332f 1115=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1116
be771a83
GS
1117(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1118an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1119specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1120corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1121L<overload>.
6df41af2 1122
779c5bc9
GS
1123=item Constant is not %s reference
1124
1125(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1126is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1127The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1128usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1129See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1130
4cee8e80
CS
1131=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1132
be771a83
GS
1133(S|W redefine) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
1134eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1135commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1136
9607fc9c 1137=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1138
be771a83
GS
1139(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1140for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1141workarounds.
9607fc9c 1142
e7ea3e70
IZ
1143=item Copy method did not return a reference
1144
64977eb6 1145(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1146L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1147
6798c92b
GS
1148=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1149
1150(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1151
a0d0e21e
LW
1152=item corrupted regexp pointers
1153
1154(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1155expression compiler gave it.
1156
1157=item corrupted regexp program
1158
be771a83
GS
1159(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1160valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1161
6df41af2
GS
1162=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1163
1164(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1165
1166=item C<-p> destination: %s
1167
1168(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
1169command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
1170redirected it with select().)
1171
1172=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
1173
1174(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
1175know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
1176
a0d0e21e
LW
1177=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1178
be771a83
GS
1179(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1180100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1181infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1182which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1183
f10b0346 1184=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1185
be771a83
GS
1186(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1187checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1188array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1189
f10b0346 1190=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1191
be771a83
GS
1192(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1193checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1194is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1195
fc36a67e 1196=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1197
be771a83
GS
1198(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1199long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1200that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1201
3cdd684c
TP
1202=item Did not produce a valid header
1203
1204See Server error.
1205
6df41af2
GS
1206=item %s did not return a true value
1207
1208(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1209it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1210traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1211do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1212
cc507455 1213=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1214
be771a83
GS
1215(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some
1216such.
4633a7c4 1217
cc507455 1218=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1219
be771a83
GS
1220(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1221variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1222seems superfluous.
33633739 1223
cc507455 1224=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1225
be771a83
GS
1226(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1227@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1228carried away.
748a9306 1229
7e1af8bc 1230=item Died
5f05dabc 1231
1232(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1233you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1234
3cdd684c
TP
1235=item Document contains no data
1236
1237See Server error.
1238
a0d0e21e
LW
1239=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1240
1241(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1242
1243=item do_study: out of memory
1244
1245(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1246
6df41af2
GS
1247=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1248
1249(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1250found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1251name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1252because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1253"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1254something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1255subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1256"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1257
a0d0e21e
LW
1258=item Duplicate free() ignored
1259
be771a83
GS
1260(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1261already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1262
4633a7c4
LW
1263=item elseif should be elsif
1264
be771a83
GS
1265(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's ugly.
1266Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
1267"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1268unlikely to be what you want.
1269
85ab1d1d 1270=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1271
85ab1d1d 1272(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1273effective uids or gids failed.
1274
748a9306
LW
1275=item Error converting file specification %s
1276
5f05dabc 1277(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1278specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1279single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1280an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1281conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1282
e4d48cc9
GS
1283=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1284
be771a83
GS
1285(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1286expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1287is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1288
e4d48cc9
GS
1289=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1290
be771a83
GS
1291(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1292C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1293pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1294is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1295building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1296that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1297
6df41af2
GS
1298=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1299
be771a83
GS
1300(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1301assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1302pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1303
fc36a67e 1304=item Excessively long <> operator
1305
1306(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1307Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1308filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1309variable and glob that.
1310
f86702cc 1311=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1312
1313(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1314
1315=item Exiting eval via %s
1316
be771a83
GS
1317(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1318goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1319
1320=item Exiting format via %s
1321
be771a83
GS
1322(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1323goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1324
0a753a76 1325=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1326
be771a83
GS
1327(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1328sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1329loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1330
a0d0e21e
LW
1331=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1332
be771a83
GS
1333(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1334as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1335
1336=item Exiting substitution via %s
1337
be771a83
GS
1338(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1339as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1340
7b8d334a
GS
1341=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1342
be771a83
GS
1343(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1344the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1345usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1346e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1347
6df41af2
GS
1348=item %s: Expression syntax
1349
be771a83
GS
1350(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1351Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1352
1353=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1354
1355(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a CHECK, INIT, or
1356END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the queue of such
1357routines has been prematurely ended.
1358
73b437c8
JH
1359=item false [] range "%s" in regexp
1360
be771a83
GS
1361(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
1362character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The
1363"-" in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider
1364quoting the "-", "\-". See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1365
748a9306 1366=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1367
be771a83
GS
1368(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1369system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1370details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1371you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1372
1373=item fcntl is not implemented
1374
1375(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1376PDP-11 or something?
1377
af8c498a 1378=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1379
be771a83
GS
1380(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended it
1381to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or "+>"
1382or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to write
1383the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1384
af8c498a 1385=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1386
be771a83
GS
1387(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing. If
1388you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
1389with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1390intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1391
1392=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1393
1394(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1395a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1396happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1397name.
a0d0e21e
LW
1398
1399=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1400
1401(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1402a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1403happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1404name.
a0d0e21e 1405
56e90b21
GS
1406=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1407
be771a83 1408(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1409some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1410filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1411same name?
56e90b21 1412
79eeca27 1413=item Quantifier follows nothing before << HERE in regex m/%s/
6df41af2 1414
b45f050a 1415(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it if you
79eeca27 1416meant it literally. The << HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
b45f050a 1417problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2
GS
1418
1419=item Format not terminated
1420
1421(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1422to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1423
a0d0e21e
LW
1424=item Format %s redefined
1425
e476b1b5 1426(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1427
1428 {
4438c4b7 1429 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
1430 eval "format NAME =...";
1431 }
1432
a0d0e21e
LW
1433=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1434
e476b1b5 1435(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1436
1437 if ($foo = 123)
1438
1439when you meant
1440
1441 if ($foo == 123)
1442
1443(or something like that).
1444
6df41af2
GS
1445=item %s found where operator expected
1446
1447(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
be771a83
GS
1448sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
1449operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1450operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1451
a0d0e21e
LW
1452=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1453
1454(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1455
1456=item gethostent not implemented
1457
1458(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1459because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1460on the Internet.
1461
69282e91 1462=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1463
be771a83
GS
1464(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1465socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1466
748a9306
LW
1467=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1468
1469(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1470C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1471
6df41af2
GS
1472=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1473
be771a83
GS
1474(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1475forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1476L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1477
1478=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1479
1480(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
1481must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), declared beforehand using
1482"our", or explicitly qualified to say which package the global variable
1483is in (using "::").
1484
e476b1b5
GS
1485=item glob failed (%s)
1486
be771a83
GS
1487(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1488C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1489C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1490nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1491resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1492broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1493config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1494were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1495empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1496think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1497C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1498
a0d0e21e
LW
1499=item Glob not terminated
1500
1501(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1502a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1503not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1504earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1505
6df41af2 1506=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1507
6df41af2
GS
1508(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1509version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1510
1511=item goto must have label
1512
1513(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1514unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1515
6df41af2
GS
1516=item %s had compilation errors
1517
1518(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1519
a0d0e21e
LW
1520=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1521
be771a83
GS
1522(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1523to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1524created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1525
1526=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1527
be771a83
GS
1528(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1529spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1530
6df41af2
GS
1531=item %s has too many errors
1532
1533(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1534Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1535
252aa082
JH
1536=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1537
e476b1b5 1538(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
1539(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1540L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1541
8903cb82 1542=item Identifier too long
1543
1544(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 1545about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
1546names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
1547of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1548
6df41af2 1549=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 1550
6df41af2 1551(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 1552
6df41af2 1553=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 1554
be771a83
GS
1555(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
1556binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
1557offending digit.
a0d0e21e 1558
4fdae800 1559=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1560
d5898338 1561(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
1562would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
1563when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
1564version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
1565to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 1566
a0d0e21e
LW
1567=item Illegal division by zero
1568
be771a83
GS
1569(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
1570your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
1571meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 1572
6df41af2
GS
1573=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
1574
be771a83
GS
1575(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
1576A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
1577number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 1578
a0d0e21e
LW
1579=item Illegal modulus zero
1580
be771a83
GS
1581(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
1582numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 1583
6df41af2 1584=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 1585
6df41af2
GS
1586(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
1587two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
1588
1589=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1590
1591(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1592
399388f4 1593=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 1594
75b44862
GS
1595(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1596Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 1597
6df41af2 1598=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
6ff81951 1599
6df41af2
GS
1600(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1601following switches: B<-[DIMUdmw]>.
6ff81951 1602
6df41af2 1603=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 1604
75b44862 1605(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
1606internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
1607delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 1608
6df41af2 1609=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 1610
be771a83
GS
1611(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
1612name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1613didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
1614ignored.
54310121 1615
6df41af2 1616=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 1617
be771a83
GS
1618(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
1619the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
1620system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
1621times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
1622would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 1623
be771a83
GS
1624Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
1625also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 1626
a0d0e21e
LW
1627=item Insecure dependency in %s
1628
8b1a09fc 1629(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
1630The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
1631setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
1632tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
1633from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
1634such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
1635L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
1636
1637=item Insecure directory in %s
1638
be771a83
GS
1639(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
1640setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
1641the world. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 1642
62f468fc 1643=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1644
1645(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc
MG
1646setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
1647C<$ENV{ENV}> or C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> are derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1648potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1649known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1650
a7ae9550
GS
1651=item Integer overflow in %s number
1652
75b44862 1653(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
1654either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
1655your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
1656On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
1657representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
16580b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
1659transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
1660internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
1661operations.
bbce6d69 1662
79eeca27 1663=item Internal disaster before << HERE in regex m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
1664
1665(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
79eeca27 1666The << HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
1667discovered.
1668
6df41af2 1669
748a9306
LW
1670=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1671
be771a83
GS
1672(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
1673you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
1674to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
1675L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
1676Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
1677terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 1678
79eeca27 1679=item Internal urp before << HERE in regex m/%s/
b45f050a 1680
79eeca27 1681(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The <<<HERE
b45f050a 1682shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 1683
a0d0e21e 1684
6df41af2
GS
1685=item %s (...) interpreted as function
1686
75b44862 1687(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 1688followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 1689operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 1690L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 1691
09bef843
SB
1692=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
1693
1694The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
1695by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1696
1697=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
1698
be771a83
GS
1699The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
1700recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 1701
c635e13b 1702=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1703
be771a83
GS
1704(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
1705L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 1706
6df41af2
GS
1707=item invalid [] range "%s" in regexp
1708
1709(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
78fb8492
JH
1710greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you
1711forgot the C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly
1712braces can go only up to C<ff>. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 1713
c2e66d9e
GS
1714=item invalid [] range "%s" in transliteration operator
1715
1716(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
1717character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
1718
09bef843
SB
1719=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
1720
0120eecf 1721(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
1722elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
1723parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
1724See L<attributes>.
09bef843 1725
96e4d5b1 1726=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1727
8903cb82 1728(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
be771a83
GS
1729(W pack) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be
1730silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 1731
1732=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1733
be771a83
GS
1734(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See
1735L<perlfunc/unpack>.
75b44862
GS
1736(W unpack) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be
1737silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 1738
a0d0e21e
LW
1739=item ioctl is not implemented
1740
1741(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1742strange for a machine that supports C.
1743
c289d2f7
JH
1744=item ioctl() on unopened %s
1745
1746(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
1747Check you control flow and number of arguments.
1748
80cbd5ad
JH
1749=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
1750
1751(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
1752neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
1753
6ad11d81
JH
1754=item `%s' is not a code reference
1755
1756(W) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant needs
1757to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
1758to a subroutine.
1759
1760=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
1761
1762(W) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is unaware of.
1763
a0d0e21e
LW
1764=item junk on end of regexp
1765
1766(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1767
1768=item Label not found for "last %s"
1769
be771a83
GS
1770(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
1771of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1772L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1773
1774=item Label not found for "next %s"
1775
1776(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1777that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1778L<perlfunc/last>.
1779
1780=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1781
1782(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1783that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1784L<perlfunc/last>.
1785
85ab1d1d 1786=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1787
85ab1d1d 1788(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1789effective uids or gids failed.
1790
69282e91 1791=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1792
be771a83
GS
1793(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
1794to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1795L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 1796
9d837945
TM
1797=item lstat() on filehandle %s
1798
1799(W io) You tried to do a lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
1800by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
1801instead on the filehandle.)
1802
cd06dffe
GS
1803=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
1804
1805(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
be771a83
GS
1806values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
1807L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
cd06dffe 1808
551e1d92 1809=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented before << HERE %s
b45f050a
JF
1810
1811(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
79eeca27 1812handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release. The << HERE shows in
b45f050a 1813the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2e50fd82 1814
6df41af2
GS
1815=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
1816
1817(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
1818
1819 prefix1;prefix2
1820
1821or
1822
1823 prefix1 prefix2
1824
be771a83
GS
1825with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
1826a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
1827appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 1828"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 1829
ba210ebe
JH
1830=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
1831
1832Perl detected something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding rules.
1833
dea0fc0b
JH
1834=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
1835
1836Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
1837doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
1838
6df41af2
GS
1839=item %s matches null string many times
1840
1841(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
be771a83
GS
1842regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See
1843L<perlre>.
6df41af2
GS
1844
1845=item % may only be used in unpack
1846
1847(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
1848checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
1849See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 1850
a0d0e21e
LW
1851=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1852
1853(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1854doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 1855
3cdd684c
TP
1856=item Method %s not permitted
1857
1858See Server error.
1859
a0d0e21e
LW
1860=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1861
1862(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1863by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1864ended earlier on the current line.
1865
1866=item Misplaced _ in number
1867
e476b1b5 1868(W syntax) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
a0d0e21e 1869
4a2d328f 1870=item Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
423cee85 1871
4a2d328f 1872(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
423cee85
JH
1873double-quotish context.
1874
a0d0e21e
LW
1875=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1876
1877(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1878"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1879
06eaf0bc
GS
1880=item Missing command in piped open
1881
be771a83
GS
1882(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
1883C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
1884blank.
06eaf0bc 1885
6df41af2
GS
1886=item Missing name in "my sub"
1887
be771a83
GS
1888(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
1889they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
1890
1891=item Missing $ on loop variable
1892
be771a83
GS
1893(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
1894are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
1895can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 1896
cc507455 1897=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306
LW
1898
1899(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1900found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1901
d98d5fff 1902=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 1903
be771a83
GS
1904(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
1905ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
1906were last editing.
a0d0e21e 1907
6df41af2
GS
1908=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
1909
1910(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1911found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
1912the previous line just because you saw this message.
1913
a0d0e21e
LW
1914=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1915
1916(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1917constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1918catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1919
1920 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1921 mod(2);
1922
1923Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1924
c5674021
PDF
1925Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
1926is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
1927
1928 $x = 1;
1929 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
1930 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 1931 }
c5674021 1932
7a4340ed 1933=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1934
1935(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1936subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1937backwards.
1938
7a4340ed 1939=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 1940
be771a83
GS
1941(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
1942couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
1943
1944=item Module name must be constant
1945
1946(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1947
be98fb35 1948=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 1949
be98fb35
GS
1950(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
1951you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
1952about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 1953
a0d0e21e
LW
1954=item msg%s not implemented
1955
1956(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1957
1958=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1959
75b44862
GS
1960(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
1961They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 1962
6df41af2 1963=item / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*
09bef843 1964
6df41af2 1965(F) You had a pack template indicating a counted-length string,
be771a83
GS
1966Currently the only things that can have their length counted are a*, A*
1967or Z*. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
1968
1969=item / must be followed by a, A or Z
1970
be771a83
GS
1971(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, which
1972must be followed by one of the letters a, A or Z to indicate what sort
1973of string is to be unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
1974
1975=item / must follow a numeric type
1976
be771a83
GS
1977(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '#', but this did not
1978follow some numeric unpack specification. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
1979
1980=item "my sub" not yet implemented
1981
be771a83
GS
1982(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
1983that yet.
6df41af2
GS
1984
1985=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
1986
be771a83
GS
1987(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
1988sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
1989local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 1990
8b1a09fc 1991=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1992
e476b1b5 1993(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
1994If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
1995again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 1996provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
1997
1998=item Negative length
1999
be771a83
GS
2000(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2001length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2002
79eeca27 2003=item Nested quantifiers before << HERE in regex m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2004
b45f050a 2005(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
79eeca27 2006things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The << HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2007expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2008
be771a83
GS
2009Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
2010C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2011
b45f050a 2012
6df41af2 2013=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2014
be771a83
GS
2015(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2016scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e
LW
2017
2018=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2019
be771a83
GS
2020(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2021setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2022will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2023securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2024
2025=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2026
2027(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2028
2029=item No comma allowed after %s
2030
2031(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2032allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2033Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2034
0a753a76 2035One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2036constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2037importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2038does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2039explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2040L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2041would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2042remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2043constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2044list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2045this error was triggered?
2046
748a9306
LW
2047=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2048
be771a83
GS
2049(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2050redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2051doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2052
a0d0e21e
LW
2053=item No DB::DB routine defined
2054
be771a83
GS
2055(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2056for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof) didn't
2057define a routine to be called at the beginning of each statement. Which
2058is odd, because the file should have been required automatically, and
2059should have blown up the require if it didn't parse right.
a0d0e21e
LW
2060
2061=item No dbm on this machine
2062
2063(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2064supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2065
2066=item No DBsub routine
2067
2068(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
2069but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
2070didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
2071ordinary subroutine call.
2072
c47ff5f1 2073=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2074
be771a83
GS
2075(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2076redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2077find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2078
c47ff5f1 2079=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2080
be771a83
GS
2081(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2082redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2083name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2084
6df41af2
GS
2085=item No #! line
2086
2087(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2088even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2089
2090=item "no" not allowed in expression
2091
be771a83
GS
2092(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2093returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2094
c47ff5f1 2095=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2096
be771a83
GS
2097(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2098redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2099doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2100
c47ff5f1 2101=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2102
be771a83
GS
2103(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2104redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2105find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2106
1ec3e8de
GS
2107=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2108
be771a83
GS
2109(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2110declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2111semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2112
a0d0e21e
LW
2113=item No Perl script found in input
2114
2115(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2116with #! and containing the word "perl".
2117
2118=item No setregid available
2119
2120(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2121your system.
2122
2123=item No setreuid available
2124
2125(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2126your system.
2127
a67e862a 2128=item No space allowed after -%c
a0d0e21e 2129
be771a83
GS
2130(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2131immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
a0d0e21e 2132
6df41af2
GS
2133=item No %s specified for -%c
2134
2135(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2136you haven't specified one.
2137
2138=item No such pipe open
2139
2140(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2141close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2142earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2143
88e9b055 2144=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s"
57079c46 2145
88e9b055 2146(F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the field name used is
57079c46
GA
2147not defined. The hash at index 0 should map all valid field names to
2148array indices for that to work.
2149
88e9b055 2150=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
f1192cee 2151
be771a83
GS
2152(F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable where the type does
2153not know about the field name. The field names are looked up in the
2154%FIELDS hash in the type package at compile time. The %FIELDS hash is
2155%usually set up with the 'fields' pragma.
f1192cee 2156
a0d0e21e
LW
2157=item No such signal: SIG%s
2158
be771a83
GS
2159(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
2160not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
2161names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
2162
2163=item Not a CODE reference
2164
2165(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2166subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2167use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2168also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2169
2170=item Not a format reference
2171
2172(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2173format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2174
2175=item Not a GLOB reference
2176
be771a83
GS
2177(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
2178symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2179something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
2180kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2181
2182=item Not a HASH reference
2183
be771a83
GS
2184(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
2185reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
2186find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2187
6df41af2
GS
2188=item Not an ARRAY reference
2189
be771a83
GS
2190(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
2191a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2192to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 2193
a0d0e21e
LW
2194=item Not a perl script
2195
2196(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2197even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
2198mention perl.
2199
2200=item Not a SCALAR reference
2201
be771a83
GS
2202(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
2203a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
2204to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2205
2206=item Not a subroutine reference
2207
2208(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2209subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2210use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2211also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2212
e7ea3e70 2213=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
2214
2215(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 2216doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2217
a0d0e21e
LW
2218=item Not enough arguments for %s
2219
2220(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2221
6df41af2
GS
2222=item Not enough format arguments
2223
be771a83
GS
2224(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
2225supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
2226
2227=item %s: not found
2228
be771a83
GS
2229(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
2230of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
2231yourself.
6df41af2
GS
2232
2233=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 2234
6df41af2
GS
2235(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
2236timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
2237to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
2238F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
2239need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2240
2241=item Null filename used
2242
be771a83
GS
2243(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
2244machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 2245
6df41af2
GS
2246=item NULL OP IN RUN
2247
be771a83
GS
2248(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
2249pointer.
6df41af2 2250
55497cff 2251=item Null picture in formline
2252
2253(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
2254specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
2255supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
2256
a0d0e21e
LW
2257=item Null realloc
2258
2259(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
2260
2261=item NULL regexp argument
2262
5f05dabc 2263(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2264
2265=item NULL regexp parameter
2266
2267(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2268
fc36a67e 2269=item Number too long
2270
be771a83
GS
2271(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
2272about about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
2273versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
2274the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
2275"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 2276
6df41af2
GS
2277=item Octal number in vector unsupported
2278
be771a83
GS
2279(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
2280The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
2281future version.
6df41af2 2282
252aa082
JH
2283=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
2284
75b44862 2285(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
2286(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2287L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
2288
2289See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
2290
6ad11d81
JH
2291=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
2292
2293(W) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of arguments.
2294The arguments should come in pairs.
2295
1930e939 2296=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 2297
be771a83
GS
2298(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
2299which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 2300
bbce6d69 2301=item Offset outside string
2302
2303(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
be771a83
GS
2304pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine. The sole
2305exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer will extend
2306the buffer and zero pad the new area.
bbce6d69 2307
9ddeeac9
JH
2308=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
2309
2310(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
c289d2f7 2311that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
9ddeeac9 2312
c289d2f7 2313=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
2314
2315(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
2316never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
2317call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
2318
a0d0e21e
LW
2319=item oops: oopsAV
2320
e476b1b5 2321(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
2322
2323=item oops: oopsHV
2324
e476b1b5 2325(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 2326
56f7f34b 2327=item Operation `%s': no method found, %s
44a8e56a 2328
be771a83
GS
2329(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
2330handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
2331of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
2332C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 2333
748a9306
LW
2334=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
2335
be771a83
GS
2336(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
2337was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
2338use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
2339example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
2340"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 2341
6df41af2
GS
2342=item "our" variable %s redeclared
2343
be771a83
GS
2344(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
2345in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 2346
a80b8354
GS
2347=item Out of memory!
2348
2349(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
2350remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
2351no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 2352
6df41af2 2353=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 2354
6df41af2
GS
2355(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2356remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
2357the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
2358possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 2359
1b979e0a 2360=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 2361
be771a83
GS
2362(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
2363insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
2364request.
eff9c6e2
CS
2365
2366The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
2367depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
2368However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
2369emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
2370is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
2371where the failed request happened.
55497cff 2372
1b979e0a
IZ
2373=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
2374
2375(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
2376is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
2377C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 2378
6df41af2
GS
2379=item Out of memory for yacc stack
2380
be771a83
GS
2381(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
2382parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
2383otherwise.
6df41af2
GS
2384
2385=item @ outside of string
2386
2387(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
2388the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2389
2390=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
2391
be771a83
GS
2392(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
2393package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
2394some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
2395mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 2396
a0d0e21e
LW
2397=item page overflow
2398
be771a83
GS
2399(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
2400page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 2401
6df41af2
GS
2402=item panic: %s
2403
2404(P) An internal error.
2405
a0d0e21e
LW
2406=item panic: ck_grep
2407
2408(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
2409
2410=item panic: ck_split
2411
2412(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
2413
2414=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
2415
be771a83
GS
2416(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than
2417there are in the savestack.
a0d0e21e 2418
810b8aa5
GS
2419=item panic: del_backref
2420
2421(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
2422reference.
2423
a0d0e21e
LW
2424=item panic: die %s
2425
2426(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
2427it wasn't an eval context.
2428
2269b42e 2429=item panic: pp_match
a0d0e21e 2430
be771a83
GS
2431(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational
2432data.
a0d0e21e 2433
a0d0e21e
LW
2434=item panic: do_subst
2435
be771a83
GS
2436(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational
2437data.
a0d0e21e 2438
2269b42e 2439=item panic: do_trans_%s
a0d0e21e 2440
2269b42e 2441(P) The internal do_trans routines were called with invalid operational
be771a83 2442data.
a0d0e21e 2443
c635e13b 2444=item panic: frexp
2445
2446(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
2447
a0d0e21e
LW
2448=item panic: goto
2449
2450(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
2451and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
2452
2453=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
2454
2455(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
2456
2457=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
2458
2459(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
2460
e446cec8
IZ
2461=item panic: kid popen errno read
2462
2463(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
2464
a0d0e21e
LW
2465=item panic: last
2466
2467(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
2468it wasn't a block context.
2469
2470=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
2471
be771a83
GS
2472(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the
2473scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
2474
2475=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
2476
2477(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
2478invalid enum on the top of it.
2479
810b8aa5
GS
2480=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
2481
2482(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
2483references to an object.
2484
6df41af2
GS
2485=item panic: malloc
2486
2487(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
2488
a0d0e21e
LW
2489=item panic: mapstart
2490
2491(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
2492
2493=item panic: null array
2494
2495(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
2496
2497=item panic: pad_alloc
2498
2499(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2500and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2501
2502=item panic: pad_free curpad
2503
2504(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2505and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2506
2507=item panic: pad_free po
2508
2509(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2510
2511=item panic: pad_reset curpad
2512
2513(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2514and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2515
2516=item panic: pad_sv po
2517
2518(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2519
2520=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
2521
2522(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2523and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2524
2525=item panic: pad_swipe po
2526
2527(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2528
2529=item panic: pp_iter
2530
2531(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
2532
2269b42e
JH
2533=item panic: pp_split
2534
2535(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
2536
a0d0e21e
LW
2537=item panic: realloc
2538
2539(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
2540
2541=item panic: restartop
2542
2543(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
2544didn't supply the destination.
2545
2546=item panic: return
2547
2548(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
2549then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
2550
2551=item panic: scan_num
2552
2553(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
2554
2555=item panic: sv_insert
2556
2557(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
2558was string.
2559
2560=item panic: top_env
2561
6224f72b 2562(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e
LW
2563
2564=item panic: yylex
2565
2566(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
2567
dea0fc0b
JH
2568=item panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen
2569
2570(P) Something tried to call utf16_to_utf8 with an odd (as opposed
64977eb6 2571to even) byte length.
dea0fc0b 2572
7b8d334a 2573=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e 2574
e476b1b5 2575(W parenthesis) You said something like
a0d0e21e
LW
2576
2577 my $foo, $bar = @_;
2578
2579when you meant
2580
2581 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
2582
54884818 2583Remember that "my", "our", and "local" bind tighter than comma.
a0d0e21e 2584
75b44862 2585=item Perl %s required--this is only version %s, stopped
a0d0e21e 2586
be771a83
GS
2587(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more
2588recent than the currently running version. How long has it been since
2589you upgraded, anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 2590
6df41af2
GS
2591=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
2592
2593(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
fecfaeb8 2594C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2
GS
2595
2596=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2597
2598(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
2599
2600 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
2601 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
2602 LC_ALL = "En_US",
2603 LANG = (unset)
2604 are supported and installed on your system.
2605 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
2606
2607Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
2608settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
0ea6b70f
JH
2609This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your operating
2610system supplier and/or system administrator have set up the so-called
2611locale system but Perl could not use those settings. This was not
2612dead serious, fortunately: there is a "default locale" called "C" that
2613Perl can and will use, the script will be run. Before you really fix
2614the problem, however, you will get the same error message each time
2615you run Perl. How to really fix the problem can be found in
2616L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
6df41af2 2617
bccbfa77
NC
2618=item perlio: argument list not closed for layer "%s"
2619
64977eb6 2620(S) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you forgot
bccbfa77 2621the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
64977eb6
NC
2622data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
2623the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
2624If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
2625the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
2626
2627=item perlio: invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2628
2629(S) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
2630colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of an layer list.
2631If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2632list was terminated too soon.
bccbfa77 2633
ef0f9817
DD
2634=item perlio: unknown layer "%s"
2635
2636(S) An attempt was made to push an unknown layer onto the Perl I/O
2637system. (Layers take care of transforming data between external and
2638internal representations.) Note that some layers, such as C<mmap>,
2639are not supported in all environments. If your program didn't
2640explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the result of the
2641value of the environment variable PERLIO.
2642
a0d0e21e
LW
2643=item Permission denied
2644
2645(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
2646
bd3fa61c 2647=item pid %x not a child
748a9306 2648
be771a83
GS
2649(W exec) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a
2650process which isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is
2651fine from VMS' perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
748a9306 2652
b45f050a
JF
2653=item POSIX syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes
2654
2655(W unsafe) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
2656I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct, for
2657example: /[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that [= =] and [. .] are not
2658currently implemented; they are simply placeholders for future
2659extensions and will cause fatal errors.
2660
2661=item POSIX syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions
2662
2663(F regexp) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
2664beginning with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future
2665extensions. If you need to represent those character sequences inside
2666a regular expression character class, just quote the square brackets
2667with the backslash: "\[." and ".\]".
2668
2669=item POSIX syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions
2670
2671(F) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
2672beginning with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future
2673extensions. If you need to represent those character sequences inside
2674a regular expression character class, just quote the square brackets
2675with the backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".
2676
2677=item POSIX class [:%s:] unknown
2678
2679(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown. See
2680L<perlre>.
2681
a0d0e21e
LW
2682=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
2683
81777298 2684(F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
a0d0e21e
LW
2685the BSD version, which takes a pid.
2686
bbce6d69 2687=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
2688
e476b1b5 2689(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
75b44862 2690strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated as
be771a83
GS
2691literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
2692parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2693
774d564b 2694You probably wrote something like this:
2695
54310121 2696 @list = qw(
774d564b 2697 a # a comment
bbce6d69 2698 b # another comment
774d564b 2699 );
bbce6d69 2700
2701when you should have written this:
2702
774d564b 2703 @list = qw(
54310121 2704 a
2705 b
774d564b 2706 );
2707
2708If you really want comments, build your list the
2709old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
2710
2711 @list = (
2712 'a', # a comment
2713 'b', # another comment
2714 );
bbce6d69 2715
2716=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
2717
be771a83
GS
2718(W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore
2719commas aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used
2720different delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also
2721frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2722
54310121 2723You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 2724
774d564b 2725 qw! a, b, c !;
2726
2727which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
2728commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 2729
774d564b 2730 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2731
a0d0e21e
LW
2732=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2733
2734(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2735Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2736end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2737Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2738
6df41af2
GS
2739=item Possible Y2K bug: %s
2740
2741(W y2k) You are concatenating the number 19 with another number, which
2742could be a potential Year 2000 problem.
2743
8cd79558
GS
2744=item pragma "attrs" is deprecated, use "sub NAME : ATTRS" instead
2745
4375e838 2746(W deprecated) You have written something like this:
8cd79558
GS
2747
2748 sub doit
2749 {
2750 use attrs qw(locked);
2751 }
2752
2753You should use the new declaration syntax instead.
2754
2755 sub doit : locked
2756 {
2757 ...
2758
2759The C<use attrs> pragma is now obsolete, and is only provided for
2760backward-compatibility. See L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes">.
2761
a0d0e21e
LW
2762=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
2763
e476b1b5 2764(S precedence) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 2765
a0d0e21e
LW
2766 open FOO || die;
2767
2768is now misinterpreted as
2769
2770 open(FOO || die);
2771
be771a83
GS
2772because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary and
2773list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must put
2774parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator instead
2775of "||".
a0d0e21e 2776
3cdd684c
TP
2777=item Premature end of script headers
2778
2779See Server error.
2780
6df41af2
GS
2781=item printf() on closed filehandle %s
2782
be771a83 2783(W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 2784before now. Check your control flow.
6df41af2 2785
9a7dcd9c 2786=item print() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 2787
be771a83 2788(W closed) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 2789before now. Check your control flow.
a0d0e21e 2790
6df41af2 2791=item Process terminated by SIG%s
a0d0e21e 2792
6df41af2
GS
2793(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
2794applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
2795port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
2796L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
fecfaeb8 2797in L<perlos2>.
a0d0e21e 2798
3fe9a6f1 2799=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2800
be771a83
GS
2801(S unsafe) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been
2802declared or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2803
79eeca27 2804=item Quantifier in {,} bigger than %d before << HERE in regex m/%s/
9baa0206 2805
b45f050a 2806(F) There is currently a limit to the size of the min and max values of the
79eeca27 2807{min,max} construct. The << HERE shows in the regular expression about where
b45f050a 2808the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
9baa0206 2809
551e1d92 2810=item Quantifier unexpected on zero-length expression before << HERE %s
9baa0206 2811
b45f050a
JF
2812(W regexp) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place where
2813it makes no sense, such as on a zero-width assertion. Try putting the
2814quantifier inside the assertion instead. For example, the way to match
2815"abc" provided that it is followed by three repetitions of "xyz" is
2816C</abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/>, not C</abc(?=xyz){3}/>.
9baa0206 2817
89ea2908
GA
2818=item Range iterator outside integer range
2819
2820(F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."
2821are outside the range which can be represented by integers internally.
be771a83
GS
2822One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magical string increment
2823by prepending "0" to your numbers.
89ea2908 2824
9a7dcd9c 2825=item readline() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 2826
75b44862 2827(W closed) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 2828before now. Check your control flow.
a0d0e21e 2829
6df41af2
GS
2830=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2831
2832(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
2833
4ad56ec9
IZ
2834=item realloc() of freed memory ignored
2835
be771a83
GS
2836(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
2837already been freed.
4ad56ec9 2838
a0d0e21e
LW
2839=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2840
be771a83
GS
2841(F debugging) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce
2842the desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
a0d0e21e
LW
2843which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2844
3e0ccd42 2845=item Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
a0d0e21e
LW
2846
2847(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2848an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2849
7a4340ed 2850=item Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method %s
3e0ccd42 2851
be771a83
GS
2852(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking
2853a method. Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance
2854hierarchy.
3e0ccd42 2855
1930e939
TP
2856=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
2857
be771a83
GS
2858(W misc) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list
2859with an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This usually
2860means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant to use
2861parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
7b8d334a
GS
2862
2863 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
2864 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
2865 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
2866 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
2867
810b8aa5
GS
2868=item Reference is already weak
2869
e476b1b5 2870(W misc) You have attempted to weaken a reference that is already weak.
810b8aa5
GS
2871Doing so has no effect.
2872
a0d0e21e
LW
2873=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2874
be771a83
GS
2875(W internal) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with
2876a reference count of other than 1.
a0d0e21e 2877
b1866b2d 2878=item Reference to nonexistent group before << HERE in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2879
2880(F) You used something like C<\7> in your regular expression, but there are
2881not at least seven sets of capturing parentheses in the expression. If you
2882wanted to have the character with value 7 inserted into the regular expression,
2883prepend a zero to make the number at least two digits: C<\07>
9baa0206 2884
79eeca27 2885The << HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a 2886discovered.
9baa0206 2887
a0d0e21e
LW
2888=item regexp memory corruption
2889
2890(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
2891expression compiler gave it.
2892
b45f050a 2893=item Regexp out of space
a0d0e21e 2894
be771a83
GS
2895(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it
2896earlier.
a0d0e21e 2897
7a95317d
GS
2898=item Repeat count in pack overflows
2899
be771a83
GS
2900(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
2901signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
7a95317d
GS
2902
2903=item Repeat count in unpack overflows
2904
be771a83
GS
2905(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
2906signed integers. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
7a95317d 2907
a0d0e21e
LW
2908=item Reversed %s= operator
2909
be771a83
GS
2910(W syntax) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must
2911always comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
a0d0e21e
LW
2912
2913=item Runaway format
2914
2915(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
2916produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
2917199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
2918themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
2919shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
2920
2921=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
2922
be771a83
GS
2923(W syntax) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a
2924single element of an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar
2925value (indicated by $). The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always
2926behaves like a scalar, both when assigning to it and when evaluating its
2927argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves like a list when you assign to it,
2928and provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
2929if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 2930
748a9306 2931On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 2932element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
2933Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2934L<perlref>.
2935
a6006777 2936=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
2937
75b44862 2938(W syntax) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single
be771a83
GS
2939element of a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value
2940(indicated by $). The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves
2941like a scalar, both when assigning to it and when evaluating its
2942argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves like a list when you assign to it,
2943and provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things
2944if you're expecting only one subscript.
2945
2946On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash element
2947as a list, you need to look into how references work, because Perl will
2948not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
a6006777 2949L<perlref>.
2950
3e2f796a
NIS
2951=item Scalars leaked: %d
2952
2953(P) Something went wrong in Perl's internal bookkeeping of scalars:
2954not all scalar variables were deallocated by the time Perl exited.
2955What this usually indicates is a memory leak, which is of course bad,
2956especially if the Perl program is intended to be long-running.
2957
a0d0e21e
LW
2958=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
2959
54310121 2960(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
2961or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
2962
2963=item Search pattern not terminated
2964
2965(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
2966construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2967Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2968
9ddeeac9 2969=item %sseek() on unopened filehandle
a0d0e21e 2970
be771a83
GS
2971(W unopened) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a
2972filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2973
2974=item select not implemented
2975
2976(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
2977
ae21d580 2978=item Self-ties of arrays and hashes are not supported
68a4a7e4 2979
ae21d580
JH
2980(F) Self-ties are of arrays and hashes are not supported in
2981the current implementation.
68a4a7e4 2982
6df41af2 2983=item Semicolon seems to be missing
a0d0e21e 2984
75b44862
GS
2985(W semicolon) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing
2986semicolon, or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
a0d0e21e
LW
2987
2988=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
2989
be771a83
GS
2990(S internal) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a
2991scalar that had previously been marked as free.
a0d0e21e 2992
6df41af2 2993=item sem%s not implemented
a0d0e21e 2994
6df41af2 2995(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
a0d0e21e 2996
69282e91 2997=item send() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2998
be771a83 2999(W closed) The socket you're sending to got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 3000before now. Check your control flow.
a0d0e21e 3001
79eeca27 3002=item Sequence (? incomplete before << HERE mark in regex m/%s/
7b8d334a 3003
79eeca27 3004(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?. The <<<HERE
b45f050a 3005shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See
be771a83 3006L<perlre>.
1b1626e4 3007
551e1d92 3008=item Sequence (?{...}) not terminated or not {}-balanced in %s
b45f050a
JF
3009
3010(F) If the contents of a (?{...}) clause contains braces, they must balance
3011for Perl to properly detect the end of the clause. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3012
551e1d92 3013=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented before << HERE mark in %s
a0d0e21e 3014
b45f050a 3015(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved but
79eeca27 3016has not yet been written. The << HERE shows in the regular expression about
b45f050a
JF
3017where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
3018
551e1d92 3019=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized before << HERE mark in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
3020
3021(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
79eeca27 3022The << HERE shows in the regular expression about
64977eb6 3023where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e
LW
3024See L<perlre>.
3025
b45f050a 3026=item Sequence (?#... not terminated in regex m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
3027
3028(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
3029parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
3030
3031=item 500 Server error
3032
3033See Server error.
3034
a5f75d66
AD
3035=item Server error
3036
3cdd684c 3037This is the error message generally seen in a browser window when trying
be771a83
GS
3038to run a CGI program (including SSI) over the web. The actual error text
3039varies widely from server to server. The most frequently-seen variants
3040are "500 Server error", "Method (something) not permitted", "Document
3041contains no data", "Premature end of script headers", and "Did not
3042produce a valid header".
9607fc9c 3043
3044B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
3045
be771a83
GS
3046You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the
3047user CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user
3048account you tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables
3049(like PATH) from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a
3050location where the CGI server can't find it, basically, more or less.
3051Please see the following for more information:
9607fc9c 3052
be94a901
GS
3053 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/idiots-guide.html
3054 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/perl-cgi-faq.html
9607fc9c 3055 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/www/cgi-faq
3056 http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/interface.html
3057 http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/WWW/faqs/www-security-faq.html
a5f75d66 3058
be94a901
GS
3059You should also look at L<perlfaq9>.
3060
a0d0e21e
LW
3061=item setegid() not implemented
3062
be771a83
GS
3063(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't
3064support the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
3065didn't think so.
a0d0e21e
LW
3066
3067=item seteuid() not implemented
3068
be771a83
GS
3069(F) You tried to assign to C<< $> >>, and your operating system doesn't
3070support the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
3071didn't think so.
a0d0e21e 3072
81777298
GS
3073=item setpgrp can't take arguments
3074
be771a83
GS
3075(F) Your system has the setpgrp() from BSD 4.2, which takes no
3076arguments, unlike POSIX setpgid(), which takes a process ID and process
3077group ID.
81777298 3078
a0d0e21e
LW
3079=item setrgid() not implemented
3080
be771a83
GS
3081(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't
3082support the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
3083didn't think so.
a0d0e21e
LW
3084
3085=item setruid() not implemented
3086
be771a83
GS
3087(F) You tried to assign to C<$<>, and your operating system doesn't
3088support the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure
3089didn't think so.
a0d0e21e 3090
6df41af2
GS
3091=item setsockopt() on closed socket %s
3092
be771a83
GS
3093(W closed) You tried to set a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
3094forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
3095L<perlfunc/setsockopt>.
3096
a0d0e21e
LW
3097=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
3098
be771a83
GS
3099(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the
3100world, because the world might have written on it already.
a0d0e21e
LW
3101
3102=item shm%s not implemented
3103
3104(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
3105
6df41af2
GS
3106=item <> should be quotes
3107
3108(F) You wrote C<< require <file> >> when you should have written
3109C<require 'file'>.
3110
3111=item /%s/ should probably be written as "%s"
3112
3113(W syntax) You have used a pattern where Perl expected to find a string,
be771a83
GS
3114as in the first argument to C<join>. Perl will treat the true or false
3115result of matching the pattern against $_ as the string, which is
3116probably not what you had in mind.
6df41af2 3117
69282e91 3118=item shutdown() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 3119
75b44862
GS
3120(W closed) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit
3121superfluous.
a0d0e21e 3122
f86702cc 3123=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e 3124
be771a83
GS
3125(W signal) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist.
3126Perhaps you put it into the wrong package?
a0d0e21e
LW
3127
3128=item sort is now a reserved word
3129
3130(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
3131But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
3132
3133=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
3134
3135(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
c47ff5f1 3136it by not using C<< <=> >> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
3137See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3138
3139=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
3140
3141(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
3142or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3143
3144=item Split loop
3145
be771a83
GS
3146(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't
3147iterate more times than there are characters of input, which is what
3148happened.) See L<perlfunc/split>.
a0d0e21e 3149
a0d0e21e
LW
3150=item Statement unlikely to be reached
3151
be771a83
GS
3152(W exec) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a
3153die(). This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns
3154unless there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system()
3155instead, which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in
3156a block by itself.
a0d0e21e 3157
9ddeeac9 3158=item stat() on unopened filehandle %s
6df41af2 3159
355b1299
JH
3160(W unopened) You tried to use the stat() function on a filehandle that
3161was either never opened or has since been closed.
6df41af2 3162
7a4340ed 3163=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading %s
e7ea3e70 3164
be771a83
GS
3165(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation
3166stubs. Stubs should never be implicitly created, but explicit calls to
3167C<can> may break this.
e7ea3e70 3168
a0d0e21e
LW
3169=item Subroutine %s redefined
3170
e476b1b5 3171(W redefine) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
3172
3173 {
4438c4b7 3174 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
3175 eval "sub name { ... }";
3176 }
3177
3178=item Substitution loop
3179
be771a83
GS
3180(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a substitution
3181shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of input, which
3182is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 3183L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
3184
3185=item Substitution pattern not terminated
3186
3187(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
3188construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 3189Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
3190
3191=item Substitution replacement not terminated
3192
3193(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
3194construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 3195Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
3196
3197=item substr outside of string
3198
be771a83
GS
3199(W substr),(F) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of
3200a string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
3201length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is fatal if
3202substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side of an
3203assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 3204
f86702cc 3205=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e 3206
be771a83
GS
3207(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but
3208a version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
a0d0e21e 3209
551e1d92 3210=item Switch (?(condition)... contains too many branches before << HE%s
b45f050a
JF
3211
3212(F) A (?(condition)if-clause|else-clause) construct can have at most two
3213branches (the if-clause and the else-clause). If you want one or both to
3214contain alternation, such as using C<this|that|other>, enclose it in
3215clustering parentheses:
3216
3217 (?(condition)(?:this|that|other)|else-clause)
3218
79eeca27 3219The << HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
3220discovered. See L<perlre>.
3221
79eeca27 3222=item Switch condition not recognized before << HERE in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
3223
3224(F) If the argument to the (?(...)if-clause|else-clause) construct is a
79eeca27 3225number, it can be only a number. The << HERE shows in the regular expression
b45f050a
JF
3226about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
3227
85ab1d1d
JH
3228=item switching effective %s is not implemented
3229
be771a83
GS
3230(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, we cannot switch the real
3231and effective uids or gids.
85ab1d1d 3232
a0d0e21e
LW
3233=item syntax error
3234
3235(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
3236
3237 A keyword is misspelled.
3238 A semicolon is missing.
3239 A comma is missing.
3240 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
3241 An opening or closing brace is missing.
3242 A closing quote is missing.
3243
3244Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
3245error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
3246The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
3247it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 3248before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
3249Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
3250the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
3251C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
be771a83
GS
3252if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20
3253questions>.
a0d0e21e 3254
cb1a09d0
AD
3255=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
3256
be771a83
GS
3257(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3258of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3259yourself.
cb1a09d0 3260
6df41af2
GS
3261=item %s syntax OK
3262
3263(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
3264
6087ac44 3265=item System V %s is not implemented on this machine
a0d0e21e 3266
6087ac44
JH
3267(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem",
3268"shm", or "msg" but that System V IPC is not implemented in your
3269machine. In some machines the functionality can exist but be
3270unconfigured. Consult your system support.
a0d0e21e 3271
69282e91 3272=item syswrite() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e 3273
be771a83 3274(W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime
c289d2f7 3275before now. Check your control flow.
a0d0e21e 3276
fc36a67e 3277=item Target of goto is too deeply nested
3278
be771a83
GS
3279(F) You tried to use C<goto> to reach a label that was too deeply nested
3280for Perl to reach. Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.
fc36a67e 3281
9ddeeac9 3282=item tell() on unopened filehandle
a0d0e21e 3283
be771a83
GS
3284(W unopened) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that
3285was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e 3286
a0d0e21e
LW
3287=item That use of $[ is unsupported
3288
be771a83
GS
3289(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted
3290as a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
3291
3292 $[ = 0;
3293 $[ = 1;
3294 ...
3295 local $[ = 0;
3296 local $[ = 1;
3297 ...
3298
be771a83
GS
3299This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base out
3300from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
a0d0e21e 3301
f86702cc 3302=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
a0d0e21e
LW
3303
3304(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
3305probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 3306think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
3307will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
3308will deny it.
3309
6df41af2
GS
3310=item The %s function is unimplemented
3311
3312The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
3313to the probings of Configure.
3314
5e1c7ca2 3315=item The stat preceding %s wasn't an lstat
a0d0e21e 3316
be771a83
GS
3317(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic
3318linkhood if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went
3319past the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename
3320instead.
a0d0e21e 3321
437784d6 3322=item This Perl can't reset CRTL environ elements (%s)
f675dbe5
CB
3323
3324=item This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s)
3325
75b44862 3326(W internal) Warnings peculiar to VMS. You tried to change or delete an
be771a83
GS
3327element of the CRTL's internal environ array, but your copy of Perl
3328wasn't built with a CRTL that contained the setenv() function. You'll
3329need to rebuild Perl with a CRTL that does, or redefine
3330F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that the environ array isn't the
3331target of the change to
f675dbe5
CB
3332%ENV which produced the warning.
3333
a0d0e21e
LW
3334=item times not implemented
3335
be771a83
GS
3336(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I
3337suspect you're not running on Unix.
a0d0e21e
LW
3338
3339=item Too few args to syscall
3340
3341(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
3342system call to call, silly dilly.
3343
9607fc9c 3344=item Too late for "B<-T>" option
3345
3346(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
8cc95fdb 3347B<-T> option, but Perl was not invoked with B<-T> in its command line.
3348This is an error because, by the time Perl discovers a B<-T> in a
3349script, it's too late to properly taint everything from the environment.
3350So Perl gives up.
f86702cc 3351
9607fc9c 3352If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!
be771a83
GS
3353mechanism (or its local equivalent), this error can usually be fixed by
3354editing the #! line so that the B<-T> option is a part of Perl's first
3355argument: e.g. change C<perl -n -T> to C<perl -T -n>.
f86702cc 3356
9607fc9c 3357If the Perl script is being executed as C<perl scriptname>, then the
3358B<-T> option must appear on the command line: C<perl -T scriptname>.
f86702cc 3359
8cc95fdb 3360=item Too late for "-%s" option
3361
3362(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
3363B<-M> or B<-m> option. This is an error because B<-M> and B<-m> options