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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
6df41af2 53=item Allocation too large: %lx
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous overloaded argument to %s resolved as %s
80
81(W ambiguous) You called C<keys>, C<values> or C<each> on an object that had
82overloading of C<%{}> or C<@{}> or both. In such a case, the object is
83dereferenced according to its overloading, not its underlying reference type.
84The warning is issued when C<%{}> overloading exists on a blessed arrayref,
85when C<@{}> overloading exists on a blessed hashref, or when both overloadings
86are defined (in which case C<%{}> is used). You can force the interpretation
c69ca1d4 87of the object by explicitly dereferencing it as an array or hash instead of
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88passing the object itself to C<keys>, C<values> or C<each>.
89
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90=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
91
92(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
93all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
94first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
95C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
96
6df41af2 97=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 98
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99(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
100you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
101a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 102
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103=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
104
105(W ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
106bitwise and, and multpication), and you said something like C<*foo *
107foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We assumed you
108meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more clear -- in
109the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you really meant
110to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
111
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112=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
113
114(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
115asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
116named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
117the varable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
118function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
119and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
120
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121=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s%s} resolved to %c%s%s
122
123(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}>, which might be
124looking for element number 2 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case
125please write C<$foo[2]>, or you might have meant to pass an anonymous
126arrayref to the function named foo, then do a scalar deref on the
127value it returns. If you meant that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
128
bdac9d71 129=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
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130
131(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
132string C<"-foo"> (outside of C<use strict 'subs'>), or a call to the
133function C<foo>, negated. If you meant the string, just write
134C<"-foo">, and please use strict. If you meant the function call,
135write C<-foo()>.
136
6df41af2 137=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 138
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139(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
140redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
141redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 142
6df41af2 143=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 144
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145(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
146redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
147into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
148though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
149which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 150
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151 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
152 while (<STDIN>) {
153 print;
154 print OUT;
155 }
156 close OUT;
c9f97d15 157
6df41af2 158=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 159
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160(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
161transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 162one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 163a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
164hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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165you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
166alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 167
6df41af2 168=item Args must match #! line
a0d0e21e 169
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170(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
171with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
172impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
173for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 174
6df41af2 175=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 176
6df41af2 177(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 178
b0fdf69e 179=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 180
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181(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
182subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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183
184 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 185 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 186 &do_something
a0d0e21e 187
8ea97a1e 188=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 189
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190(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
191such as:
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192
193 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 194 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 195
8ea97a1e 196or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 197
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198 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
199 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 200
6df41af2 201=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 202
6df41af2 203(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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204name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
205error.
a0d0e21e 206
f86702cc 207=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 208
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209(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
210that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
211will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 212
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213=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
214
215(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
216forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
217data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
218the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
219If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
220the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
221
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222=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
223
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224(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
225spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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226
227=item assertion botched: %s
228
229(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
230
231=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
232
233(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
234
235=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
236
237(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
238must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
239know which context to supply to the right side.
240
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241=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
242
4447dfc1 243(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
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244thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
245Usually it's a good idea to first collect the return values of the
246created threads by joining them, and only then exit from the main
247thread. See L<threads>.
248
2393f1b9 249=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 250
49293501 251(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 252the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 253
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254=item Attempt to bless into a reference
255
256(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
257the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
258supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
259
260 bless $self, $proto;
261
262when you intended
263
264 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
265
266If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
267of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
268example by:
269
270 bless $self, "$proto";
271
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272=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
273
274(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
275which is not in its key set.
276
277=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
278
279(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
280declared readonly from a restricted hash.
281
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282=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
283
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284(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
285that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
286outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 287
54310121 288=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 289
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290(P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of
291strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
292strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
293of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 294
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295=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
296
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297(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
298free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
299SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
300free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
301try to free it.
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302
303=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
304
e476b1b5 305(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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306
307=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
308
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309(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
310see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
311earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
312This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
313that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
314mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
315corrupted.
a0d0e21e 316
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317=item Attempt to join self
318
319(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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320impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
321to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 322
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323=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
324
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325(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
326function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
327means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
328invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
329literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
330avoid this warning.
84902520 331
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332=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
333
334(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
335compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
336unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
337L<perlvar/%INC>.
338
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339=item Attempt to set length of freed array
340
341(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
342can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
343of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
344
345 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
346 $$r = 503
347
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348=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
349
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350(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
351used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
352dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 353
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354=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
355
356(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "locked"
357attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no
358effect since 5005 threads were removed, and will be removed in the next major
359release of Perl 5.
360
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361=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
362
363(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragam to modify the "unique"
b7a2910f 364attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference. The :unique attribute has
259976bd 365had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in the next major
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366release of Perl 5.
367
fe13d51d 368=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
a0d0e21e 369
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370(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
371or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 372S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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373S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
374
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375=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
376
496a33f5 377(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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378substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
379most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
380
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381=item Bad filehandle: %s
382
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383(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
384symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
385open(), or did it in another package.
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386
387=item Bad free() ignored
388
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389(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
390been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 391setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 392
9ea8bc6d 393This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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394dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
395which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 396
aa689395
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397=item Bad hash
398
399(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
400
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401=item Badly placed ()'s
402
403(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
404of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
405Perl yourself.
406
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407=item Bad name after %s::
408
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409(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
410didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
411of quotes, so
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412
413 $var = 'myvar';
414 $sym = mypack::$var;
415
416is not the same as
417
418 $var = 'myvar';
419 $sym = "mypack::$var";
420
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421=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
422
423(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
424plugin API.
425
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426=item Bad realloc() ignored
427
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428(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
429never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
430by setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 431
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432=item Bad symbol for array
433
434(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
435wasn't a symbol table entry.
436
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437=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
438
439(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
440that wasn't a symbol table entry.
441
442
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443=item Bad symbol for filehandle
444
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445(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
446that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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447
448=item Bad symbol for hash
449
450(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
451wasn't a symbol table entry.
452
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453=item Bareword found in conditional
454
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455(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
456conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
457of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
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458
459 open FOO || die;
460
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461It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
462a bareword:
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463
464 use constant TYPO => 1;
465 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
466
467The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
468
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469=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
470
471(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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472subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
473symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
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474
475=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
476
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477(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
478compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
479you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 480
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481=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
482
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483(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
484subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
485exited.
a0d0e21e 486
68dc0745
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487=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
488
489(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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490implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
491occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
492be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
493depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 494
6df41af2
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495=item \1 better written as $1
496
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497(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
498The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
499substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
500because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
501there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 502
252aa082
JH
503=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
504
e476b1b5 505(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
506(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
507L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 508
69282e91 509=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 510
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511(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
512check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 513
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514=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
515
516(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
517Check you control flow and number of arguments.
518
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519=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
520
e476b1b5 521(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 522
4633a7c4
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523=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
524
be771a83 525(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
b45f050a 526copyable.
4633a7c4 527
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528=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
529
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530(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
531iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
532which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 533
a0d0e21e
LW
534=item Callback called exit
535
4929bf7b 536(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
537exited by calling exit.
538
6df41af2 539=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 540
be771a83
GS
541(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
542parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
543that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
544early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
545subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
546checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
547function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
548the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 549
49704364 550=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
551
552(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
553compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
554attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
555See L<perlfunc/pack>.
556
49704364 557=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
558
559(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
560format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
561
5c1f4d79
NC
562=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
563
564(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
565then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
566triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
567from that type of reference to a typeglob.
568
ba2fdce6
NC
569=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
570
571(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
572be directly assigned not.
573
b5d97229
RGS
574=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
575
576(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
577either with open() or binmode().
578
96ebfdd7
RK
579=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
580
581(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
582integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
583to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
584
a0d0e21e
LW
585=item Can't bless non-reference value
586
587(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
588encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
589
dc57907a
RGS
590=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
591
0d863452
RH
592(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
593a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
594
595=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 596
0d863452
RH
597(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
598
a0d0e21e
LW
599=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
600
601(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
602functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
603in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
604
6df41af2
GS
605=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
606
607(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
608object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
609like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
610
611 $BADREF = undef;
612 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
613 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
614
a0d0e21e
LW
615=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
616
54310121 617(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
618ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
619didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
620object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
621
622=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
623
624(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
625object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
626defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
627Something like this will reproduce the error:
628
629 $BADREF = 42;
630 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
631 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
632
a0d0e21e
LW
633=item Can't chdir to %s
634
635(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
636that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
637
0545a864 638=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 639
be771a83
GS
640(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
641nosuid.
104d25b7 642
6df41af2
GS
643=item Can't coerce array into hash
644
645(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
646information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
647only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
648
a0d0e21e
LW
649=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
650
651(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 652(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
653say things like:
654
655 *foo += 1;
656
657You CAN say
658
659 $foo = *foo;
660 $foo += 1;
661
662but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
663
664=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
665
666(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 667(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
668
669=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
670
671(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 672(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 673
0d863452 674=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 675
0d863452
RH
676(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
677or C<default> block.
678
a0d0e21e
LW
679=item Can't create pipe mailbox
680
be771a83
GS
681(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
682quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 683
eb64745e 684=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 685
2f7e735d 686(F) Currently, only scalar variables can be declared with a specific
30c282f6 687class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration. The semantics may be
2f7e735d 688extended for other types of variables in future.
eb64745e
GS
689
690=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
691
30c282f6
NC
692(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
693"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 694
6df41af2
GS
695=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
696
be771a83
GS
697(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
698a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 699
a0d0e21e
LW
700=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
701
be771a83
GS
702(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
703reason.
a0d0e21e 704
54310121 705=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 706
be771a83
GS
707(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
708reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
709C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 710
10f9c03d 711=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 712
e476b1b5 713(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
714characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
715inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 716
7253e4e3 717=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 718
b45f050a 719(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 720regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 721regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 722
a0d0e21e
LW
723=item Can't do waitpid with flags
724
be771a83
GS
725(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
726waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 727
a0d0e21e
LW
728=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
729
be771a83
GS
730(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
731point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
732line.
a0d0e21e 733
1109a392
MHM
734=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
735
736(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
737or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
738little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
739See L<perlfunc/pack>.
740
a0d0e21e
LW
741=item Can't exec "%s": %s
742
d1be9408 743(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
744named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
745permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
746C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
747architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
748can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
749#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
750
751=item Can't exec %s
752
be771a83
GS
753(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
754that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
755need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
756
757=item Can't execute %s
758
be771a83
GS
759(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
760found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 761
6df41af2 762=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 763
be771a83
GS
764(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
765is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 766
56ca2fc0
JH
767=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
768
769(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
e1b711da
KW
770could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
771See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
772for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 773
6df41af2
GS
774=item Can't find label %s
775
be771a83
GS
776(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
777possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
778
779=item Can't find %s on PATH
780
be771a83
GS
781(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
782found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 783
6df41af2 784=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 785
be771a83
GS
786(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
787found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
788script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
789
790=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
791
be771a83
GS
792(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
793that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
794nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 795
fb73857a
PP
796 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
797
be771a83
GS
798If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included
799unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's
800editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e 801
660a4616
ST
802=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
803
804(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode property (for
e1b711da
KW
805example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase letters). If you did mean to use a
806Unicode property, see
807L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
808for a complete list of available properties.
660a4616
ST
809If you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either
810by C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, until
811possible C<\E>).
812
b3647a36 813=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 814
be771a83
GS
815(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
816pipeline.
a0d0e21e 817
b3647a36
SR
818=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
819
c973c02e 820(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
821after five seconds.
822
748a9306
LW
823=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
824
be771a83
GS
825(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
826between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
827Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
828the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
829account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
830the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
831the access checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
832the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
833if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
834because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
835appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up
836and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking
837routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
838shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
839only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 840
a0d0e21e
LW
841=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
842
be771a83
GS
843(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
844pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
845
846=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
847
748a9306
LW
848(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
849mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 850
6df41af2 851=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 852
be771a83
GS
853(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
854loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
855
856=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
857
be771a83
GS
858(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
859a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
860you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
861See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 862
9850bf21 863=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 864
9850bf21
RH
865(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
866comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
867as the reduce() function in List::Util).
868
c74ace89 869=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 870
be771a83 871(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 872"string" or block.
b150fb22 873
6df41af2
GS
874=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
875
be771a83
GS
876(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
877subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
878cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
879routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 880
0b5b802d
GS
881=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
882
be771a83
GS
883(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
884signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
885signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
886processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
887situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
888may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 889
e2c0f81f
DG
890=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
891
892(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
893attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
894process identifier.
895
6df41af2 896=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 897
6df41af2 898(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
899except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
900block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
901block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
902usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
903inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
904L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 905
2c7d6b9c
RGS
906=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
907
908(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
909package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
910
b8170e59
JB
911=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
912
913(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
914may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
915incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
916between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 917extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
918installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
919extensions.
920
748a9306
LW
921=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
922
2ba9eb46 923(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 924lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
925localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
926package name.
927
6df41af2 928=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 929
6df41af2
GS
930(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
931handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 932pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 933that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 934
ea071790 935=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
936
937(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
938found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
939unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
940need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
941the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
942to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
943L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 944
6df41af2
GS
945=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
946
be771a83
GS
947(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
948autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
949are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
950the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 951
b8170e59
JB
952=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
953
954(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
955for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
956unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
957
a0d0e21e
LW
958=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
959
960(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
961functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 962method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
963
964=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
965
be771a83
GS
966(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
967doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 968
2f7da168
RK
969=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
970
971(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
972e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
973
3e3baf6d
TB
974=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
975
be771a83
GS
976(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
977VMS.
3e3baf6d 978
a0d0e21e
LW
979=item Can't modify %s in %s
980
be771a83
GS
981(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
982to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 983
54310121 984=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
985
986(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
987a NULL.
988
6df41af2
GS
989=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
990
991(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
992such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
993
5f05dabc 994=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 995
5f05dabc 996(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
997buffer.
998
6df41af2
GS
999=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1000
1001(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1002there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1003count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1004grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1005though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1006once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1007
a0d0e21e
LW
1008=item Can't open %s: %s
1009
c47ff5f1 1010(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
1011filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
1012switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
1013is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
1014the command line.
a0d0e21e 1015
9a869a14
RGS
1016=item Can't open a reference
1017
1018(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
1019using the 3-arg open() syntax :
1020
1021 open FH, '>', $ref;
1022
1023but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1024open is not supported.
1025
a0d0e21e
LW
1026=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1027
be771a83
GS
1028(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1029You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1030as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1031">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1032
748a9306
LW
1033=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1034
be771a83
GS
1035(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1036redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1037the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1038
1039=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1040
be771a83
GS
1041(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1042redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1043command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1044
1045=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1046
be771a83
GS
1047(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1048redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1049the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1050
1051=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1052
be771a83
GS
1053(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1054redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1055for stdout.
748a9306 1056
2b8ca739 1057=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
1058
1059(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1060
fa3aa65a
JC
1061If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1062shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1063you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1064
6df41af2
GS
1065=item Can't read CRTL environ
1066
1067(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1068from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1069missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1070or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1071searched.
6df41af2 1072
6df41af2
GS
1073=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1074
1075(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1076there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1077count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1078or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1079though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1080loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1081
64977eb6 1082=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1083
be771a83
GS
1084(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1085file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1086the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1087
a0d0e21e
LW
1088=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1089
e476b1b5 1090(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1091probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1092
748a9306
LW
1093=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1094
be771a83
GS
1095(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1096to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1097
fe13d51d 1098=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1099
be771a83
GS
1100(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
1101to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
1102method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1103
cd06dffe
GS
1104=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1105
be771a83
GS
1106(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1107temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1108is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1109
96ebfdd7
RK
1110=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1111
1112(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1113there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1114
78f9721b
SM
1115=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1116
1117(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1118but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1119to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1120the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1121list context.
1122
a0d0e21e
LW
1123=item Can't stat script "%s"
1124
be771a83
GS
1125(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1126open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1127
a0d0e21e
LW
1128=item Can't take log of %g
1129
fb73857a
PP
1130(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1131negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1132standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1133negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1134
1135=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1136
1137(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1138negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1139with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1140
1141=item Can't undef active subroutine
1142
1143(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1144however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1145redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1146
1147=item Can't unshift
1148
1149(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1150as the main Perl stack.
1151
c81225bc 1152=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1153
be771a83
GS
1154(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1155into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1156specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1157indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1158
1db89ea5
BS
1159=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1160
e27ad1f2 1161(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1162table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1163for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1164
96ebfdd7
RK
1165=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1166
1167(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1168be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1169
6df41af2
GS
1170=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1171
be771a83
GS
1172(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1173references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1174
90b75b61 1175=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1176
1177(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1178Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1179provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1180
1109a392
MHM
1181=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1182
1183(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1184byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1185allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1186
6df41af2
GS
1187=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1188
be771a83
GS
1189(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1190foreach.
6df41af2 1191
aab6a793 1192=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1193
be771a83
GS
1194(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1195is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1196(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1197have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1198weren't.
1199
6d3b25aa
RGS
1200=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1201
1202(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1203that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1204For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1205is inside a big-endian group.
1206
c07a80fd
PP
1207=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1208
1209(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1210You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1211and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1212Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1213lexical variable.
1214
a0d0e21e
LW
1215=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1216
1217(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1218reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1219test the type of the reference, if need be.
1220
748a9306 1221=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1222
be771a83
GS
1223(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1224references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1225
748a9306
LW
1226=item Can't use subscript on %s
1227
1228(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1229subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1230didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1231
6df41af2
GS
1232=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1233
75b44862
GS
1234(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1235creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1236backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1237expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1238value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1239instead.
6df41af2 1240
0d863452 1241=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1242
0d863452
RH
1243(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1244loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1245from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1246or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1247
810b8aa5
GS
1248=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1249
1250(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1251references can be weakened.
1252
5f05dabc 1253=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1254
be771a83
GS
1255(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1256with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1257Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1258
4a68bf9d 1259=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529
KW
1260
1261(F) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
1262
f337b084 1263=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1264
1265(W pack) You said
1266
1267 pack("C", $x)
1268
1269where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1270only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1271and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1272
1273 pack("C", $x & 255)
1274
1275If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1276instead.
1277
f337b084
TH
1278=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1279
1280(W pack) You said
1281
1282 pack("U0W", $x)
1283
1284where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1285all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1286meant:
1287
1288 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1289
1290=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1291
1292(W pack) You said
1293
1294 pack("c", $x)
1295
1296where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1297is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1298and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1299
1300 pack("c", $x & 255);
1301
1302If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1303instead.
1304
f337b084
TH
1305=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1306
1307(W unpack) You tried something like
1308
1309 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1310
1a147d38 1311where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1312below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1313modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1314
1315 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1316
1317=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1318
1319(W pack) You tried something like
1320
1321 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1322
1a147d38
YO
1323where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1324value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1325uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1326
1327 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1328
1329=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1330
1331(W unpack) You tried something like
1332
1333 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1334
1a147d38
YO
1335where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1336value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1337uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1338
1339 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1340
96ebfdd7
RK
1341=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1342
1343(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1344
abc7ecad
SP
1345=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1346
1347(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1348a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1349
541ed3a9
FC
1350=item Closure prototype called
1351
1352(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1353handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1354This subroutine cannot be called.
1355
49704364
LW
1356=item Code missing after '/'
1357
1358(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1359template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1360
6df41af2
GS
1361=item %s: Command not found
1362
be771a83
GS
1363(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1364Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1365
7a2e2cd6
PP
1366=item Compilation failed in require
1367
1368(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1369Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1370encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1371
c3464db5
DD
1372=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1373
be771a83
GS
1374(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1375situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1376to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1377arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1378recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1379under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1380in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1381that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1382on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1383
38875929
DM
1384=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1385
1386(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1387cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
1388function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1389cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1390has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1391first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1392after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1393lock.
1394
38875929
DM
1395=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1396
1397(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1398cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
1399function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
1400cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
1401has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread to
1402first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
1403after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1404lock.
1405
69282e91 1406=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1407
be771a83
GS
1408(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1409to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1410L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1411
41ab332f 1412=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1413
be771a83
GS
1414(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1415an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1416specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1417corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1418L<overload>.
6df41af2 1419
fc8cd66c
YO
1420=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1421
1a147d38
YO
1422(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1423the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1424forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1425See L<charnames>.
1426
1427
779c5bc9
GS
1428=item Constant is not %s reference
1429
1430(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1431is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1432The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1433usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1434See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1435
4cee8e80
CS
1436=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1437
bb028877 1438(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1439eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1440commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1441
9607fc9c
PP
1442=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1443
be771a83
GS
1444(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1445for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1446workarounds.
9607fc9c 1447
e7ea3e70
IZ
1448=item Copy method did not return a reference
1449
64977eb6 1450(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1451L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1452
6798c92b
GS
1453=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1454
1455(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1456
a0d0e21e
LW
1457=item corrupted regexp pointers
1458
1459(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1460expression compiler gave it.
1461
1462=item corrupted regexp program
1463
be771a83
GS
1464(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1465valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1466
6df41af2
GS
1467=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1468
1469(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1470
49704364
LW
1471=item Count after length/code in unpack
1472
1473(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1474you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1475L<perlfunc/pack>.
1476
1408fb84 1477=item "\c%c" more clearly written simply as "%s"
f9d13529
KW
1478
1479(D deprecated) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1480non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1408fb84
KW
1481written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1482characters. This message may not remain as Deprecated beyond 5.13.
f9d13529 1483
a0d0e21e
LW
1484=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1485
be771a83
GS
1486(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1487100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1488infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1489which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1490
aad1d01f
NC
1491This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1492setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1493
f10b0346 1494=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1495
be771a83
GS
1496(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1497checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1498array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1499
f10b0346 1500=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1501
be771a83
GS
1502(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it
1503checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash
64977eb6 1504is empty, just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1505
62658f4d
PM
1506=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1507
1508(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1509there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1510
fc36a67e
PP
1511=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1512
be771a83
GS
1513(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1514long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1515that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1516
4a68bf9d 1517=item Deprecated character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s<-- HERE %s
cb233ae3
KW
1518
1519(D deprecated) Just about anything is legal for the C<...> in C<\N{...}>.
1520But starting in 5.12, non-reasonable ones that don't look like names are
1521deprecated. A reasonable name begins with an alphabetic character and
1522continues with any combination of alphanumerics, dashes, spaces, parentheses or
1523colons.
1524
6d3b25aa
RGS
1525=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1526
1527(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1528There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1529not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1530conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1531static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1532relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1533declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1534
6d3b25aa
RGS
1535 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1536
1537becomes
1538
1539 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1540
36fb85f3
RGS
1541Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1542have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1543
1544 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1545
500ab966
RGS
1546=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1547
1548(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1549just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1550to create a dangling reference.
1551
3cdd684c
TP
1552=item Did not produce a valid header
1553
1554See Server error.
1555
6df41af2
GS
1556=item %s did not return a true value
1557
1558(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1559it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1560traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1561do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1562
cc507455 1563=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1564
413ff9f6
FC
1565(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1566some such.
4633a7c4 1567
cc507455 1568=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1569
be771a83
GS
1570(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1571variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1572seems superfluous.
33633739 1573
cc507455 1574=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1575
be771a83
GS
1576(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1577@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1578carried away.
748a9306 1579
7e1af8bc 1580=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1581
1582(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1583you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1584
3cdd684c
TP
1585=item Document contains no data
1586
1587See Server error.
1588
62658f4d
PM
1589=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1590
1591(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1592define a C<$VERSION.>
1593
49704364
LW
1594=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1595
1596(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1597See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1598
a0d0e21e
LW
1599=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1600
1601(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1602
1603=item do_study: out of memory
1604
1605(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1606
6df41af2
GS
1607=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1608
56da5a46
RGS
1609(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1610"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1611name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1612because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1613"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1614something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1615subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1616"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1617
ac206dc8
RGS
1618=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1619
1620(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1621qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1622
84d78eb7
YO
1623=item dump is not supported
1624
1625(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1626
a0d0e21e
LW
1627=item Duplicate free() ignored
1628
be771a83
GS
1629(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1630already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1631
1109a392
MHM
1632=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1633
1634(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1635in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1636
4633a7c4
LW
1637=item elseif should be elsif
1638
56da5a46
RGS
1639(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1640ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1641"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1642unlikely to be what you want.
1643
ab13f0c7
JH
1644=item Empty %s
1645
af6f566e
HS
1646(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1647described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1648a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1649
85ab1d1d 1650=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1651
85ab1d1d 1652(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1653effective uids or gids failed.
1654
c038024b
RGS
1655=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1656
1657(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1658aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1659program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1660
748a9306
LW
1661=item Error converting file specification %s
1662
5f05dabc 1663(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1664specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1665single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1666an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1667conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1668
e4d48cc9
GS
1669=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1670
be771a83
GS
1671(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1672expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1673is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1674
fc8f615e 1675=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1676
be771a83
GS
1677(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1678C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
1679pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it
1680is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly
1681building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and using
1682that in an eval(). See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1683
6df41af2
GS
1684=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1685
be771a83
GS
1686(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1687assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1688pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1689
1a147d38
YO
1690=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1691
1692(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1693any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1694
1695The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1696discovered.
1697
fc36a67e
PP
1698=item Excessively long <> operator
1699
1700(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1701Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1702filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1703variable and glob that.
1704
ed9aa3b7
SG
1705=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1706
1707(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented in MacPerl. See L<perlport>.
1708
fe13d51d 1709=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1710
1711(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1712
1713=item Exiting eval via %s
1714
be771a83
GS
1715(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1716goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1717
1718=item Exiting format via %s
1719
9a2ff54b 1720(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1721goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1722
0a753a76
PP
1723=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1724
be771a83
GS
1725(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1726sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1727loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1728
a0d0e21e
LW
1729=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1730
be771a83
GS
1731(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1732as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1733
1734=item Exiting substitution via %s
1735
be771a83
GS
1736(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1737as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1738
7b8d334a
GS
1739=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1740
be771a83
GS
1741(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1742the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1743usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1744e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1745
6df41af2
GS
1746=item %s: Expression syntax
1747
be771a83
GS
1748(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1749Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1750
1751=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1752
3c10abe3
AG
1753(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1754CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1755queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1756
7253e4e3 1757=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1758
be771a83 1759(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1760character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1761in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1762"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1763problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1764
1b1ee2ef 1765=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1766
be771a83
GS
1767(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1768system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1769details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1770you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1771
1772=item fcntl is not implemented
1773
1774(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1775PDP-11 or something?
1776
22846ab4
AB
1777=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1778
1779(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1780is not possible.
1781
f337b084
TH
1782=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1783
1784(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1785which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1786a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
1787C<u63> as format.
1788
af8c498a 1789=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1790
6c8d78fb
HS
1791(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1792it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1793"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1794write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1795
af8c498a 1796=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1797
6c8d78fb
HS
1798(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1799you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
be771a83
GS
1800with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you
1801intended only to read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>.
6c8d78fb
HS
1802Another possibility is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0
1803(also known as STDIN) for output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1804
1805=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1806
1807(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1808as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1809previously.
1810
1811=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1812
1813(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1814as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1815
1816=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1817
1818(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1819a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1820happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1821name.
a0d0e21e 1822
56e90b21
GS
1823=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1824
be771a83 1825(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1826some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1827filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1828same name?
56e90b21 1829
6df41af2
GS
1830=item Format not terminated
1831
1832(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1833to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1834
a0d0e21e
LW
1835=item Format %s redefined
1836
e476b1b5 1837(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1838
1839 {
271595cc 1840 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1841 eval "format NAME =...";
1842 }
1843
a0d0e21e
LW
1844=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1845
e476b1b5 1846(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1847
1848 if ($foo = 123)
1849
1850when you meant
1851
1852 if ($foo == 123)
1853
1854(or something like that).
1855
6df41af2
GS
1856=item %s found where operator expected
1857
56da5a46
RGS
1858(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1859If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1860operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1861operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1862
a0d0e21e
LW
1863=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1864
1865(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1866
1867=item gethostent not implemented
1868
1869(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1870because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1871on the Internet.
1872
69282e91 1873=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1874
be771a83
GS
1875(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1876socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1877
748a9306
LW
1878=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1879
1880(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1881C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1882
6df41af2
GS
1883=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1884
be771a83
GS
1885(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1886forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1887L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1888
1889=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1890
a4edf47d 1891(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1892that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1893declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1894which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1895
e476b1b5
GS
1896=item glob failed (%s)
1897
be771a83
GS
1898(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1899C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1900C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1901nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1902resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1903broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1904config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1905were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1906empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1907think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1908C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1909
a0d0e21e
LW
1910=item Glob not terminated
1911
1912(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1913a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1914not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1915earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1916
8b56d6ff
FC
1917=item gmtime(%.0f) too large
1918
fc003d4b
MS
1919(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was larger than
1920it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1921date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1922not-a-number value).
1923
1924=item gmtime(%.0f) too small
1925
1926(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with an number that was smaller than
1927it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
1928date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
1929not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 1930
6df41af2 1931=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1932
6df41af2
GS
1933(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1934version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1935
1936=item goto must have label
1937
1938(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1939unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1940
49704364 1941=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1942
49704364 1943(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is
18529408 1944supposed to follow something: a template character or a ()-group.
49704364 1945 See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 1946
fe13d51d 1947=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
1948
1949(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
1950
a0d0e21e
LW
1951=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1952
be771a83
GS
1953(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
1954to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
1955created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
1956
1957=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1958
be771a83
GS
1959(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
1960spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 1961
6df41af2
GS
1962=item %s has too many errors
1963
1964(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
1965Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
1966
e6897b1a
KW
1967=item Having no space between pattern and following word is deprecated
1968
1969(D syntax)
1970
1971You had a word that isn't a regex modifier immediately following a pattern
1972without an intervening space. For example, the two constructs:
1973
1974 $a =~ m/$foo/sand $bar
1975 $a =~ m/$foo/s and $bar
1976
1977both currently mean the same thing, but it is planned to disallow the first form
1978in Perl 5.16. And,
1979
1980 $a =~ m/$foo/and $bar
1981
1982will be disallowed too.
1983
252aa082
JH
1984=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1985
e476b1b5 1986(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
1987(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1988L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1989
8903cb82
PP
1990=item Identifier too long
1991
1992(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 1993about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
1994names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
1995of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1996
c3c41406 1997=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 1998
ff3f963a
KW
1999(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return a
2000zero length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 2001its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2002been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2003
6df41af2 2004=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2005
6df41af2 2006(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2007
6df41af2 2008=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2009
be771a83
GS
2010(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2011binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2012offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2013
78d0fecf 2014=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2015
d5898338 2016(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2017would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2018when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2019version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2020to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2021
d37a9538
ST
2022=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2023
197afce1
MT
2024(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2025Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, and \.
d37a9538 2026
904d85c5
RGS
2027=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2028
2029(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
2030you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
2031
8e742a20
MHM
2032=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2033
2034(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
2035
a0d0e21e
LW
2036=item Illegal division by zero
2037
be771a83
GS
2038(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2039your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2040meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2041
6df41af2
GS
2042=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2043
be771a83
GS
2044(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2045A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2046number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2047
a0d0e21e
LW
2048=item Illegal modulus zero
2049
be771a83
GS
2050(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2051numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2052
6df41af2 2053=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2054
6df41af2
GS
2055(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2056two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2057
2058=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2059
d1be9408 2060(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2061
399388f4 2062=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2063
d1be9408 2064(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2065Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2066
fe13d51d 2067=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2068
6df41af2 2069(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2070following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2071
6df41af2 2072=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2073
75b44862 2074(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2075internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2076delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2077
6df41af2 2078=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2079
be771a83
GS
2080(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2081name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2082didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2083ignored.
54310121 2084
6df41af2 2085=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2086
be771a83
GS
2087(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2088the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2089system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2090times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2091would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2092
be771a83
GS
2093Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2094also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2095
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2096=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2097
2098(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2099C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2100documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2101
979699d9
JH
2102=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2103
2104(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2105Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2106encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2107
1a147d38
YO
2108=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2109
2110(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
2111text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
2112either consume text or fail.
2113
2114The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2115discovered.
2116
6dbe9451
NC
2117=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2118
2119(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2120of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2121C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2122as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2123
a0d0e21e
LW
2124=item Insecure dependency in %s
2125
8b1a09fc 2126(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2127The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2128setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2129tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2130from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2131such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2132L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2133
2134=item Insecure directory in %s
2135
be771a83
GS
2136(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2137setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2138the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2139See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2140
62f468fc 2141=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2142
2143(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2144setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2145C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2146supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2147the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2148
a7ae9550
GS
2149=item Integer overflow in %s number
2150
75b44862 2151(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2152either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2153your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2154On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2155representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
21560b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2157transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2158internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2159operations.
bbce6d69 2160
2fba7546
GA
2161=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2162
0be96356
AL
2163(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2164or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2fba7546
GA
2165integers for your architecture.
2166
46314c13
JP
2167=item Integer overflow in version
2168
2169(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2170size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2171because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2172element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2173trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2174100/9.
2175
7253e4e3 2176=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2177
2178(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2179The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2180discovered.
2181
748a9306
LW
2182=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2183
be771a83
GS
2184(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2185you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2186to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2187L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2188Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2189terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2190
7253e4e3 2191=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2192
7253e4e3
RK
2193(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2194<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2195discovered.
a0d0e21e 2196
6df41af2
GS
2197=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2198
75b44862 2199(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2200followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2201operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2202L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2203
09bef843
SB
2204=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2205
a4a4c9e2 2206(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2207by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2208
2209=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2210
a4a4c9e2 2211(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2212recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2213
c635e13b
PP
2214=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2215
be771a83
GS
2216(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2217L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2218
9e08bc66
ST
2219=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2220
2221(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2222didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2223from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2224The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2225The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2226escape was discovered.
2227
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2228=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2229
2230(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")>
2231or C<use mro 'foo'>, where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO).
2232(Currently, the only valid ones are C<dfs> and C<c3>). See L<mro>.
2233
7253e4e3 2234=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2235
2236(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2237greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2238C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2239up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2240problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2241
d1573ac7 2242=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2243
2244(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2245character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2246
09bef843
SB
2247=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2248
0120eecf 2249(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2250elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2251parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2252See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2253
b4581f09
JH
2254=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2255
2256(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a
2257colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
2258If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2259list was terminated too soon.
2260
2c86d456
DG
2261=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2262
2263(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2264A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2265decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2266v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2267The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2268See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2269
49704364 2270=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2271
49704364
LW
2272(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2273See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2274(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2275silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2276
2c86d456
DG
2277=item Invalid version format (%s)
2278
2279(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2280A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2281decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2282v-string. If the v-string has less than three components, it must have a
2283leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is optional. Both
2284decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a trailing "alpha"
2285component separated by an underscore character after a fractional or
2286dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized text indicates which
a6485a24 2287criteria were not met. See the L<version> module for more details on
2c86d456 2288allowed version formats.
46314c13 2289
798ae1b7
DG
2290=item Invalid version object
2291
2292(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid. Perhaps
2293the internals were modified directly in some way or an arbitrary reference
2294was blessed into the "version" class.
2295
a0d0e21e
LW
2296=item ioctl is not implemented
2297
2298(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2299strange for a machine that supports C.
2300
c289d2f7
JH
2301=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2302
2303(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
2304Check you control flow and number of arguments.
2305
fe13d51d 2306=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2307
2308(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
2309you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO Perl must be configured
2310with 'useperlio'.
2311
80cbd5ad
JH
2312=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2313
2314(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
2315neither as a system call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
2316
b4581f09
JH
2317=item $* is no longer supported
2318
d1d15184 2319(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older perls, has
4fd19576
B
2320been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In previous versions of perl the use of
2321C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line matching within a string.
2322
2323Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
2324modifiers. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value then all regular
2325expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2326
8ae1fe26
RGS
2327=item $# is no longer supported
2328
d1d15184 2329(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older perls, has
8ae1fe26
RGS
2330been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You should use the
2331printf/sprintf functions instead.
2332
6ad11d81
JH
2333=item `%s' is not a code reference
2334
04a80ee0
RGS
2335(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2336needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2337to a subroutine.
2338
2339=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2340
04a80ee0
RGS
2341(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2342unaware of.
6ad11d81 2343
a0d0e21e
LW
2344=item junk on end of regexp
2345
2346(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2347
2348=item Label not found for "last %s"
2349
be771a83
GS
2350(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2351of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2352L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2353
2354=item Label not found for "next %s"
2355
2356(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2357that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2358L<perlfunc/last>.
2359
2360=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2361
2362(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2363that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2364L<perlfunc/last>.
2365
85ab1d1d 2366=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2367
85ab1d1d 2368(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2369effective uids or gids failed.
2370
49704364
LW
2371=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2372
d7f8936a 2373(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
LW
2374length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2375an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2376
f0e67a1d
Z
2377=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2378
2379(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
2380(using L<lex_stuff_pvn_flags|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn_flags> or similar), but
2381tried to insert a character that couldn't be part of the current input.
2382This is an inherent pitfall of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the
2383reasons to avoid it. Where it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only
2384plain ASCII is recommended.
2385
2386=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2387
2388(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2389detectable way.
2390
69282e91 2391=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2392
be771a83
GS
2393(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2394to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2395L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2396
8b56d6ff
FC
2397=item localtime(%.0f) too large
2398
fc003d4b
MS
2399(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was larger
2400than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2401wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2402not-a-number value).
2403
2404=item localtime(%.0f) too small
2405
2406(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with an number that was smaller
2407than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
2408wrong date. This warning is also triggered with nan (the special
2409not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 2410
58e23c8d 2411=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2412
2413(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2414handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2415
b88df990
NC
2416=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2417
2418(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2419for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2420hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2421because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2422are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2423You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2424
2f7da168
RK
2425=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2426
2427(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2428by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2429instead on the filehandle.)
2430
885ef6f5
GG
2431=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2432
963d9ce9 2433(W misc) Making a subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined
d9159685
RS
2434by declaring the subroutine with an lvalue attribute is not
2435possible. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine add the
e2bd2e2b 2436lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the declaration before
885ef6f5
GG
2437the definition.
2438
96ebfdd7
RK
2439=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
2440
2441(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
2442values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context. See
2443L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
2444
49704364
LW
2445=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
2446
2447(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2448are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2449
2450=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2451
2452(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
2453are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2454
6df41af2
GS
2455=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2456
2457(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2458
2459 prefix1;prefix2
2460
2461or
6df41af2
GS
2462 prefix1 prefix2
2463
be771a83
GS
2464with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2465a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2466appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2467"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2468
2f758a16
ST
2469=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2470
d37a9538
ST
2471(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2472syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2473obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2474when the function is called.
2f758a16 2475
ba210ebe
JH
2476=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2477
2575c402
JW
2478(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2479encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2480
2575c402
JW
2481One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2482you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
24838-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2484
2485If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2486sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2487set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2488message.
2489
2490See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2491
dea0fc0b
JH
2492=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
2493
183097aa 2494(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
dea0fc0b
JH
2495doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2496
ff3f963a
KW
2497=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N
2498
2499(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2500
f337b084
TH
2501=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2502
2503(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2504rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2505
2506=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2507
2508(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2509rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2510
2511=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2512
2513(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2514rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2515
fe13d51d 2516=item Maximal count of pending signals (%d) exceeded
2563cec5 2517
fe13d51d 2518(F) Perl aborted due to a too high number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2519usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2520too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2521resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2522safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2523
49704364 2524=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2525
2526(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
7253e4e3
RK
2527regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2528shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2529See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2530
25f58aea
PN
2531=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2532
2533(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2534interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2535"use" or "my".
2536
49704364 2537=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2538
2539(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2540checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2541See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2542
a0d0e21e
LW
2543=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2544
2545(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2546doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2547
3cdd684c
TP
2548=item Method %s not permitted
2549
2550See Server error.
2551
a0d0e21e
LW
2552=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2553
2554(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2555by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2556ended earlier on the current line.
2557
2558=item Misplaced _ in number
2559
d4ced10d
JH
2560(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2561separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2562
7baa4690
HS
2563=item Missing argument in %s
2564
2565(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2566supplied.
2567
9e81e6a1
RGS
2568=item Missing argument to -%c
2569
2570(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2571immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2572
ff3f963a 2573=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2574
4a2d328f 2575(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
c3c41406
KW
2576double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space (or
2577comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2578This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately follow
2579the C<\N>.
423cee85 2580
f0a2b745
KW
2581=item Missing braces on \o{}
2582
2583(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2584
a0d0e21e
LW
2585=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2586
2587(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2588"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2589
06eaf0bc
GS
2590=item Missing command in piped open
2591
be771a83
GS
2592(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2593C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2594blank.
06eaf0bc 2595
961ce445
RGS
2596=item Missing control char name in \c
2597
2598(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2599character name.
2600
6df41af2
GS
2601=item Missing name in "my sub"
2602
be771a83
GS
2603(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2604they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2605
2606=item Missing $ on loop variable
2607
be771a83
GS
2608(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2609are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2610can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2611
cc507455 2612=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2613
56da5a46
RGS
2614(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2615"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2616
ab13f0c7
JH
2617=item Missing right brace on %s
2618
ff3f963a
KW
2619(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2620
4a68bf9d 2621=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2622
0a96133f
KW
2623(F)
2624C<\N> has two meanings.
2625
2626The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed
2627in braces, meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that name.
ff3f963a 2628Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
0a96133f
KW
2629double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns, it doesn't
2630have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
ff3f963a 2631
0a96133f 2632Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only) in
c3c41406
KW
2633patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short for
2634C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
ff3f963a
KW
2635
2636This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately by a
c3c41406 2637left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if
ff3f963a
KW
2638the braces form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes
2639that this means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
0a96133f 26403; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a C<\N{>
ff3f963a
KW
2641and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2642
2643However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was mistakenly
c3c41406 2644omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and
0a96133f
KW
2645raises this error. If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant
2646the latter, escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2647
d98d5fff 2648=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2649
be771a83
GS
2650(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2651ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2652were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2653
6df41af2
GS
2654=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2655
56da5a46
RGS
2656(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2657"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2658the previous line just because you saw this message.
2659
a0d0e21e
LW
2660=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2661
2662(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2663constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2664catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2665
2666 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2667 mod(2);
2668
2669Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2670
c5674021
PDF
2671Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2672is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2673
2674 $x = 1;
2675 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2676 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2677 }
c5674021 2678
7a4340ed 2679=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2680
2681(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2682subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2683backwards.
2684
7a4340ed 2685=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2686
be771a83
GS
2687(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2688couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2689
2690=item Module name must be constant
2691
2692(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2693
be98fb35 2694=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2695
be98fb35
GS
2696(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2697you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2698about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2699
fe13d51d 2700=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7
SG
2701
2702(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2703can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2704list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2705See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2706
a0d0e21e
LW
2707=item msg%s not implemented
2708
2709(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2710
2711=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2712
75b44862
GS
2713(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2714They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2715
49704364 2716=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2717
49704364
LW
2718(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2719follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2720See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2721
2722=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2723
be771a83
GS
2724(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2725that yet.
6df41af2 2726
30c282f6 2727=item "%s" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2728
be771a83
GS
2729(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2730sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2731local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2732
4a68bf9d 2733=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...}
ff3f963a 2734
c3c41406
KW
2735(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
2736character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses its
2737specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not what you want.
2738
4a68bf9d 2739=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer
c3c41406
KW
2740
2741(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or sequence
2742was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that bypass the lexer,
b09c05e6 2743such as using single-quotish context, or an extra backslash in double quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2744
2745 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2746 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2747 /$re/;
2748
b09c05e6 2749Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2750
2751 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2752 /$re/;
2753
2754The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2755components:
2756
2757 $re = '\N';
2758 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2759
2760It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2761doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2762
2763Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
2764C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
2765
2766 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
2767 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 2768
8b1a09fc
PP
2769=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2770
e476b1b5 2771(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
be771a83
GS
2772If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2773again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
77ca0c92 2774provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e 2775
64b374f4
FD
2776NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2777%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2778the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2779will not trigger this warning.
2780
4a68bf9d 2781=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
ff3f963a
KW
2782
2783(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
c3c41406
KW
2784number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than 0 - 9
2785or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
ff3f963a 2786
49704364
LW
2787=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2788
2789(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2790negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2791
a0d0e21e
LW
2792=item Negative length
2793
be771a83
GS
2794(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2795length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2796
ed9aa3b7
SG
2797=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2798
2799(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2800greater than or equal to zero.
2801
7253e4e3 2802=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2803
b45f050a 2804(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2805things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2806expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2807
7253e4e3 2808Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2809C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2810
6df41af2 2811=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2812
be771a83
GS
2813(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2814scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2815
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2816=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2817
2818(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2819real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2820See L<mro>.
2821
a0d0e21e
LW
2822=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2823
be771a83
GS
2824(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2825setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2826will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2827securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2828
a0d0e21e
LW
2829=item No comma allowed after %s
2830
2831(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2832allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2833Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2834
0a753a76
PP
2835One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2836constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2837importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2838does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
2839explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
2840L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2841would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2842remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2843constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2844list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2845this error was triggered?
2846
748a9306
LW
2847=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2848
be771a83
GS
2849(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2850redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2851doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2852
a0d0e21e
LW
2853=item No DB::DB routine defined
2854
be771a83 2855(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
ccafdc96
RGS
2856for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2857module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2858statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2859
2860=item No dbm on this machine
2861
2862(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2863supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2864
ccafdc96 2865=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2866
ccafdc96
RGS
2867(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2868for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2869module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2870of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2871
96ebfdd7
RK
2872=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
2873
2874(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
2875
c47ff5f1 2876=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2877
be771a83
GS
2878(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2879redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2880find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2881
49704364
LW
2882=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2883
2884(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2885matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2886
c47ff5f1 2887=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2888
be771a83
GS
2889(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2890redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2891name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2892
6df41af2
GS
2893=item No #! line
2894
2895(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2896even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
2897
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2898=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2899
2900(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2901in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2902it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2903or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2904
6df41af2
GS
2905=item "no" not allowed in expression
2906
be771a83
GS
2907(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2908returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2909
c47ff5f1 2910=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2911
be771a83
GS
2912(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2913redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2914doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2915
c47ff5f1 2916=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2917
be771a83
GS
2918(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2919redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2920find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2921
1ec3e8de
GS
2922=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2923
be771a83
GS
2924(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2925declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2926semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2927
a0d0e21e
LW
2928=item No Perl script found in input
2929
2930(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2931with #! and containing the word "perl".
2932
2933=item No setregid available
2934
2935(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2936your system.
2937
2938=item No setreuid available
2939
2940(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2941your system.
2942
6df41af2
GS
2943=item No %s specified for -%c
2944
2945(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
2946you haven't specified one.
e75d1f10
RD
2947=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
2948
2949(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
2950but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
2951package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
2952
2c692339
RGS
2953=item No such class %s
2954
30c282f6 2955(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state" declaration, but
2c692339
RGS
2956this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2957
3c20a832
SP
2958=item No such hook: %s
2959
2960(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl. Currently, Perl
2961accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks
2962
6df41af2
GS
2963=item No such pipe open
2964
2965(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
2966close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
2967earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 2968
a0d0e21e
LW
2969=item No such signal: SIG%s
2970
be771a83
GS
2971(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
2972not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
2973names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
2974
2975=item Not a CODE reference
2976
2977(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2978subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
2979use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
2980also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2981
2982=item Not a format reference
2983
2984(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2985format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2986
2987=item Not a GLOB reference
2988
be771a83
GS
2989(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
2990symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2991something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
2992kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2993
2994=item Not a HASH reference
2995
be771a83
GS
2996(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
2997reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
2998find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 2999
6df41af2
GS
3000=item Not an ARRAY reference
3001
be771a83
GS
3002(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
3003a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3004to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 3005
a0d0e21e
LW
3006=item Not a perl script
3007
3008(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
3009even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
3010mention perl.
3011
3012=item Not a SCALAR reference
3013
be771a83
GS
3014(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
3015a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3016to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3017
3018=item Not a subroutine reference
3019
3020(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3021subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3022use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3023also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3024
e7ea3e70 3025=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
3026
3027(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 3028doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3029
a0d0e21e
LW
3030=item Not enough arguments for %s
3031
3032(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
3033
6df41af2
GS
3034=item Not enough format arguments
3035
be771a83
GS
3036(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3037supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3038
3039=item %s: not found
3040
be771a83
GS
3041(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3042of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3043yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3044
3045=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3046
6df41af2
GS
3047(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3048timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3049to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3050F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3051need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 3052
f0a2b745
KW
3053=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3054
3055(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was unexpectedly
3056encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value is as indicated.
3057
4ef2275c
GA
3058=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3059
3060(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3061Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
3062select. See L<perlfunc/select>
3063
a0d0e21e
LW
3064=item Null filename used
3065
be771a83
GS
3066(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
3067machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 3068
6df41af2
GS
3069=item NULL OP IN RUN
3070
be771a83
GS
3071(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
3072pointer.
6df41af2 3073
55497cff
PP
3074=item Null picture in formline
3075
3076(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
3077specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
3078supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
3079
a0d0e21e
LW
3080=item Null realloc
3081
3082(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
3083
3084=item NULL regexp argument
3085
5f05dabc 3086(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
3087
3088=item NULL regexp parameter
3089
3090(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
3091
fc36a67e
PP
3092=item Number too long
3093
be771a83 3094(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 3095about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
3096versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
3097the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
3098"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 3099
f0a2b745
KW
3100=item Number with no digits
3101
3102(F) Perl was looking for a number but found nothing that looked like a number.
3103This happens, for example with C<\o{}>, with no number between the braces.
3104
6df41af2
GS
3105=item Octal number in vector unsupported
3106
be771a83
GS
3107(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
3108The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
3109future version.
6df41af2 3110
252aa082
JH
3111=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
3112
75b44862 3113(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
3114(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
3115L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
3116
3117See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
3118
6ad11d81
JH
3119=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
3120
04a80ee0
RGS
3121(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
3122arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 3123
b21befc1
MG
3124=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
3125
3126(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3127which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
3128
1930e939 3129=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 3130
be771a83
GS
3131(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3132which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 3133
bbce6d69
PP
3134=item Offset outside string
3135
a4a4c9e2 3136(F|W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
42bc49da 3137with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
3138imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
3139take place when going past the end of the string when either
3140C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
3141for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
3142with real files).
bbce6d69 3143
c289d2f7 3144=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
3145
3146(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
3147never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
3148call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
3149
96ebfdd7
RK
3150=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
3151
3152(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
3153that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
3154
a0d0e21e
LW
3155=item oops: oopsAV
3156
e476b1b5 3157(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
3158
3159=item oops: oopsHV
3160
e476b1b5 3161(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 3162
abc718f2
RGS
3163=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
3164
a4a4c9e2 3165(W io, deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3166a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
3167Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3168and is deprecated.
3169
3170=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
3171
a4a4c9e2 3172(W io, deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3173a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
3174Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3175and is deprecated.
3176
a0288114 3177=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 3178
be771a83
GS
3179(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
3180handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
3181of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
3182C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 3183
748a9306
LW
3184=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
3185
be771a83
GS
3186(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
3187was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
3188use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
3189example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
3190"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 3191
6df41af2
GS
3192=item "our" variable %s redeclared
3193
be771a83
GS
3194(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
3195in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 3196
a80b8354
GS
3197=item Out of memory!
3198
3199(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
3200remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
3201no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 3202
19a52907
JH
3203At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
3204process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
3205C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
3206the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
3207and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
3208
6d3b25aa
RGS
3209=item Out of memory during %s extend
3210
3211(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
3212the largest possible memory allocation.
3213
6df41af2 3214=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 3215
6df41af2
GS
3216(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
3217remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
3218the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
3219possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 3220
1b979e0a 3221=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 3222
be771a83
GS
3223(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
3224insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
3225request.
eff9c6e2
CS
3226
3227The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
3228depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
3229However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
3230emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
3231is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
3232where the failed request happened.
55497cff 3233
1b979e0a
IZ
3234=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
3235
3236(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
3237is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
3238C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 3239
6df41af2
GS
3240=item Out of memory for yacc stack
3241
be771a83
GS
3242(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
3243parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
3244otherwise.
6df41af2 3245
28be1210
TH
3246=item '.' outside of string in pack
3247
3248(F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working
3249position to before the start of the packed string being built.
3250
49704364 3251=item '@' outside of string in unpack
6df41af2 3252
49704364 3253(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
6df41af2
GS
3254the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3255
f337b084
TH
3256=item '@' outside of string with malformed UTF-8 in unpack
3257
3258(F) You had a template that specified an absolute position outside
3259the string being unpacked. The string being unpacked was also invalid
3260UTF-8. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3261
7cb0cfe6
BM
3262=item Overloaded dereference did not return a reference
3263
3264(F) An object with an overloaded dereference operator was dereferenced,
3265but the overloaded operation did not return a reference. See
3266L<overload>.
3267
3268=item Overloaded qr did not return a REGEXP
3269
3270(F) An object with a C<qr> overload was used as part of a match, but the
3271overloaded operation didn't return a compiled regexp. See L<overload>.
3272
6df41af2
GS
3273=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
3274
be771a83
GS
3275(W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a
3276package-specific handler. That name might have a meaning to Perl itself
3277some day, even though it doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a
3278mixed-case attribute name, instead. See L<attributes>.
6df41af2 3279
96ebfdd7
RK
3280=item pack/unpack repeat count overflow
3281
3282(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your
3283signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3284
a0d0e21e
LW
3285=item page overflow
3286
be771a83
GS
3287(W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a
3288page. See L<perlform>.
a0d0e21e 3289
6df41af2
GS
3290=item panic: %s
3291
3292(P) An internal error.
3293
c99a1475
NC
3294=item panic: attempt to call %s in %s
3295
3296(P) One of the file test operators entered a code branch that calls
3297an ACL related-function, but that function is not available on this
3298platform. Earlier checks mean that it should not be possible to
3299enter this branch on this platform.
3300
a0d0e21e
LW
3301=item panic: ck_grep
3302
3303(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
3304
3305=item panic: ck_split
3306
3307(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
3308
3309=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
3310
be771a83
GS
3311(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than
3312there are in the savestack.
a0d0e21e 3313
810b8aa5
GS
3314=item panic: del_backref
3315
3316(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
3317reference.
3318
7619c85e
RG
3319=item panic: Devel::DProf inconsistent subroutine return
3320
3321(P) Devel::DProf called a subroutine that exited using goto(LABEL),
3322last(LABEL) or next(LABEL). Leaving that way a subroutine called from
3323an XSUB will lead very probably to a crash of the interpreter. This is
3324a bug that will hopefully one day get fixed.
3325
a0d0e21e
LW
3326=item panic: die %s
3327
3328(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
3329it wasn't an eval context.
3330
a0d0e21e
LW
3331=item panic: do_subst
3332
be771a83
GS
3333(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational
3334data.
a0d0e21e 3335
2269b42e 3336=item panic: do_trans_%s
a0d0e21e 3337
2269b42e 3338(P) The internal do_trans routines were called with invalid operational
be771a83 3339data.
a0d0e21e 3340
b7f7fd0b
NC
3341=item panic: fold_constants JMPENV_PUSH returned %d
3342
10203f38 3343(P) While attempting folding constants an exception other than an C<eval>
b7f7fd0b
NC
3344failure was caught.
3345
c635e13b
PP
3346=item panic: frexp
3347
3348(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
3349
a0d0e21e
LW
3350=item panic: goto
3351
3352(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
3353and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
3354
23976bdd
NC
3355=item panic: hfreeentries failed to free hash
3356
3357(P) The internal routine used to clear a hashes entries tried repeatedly,
3358but each time something added more entries to the hash. Most likely the hash
3359contains an object with a reference back to the hash and a destructor that
3360adds a new object to the hash.
3361
a0d0e21e
LW
3362=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
3363
3364(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
3365
3366=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
3367
3368(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
3369
e446cec8
IZ
3370=item panic: kid popen errno read
3371
3372(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
3373
a0d0e21e
LW
3374=item panic: last
3375
3376(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
3377it wasn't a block context.
3378
3379=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
3380
be771a83
GS
3381(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the
3382scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
3383
3384=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
3385
3386(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
3387invalid enum on the top of it.
3388
810b8aa5
GS
3389=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
3390
3391(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
3392references to an object.
3393