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1
2=head1 NAME
3
4perltoc - perl documentation table of contents
5
6=head1 DESCRIPTION
7
8This page provides a brief table of contents for the rest of the Perl
28757baa 9documentation set. It is meant to be scanned quickly or grepped
402d0d99 10through to locate the proper section you're looking for.
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11
12=head1 BASIC DOCUMENTATION
13
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14=head2 perl - Practical Extraction and Report Language
15
d420ca49 16=over 4
a45bd81d 17
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18=item SYNOPSIS
19
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20=over 4
21
22=item Overview
23
24=item Tutorials
25
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26=item Reference Manual
27
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28=item Internals and C Language Interface
29
30=item Miscellaneous
31
32=item Platform-Specific
33
34=back
35
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36=item DESCRIPTION
37
14218588 38=item AVAILABILITY
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39
40=item ENVIRONMENT
41
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42=item AUTHOR
43
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44=item FILES
45
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46=item SEE ALSO
47
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48=item DIAGNOSTICS
49
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50=item BUGS
51
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52=item NOTES
53
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54=back
55
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56=head2 perlintro -- a brief introduction and overview of Perl
57
58=over 4
59
60=item DESCRIPTION
61
62=over 4
63
64=item What is Perl?
65
66=item Running Perl programs
67
68=item Basic syntax overview
69
70=item Perl variable types
71
72Scalars, Arrays, Hashes
73
74=item Variable scoping
75
76=item Conditional and looping constructs
77
78if, while, for, foreach
79
80=item Builtin operators and functions
81
82Arithmetic, Numeric comparison, String comparison, Boolean logic,
83Miscellaneous
84
85=item Files and I/O
86
87=item Regular expressions
88
89Simple matching, Simple substitution, More complex regular expressions,
90Parentheses for capturing, Other regexp features
91
92=item Writing subroutines
93
94=item OO Perl
95
96=item Using Perl modules
97
98=back
99
100=item AUTHOR
101
102=back
103
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104=head2 perlfaq - frequently asked questions about Perl ($Date: 2002/01/31
10504:27:54 $)
68dc0745 106
d420ca49 107=over 4
a45bd81d 108
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109=item DESCRIPTION
110
983dbef6 111=over 4
68dc0745 112
983dbef6 113=item perlfaq: Structural overview of the FAQ.
68dc0745 114
983dbef6 115=item L<perlfaq1>: General Questions About Perl
68dc0745 116
983dbef6 117=item L<perlfaq2>: Obtaining and Learning about Perl
68dc0745 118
983dbef6 119=item L<perlfaq3>: Programming Tools
68dc0745 120
983dbef6 121=item L<perlfaq4>: Data Manipulation
68dc0745 122
983dbef6 123=item L<perlfaq5>: Files and Formats
68dc0745 124
fe9287c4 125=item L<perlfaq6>: Regular Expressions
68dc0745 126
983dbef6 127=item L<perlfaq7>: General Perl Language Issues
68dc0745 128
983dbef6 129=item L<perlfaq8>: System Interaction
68dc0745 130
983dbef6 131=item L<perlfaq9>: Networking
68dc0745 132
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133=back
134
983dbef6 135=item About the perlfaq documents
68dc0745 136
d420ca49 137=over 4
a45bd81d 138
983dbef6 139=item Where to get the perlfaq
68dc0745 140
983dbef6 141=item How to contribute to the perlfaq
68dc0745 142
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143=item What will happen if you mail your Perl programming problems to the
144authors
68dc0745 145
983dbef6 146=back
68dc0745 147
983dbef6 148=item Credits
68dc0745 149
983dbef6 150=item Author and Copyright Information
68dc0745 151
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152=over 4
153
154=item Bundled Distributions
155
156=item Disclaimer
68dc0745 157
4755096e 158=back
68dc0745 159
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160=item Changes
161
1621/November/2000, 23/May/99, 13/April/99, 7/January/99, 22/June/98,
16324/April/97, 23/April/97, 25/March/97, 18/March/97, 17/March/97 Version,
164Initial Release: 11/March/97
165
4755096e 166=back
68dc0745 167
4755096e 168=head2 perlbook - Perl book information
68dc0745 169
d420ca49 170=over 4
68dc0745 171
4755096e 172=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 173
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174=back
175
4755096e 176=head2 perlsyn - Perl syntax
a45bd81d 177
d420ca49 178=over 4
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179
180=item DESCRIPTION
181
d420ca49 182=over 4
68dc0745 183
4755096e 184=item Declarations
68dc0745 185
4755096e 186=item Simple statements
68dc0745 187
4755096e 188=item Compound statements
3fe9a6f1 189
4755096e 190=item Loop Control
68dc0745 191
4755096e 192=item For Loops
68dc0745 193
4755096e 194=item Foreach Loops
68dc0745 195
4755096e 196=item Basic BLOCKs and Switch Statements
68dc0745 197
4755096e 198=item Goto
68dc0745 199
4755096e 200=item PODs: Embedded Documentation
68dc0745 201
4755096e 202=item Plain Old Comments (Not!)
68dc0745 203
4755096e 204=back
68dc0745 205
4755096e 206=back
193fb0af 207
4755096e 208=head2 perldata - Perl data types
68dc0745 209
d420ca49 210=over 4
68dc0745 211
4755096e 212=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 213
d420ca49 214=over 4
68dc0745 215
4755096e 216=item Variable names
68dc0745 217
4755096e 218=item Context
68dc0745 219
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220=item Scalar values
221
222=item Scalar value constructors
223
224=item List value constructors
225
226=item Slices
227
228=item Typeglobs and Filehandles
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229
230=back
231
4755096e 232=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 233
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234=back
235
4755096e 236=head2 perlop - Perl operators and precedence
68dc0745 237
d420ca49 238=over 4
a45bd81d 239
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240=item SYNOPSIS
241
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242=item DESCRIPTION
243
d420ca49 244=over 4
68dc0745 245
4755096e 246=item Terms and List Operators (Leftward)
68dc0745 247
4755096e 248=item The Arrow Operator
68dc0745 249
4755096e 250=item Auto-increment and Auto-decrement
68dc0745 251
4755096e 252=item Exponentiation
68dc0745 253
4755096e 254=item Symbolic Unary Operators
68dc0745 255
4755096e 256=item Binding Operators
68dc0745 257
4755096e 258=item Multiplicative Operators
68dc0745 259
4755096e 260=item Additive Operators
68dc0745 261
4755096e 262=item Shift Operators
14218588 263
4755096e 264=item Named Unary Operators
68dc0745 265
4755096e 266=item Relational Operators
68dc0745 267
4755096e 268=item Equality Operators
68dc0745 269
4755096e 270=item Bitwise And
68dc0745 271
4755096e 272=item Bitwise Or and Exclusive Or
68dc0745 273
4755096e 274=item C-style Logical And
68dc0745 275
4755096e 276=item C-style Logical Or
68dc0745 277
4755096e 278=item Range Operators
68dc0745 279
4755096e 280=item Conditional Operator
68dc0745 281
4755096e 282=item Assignment Operators
68dc0745 283
4755096e 284=item Comma Operator
68dc0745 285
4755096e 286=item List Operators (Rightward)
68dc0745 287
4755096e 288=item Logical Not
68dc0745 289
4755096e 290=item Logical And
14218588 291
4755096e 292=item Logical or and Exclusive Or
68dc0745 293
4755096e 294=item C Operators Missing From Perl
68dc0745 295
4755096e 296unary &, unary *, (TYPE)
68dc0745 297
4755096e 298=item Quote and Quote-like Operators
68dc0745 299
4755096e 300=item Regexp Quote-Like Operators
68dc0745 301
4755096e 302?PATTERN?, m/PATTERN/cgimosx, /PATTERN/cgimosx, q/STRING/, C<'STRING'>,
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303qq/STRING/, "STRING", qr/STRING/imosx, qx/STRING/, `STRING`, qw/STRING/,
304s/PATTERN/REPLACEMENT/egimosx, tr/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds,
35bf961c 305y/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds, <<EOF
68dc0745 306
4755096e 307=item Gory details of parsing quoted constructs
68dc0745 308
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309Finding the end, Removal of backslashes before delimiters, Interpolation,
310C<<<'EOF'>, C<m''>, C<s'''>, C<tr///>, C<y///>, C<''>, C<q//>, C<"">,
311C<``>, C<qq//>, C<qx//>, C<< <file*glob> >>, C<?RE?>, C</RE/>, C<m/RE/>,
312C<s/RE/foo/>,, Interpolation of regular expressions, Optimization of
313regular expressions
68dc0745 314
4755096e 315=item I/O Operators
68dc0745 316
4755096e 317=item Constant Folding
68dc0745 318
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319=item Bitwise String Operators
320
321=item Integer Arithmetic
322
323=item Floating-point Arithmetic
324
325=item Bigger Numbers
68dc0745 326
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327=back
328
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329=back
330
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331=head2 perlsub - Perl subroutines
332
d420ca49 333=over 4
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334
335=item SYNOPSIS
336
337=item DESCRIPTION
338
d420ca49 339=over 4
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340
341=item Private Variables via my()
342
343=item Persistent Private Variables
344
345=item Temporary Values via local()
346
347=item Lvalue subroutines
348
349=item Passing Symbol Table Entries (typeglobs)
350
351=item When to Still Use local()
352
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353=item Pass by Reference
354
355=item Prototypes
356
357=item Constant Functions
358
359=item Overriding Built-in Functions
360
361=item Autoloading
362
363=item Subroutine Attributes
364
365=back
366
367=item SEE ALSO
368
369=back
370
371=head2 perlfunc - Perl builtin functions
372
d420ca49 373=over 4
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374
375=item DESCRIPTION
376
d420ca49 377=over 4
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378
379=item Perl Functions by Category
380
381Functions for SCALARs or strings, Regular expressions and pattern matching,
382Numeric functions, Functions for real @ARRAYs, Functions for list data,
383Functions for real %HASHes, Input and output functions, Functions for fixed
384length data or records, Functions for filehandles, files, or directories,
385Keywords related to the control flow of your perl program, Keywords related
386to scoping, Miscellaneous functions, Functions for processes and process
387groups, Keywords related to perl modules, Keywords related to classes and
388object-orientedness, Low-level socket functions, System V interprocess
389communication functions, Fetching user and group info, Fetching network
390info, Time-related functions, Functions new in perl5, Functions obsoleted
391in perl5
392
393=item Portability
394
395=item Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions
396
397I<-X> FILEHANDLE, I<-X> EXPR, I<-X>, abs VALUE, abs, accept
398NEWSOCKET,GENERICSOCKET, alarm SECONDS, alarm, atan2 Y,X, bind SOCKET,NAME,
399binmode FILEHANDLE, DISCIPLINE, binmode FILEHANDLE, bless REF,CLASSNAME,
400bless REF, caller EXPR, caller, chdir EXPR, chmod LIST, chomp VARIABLE,
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401chomp( LIST ), chomp, chop VARIABLE, chop( LIST ), chop, chown LIST, chr
402NUMBER, chr, chroot FILENAME, chroot, close FILEHANDLE, close, closedir
403DIRHANDLE, connect SOCKET,NAME, continue BLOCK, cos EXPR, cos, crypt
404PLAINTEXT,SALT, dbmclose HASH, dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MASK, defined EXPR,
405defined, delete EXPR, die LIST, do BLOCK, do SUBROUTINE(LIST), do EXPR,
406dump LABEL, dump, each HASH, eof FILEHANDLE, eof (), eof, eval EXPR, eval
407BLOCK, exec LIST, exec PROGRAM LIST, exists EXPR, exit EXPR, exp EXPR, exp,
408fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, fileno FILEHANDLE, flock
409FILEHANDLE,OPERATION, fork, format, formline PICTURE,LIST, getc FILEHANDLE,
410getc, getlogin, getpeername SOCKET, getpgrp PID, getppid, getpriority
411WHICH,WHO, getpwnam NAME, getgrnam NAME, gethostbyname NAME, getnetbyname
412NAME, getprotobyname NAME, getpwuid UID, getgrgid GID, getservbyname
413NAME,PROTO, gethostbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE,
414getprotobynumber NUMBER, getservbyport PORT,PROTO, getpwent, getgrent,
415gethostent, getnetent, getprotoent, getservent, setpwent, setgrent,
416sethostent STAYOPEN, setnetent STAYOPEN, setprotoent STAYOPEN, setservent
417STAYOPEN, endpwent, endgrent, endhostent, endnetent, endprotoent,
418endservent, getsockname SOCKET, getsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME, glob EXPR,
419glob, gmtime EXPR, goto LABEL, goto EXPR, goto &NAME, grep BLOCK LIST, grep
420EXPR,LIST, hex EXPR, hex, import, index STR,SUBSTR,POSITION, index
421STR,SUBSTR, int EXPR, int, ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, join
422EXPR,LIST, keys HASH, kill SIGNAL, LIST, last LABEL, last, lc EXPR, lc,
423lcfirst EXPR, lcfirst, length EXPR, length, link OLDFILE,NEWFILE, listen
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424SOCKET,QUEUESIZE, local EXPR, localtime EXPR, lock THING, log EXPR, log,
425lstat EXPR, lstat, m//, map BLOCK LIST, map EXPR,LIST, mkdir FILENAME,MASK,
426mkdir FILENAME, msgctl ID,CMD,ARG, msgget KEY,FLAGS, msgrcv
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427ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS, msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS, my EXPR, my EXPR : ATTRIBUTES,
428next LABEL, next, no Module LIST, oct EXPR, oct, open FILEHANDLE,EXPR, open
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429FILEHANDLE,MODE,EXPR, open FILEHANDLE,MODE,EXPR,LIST, open
430FILEHANDLE,MODE,REFERENCE, open FILEHANDLE, opendir DIRHANDLE,EXPR, ord
431EXPR, ord, our EXPR, our EXPR : ATTRIBUTES, pack TEMPLATE,LIST, package
432NAMESPACE, package, pipe READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE, pop ARRAY, pop, pos
433SCALAR, pos, print FILEHANDLE LIST, print LIST, print, printf FILEHANDLE
434FORMAT, LIST, printf FORMAT, LIST, prototype FUNCTION, push ARRAY,LIST,
435q/STRING/, qq/STRING/, qr/STRING/, qx/STRING/, qw/STRING/, quotemeta EXPR,
436quotemeta, rand EXPR, rand, read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, read
437FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, readdir DIRHANDLE, readline EXPR, readlink EXPR,
438readlink, readpipe EXPR, recv SOCKET,SCALAR,LENGTH,FLAGS, redo LABEL, redo,
439ref EXPR, ref, rename OLDNAME,NEWNAME, require VERSION, require EXPR,
440require, reset EXPR, reset, return EXPR, return, reverse LIST, rewinddir
441DIRHANDLE, rindex STR,SUBSTR,POSITION, rindex STR,SUBSTR, rmdir FILENAME,
442rmdir, s///, scalar EXPR, seek FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE, seekdir
443DIRHANDLE,POS, select FILEHANDLE, select, select RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIMEOUT,
444semctl ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG, semget KEY,NSEMS,FLAGS, semop KEY,OPSTRING, send
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445SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS,TO, send SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS, setpgrp PID,PGRP, setpriority
446WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY, setsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,OPTVAL, shift ARRAY,
447shift, shmctl ID,CMD,ARG, shmget KEY,SIZE,FLAGS, shmread ID,VAR,POS,SIZE,
448shmwrite ID,STRING,POS,SIZE, shutdown SOCKET,HOW, sin EXPR, sin, sleep
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449EXPR, sleep, sockatmark SOCKET, socket SOCKET,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL,
450socketpair SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, sort SUBNAME LIST, sort
451BLOCK LIST, sort LIST, splice ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH,LIST, splice
452ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH, splice ARRAY,OFFSET, splice ARRAY, split
453/PATTERN/,EXPR,LIMIT, split /PATTERN/,EXPR, split /PATTERN/, split, sprintf
454FORMAT, LIST, sqrt EXPR, sqrt, srand EXPR, srand, stat FILEHANDLE, stat
455EXPR, stat, study SCALAR, study, sub BLOCK, sub NAME, sub NAME BLOCK,
456substr EXPR,OFFSET,LENGTH,REPLACEMENT, substr EXPR,OFFSET,LENGTH, substr
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457EXPR,OFFSET, symlink OLDFILE,NEWFILE, syscall LIST, sysopen
458FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE, sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE,PERMS, sysread
459FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, sysread FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, sysseek
460FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE, system LIST, system PROGRAM LIST, syswrite
461FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,
462syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR, tell FILEHANDLE, tell, telldir DIRHANDLE, tie
463VARIABLE,CLASSNAME,LIST, tied VARIABLE, time, times, tr///, truncate
464FILEHANDLE,LENGTH, truncate EXPR,LENGTH, uc EXPR, uc, ucfirst EXPR,
465ucfirst, umask EXPR, umask, undef EXPR, undef, unlink LIST, unlink, unpack
466TEMPLATE,EXPR, untie VARIABLE, unshift ARRAY,LIST, use Module VERSION LIST,
467use Module VERSION, use Module LIST, use Module, use VERSION, utime LIST,
468values HASH, vec EXPR,OFFSET,BITS, wait, waitpid PID,FLAGS, wantarray, warn
469LIST, write FILEHANDLE, write EXPR, write, y///
470
471=back
472
473=back
474
4755096e 475=head2 perlreftut - Mark's very short tutorial about references
68dc0745 476
d420ca49 477=over 4
a45bd81d 478
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479=item DESCRIPTION
480
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481=item Who Needs Complicated Data Structures?
482
483=item The Solution
484
485=item Syntax
68dc0745 486
d420ca49 487=over 4
68dc0745 488
4755096e 489=item Making References
46fc3d4c 490
4755096e 491=item Using References
68dc0745 492
4755096e 493=back
68dc0745 494
4755096e 495=item An Example
68dc0745 496
4755096e 497=item Arrow Rule
14218588 498
4755096e 499=item Solution
68dc0745 500
4755096e 501=item The Rest
68dc0745 502
4755096e 503=item Summary
68dc0745 504
4755096e
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505=item Credits
506
d420ca49 507=over 4
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508
509=item Distribution Conditions
68dc0745
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510
511=back
512
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513=back
514
515=head2 perldsc - Perl Data Structures Cookbook
68dc0745 516
d420ca49 517=over 4
68dc0745 518
4755096e 519=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 520
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521arrays of arrays, hashes of arrays, arrays of hashes, hashes of hashes,
522more elaborate constructs
14218588 523
4755096e 524=item REFERENCES
68dc0745 525
4755096e 526=item COMMON MISTAKES
68dc0745 527
4755096e 528=item CAVEAT ON PRECEDENCE
68dc0745 529
4755096e 530=item WHY YOU SHOULD ALWAYS C<use strict>
14218588 531
4755096e 532=item DEBUGGING
68dc0745 533
4755096e 534=item CODE EXAMPLES
68dc0745 535
4755096e 536=item ARRAYS OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 537
d420ca49 538=over 4
68dc0745 539
ba62762e 540=item Declaration of an ARRAY OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 541
ba62762e 542=item Generation of an ARRAY OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 543
ba62762e 544=item Access and Printing of an ARRAY OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 545
4755096e 546=back
68dc0745 547
4755096e 548=item HASHES OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 549
d420ca49 550=over 4
68dc0745 551
4755096e 552=item Declaration of a HASH OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 553
4755096e 554=item Generation of a HASH OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 555
4755096e 556=item Access and Printing of a HASH OF ARRAYS
68dc0745 557
4755096e 558=back
68dc0745 559
4755096e 560=item ARRAYS OF HASHES
68dc0745 561
d420ca49 562=over 4
68dc0745 563
ba62762e 564=item Declaration of an ARRAY OF HASHES
68dc0745 565
ba62762e 566=item Generation of an ARRAY OF HASHES
68dc0745 567
ba62762e 568=item Access and Printing of an ARRAY OF HASHES
14218588 569
4755096e 570=back
68dc0745 571
4755096e 572=item HASHES OF HASHES
68dc0745 573
d420ca49 574=over 4
68dc0745 575
4755096e 576=item Declaration of a HASH OF HASHES
68dc0745 577
4755096e 578=item Generation of a HASH OF HASHES
68dc0745 579
4755096e 580=item Access and Printing of a HASH OF HASHES
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581
582=back
583
4755096e 584=item MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
68dc0745 585
d420ca49 586=over 4
68dc0745 587
4755096e 588=item Declaration of MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
14218588 589
4755096e 590=item Declaration of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
68dc0745 591
4755096e 592=item Generation of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
68dc0745 593
4755096e 594=back
68dc0745 595
4755096e 596=item Database Ties
68dc0745 597
4755096e 598=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 599
4755096e 600=item AUTHOR
14218588 601
4755096e 602=back
68dc0745 603
4755096e 604=head2 perlrequick - Perl regular expressions quick start
68dc0745 605
d420ca49 606=over 4
68dc0745 607
4755096e 608=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 609
4755096e 610=item The Guide
68dc0745 611
d420ca49 612=over 4
68dc0745 613
4755096e 614=item Simple word matching
68dc0745 615
4755096e 616=item Using character classes
68dc0745 617
4755096e 618=item Matching this or that
68dc0745 619
4755096e 620=item Grouping things and hierarchical matching
68dc0745 621
4755096e 622=item Extracting matches
68dc0745 623
4755096e 624=item Matching repetitions
68dc0745 625
4755096e 626=item More matching
68dc0745 627
4755096e 628=item Search and replace
68dc0745 629
4755096e 630=item The split operator
68dc0745
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631
632=back
633
4755096e 634=item BUGS
68dc0745 635
4755096e 636=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 637
4755096e 638=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
68dc0745 639
d420ca49 640=over 4
68dc0745 641
4755096e 642=item Acknowledgments
14218588 643
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644=back
645
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646=back
647
8a93676d 648=head2 perlpod - the Plain Old Documentation format
68dc0745 649
d420ca49 650=over 4
a45bd81d 651
68dc0745
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652=item DESCRIPTION
653
d420ca49 654=over 4
68dc0745 655
8a93676d
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656=item Ordinary Paragraph
657
c2e66d9e 658=item Verbatim Paragraph
68dc0745 659
c2e66d9e 660=item Command Paragraph
68dc0745 661
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662C<=head1 I<Heading Text>>, C<=head2 I<Heading Text>>, C<=head3 I<Heading
663Text>>, C<=head4 I<Heading Text>>, C<=over I<indentlevel>>, C<=item
664I<stuff...>>, C<=back>, C<=cut>, C<=pod>, C<=begin I<formatname>>, C<=end
665I<formatname>>, C<=for I<formatname> I<text...>>
666
667=item Formatting Codes
668
669C<IE<lt>textE<gt>> -- italic text, C<BE<lt>textE<gt>> -- bold text,
670C<CE<lt>codeE<gt>> -- code text, C<LE<lt>nameE<gt>> -- a hyperlink,
671C<EE<lt>escapeE<gt>> -- a character escape, C<FE<lt>filenameE<gt>> -- used
672for filenames, C<SE<lt>textE<gt>> -- text contains non-breaking spaces,
673C<XE<lt>topic nameE<gt>> -- an index entry, C<ZE<lt>E<gt>> -- a null
674(zero-effect) formatting code
68dc0745 675
c2e66d9e 676=item The Intent
68dc0745 677
c2e66d9e 678=item Embedding Pods in Perl Modules
68dc0745 679
8a93676d
SB
680=item Hints for Writing Pod
681
682=back
683
684=item SEE ALSO
685
686=item AUTHOR
193fb0af 687
c2e66d9e 688=back
68dc0745 689
8a93676d
SB
690=head2 perlpodspec - Plain Old Documentation: format specification and
691notes
692
693=over 4
694
695=item DESCRIPTION
696
697=item Pod Definitions
698
699=item Pod Commands
700
701"=head1", "=head2", "=head3", "=head4", "=pod", "=cut", "=over", "=item",
702"=back", "=begin formatname", "=end formatname", "=for formatname text..."
703
704=item Pod Formatting Codes
705
706C<IE<lt>textE<gt>> -- italic text, C<BE<lt>textE<gt>> -- bold text,
707C<CE<lt>codeE<gt>> -- code text, C<FE<lt>filenameE<gt>> -- style for
708filenames, C<XE<lt>topic nameE<gt>> -- an index entry, C<ZE<lt>E<gt>> -- a
709null (zero-effect) formatting code, C<LE<lt>nameE<gt>> -- a hyperlink,
710C<EE<lt>escapeE<gt>> -- a character escape, C<SE<lt>textE<gt>> -- text
711contains non-breaking spaces
712
713=item Notes on Implementing Pod Processors
714
715=item About LE<lt>...E<gt> Codes
716
717First:, Second:, Third:, Fourth:, Fifth:, Sixth:
718
719=item About =over...=back Regions
720
721=item About Data Paragraphs and "=begin/=end" Regions
722
c2e66d9e 723=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 724
c2e66d9e 725=item AUTHOR
68dc0745 726
c2e66d9e 727=back
68dc0745 728
c2e66d9e 729=head2 perlstyle - Perl style guide
68dc0745 730
d420ca49 731=over 4
c2e66d9e
GS
732
733=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 734
4755096e 735=back
68dc0745 736
c2e66d9e 737=head2 perltrap - Perl traps for the unwary
68dc0745 738
d420ca49 739=over 4
68dc0745 740
c2e66d9e 741=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 742
d420ca49 743=over 4
68dc0745 744
c2e66d9e 745=item Awk Traps
68dc0745 746
c2e66d9e 747=item C Traps
4755096e 748
c2e66d9e 749=item Sed Traps
4755096e 750
c2e66d9e 751=item Shell Traps
4755096e 752
c2e66d9e 753=item Perl Traps
68dc0745 754
c2e66d9e 755=item Perl4 to Perl5 Traps
68dc0745 756
c2e66d9e
GS
757Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps, Parsing Traps, Numerical
758Traps, General data type traps, Context Traps - scalar, list contexts,
759Precedence Traps, General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc,
760Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps, OS Traps, DBM Traps, Unclassified Traps
761
762=item Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps
763
764Discontinuance, Deprecation, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance,
765Discontinuance, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance, BugFix,
766Discontinuance, Deprecation, Discontinuance, Discontinuance
767
768=item Parsing Traps
769
07fcf8ff 770Parsing, Parsing, Parsing, Parsing, Parsing
c2e66d9e
GS
771
772=item Numerical Traps
773
774Numerical, Numerical, Numerical, Bitwise string ops
775
776=item General data type traps
777
778(Arrays), (Arrays), (Hashes), (Globs), (Globs), (Scalar String),
779(Constants), (Scalars), (Variable Suicide)
780
781=item Context Traps - scalar, list contexts
782
783(list context), (scalar context), (scalar context), (list, builtin)
784
785=item Precedence Traps
786
787Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence,
788Precedence
789
790=item General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc.
791
792Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular
793Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression,
794Regular Expression
795
796=item Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps
797
798(Signals), (Sort Subroutine), warn() won't let you specify a filehandle
799
800=item OS Traps
801
802(SysV), (SysV)
803
804=item Interpolation Traps
805
806Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation,
807Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation
808
809=item DBM Traps
810
811DBM, DBM
812
813=item Unclassified Traps
814
815C<require>/C<do> trap using returned value, C<split> on empty string with
816LIMIT specified
68dc0745 817
4755096e 818=back
68dc0745 819
c2e66d9e 820=back
14218588 821
c2e66d9e 822=head2 perlrun - how to execute the Perl interpreter
68dc0745 823
d420ca49 824=over 4
c2e66d9e
GS
825
826=item SYNOPSIS
827
828=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 829
d420ca49 830=over 4
68dc0745 831
c2e66d9e
GS
832=item #! and quoting on non-Unix systems
833
834OS/2, MS-DOS, Win95/NT, Macintosh, VMS
835
836=item Location of Perl
837
838=item Command Switches
839
91e74348 840B<-0>[I<digits>], B<-a>, B<-C>, B<-c>, B<-d>, B<-d:>I<foo[=bar,baz]>,
c2e66d9e
GS
841B<-D>I<letters>, B<-D>I<number>, B<-e> I<commandline>, B<-F>I<pattern>,
842B<-h>, B<-i>[I<extension>], B<-I>I<directory>, B<-l>[I<octnum>],
843B<-m>[B<->]I<module>, B<-M>[B<->]I<module>, B<-M>[B<->]I<'module ...'>,
844B<-[mM]>[B<->]I<module=arg[,arg]...>, B<-n>, B<-p>, B<-P>, B<-s>, B<-S>,
0e9b9e0c
JH
845B<-t>, B<-T>, B<-u>, B<-U>, B<-v>, B<-V>, B<-V:>I<name>, B<-w>, B<-W>,
846B<-X>, B<-x> I<directory>
68dc0745 847
4755096e 848=back
68dc0745 849
c2e66d9e
GS
850=item ENVIRONMENT
851
852HOME, LOGDIR, PATH, PERL5LIB, PERL5OPT, PERLLIB, PERL5DB, PERL5SHELL
853(specific to the Win32 port), PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS, PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL,
cb52f95f
JH
854PERL_ENCODING, PERL_ROOT (specific to the VMS port), SYS$LOGIN (specific to
855the VMS port)
c2e66d9e 856
c2e66d9e
GS
857=item DESCRIPTION
858
ff426ff2
JH
859accept() on closed socket %s, Allocation too large: %lx, '!' allowed only
860after types %s, Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or
861use &, Ambiguous range in transliteration operator, Ambiguous use of %s
862resolved as %s, '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line, '|'
863and '>' may not both be specified on command line, Applying %s to %s will
864act on scalar(%s), Args must match #! line, Arg too short for msgsnd, %s
865argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element, %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY
866element or slice, %s argument is not a subroutine name, Argument "%s" isn't
867numeric%s, Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s(), assertion
868botched: %s, Assertion failed: file "%s", Assignment to both a list and a
80327a3d
JH
869scalar, Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a fixed hash, Attempt to
870clear a fixed hash, Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a fixed hash,
871Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a fixed hash, Attempt to bless
872into a reference, Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx, Attempt to free
873nonexistent shared string, Attempt to free temp prematurely, Attempt to
874free unreferenced glob pointers, Attempt to free unreferenced scalar,
875Attempt to join self, Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value, Attempt
876to use reference as lvalue in substr, Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should
877be %s, Bad evalled substitution pattern, Bad filehandle: %s, Bad free()
878ignored, Bad hash, Bad index while coercing array into hash, Badly placed
879()'s, Bad name after %s::, Bad realloc() ignored, Bad symbol for array, Bad
880symbol for filehandle, Bad symbol for hash, Bareword found in conditional,
ff426ff2
JH
881Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use, Bareword "%s" refers
882to nonexistent package, BEGIN failed--compilation aborted, BEGIN not safe
883after errors--compilation aborted, \1 better written as $1, Binary number >
8840b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable, bind() on closed socket
885%s, binmode() on closed filehandle %s, Bit vector size > 32 non-portable,
886Bizarre copy of %s in %s, B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script,
887Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s, Callback called exit, %s() called
888too early to check prototype, / cannot take a count, Can't bless
889non-reference value, Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s", Can't
890call method "%s" on an undefined value, Can't call method "%s" on unblessed
891reference, Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference,
892Can't chdir to %s, Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid, Can't
893coerce array into hash, Can't coerce %s to integer in %s, Can't coerce %s
894to number in %s, Can't coerce %s to string in %s, Can't create pipe
895mailbox, Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s", Can't declare %s in
896"%s", Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file, Can't do inplace
897edit on %s: %s, Can't do inplace edit without backup, Can't do inplace
898edit: %s would not be unique, Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by
899<-- HERE in m/%s/, Can't do setegid!, Can't do seteuid!, Can't do setuid,
900Can't do waitpid with flags, Can't emulate -%s on #! line, Can't exec "%s":
901%s, Can't exec %s, Can't execute %s, Can't find an opnumber for "%s", Can't
902find %s character property "%s", Can't find label %s, Can't find %s on
903PATH, Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH, Can't find string terminator
904%s anywhere before EOF, Can't find %s property definition %s, Can't fork,
905Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?, Can't get pipe mailbox device
906name, Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF, Can't "goto" into the
907middle of a foreach loop, Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block, Can't goto
908subroutine from an eval-string, Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine,
909Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default, Can't "last" outside a loop
910block, Can't localize lexical variable %s, Can't localize pseudo-hash
911element, Can't localize through a reference, Can't locate %s, Can't locate
912auto/%s.al in @INC, Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s",
913(perhaps you forgot to load "%s"?), Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA,
914Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system, Can't modify %s in %s,
915Can't modify nonexistent substring, Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine
916call, Can't msgrcv to read-only var, Can't "next" outside a loop block,
917Can't open %s: %s, Can't open bidirectional pipe, Can't open error file %s
918as stderr, Can't open input file %s as stdin, Can't open output file %s as
919stdout, Can't open output pipe (name: %s), Can't open perl script%s: %s,
920Can't read CRTL environ, Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s, Can't
921"redo" outside a loop block, Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file, Can't
922rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file, Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in
923binary mode, Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s',
924Can't reswap uid and euid, Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine, Can't
925return %s to lvalue scalar context, Can't return outside a subroutine,
926Can't stat script "%s", Can't swap uid and euid, Can't take log of %g,
927Can't take sqrt of %g, Can't undef active subroutine, Can't unshift, Can't
928upgrade that kind of scalar, Can't upgrade to undef, Can't use an undefined
929value as %s reference, Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup,
930Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use, Can't use
931%! because Errno.pm is not available, Can't use %s for loop variable, Can't
932use global %s in "my", Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison, Can't use %s
933ref as %s ref, Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in
934use, Can't use subscript on %s, Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression,
935Can't weaken a nonreference, Can't x= to read-only value, Character in "C"
936format wrapped, Character in "c" format wrapped, close() on unopened
937filehandle %s, %s: Command not found, Compilation failed in require,
938Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded, connect() on
939closed socket %s, Constant(%s)%s: %s, Constant is not %s reference,
940Constant subroutine %s redefined, Constant subroutine %s undefined, Copy
941method did not return a reference, CORE::%s is not a keyword, corrupted
942regexp pointers, corrupted regexp program, Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at
9430x%lx, C<-p> destination: %s, C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on
944filehandles, Deep recursion on subroutine "%s", defined(@array) is
945deprecated, defined(%hash) is deprecated, %s defines neither package nor
946VERSION--version check failed, Delimiter for here document is too long, Did
947not produce a valid header, %s did not return a true value, (Did you mean
948&%s instead?), (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?), (Did you mean $ or
949@ instead of %?), Died, Document contains no data, %s does not define
950%s::VERSION--version check failed, Don't know how to handle magic of type
951'%s', do_study: out of memory, (Do you need to predeclare %s?), dump()
952better written as CORE::dump(), Duplicate free() ignored, elseif should be
953elsif, Empty %s, entering effective %s failed, Error converting file
954specification %s, %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression, %s:
955Eval-group not allowed at run time, %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re
956'eval', Excessively long <> operator, exec? I'm not *that* kind of
957operating system, Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors,
958Exiting eval via %s, Exiting format via %s, Exiting pseudo-block via %s,
959Exiting subroutine via %s, Exiting substitution via %s, Explicit blessing
960to '' (assuming package main), %s: Expression syntax, %s failed--call queue
961aborted, False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/, Fatal
962VMS error at %s, line %d, fcntl is not implemented, Filehandle %s opened
963only for input, Filehandle %s opened only for output, Final $ should be \$
964or $name, Final @ should be \@ or @name, flock() on closed filehandle %s,
965Quantifier follows nothing in regex;, Format not terminated, Format %s
966redefined, Found = in conditional, should be ==, %s found where operator
967expected, gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s", gethostent not
968implemented, get%sname() on closed socket %s, getpwnam returned invalid UIC
969%#o for user "%s", getsockopt() on closed socket %s, Global symbol "%s"
970requires explicit package name, glob failed (%s), Glob not terminated, Got
971an error from DosAllocMem, goto must have label, %s-group starts with a
972count, %s had compilation errors, Had to create %s unexpectedly, Hash %%s
973missing the % in argument %d of %s(), %s has too many errors, Hexadecimal
974number > 0xffffffff non-portable, Identifier too long, Illegal binary digit
975%s, Illegal binary digit %s ignored, Illegal character %s (carriage
976return), Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s, Illegal division by
977zero, Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored, Illegal modulus zero, Illegal
978number of bits in vec, Illegal octal digit %s, Illegal octal digit %s
979ignored, Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s, Ill-formed CRTL environ value
980"%s", Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|, (in cleanup) %s, In
981EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647, Insecure
982dependency in %s, Insecure directory in %s, Insecure $ENV{%s} while running
983%s, Integer overflow in %s number, Internal disaster in regex; marked by
984<-- HERE in m/%s/, Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks, Internal urp
985in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/, %s (...) interpreted as function,
986Invalid %s attribute: %s, Invalid %s attributes: %s, Invalid conversion in
987%s: "%s", Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/,
988Invalid [] range "%s" in transliteration operator, Invalid separator
989character %s in attribute list, Invalid type in pack: '%s', Invalid type in
990unpack: '%s', ioctl is not implemented, ioctl() on unopened %s,
991IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture, `%s' is not a code
992reference, `%s' is not an overloadable type, junk on end of regexp, Label
993not found for "last %s", Label not found for "next %s", Label not found for
994"redo %s", leaving effective %s failed, listen() on closed socket %s,
995lstat() on filehandle %s, Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet,
996Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex;, Malformed
997PERLLIB_PREFIX, Malformed prototype for %s: %s, Malformed UTF-8 character
998(%s), Malformed UTF-16 surrogate, %s matches null string many times in
999regex;, "%s" may clash with future reserved word, % may only be used in
1000unpack, Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing,
1001Method %s not permitted, Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting
1002on line %d, Misplaced _ in number, Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}, Missing comma
1003after first argument to %s function, Missing command in piped open, Missing
1004name in "my sub", Missing $ on loop variable, (Missing operator before
1005%s?), Missing right brace on %s, Missing right curly or square bracket,
1006(Missing semicolon on previous line?), Modification of a read-only value
1007attempted, Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s,
1008Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s, Module name must be
1009constant, Module name required with -%c option, More than one argument to
1010open, msg%s not implemented, Multidimensional syntax %s not supported, /
1011must be followed by a*, A* or Z*, / must be followed by a, A or Z, / must
1012follow a numeric type, "my sub" not yet implemented, "my" variable %s can't
1013be in a package, Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo, Negative
1014length, Negative offset to vec in lvalue context, Nested quantifiers in
1015regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/, %s never introduced, No %s allowed
1016while running setuid, No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts, No comma allowed
1017after %s, No command into which to pipe on command line, No DB::DB routine
1018defined, No dbm on this machine, No DBsub routine, No error file after 2>
1019or 2>> on command line, No input file after < on command line, No #! line,
1020"no" not allowed in expression, No output file after > on command line, No
1021output file after > or >> on command line, No package name allowed for
1022variable %s in "our", No Perl script found in input, No setregid available,
1023No setreuid available, No space allowed after -%c, No %s specified for -%c,
1024No such class %s, No such pipe open, No such pseudo-hash field "%s", No
1025such pseudo-hash field "%s" in variable %s of type %s, No such signal:
1026SIG%s, Not a CODE reference, Not a format reference, Not a GLOB reference,
1027Not a HASH reference, Not an ARRAY reference, Not a perl script, Not a
1028SCALAR reference, Not a subroutine reference, Not a subroutine reference in
1029overload table, Not enough arguments for %s, Not enough format arguments,
1030%s: not found, %s not allowed in length fields, no UTC offset information;
1031assuming local time is UTC, Null filename used, NULL OP IN RUN, Null
1032picture in formline, Null realloc, NULL regexp argument, NULL regexp
1033parameter, Number too long, Octal number in vector unsupported, Octal
1034number > 037777777777 non-portable, Odd number of arguments for
1035overload::constant, Odd number of elements in anonymous hash, Odd number of
1036elements in hash assignment, Offset outside string, -%s on unopened
1037filehandle %s, %s() on unopened %s, oops: oopsAV, oops: oopsHV, Operation
1038`%s': no method found, %s, Operator or semicolon missing before %s, "our"
1039variable %s redeclared, Out of memory!, Out of memory during "large"
1040request for %s, Out of memory during request for %s, Out of memory during
1041ridiculously large request, Out of memory for yacc stack, @ outside of
1042string, %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s, page
1043overflow, panic: %s, panic: ck_grep, panic: ck_split, panic: corrupt saved
1044stack index, panic: del_backref, panic: die %s, panic: pp_match%s, panic:
1045do_subst, panic: do_trans_%s, panic: frexp, panic: goto, panic:
1046INTERPCASEMOD, panic: INTERPCONCAT, panic: kid popen errno read, panic:
1047last, panic: leave_scope clearsv, panic: leave_scope inconsistency, panic:
1048magic_killbackrefs, panic: malloc, panic: mapstart, panic: null array,
1049panic: pad_alloc, panic: pad_free curpad, panic: pad_free po, panic:
1050pad_reset curpad, panic: pad_sv po, panic: pad_swipe curpad, panic:
1051pad_swipe po, panic: pp_iter, panic: pp_split, panic: realloc, panic:
1052restartop, panic: return, panic: scan_num, panic: sv_insert, panic:
1053top_env, panic: yylex, panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen, Parentheses
1054missing around "%s" list, Perl %s required--this is only version %s,
1055stopped, PERL_SH_DIR too long, perl: warning: Setting locale failed,
1056perlio: argument list not closed for layer "%s", perlio: invalid separator
1057character %s in attribute list, perlio: unknown layer "%s", Permission
1058denied, pid %x not a child, P must have an explicit size, POSIX syntax [%s]
1059belongs inside character classes in regex;, POSIX syntax [. .] is reserved
1060for future extensions in regex;, POSIX syntax [= =] is reserved for future
1061extensions in regex;, POSIX class [:%s:] unknown in regex;, POSIX getpgrp
1062can't take an argument, Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list,
1063Possible attempt to separate words with commas, Possible memory corruption:
1064%s overflowed 3rd argument, Possible unintended interpolation of %s in
1065string, Possible Y2K bug: %s, pragma "attrs" is deprecated, use "sub NAME :
1066ATTRS" instead, Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s), Premature
1067end of script headers, printf() on closed filehandle %s, print() on closed
1068filehandle %s, Process terminated by SIG%s, Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s,
1069Prototype not terminated, Quantifier in {,} bigger than %d in regex;,
1070Quantifier unexpected on zero-length expression;, Range iterator outside
1071integer range, readline() on closed filehandle %s, Reallocation too large:
1072%lx, realloc() of freed memory ignored, Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING
1073to use B<-D> switch, Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s',
1074Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method %s, Reference found
1075where even-sized list expected, Reference is already weak, Reference
1076miscount in sv_replace(), Reference to nonexistent group in regex;, regexp
1077memory corruption, Regexp out of space, Repeat count in pack overflows,
1078Repeat count in unpack overflows, Reversed %s= operator, Runaway format,
1079Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s], Scalar value @%s{%s} better
1080written as $%s{%s}, Scalars leaked: %d, Script is not setuid/setgid in
1081suidperl, Search pattern not terminated, %sseek() on unopened filehandle,
1082select not implemented, Self-ties of arrays and hashes are not supported,
1083Semicolon seems to be missing, semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string,
1084sem%s not implemented, send() on closed socket %s, Sequence (? incomplete
1085in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/, Sequence (?{...}) not terminated or
1086not {}-balanced in regex;, Sequence (?%s...) not implemented in regex;,
1087Sequence (?%s...) not recognized in regex;, Sequence (?#... not terminated
1088in regex;, 500 Server error, Server error, setegid() not implemented,
1089seteuid() not implemented, setpgrp can't take arguments, setrgid() not
1090implemented, setruid() not implemented, setsockopt() on closed socket %s,
1091Setuid/gid script is writable by world, shm%s not implemented, <> should be
1092quotes, /%s/ should probably be written as "%s", shutdown() on closed
1093socket %s, SIG%s handler "%s" not defined, sort is now a reserved word,
1094Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value, Sort subroutine didn't
1095return single value, splice() offset past end of array, Split loop,
1096Statement unlikely to be reached, stat() on unopened filehandle %s, Stub
1097found while resolving method `%s' overloading %s, Subroutine %s redefined,
1098Substitution loop, Substitution pattern not terminated, Substitution
1099replacement not terminated, substr outside of string, suidperl is no longer
1100needed since %s, Switch (?(condition)... contains too many branches in
1101regex;, Switch condition not recognized in regex;, switching effective %s
1102is not implemented, syntax error, syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected,
1103syntax error in file %s at line %d, next 2 tokens "%s", %s syntax OK,
1104System V %s is not implemented on this machine, syswrite() on closed
1105filehandle %s, Target of goto is too deeply nested, tell() on unopened
1106filehandle, That use of $[ is unsupported, The crypt() function is
1107unimplemented due to excessive paranoia, The %s function is unimplemented,
1108The stat preceding %s wasn't an lstat, This Perl can't reset CRTL environ
1109elements (%s), This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s), times not
1110implemented, Too few args to syscall, Too late for "B<-T>" option, Too late
1111for "-%s" option, Too late to run %s block, Too many args to syscall, Too
1112many arguments for %s, Too many )'s, Too many ('s, Trailing \ in regex
1113m/%s/, Transliteration pattern not terminated, Transliteration replacement
1114not terminated, truncate not implemented, Type of arg %d to %s must be %s
1115(not %s), umask not implemented, Unable to create sub named "%s",
1116Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs, Unbalanced saves: %d more
1117saves than restores, Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs,
1118Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees, Undefined format "%s" called,
1119Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called, Undefined subroutine &%s called,
1120Undefined subroutine called, Undefined subroutine in sort, Undefined top
1121format "%s" called, Undefined value assigned to typeglob, %s: Undefined
1122variable, unexec of %s into %s failed!, Unicode character %s is illegal,
1123Unknown BYTEORDER, Unknown "re" subpragma '%s' (known ones are: %s),
1124Unknown switch condition (?(%.2s in regex;, Unknown open() mode '%s',
1125Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s, Unknown warnings
1126category '%s', unmatched [ in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/, unmatched
1127( in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/, Unmatched right %s bracket,
1128Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word, Unrecognized
1129character %s, /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c in character class passed
1130through, Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through in regex;, Unrecognized
1131escape \\%c passed through, Unrecognized signal name "%s", Unrecognized
1132switch: -%s (-h will show valid options), Unsuccessful %s on filename
1133containing newline, Unsupported directory function "%s" called, Unsupported
1134function %s, Unsupported function fork, Unsupported script encoding,
1135Unsupported socket function "%s" called, Unterminated attribute list,
1136Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list, Unterminated compressed
1137integer, Unterminated <> operator, untie attempted while %d inner
1138references still exist, Useless (?%s) - use /%s modifier in regex;, Useless
1139(?-%s) - don't use /%s modifier in regex;, Useless use of %s in void
1140context, Useless use of "re" pragma, Useless use of sort in scalar context,
1141Useless use of %s with no values, "use" not allowed in expression, Use of
1142bare << to mean <<"" is deprecated, Use of *glob{FILEHANDLE} is deprecated,
1143Use of chdir('') or chdir(undef) as chdir() deprecated, Use of implicit
1144split to @_ is deprecated, Use of inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is
1145deprecated, Use of -l on filehandle %s, Use of "package" with no arguments
1146is deprecated, Use of %s in printf format not supported, Use of $* is
1147deprecated, Use of %s is deprecated, Use of $# is deprecated, Use of
1148reference "%s" as array index, Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated, Use
1149of tainted arguments in %s is deprecated, Use of uninitialized value%s,
1150Using a hash as a reference is deprecated, Using an array as a reference is
1151deprecated, UTF-16 surrogate %s, Value of %s can be "0"; test with
1152defined(), Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long, Variable "%s" is not
1153imported%s, "%s" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s, Variable
1154"%s" may be unavailable, Variable syntax, Variable "%s" will not stay
1155shared, Variable length lookbehind not implemented in regex;, Version
1156number must be a constant number, v-string in use/require is non-portable,
1157Warning: something's wrong, Warning: unable to close filehandle %s
1158properly, Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous, Wide
1159character in %s, write() on closed filehandle %s, X outside of string, x
1160outside of string, Xsub "%s" called in sort, Xsub called in sort, YOU
1161HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!, You need to quote "%s"
1162
4755096e 1163=back
68dc0745 1164
4755096e 1165=head2 perllexwarn - Perl Lexical Warnings
68dc0745 1166
d420ca49 1167=over 4
68dc0745 1168
4755096e 1169=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 1170
d420ca49 1171=over 4
68dc0745 1172
4755096e 1173=item Default Warnings and Optional Warnings
14218588 1174
4755096e 1175=item What's wrong with B<-w> and C<$^W>
68dc0745 1176
4755096e 1177=item Controlling Warnings from the Command Line
68dc0745 1178
4755096e 1179B<-w>, B<-W>, B<-X>
a45bd81d 1180
4755096e 1181=item Backward Compatibility
68dc0745 1182
4755096e 1183=item Category Hierarchy
a45bd81d 1184
4755096e 1185=item Fatal Warnings
68dc0745 1186
4755096e 1187=item Reporting Warnings from a Module
68dc0745 1188
4755096e 1189=back
68dc0745 1190
4755096e 1191=item TODO
68dc0745 1192
4755096e 1193=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 1194
4755096e 1195=item AUTHOR
68dc0745 1196
4755096e 1197=back
68dc0745 1198
10862624
RF
1199=head2 perldebtut - Perl debugging tutorial
1200
d420ca49 1201=over 4
10862624
RF
1202
1203=item DESCRIPTION
1204
1205=item use strict
1206
ff426ff2 1207=item Looking at data and -w and v
d396a558
JH
1208
1209=item help
10862624
RF
1210
1211=item Stepping through code
1212
1213=item Placeholder for a, w, t, T
1214
d396a558 1215=item REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
10862624 1216
d396a558 1217=item OUTPUT TIPS
10862624
RF
1218
1219=item CGI
1220
1221=item GUIs
1222
d396a558 1223=item SUMMARY
10862624
RF
1224
1225=item SEE ALSO
1226
1227=item AUTHOR
1228
1229=item CONTRIBUTORS
1230
1231=back
1232
4755096e 1233=head2 perldebug - Perl debugging
68dc0745 1234
d420ca49 1235=over 4
68dc0745 1236
4755096e 1237=item DESCRIPTION
68dc0745 1238
4755096e 1239=item The Perl Debugger
68dc0745 1240
d420ca49 1241=over 4
68dc0745 1242
4755096e 1243=item Debugger Commands
68dc0745 1244
ff426ff2
JH
1245h, h [command], h h, p expr, x [maxdepth] expr, V [pkg [vars]], X [vars],
1246T, s [expr], n [expr], r, <CR>, c [line|sub], l, l min+incr, l min-max, l
1247line, l subname, -, v [line], f filename, /pattern/, ?pattern?, L [abw], S
1248[[!]regex], t, t expr, b, b [line] [condition], b subname [condition], b
1249postpone subname [condition], b load filename, b compile subname, B line, B
1250*, a [line] command, A line, A *, w expr, W expr, W *, o, o booloption ..,
1251o anyoption? .., o option=value .., < ?, < [ command ], << command, > ?, >
1252command, >> command, { ?, { [ command ], {{ command, ! number, ! -number, !
1253pattern, !! cmd, @ file, H -number, q or ^D, R, |dbcmd, ||dbcmd, command, m
1254expr, M, man [manpage]
68dc0745 1255
4755096e 1256=item Configurable Options
68dc0745 1257
4755096e
GS
1258C<recallCommand>, C<ShellBang>, C<pager>, C<tkRunning>, C<signalLevel>,
1259C<warnLevel>, C<dieLevel>, C<AutoTrace>, C<LineInfo>, C<inhibit_exit>,
a6fb92f1 1260C<PrintRet>, C<ornaments>, C<frame>, C<maxTraceLen>, C<windowSize>,
12b7c5c7
JH
1261C<arrayDepth>, C<hashDepth>, C<dumpDepth>, C<compactDump>, C<veryCompact>,
1262C<globPrint>, C<DumpDBFiles>, C<DumpPackages>, C<DumpReused>, C<quote>,
1263C<HighBit>, C<undefPrint>, C<UsageOnly>, C<TTY>, C<noTTY>, C<ReadLine>,
1264C<NonStop>
68dc0745 1265
4755096e 1266=item Debugger input/output
68dc0745 1267
4755096e
GS
1268Prompt, Multiline commands, Stack backtrace, Line Listing Format, Frame
1269listing
68dc0745 1270
4755096e 1271=item Debugging compile-time statements
68dc0745 1272
4755096e 1273=item Debugger Customization
68dc0745 1274
4755096e 1275=item Readline Support
68dc0745 1276
4755096e 1277=item Editor Support for Debugging
68dc0745 1278
4755096e 1279=item The Perl Profiler
68dc0745 1280
4755096e 1281=back
68dc0745 1282
4755096e 1283=item Debugging regular expressions
68dc0745 1284
4755096e 1285=item Debugging memory usage
14218588 1286
4755096e 1287=item SEE ALSO
68dc0745 1288
4755096e 1289=item BUGS
68dc0745 1290
a45bd81d
GS
1291=back
1292
c2e66d9e 1293=head2 perlvar - Perl predefined variables
68dc0745 1294
d420ca49 1295=over 4
a45bd81d 1296
68dc0745
PP
1297=item DESCRIPTION
1298
d420ca49 1299=over 4
68dc0745 1300
c2e66d9e 1301=item Predefined Names
68dc0745 1302
640374d0 1303$ARG, $_, $a, $b, $<I<digits>>, $MATCH, $&, $PREMATCH, $`, $POSTMATCH, $',
354a27bf 1304$LAST_PAREN_MATCH, $+, $^N, @LAST_MATCH_END, @+, $MULTILINE_MATCHING, $*,
53d7eaa8
JH
1305HANDLE->input_line_number(EXPR), $INPUT_LINE_NUMBER, $NR, $,
1306IO::Handle->input_record_separator(EXPR), $INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $RS, $/,
1307HANDLE->autoflush(EXPR), $OUTPUT_AUTOFLUSH, $|,
2a2bf5f4
JH
1308IO::Handle->output_field_separator EXPR, $OUTPUT_FIELD_SEPARATOR, $OFS, $,,
1309IO::Handle->output_record_separator EXPR, $OUTPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $ORS,
1310$\, $LIST_SEPARATOR, $", $SUBSCRIPT_SEPARATOR, $SUBSEP, $;, $OFMT, $#,
53d7eaa8
JH
1311HANDLE->format_page_number(EXPR), $FORMAT_PAGE_NUMBER, $%,
1312HANDLE->format_lines_per_page(EXPR), $FORMAT_LINES_PER_PAGE, $=,
1313HANDLE->format_lines_left(EXPR), $FORMAT_LINES_LEFT, $-, @LAST_MATCH_START,
2a2bf5f4
JH
1314@-, C<$`> is the same as C<substr($var, 0, $-[0])>, C<$&> is the same as
1315C<substr($var, $-[0], $+[0] - $-[0])>, C<$'> is the same as C<substr($var,
1316$+[0])>, C<$1> is the same as C<substr($var, $-[1], $+[1] - $-[1])>, C<$2>
1317is the same as C<substr($var, $-[2], $+[2] - $-[2])>, C<$3> is the same as
53d7eaa8
JH
1318C<substr $var, $-[3], $+[3] - $-[3])>, HANDLE->format_name(EXPR),
1319$FORMAT_NAME, $~, HANDLE->format_top_name(EXPR), $FORMAT_TOP_NAME, $^,
2a2bf5f4
JH
1320IO::Handle->format_line_break_characters EXPR,
1321$FORMAT_LINE_BREAK_CHARACTERS, $:, IO::Handle->format_formfeed EXPR,
cb52f95f
JH
1322$FORMAT_FORMFEED, $^L, $ACCUMULATOR, $^A, $CHILD_ERROR, $?, ${^ENCODING},
1323$OS_ERROR, $ERRNO, $!, $EXTENDED_OS_ERROR, $^E, $EVAL_ERROR, $@,
1324$PROCESS_ID, $PID, $$, $REAL_USER_ID, $UID, $<, $EFFECTIVE_USER_ID, $EUID,
1325$>, $REAL_GROUP_ID, $GID, $(, $EFFECTIVE_GROUP_ID, $EGID, $),
1326$PROGRAM_NAME, $0, $[, $], $COMPILING, $^C, $DEBUGGING, $^D,
1327$SYSTEM_FD_MAX, $^F, $^H, %^H, $INPLACE_EDIT, $^I, $^M, $OSNAME, $^O,
428dc699
JH
1328${^OPEN}, $PERLDB, $^P, 0x01, 0x02, 0x04, 0x08, 0x10, 0x20, 0x40, 0x80,
13290x100, 0x200, $LAST_REGEXP_CODE_RESULT, $^R, $EXCEPTIONS_BEING_CAUGHT, $^S,
1330$BASETIME, $^T, ${^TAINT}, $PERL_VERSION, $^V, $WARNING, $^W,
1331${^WARNING_BITS}, ${^WIDE_SYSTEM_CALLS}, $EXECUTABLE_NAME, $^X, ARGV,
1332$ARGV, @ARGV, @F, @INC, @_, %INC, %ENV, $ENV{expr}, %SIG, $SIG{expr}
68dc0745 1333
c2e66d9e 1334=item Error Indicators
68dc0745 1335
c2e66d9e 1336=item Technical Note on the Syntax of Variable Names
4755096e 1337
c2e66d9e
GS
1338=back
1339
1340=item BUGS
4755096e
GS
1341
1342=back
1343
c2e66d9e 1344=head2 perllol - Manipulating Arrays of Arrays in Perl
4755096e 1345
d420ca49 1346=over 4
c2e66d9e
GS
1347
1348=item DESCRIPTION
1349
4d4e713d
JH
1350=over 4
1351
c2e66d9e
GS
1352=item Declaration and Access of Arrays of Arrays
1353
1354=item Growing Your Own
1355
1356=item Access and Printing
1357
1358=item Slices
1359
4d4e713d
JH
1360=back
1361
c2e66d9e
GS
1362=item SEE ALSO
1363
1364=item AUTHOR
4755096e
GS
1365
1366=back
1367
c2e66d9e 1368=head2 perlopentut - tutorial on opening things in Perl
4755096e 1369
d420ca49 1370=over 4
4755096e
GS
1371
1372=item DESCRIPTION
1373
c2e66d9e
GS
1374=item Open E<agrave> la shell
1375
d420ca49 1376=over 4
4755096e 1377
c2e66d9e 1378=item Simple Opens
4755096e 1379
c2e66d9e 1380=item Pipe Opens
4755096e 1381
c2e66d9e 1382=item The Minus File
4755096e 1383
c2e66d9e 1384=item Mixing Reads and Writes
4755096e
GS
1385
1386=item Filters
1387
1388=back
1389
1390=item Open E<agrave> la C
1391
d420ca49 1392=over 4
4755096e
GS
1393
1394=item Permissions E<agrave> la mode
1395
1396=back
1397
1398=item Obscure Open Tricks
1399
d420ca49 1400=over 4
4755096e
GS
1401
1402=item Re-Opening Files (dups)
1403
1404=item Dispelling the Dweomer
1405
1406=item Paths as Opens
1407
1408=item Single Argument Open
1409
1410=item Playing with STDIN and STDOUT
1411
1412=back
1413
1414=item Other I/O Issues
1415
d420ca49 1416=over 4
4755096e
GS
1417
1418=item Opening Non-File Files
1419
1420=item Binary Files
1421
1422=item File Locking
1423
1424=back
1425
1426=item SEE ALSO
1427
1428=item AUTHOR and COPYRIGHT
1429
1430=item HISTORY
1431
1432=back
1433
34babc16
JH
1434=head2 perlpacktut - tutorial on C<pack> and C<unpack>
1435
1436=over 4
1437
1438=item DESCRIPTION
1439
1440=item The Basic Principle
1441
1442=item Packing Text
1443
1444=item Packing Numbers
1445
1446=over 4
1447
1448=item Integers
1449
1450=item Unpacking a Stack Frame
1451
1452=item How to Eat an Egg on a Net
1453
1454=item Floating point Numbers
1455
1456=back
1457
1458=item Exotic Templates
1459
1460=over 4
1461
1462=item Bit Strings
1463
1464=item Uuencoding
1465
1466=item Doing Sums
1467
1468=item Unicode
1469
493a87da
JH
1470=item Another Portable Binary Encoding
1471
34babc16
JH
1472=back
1473
1474=item Lengths and Widths
1475
1476=over 4
1477
1478=item String Lengths
1479
1480=item Dynamic Templates
1481
34babc16
JH
1482=back
1483
1484=item Packing and Unpacking C Structures
1485
1486=over 4
1487
1488=item The Alignment Pit
1489
1490=item Alignment, Take 2
1491
248e172a
JH
1492=item Alignment, Take 3
1493
34babc16
JH
1494=item Pointers for How to Use Them
1495
1496=back
1497
1498=item Pack Recipes
1499
493a87da
JH
1500=item Funnies Section
1501
34babc16
JH
1502=item Authors
1503
1504=back
1505
c2e66d9e 1506=head2 perlretut - Perl regular expressions tutorial
4755096e 1507
d420ca49 1508=over 4
4755096e
GS
1509
1510=item DESCRIPTION
1511
c2e66d9e 1512=item Part 1: The basics
4755096e 1513
d420ca49 1514=over 4
4755096e 1515
c2e66d9e 1516=item Simple word matching
4755096e 1517
c2e66d9e 1518=item Using character classes
4755096e 1519
c2e66d9e 1520=item Matching this or that
4755096e 1521
c2e66d9e 1522=item Grouping things and hierarchical matching
4755096e 1523
c2e66d9e 1524=item Extracting matches
4755096e 1525
c2e66d9e 1526=item Matching repetitions
4755096e 1527
c2e66d9e 1528=item Building a regexp
4755096e 1529
c2e66d9e 1530=item Using regular expressions in Perl
4755096e 1531
c2e66d9e 1532=back
4755096e 1533
c2e66d9e 1534=item Part 2: Power tools
4755096e 1535
d420ca49 1536=over 4
4755096e 1537
c2e66d9e 1538=item More on characters, strings, and character classes
4755096e 1539
c2e66d9e 1540=item Compiling and saving regular expressions
4755096e 1541
c2e66d9e 1542=item Embedding comments and modifiers in a regular expression
4755096e 1543
c2e66d9e 1544=item Non-capturing groupings
4755096e 1545
c2e66d9e 1546=item Looking ahead and looking behind
4755096e 1547
c2e66d9e 1548=item Using independent subexpressions to prevent backtracking
4755096e 1549
c2e66d9e 1550=item Conditional expressions
4755096e 1551
c2e66d9e 1552=item A bit of magic: executing Perl code in a regular expression
4755096e 1553
c2e66d9e 1554=item Pragmas and debugging
4755096e
GS
1555
1556=back
1557
c2e66d9e 1558=item BUGS
4755096e 1559
c2e66d9e 1560=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 1561
c2e66d9e 1562=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
4755096e 1563
d420ca49 1564=over 4
4755096e 1565
c2e66d9e 1566=item Acknowledgments
4755096e
GS
1567
1568=back
1569
4755096e
GS
1570=back
1571
c2e66d9e 1572=head2 perlre - Perl regular expressions
4755096e 1573
d420ca49 1574=over 4
4755096e
GS
1575
1576=item DESCRIPTION
1577
c2e66d9e 1578i, m, s, x
4755096e 1579
d420ca49 1580=over 4
4755096e 1581
c2e66d9e 1582=item Regular Expressions
4755096e 1583
428dc699 1584[1], [2], [3], cntrl, graph, print, punct, xdigit
4755096e 1585
c2e66d9e 1586=item Extended Patterns
4755096e 1587
c2e66d9e
GS
1588C<(?#text)>, C<(?imsx-imsx)>, C<(?:pattern)>, C<(?imsx-imsx:pattern)>,
1589C<(?=pattern)>, C<(?!pattern)>, C<(?<=pattern)>, C<(?<!pattern)>, C<(?{
1590code })>, C<(??{ code })>, C<< (?>pattern) >>,
1591C<(?(condition)yes-pattern|no-pattern)>, C<(?(condition)yes-pattern)>
4755096e 1592
c2e66d9e 1593=item Backtracking
4755096e 1594
c2e66d9e 1595=item Version 8 Regular Expressions
4755096e 1596
c2e66d9e 1597=item Warning on \1 vs $1
4755096e 1598
c2e66d9e
GS
1599=item Repeated patterns matching zero-length substring
1600
1601=item Combining pieces together
1602
1603C<ST>, C<S|T>, C<S{REPEAT_COUNT}>, C<S{min,max}>, C<S{min,max}?>, C<S?>,
1604C<S*>, C<S+>, C<S??>, C<S*?>, C<S+?>, C<< (?>S) >>, C<(?=S)>, C<(?<=S)>,
1605C<(?!S)>, C<(?<!S)>, C<(??{ EXPR })>,
1606C<(?(condition)yes-pattern|no-pattern)>
1607
1608=item Creating custom RE engines
4755096e
GS
1609
1610=back
1611
c2e66d9e 1612=item BUGS
4755096e 1613
c2e66d9e 1614=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 1615
c2e66d9e
GS
1616=back
1617
d396a558
JH
1618=head2 perlref - Perl references and nested data structures
1619
d420ca49 1620=over 4
d396a558
JH
1621
1622=item NOTE
1623
1624=item DESCRIPTION
1625
d420ca49 1626=over 4
d396a558
JH
1627
1628=item Making References
1629
1630=item Using References
1631
1632=item Symbolic references
1633
1634=item Not-so-symbolic references
1635
1636=item Pseudo-hashes: Using an array as a hash
1637
1638=item Function Templates
1639
1640=back
1641
1642=item WARNING
1643
1644=item SEE ALSO
1645
1646=back
1647
c2e66d9e 1648=head2 perlform - Perl formats
4755096e 1649
d420ca49 1650=over 4
4755096e 1651
c2e66d9e 1652=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 1653
d420ca49 1654=over 4
4755096e 1655
c2e66d9e 1656=item Format Variables
4755096e 1657
c2e66d9e 1658=back
4755096e 1659
c2e66d9e 1660=item NOTES
4755096e 1661
d420ca49 1662=over 4
c2e66d9e
GS
1663
1664=item Footers
1665
1666=item Accessing Formatting Internals
4755096e
GS
1667
1668=back
1669
c2e66d9e 1670=item WARNINGS
4755096e
GS
1671
1672=back
1673
d396a558 1674=head2 perlboot - Beginner's Object-Oriented Tutorial
4755096e 1675
d420ca49 1676=over 4
4755096e
GS
1677
1678=item DESCRIPTION
1679
d420ca49 1680=over 4
c2e66d9e 1681
d396a558
JH
1682=item If we could talk to the animals...
1683
1684=item Introducing the method invocation arrow
1685
1686=item Invoking a barnyard
1687
1688=item The extra parameter of method invocation
1689
1690=item Calling a second method to simplify things
1691
1692=item Inheriting the windpipes
1693
1694=item A few notes about @ISA
1695
1696=item Overriding the methods
1697
1698=item Starting the search from a different place
1699
1700=item The SUPER way of doing things
1701
1702=item Where we're at so far...
1703
1704=item A horse is a horse, of course of course -- or is it?
1705
1706=item Invoking an instance method
1707
1708=item Accessing the instance data
1709
1710=item How to build a horse
1711
1712=item Inheriting the constructor
1713
1714=item Making a method work with either classes or instances
1715
1716=item Adding parameters to a method
1717
1718=item More interesting instances
1719
1720=item A horse of a different color
1721
1722=item Summary
1723
1724=back
1725
1726=item SEE ALSO
1727
1728=item COPYRIGHT
1729
1730=back
1731
1732=head2 perltoot - Tom's object-oriented tutorial for perl
c2e66d9e 1733
d420ca49 1734=over 4
4755096e 1735
d396a558 1736=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 1737
d396a558 1738=item Creating a Class
4755096e 1739
d420ca49 1740=over 4
4755096e 1741
d396a558 1742=item Object Representation
4755096e 1743
d396a558 1744=item Class Interface
4755096e 1745
d396a558 1746=item Constructors and Instance Methods
c2e66d9e 1747
d396a558 1748=item Planning for the Future: Better Constructors
c2e66d9e 1749
d396a558 1750=item Destructors
c2e66d9e 1751
d396a558 1752=item Other Object Methods
4755096e
GS
1753
1754=back
1755
d396a558 1756=item Class Data
4755096e 1757
d420ca49 1758=over 4
4755096e 1759
d396a558 1760=item Accessing Class Data
4755096e 1761
d396a558 1762=item Debugging Methods
4755096e 1763
d396a558 1764=item Class Destructors
4755096e 1765
d396a558 1766=item Documenting the Interface
4755096e 1767
d396a558 1768=back
4755096e 1769
d396a558
JH
1770=item Aggregation
1771
1772=item Inheritance
1773
d420ca49 1774=over 4
d396a558
JH
1775
1776=item Overridden Methods
1777
1778=item Multiple Inheritance
1779
1780=item UNIVERSAL: The Root of All Objects
4755096e 1781
c2e66d9e 1782=back
4755096e 1783
d396a558 1784=item Alternate Object Representations
4755096e 1785
d420ca49 1786=over 4
4755096e 1787
d396a558 1788=item Arrays as Objects
4755096e 1789
d396a558
JH
1790=item Closures as Objects
1791
1792=back
1793
1794=item AUTOLOAD: Proxy Methods
1795
d420ca49 1796=over 4
d396a558
JH
1797
1798=item Autoloaded Data Methods
1799
1800=item Inherited Autoloaded Data Methods
1801
1802=back
1803
1804=item Metaclassical Tools
1805
d420ca49 1806=over 4
d396a558
JH
1807
1808=item Class::Struct
1809
1810=item Data Members as Variables
4755096e 1811
d420ca49
AD
1812=back
1813
c2e66d9e 1814=item NOTES
4755096e 1815
d420ca49
AD
1816=over 4
1817
d396a558
JH
1818=item Object Terminology
1819
1820=back
1821
1822=item SEE ALSO
1823
1824=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
1825
1826=item COPYRIGHT
1827
d420ca49 1828=over 4
c2e66d9e 1829
d396a558 1830=item Acknowledgments
c2e66d9e 1831
d396a558 1832=back
c2e66d9e 1833
d396a558 1834=back
c2e66d9e 1835
890a53b9 1836=head2 perltooc - Tom's OO Tutorial for Class Data in Perl
c2e66d9e 1837
d420ca49 1838=over 4
c2e66d9e 1839
d396a558 1840=item DESCRIPTION
c2e66d9e 1841
dc5c060f
JH
1842=item Class Data in a Can
1843
d396a558
JH
1844=item Class Data as Package Variables
1845
d420ca49 1846=over 4
d396a558
JH
1847
1848=item Putting All Your Eggs in One Basket
1849
1850=item Inheritance Concerns
1851
1852=item The Eponymous Meta-Object
1853
1854=item Indirect References to Class Data
1855
1856=item Monadic Classes
1857
1858=item Translucent Attributes
4755096e
GS
1859
1860=back
1861
d396a558 1862=item Class Data as Lexical Variables
4755096e 1863
d420ca49 1864=over 4
4755096e 1865
d396a558
JH
1866=item Privacy and Responsibility
1867
1868=item File-Scoped Lexicals
1869
1870=item More Inheritance Concerns
1871
1872=item Locking the Door and Throwing Away the Key
1873
1874=item Translucency Revisited
4755096e 1875
c2e66d9e 1876=back
4755096e 1877
d396a558
JH
1878=item NOTES
1879
c2e66d9e 1880=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 1881
d396a558
JH
1882=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
1883
1884=item ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
1885
c2e66d9e 1886=item HISTORY
4755096e 1887
c2e66d9e 1888=back
4755096e 1889
d396a558 1890=head2 perlobj - Perl objects
4755096e 1891
d420ca49 1892=over 4
4755096e 1893
c2e66d9e 1894=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 1895
d420ca49 1896=over 4
4755096e 1897
d396a558 1898=item An Object is Simply a Reference
4755096e 1899
d396a558 1900=item A Class is Simply a Package
4755096e 1901
d396a558 1902=item A Method is Simply a Subroutine
4755096e 1903
d396a558 1904=item Method Invocation
4755096e 1905
bd28ded5 1906=item Indirect Object Syntax
d396a558
JH
1907
1908=item Default UNIVERSAL methods
1909
1910isa(CLASS), can(METHOD), VERSION( [NEED] )
1911
1912=item Destructors
1913
1914=item Summary
1915
1916=item Two-Phased Garbage Collection
4755096e 1917
c2e66d9e 1918=back
4755096e 1919
d396a558
JH
1920=item SEE ALSO
1921
1922=back
1923
1924=head2 perlbot - Bag'o Object Tricks (the BOT)
1925
d420ca49 1926=over 4
d396a558
JH
1927
1928=item DESCRIPTION
1929
1930=item OO SCALING TIPS
1931
1932=item INSTANCE VARIABLES
1933
1934=item SCALAR INSTANCE VARIABLES
1935
1936=item INSTANCE VARIABLE INHERITANCE
1937
1938=item OBJECT RELATIONSHIPS
1939
1940=item OVERRIDING SUPERCLASS METHODS
1941
1942=item USING RELATIONSHIP WITH SDBM
1943
1944=item THINKING OF CODE REUSE
1945
1946=item CLASS CONTEXT AND THE OBJECT
1947
1948=item INHERITING A CONSTRUCTOR
1949
1950=item DELEGATION
1951
1952=back
1953
1954=head2 perltie - how to hide an object class in a simple variable
1955
d420ca49 1956=over 4
d396a558
JH
1957
1958=item SYNOPSIS
1959
1960=item DESCRIPTION
1961
d420ca49 1962=over 4
d396a558
JH
1963
1964=item Tying Scalars
1965
93d73c42
JH
1966TIESCALAR classname, LIST, FETCH this, STORE this, value, UNTIE this,
1967DESTROY this
d396a558
JH
1968
1969=item Tying Arrays
1970
1971TIEARRAY classname, LIST, FETCH this, index, STORE this, index, value,
165c0277
JH
1972FETCHSIZE this, STORESIZE this, count, EXTEND this, count, EXISTS this,
1973key, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this, PUSH this, LIST, POP this, SHIFT this,
1974UNSHIFT this, LIST, SPLICE this, offset, length, LIST, UNTIE this, DESTROY
1975this
d396a558
JH
1976
1977=item Tying Hashes
1978
1979USER, HOME, CLOBBER, LIST, TIEHASH classname, LIST, FETCH this, key, STORE
1980this, key, value, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this, EXISTS this, key, FIRSTKEY
93d73c42 1981this, NEXTKEY this, lastkey, UNTIE this, DESTROY this
d396a558
JH
1982
1983=item Tying FileHandles
1984
1985TIEHANDLE classname, LIST, WRITE this, LIST, PRINT this, LIST, PRINTF this,
93d73c42
JH
1986LIST, READ this, LIST, READLINE this, GETC this, CLOSE this, UNTIE this,
1987DESTROY this
d396a558 1988
9fa7f388
JH
1989=item UNTIE this
1990
d396a558
JH
1991=item The C<untie> Gotcha
1992
1993=back
4755096e 1994
c2e66d9e 1995=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 1996
d396a558
JH
1997=item BUGS
1998
1999=item AUTHOR
2000
c2e66d9e 2001=back
4755096e 2002
c2e66d9e
GS
2003=head2 perlipc - Perl interprocess communication (signals, fifos, pipes,
2004safe subprocesses, sockets, and semaphores)
4755096e 2005
d420ca49 2006=over 4
4755096e 2007
c2e66d9e 2008=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2009
c2e66d9e 2010=item Signals
4755096e 2011
c2e66d9e 2012=item Named Pipes
4755096e 2013
d420ca49 2014=over 4
4755096e 2015
c2e66d9e 2016=item WARNING
4755096e 2017
c2e66d9e 2018=back
4755096e 2019
c2e66d9e 2020=item Using open() for IPC
4755096e 2021
d420ca49 2022=over 4
4755096e 2023
c2e66d9e 2024=item Filehandles
4755096e 2025
c2e66d9e 2026=item Background Processes
4755096e 2027
c2e66d9e 2028=item Complete Dissociation of Child from Parent
4755096e 2029
c2e66d9e 2030=item Safe Pipe Opens
4755096e 2031
c2e66d9e 2032=item Bidirectional Communication with Another Process
4755096e 2033
c2e66d9e 2034=item Bidirectional Communication with Yourself
4755096e
GS
2035
2036=back
2037
c2e66d9e 2038=item Sockets: Client/Server Communication
4755096e 2039
d420ca49 2040=over 4
4755096e 2041
c2e66d9e 2042=item Internet Line Terminators
4755096e 2043
c2e66d9e 2044=item Internet TCP Clients and Servers
4755096e 2045
c2e66d9e
GS
2046=item Unix-Domain TCP Clients and Servers
2047
2048=back
2049
2050=item TCP Clients with IO::Socket
4755096e 2051
d420ca49 2052=over 4
4755096e 2053
c2e66d9e 2054=item A Simple Client
4755096e 2055
c2e66d9e 2056C<Proto>, C<PeerAddr>, C<PeerPort>
4755096e 2057
c2e66d9e 2058=item A Webget Client
4755096e 2059
c2e66d9e 2060=item Interactive Client with IO::Socket
4755096e 2061
c2e66d9e 2062=back
4755096e 2063
c2e66d9e 2064=item TCP Servers with IO::Socket
4755096e 2065
c2e66d9e 2066Proto, LocalPort, Listen, Reuse
4755096e 2067
c2e66d9e 2068=item UDP: Message Passing
4755096e 2069
c2e66d9e 2070=item SysV IPC
4755096e 2071
c2e66d9e 2072=item NOTES
4755096e 2073
c2e66d9e 2074=item BUGS
4755096e 2075
c2e66d9e 2076=item AUTHOR
4755096e 2077
c2e66d9e 2078=item SEE ALSO
4755096e
GS
2079
2080=back
2081
bd28ded5 2082=head2 perlfork - Perl's fork() emulation (EXPERIMENTAL, subject to change)
4755096e 2083
d420ca49 2084=over 4
4755096e 2085
c2e66d9e
GS
2086=item SYNOPSIS
2087
2088=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2089
d420ca49 2090=over 4
4755096e 2091
c2e66d9e 2092=item Behavior of other Perl features in forked pseudo-processes
4755096e 2093
c2e66d9e
GS
2094$$ or $PROCESS_ID, %ENV, chdir() and all other builtins that accept
2095filenames, wait() and waitpid(), kill(), exec(), exit(), Open handles to
2096files, directories and network sockets
4755096e 2097
c2e66d9e 2098=item Resource limits
4755096e 2099
c2e66d9e 2100=item Killing the parent process
4755096e 2101
c2e66d9e 2102=item Lifetime of the parent process and pseudo-processes
4755096e 2103
c2e66d9e 2104=item CAVEATS AND LIMITATIONS
4755096e 2105
c2e66d9e
GS
2106BEGIN blocks, Open filehandles, Forking pipe open() not yet implemented,
2107Global state maintained by XSUBs, Interpreter embedded in larger
2108application, Thread-safety of extensions
4755096e 2109
c2e66d9e 2110=back
4755096e 2111
c2e66d9e
GS
2112=item BUGS
2113
2114=item AUTHOR
2115
2116=item SEE ALSO
4755096e
GS
2117
2118=back
2119
c2e66d9e 2120=head2 perlnumber - semantics of numbers and numeric operations in Perl
4755096e 2121
d420ca49 2122=over 4
4755096e 2123
c2e66d9e 2124=item SYNOPSIS
4755096e 2125
c2e66d9e 2126=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2127
c2e66d9e 2128=item Storing numbers
4755096e 2129
c2e66d9e 2130=item Numeric operators and numeric conversions
4755096e 2131
c2e66d9e 2132=item Flavors of Perl numeric operations
4755096e 2133
c2e66d9e
GS
2134Arithmetic operators except, C<no integer>, Arithmetic operators except,
2135C<use integer>, Bitwise operators, C<no integer>, Bitwise operators, C<use
2136integer>, Operators which expect an integer, Operators which expect a
2137string
4755096e 2138
c2e66d9e 2139=item AUTHOR
4755096e 2140
c2e66d9e 2141=item SEE ALSO
4755096e
GS
2142
2143=back
2144
c2e66d9e 2145=head2 perlthrtut - tutorial on threads in Perl
4755096e 2146
d420ca49 2147=over 4
4755096e
GS
2148
2149=item DESCRIPTION
2150
53d7eaa8
JH
2151=back
2152
2153=head2 perlothrtut - old tutorial on threads in Perl
2154
2155=over 4
2156
2157=item DESCRIPTION
2158
c2e66d9e 2159=item What Is A Thread Anyway?
4755096e 2160
c2e66d9e 2161=item Threaded Program Models
4755096e 2162
d420ca49 2163=over 4
4755096e 2164
c2e66d9e 2165=item Boss/Worker
4755096e 2166
c2e66d9e 2167=item Work Crew
4755096e 2168
c2e66d9e 2169=item Pipeline
4755096e
GS
2170
2171=back
2172
c2e66d9e 2173=item Native threads
4755096e 2174
c2e66d9e 2175=item What kind of threads are perl threads?
4755096e 2176
c2e66d9e 2177=item Threadsafe Modules
4755096e 2178
c2e66d9e 2179=item Thread Basics
4755096e 2180
d420ca49 2181=over 4
4755096e 2182
c2e66d9e 2183=item Basic Thread Support
4755096e 2184
c2e66d9e 2185=item Creating Threads
4755096e 2186
c2e66d9e 2187=item Giving up control
4755096e 2188
c2e66d9e 2189=item Waiting For A Thread To Exit
4755096e 2190
c2e66d9e 2191=item Errors In Threads
4755096e 2192
c2e66d9e 2193=item Ignoring A Thread
4755096e
GS
2194
2195=back
2196
c2e66d9e 2197=item Threads And Data
4755096e 2198
d420ca49 2199=over 4
4755096e 2200
c2e66d9e 2201=item Shared And Unshared Data
4755096e 2202
c2e66d9e 2203=item Thread Pitfall: Races
4755096e 2204
c2e66d9e 2205=item Controlling access: lock()
4755096e 2206
c2e66d9e 2207=item Thread Pitfall: Deadlocks
4755096e 2208
c2e66d9e 2209=item Queues: Passing Data Around
4755096e 2210
c2e66d9e 2211=back
4755096e 2212
c2e66d9e 2213=item Threads And Code
4755096e 2214
d420ca49 2215=over 4
4755096e 2216
c2e66d9e 2217=item Semaphores: Synchronizing Data Access
4755096e 2218
c2e66d9e 2219Basic semaphores, Advanced Semaphores
4755096e 2220
c2e66d9e 2221=item Attributes: Restricting Access To Subroutines
4755096e 2222
c2e66d9e 2223=item Subroutine Locks
4755096e 2224
c2e66d9e 2225=item Methods
4755096e 2226
c2e66d9e 2227=item Locking A Subroutine
4755096e
GS
2228
2229=back
2230
c2e66d9e 2231=item General Thread Utility Routines
4755096e 2232
d420ca49 2233=over 4
4755096e 2234
c2e66d9e 2235=item What Thread Am I In?
4755096e 2236
c2e66d9e 2237=item Thread IDs
4755096e 2238
c2e66d9e 2239=item Are These Threads The Same?
4755096e 2240
c2e66d9e 2241=item What Threads Are Running?
4755096e 2242
c2e66d9e 2243=back
4755096e 2244
c2e66d9e 2245=item A Complete Example
4755096e 2246
c2e66d9e 2247=item Conclusion
4755096e 2248
c2e66d9e 2249=item Bibliography
4755096e 2250
d420ca49 2251=over 4
4755096e 2252
c2e66d9e 2253=item Introductory Texts
4755096e 2254
c2e66d9e 2255=item OS-Related References
4755096e 2256
c2e66d9e 2257=item Other References
4755096e
GS
2258
2259=back
2260
c2e66d9e 2261=item Acknowledgements
4755096e 2262
c2e66d9e 2263=item AUTHOR
4755096e 2264
c2e66d9e 2265=item Copyrights
4755096e 2266
c2e66d9e 2267=back
4755096e 2268
c2e66d9e 2269=head2 perlport - Writing portable Perl
4755096e 2270
d420ca49 2271=over 4
4755096e 2272
c2e66d9e 2273=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2274
c2e66d9e
GS
2275Not all Perl programs have to be portable, Nearly all of Perl already I<is>
2276portable
4755096e 2277
c2e66d9e 2278=item ISSUES
4755096e 2279
d420ca49 2280=over 4
4755096e 2281
c2e66d9e 2282=item Newlines
4755096e 2283
c2e66d9e 2284=item Numbers endianness and Width
4755096e 2285
c2e66d9e 2286=item Files and Filesystems
4755096e 2287
c2e66d9e 2288=item System Interaction
4755096e 2289
c2e66d9e 2290=item Interprocess Communication (IPC)
4755096e 2291
c2e66d9e 2292=item External Subroutines (XS)
4755096e 2293
c2e66d9e 2294=item Standard Modules
4755096e 2295
c2e66d9e 2296=item Time and Date
4755096e 2297
c2e66d9e 2298=item Character sets and character encoding
4755096e 2299
c2e66d9e 2300=item Internationalisation
4755096e 2301
c2e66d9e 2302=item System Resources
4755096e 2303
c2e66d9e 2304=item Security
4755096e 2305
c2e66d9e 2306=item Style
4755096e
GS
2307
2308=back
2309
c2e66d9e 2310=item CPAN Testers
4755096e 2311
c2e66d9e
GS
2312Mailing list: cpan-testers@perl.org, Testing results:
2313http://testers.cpan.org/
4755096e 2314
c2e66d9e 2315=item PLATFORMS
4755096e 2316
d420ca49 2317=over 4
4755096e 2318
c2e66d9e 2319=item Unix
4755096e 2320
c2e66d9e 2321=item DOS and Derivatives
4755096e 2322
c2e66d9e 2323=item S<Mac OS>
4755096e 2324
c2e66d9e 2325=item VMS
4755096e 2326
c2e66d9e 2327=item VOS
4755096e 2328
c2e66d9e 2329=item EBCDIC Platforms
4755096e 2330
c2e66d9e 2331=item Acorn RISC OS
4755096e 2332
c2e66d9e 2333=item Other perls
4755096e
GS
2334
2335=back
2336
c2e66d9e 2337=item FUNCTION IMPLEMENTATIONS
4755096e 2338
d420ca49 2339=over 4
4755096e 2340
c2e66d9e
GS
2341=item Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions
2342
2343-I<X> FILEHANDLE, -I<X> EXPR, -I<X>, alarm SECONDS, alarm, binmode
2344FILEHANDLE, chmod LIST, chown LIST, chroot FILENAME, chroot, crypt
2345PLAINTEXT,SALT, dbmclose HASH, dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MODE, dump LABEL, exec
ba62762e
JH
2346LIST, exit EXPR, exit, fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, flock
2347FILEHANDLE,OPERATION, fork, getlogin, getpgrp PID, getppid, getpriority
2348WHICH,WHO, getpwnam NAME, getgrnam NAME, getnetbyname NAME, getpwuid UID,
2349getgrgid GID, getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getprotobynumber NUMBER,
2350getservbyport PORT,PROTO, getpwent, getgrent, gethostent, getnetent,
2351getprotoent, getservent, setpwent, setgrent, sethostent STAYOPEN, setnetent
2352STAYOPEN, setprotoent STAYOPEN, setservent STAYOPEN, endpwent, endgrent,
2353endhostent, endnetent, endprotoent, endservent, getsockopt
2354SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME, glob EXPR, glob, ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR,
2355kill SIGNAL, LIST, link OLDFILE,NEWFILE, lstat FILEHANDLE, lstat EXPR,
2356lstat, msgctl ID,CMD,ARG, msgget KEY,FLAGS, msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS, msgrcv
2357ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS, open FILEHANDLE,EXPR, open FILEHANDLE, pipe
2358READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE, readlink EXPR, readlink, select
2359RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIMEOUT, semctl ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG, semget
2360KEY,NSEMS,FLAGS, semop KEY,OPSTRING, setgrent, setpgrp PID,PGRP,
c2e66d9e
GS
2361setpriority WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY, setpwent, setsockopt
2362SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,OPTVAL, shmctl ID,CMD,ARG, shmget KEY,SIZE,FLAGS,
80cbd5ad
JH
2363shmread ID,VAR,POS,SIZE, shmwrite ID,STRING,POS,SIZE, sockatmark SOCKET,
2364socketpair SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, stat FILEHANDLE, stat
2365EXPR, stat, symlink OLDFILE,NEWFILE, syscall LIST, sysopen
d396a558
JH
2366FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE,PERMS, system LIST, times, truncate
2367FILEHANDLE,LENGTH, truncate EXPR,LENGTH, umask EXPR, umask, utime LIST,
2368wait, waitpid PID,FLAGS
4755096e 2369
d396a558 2370=back
4755096e 2371
d396a558 2372=item CHANGES
4755096e 2373
603b90a8
JH
2374v1.48, 02 February 2001, v1.47, 22 March 2000, v1.46, 12 February 2000,
2375v1.45, 20 December 1999, v1.44, 19 July 1999, v1.43, 24 May 1999, v1.42, 22
2376May 1999, v1.41, 19 May 1999, v1.40, 11 April 1999, v1.39, 11 February
23771999, v1.38, 31 December 1998, v1.37, 19 December 1998, v1.36, 9 September
23781998, v1.35, 13 August 1998, v1.33, 06 August 1998, v1.32, 05 August 1998,
2379v1.30, 03 August 1998, v1.23, 10 July 1998
4755096e 2380
d396a558 2381=item Supported Platforms
4755096e 2382
d396a558 2383=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 2384
d396a558 2385=item AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS
4755096e 2386
4755096e
GS
2387=back
2388
d396a558
JH
2389=head2 perllocale - Perl locale handling (internationalization and
2390localization)
4755096e 2391
d420ca49 2392=over 4
4755096e 2393
d396a558 2394=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2395
d396a558
JH
2396=item PREPARING TO USE LOCALES
2397
2398=item USING LOCALES
4755096e 2399
d420ca49 2400=over 4
4755096e 2401
d396a558 2402=item The use locale pragma
4755096e 2403
d396a558 2404=item The setlocale function
4755096e 2405
d396a558 2406=item Finding locales
4755096e 2407
d396a558 2408=item LOCALE PROBLEMS
4755096e 2409
d396a558 2410=item Temporarily fixing locale problems
4755096e 2411
d396a558 2412=item Permanently fixing locale problems
4755096e 2413
d396a558 2414=item Permanently fixing your system's locale configuration
4755096e 2415
d396a558 2416=item Fixing system locale configuration
4755096e 2417
d396a558 2418=item The localeconv function
4755096e 2419
d0363f02
JH
2420=item I18N::Langinfo
2421
4755096e
GS
2422=back
2423
d396a558 2424=item LOCALE CATEGORIES
4755096e 2425
d420ca49 2426=over 4
4755096e 2427
d396a558 2428=item Category LC_COLLATE: Collation
4755096e 2429
d396a558 2430=item Category LC_CTYPE: Character Types
4755096e 2431
d396a558 2432=item Category LC_NUMERIC: Numeric Formatting
4755096e 2433
d396a558 2434=item Category LC_MONETARY: Formatting of monetary amounts
4755096e 2435
d396a558 2436=item LC_TIME
4755096e 2437
d396a558 2438=item Other categories
4755096e 2439
d396a558 2440=back
4755096e 2441
d396a558 2442=item SECURITY
4755096e 2443
d396a558 2444=item ENVIRONMENT
4755096e 2445
d396a558
JH
2446PERL_BADLANG, LC_ALL, LANGUAGE, LC_CTYPE, LC_COLLATE, LC_MONETARY,
2447LC_NUMERIC, LC_TIME, LANG
4755096e 2448
d396a558 2449=item NOTES
4755096e 2450
d420ca49 2451=over 4
4755096e 2452
d396a558 2453=item Backward compatibility
4755096e 2454
d396a558 2455=item I18N:Collate obsolete
4755096e 2456
d396a558 2457=item Sort speed and memory use impacts
4755096e 2458
d396a558 2459=item write() and LC_NUMERIC
4755096e 2460
d396a558 2461=item Freely available locale definitions
4755096e 2462
d396a558 2463=item I18n and l10n
4755096e 2464
d396a558 2465=item An imperfect standard
4755096e
GS
2466
2467=back
2468
d396a558 2469=item BUGS
4755096e 2470
d420ca49 2471=over 4
4755096e 2472
d396a558 2473=item Broken systems
4755096e
GS
2474
2475=back
2476
2477=item SEE ALSO
2478
d396a558 2479=item HISTORY
4755096e
GS
2480
2481=back
2482
07fcf8ff 2483=head2 perluniintro - Perl Unicode introduction
ba62762e
JH
2484
2485=over 4
2486
2487=item DESCRIPTION
2488
2489=over 4
2490
2491=item Unicode
2492
2493=item Perl's Unicode Support
2494
2495=item Perl's Unicode Model
2496
2497=item Creating Unicode
2498
2499=item Handling Unicode
2500
2501=item Legacy Encodings
2502
2503=item Unicode I/O
2504
3ecb3787
JH
2505=item Displaying Unicode As Text
2506
ba62762e
JH
2507=item Special Cases
2508
2509=item Advanced Topics
2510
2511=item Miscellaneous
2512
2513=item Questions With Answers
2514
ff426ff2 2515, , , , , ,
ba62762e
JH
2516
2517=item Hexadecimal Notation
2518
2519=item Further Resources
2520
2521=back
2522
34babc16
JH
2523=item UNICODE IN OLDER PERLS
2524
ba62762e
JH
2525=item SEE ALSO
2526
2527=item ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
2528
2529=item AUTHOR, COPYRIGHT, AND LICENSE
2530
2531=back
2532
d396a558 2533=head2 perlunicode - Unicode support in Perl
4755096e 2534
d420ca49 2535=over 4
4755096e
GS
2536
2537=item DESCRIPTION
2538
d420ca49 2539=over 4
4755096e 2540
e42c74e1 2541=item Important Caveats
4755096e 2542
d396a558 2543Input and Output Disciplines, Regular Expressions, C<use utf8> still needed
ad0029c4 2544to enable UTF-8/UTF-EBCDIC in scripts
4755096e 2545
d396a558 2546=item Byte and Character semantics
4755096e 2547
d396a558 2548=item Effects of character semantics
4755096e 2549
fbe3d936
JH
2550=item Scripts
2551
2552=item Blocks
2553
d396a558 2554=item Character encodings for input and output
4755096e 2555
80327a3d 2556=item Unicode Regular Expression Support Level
ba62762e
JH
2557
2558=item Unicode Encodings
2559
ba62762e
JH
2560=item Security Implications of Malformed UTF-8
2561
2562=item Unicode in Perl on EBCDIC
2563
37b1fd75
JH
2564=item Using Unicode in XS
2565
ba62762e
JH
2566=back
2567
80327a3d 2568=item BUGS
4755096e
GS
2569
2570=back
2571
d396a558 2572=head2 perlebcdic - Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms
4755096e 2573
d420ca49 2574=over 4
4755096e 2575
d396a558 2576=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2577
d396a558 2578=item COMMON CHARACTER CODE SETS
4755096e 2579
d420ca49 2580=over 4
4755096e 2581
d396a558 2582=item ASCII
4755096e 2583
d396a558 2584=item ISO 8859
4755096e 2585
d396a558 2586=item Latin 1 (ISO 8859-1)
4755096e 2587
d396a558 2588=item EBCDIC
4755096e 2589
d396a558 2590=item 13 variant characters
4755096e 2591
d396a558 2592=item 0037
4755096e 2593
d396a558 2594=item 1047
4755096e 2595
d396a558 2596=item POSIX-BC
4755096e 2597
41ca3a40
JH
2598=item Unicode and UTF
2599
ff426ff2
JH
2600=item Using Encode
2601
4755096e
GS
2602=back
2603
d396a558 2604=item SINGLE OCTET TABLES
4755096e 2605
41ca3a40 2606recipe 0, recipe 1, recipe 2, recipe 3, recipe 4, recipe 5, recipe 6
4755096e 2607
d396a558 2608=item IDENTIFYING CHARACTER CODE SETS
4755096e 2609
d396a558 2610=item CONVERSIONS
4755096e 2611
d420ca49 2612=over 4
37d4d706
JH
2613
2614=item tr///
2615
2616=item iconv
2617
2618=item C RTL
2619
2620=back
2621
d396a558 2622=item OPERATOR DIFFERENCES
4755096e 2623
d396a558 2624=item FUNCTION DIFFERENCES
4755096e 2625
d396a558 2626chr(), ord(), pack(), print(), printf(), sort(), sprintf(), unpack()
4755096e 2627
d396a558 2628=item REGULAR EXPRESSION DIFFERENCES
4755096e 2629
d396a558 2630=item SOCKETS
4755096e 2631
d396a558 2632=item SORTING
4755096e 2633
d420ca49 2634=over 4
4755096e 2635
9fa7f388 2636=item Ignore ASCII vs. EBCDIC sort differences.
4755096e 2637
9fa7f388 2638=item MONO CASE then sort data.
4755096e 2639
9fa7f388 2640=item Convert, sort data, then re convert.
4755096e 2641
d396a558 2642=item Perform sorting on one type of machine only.
4755096e
GS
2643
2644=back
2645
41ca3a40 2646=item TRANSFORMATION FORMATS
37d4d706 2647
d420ca49 2648=over 4
37d4d706
JH
2649
2650=item URL decoding and encoding
2651
2652=item uu encoding and decoding
2653
2654=item Quoted-Printable encoding and decoding
2655
41ca3a40 2656=item Caesarian ciphers
37d4d706
JH
2657
2658=back
2659
2660=item Hashing order and checksums
4755096e 2661
d396a558 2662=item I18N AND L10N
4755096e 2663
d396a558 2664=item MULTI OCTET CHARACTER SETS
4755096e 2665
d396a558 2666=item OS ISSUES
4755096e 2667
d420ca49 2668=over 4
4755096e 2669
d396a558 2670=item OS/400
7029d033 2671
d396a558 2672IFS access
4755096e 2673
41ca3a40 2674=item OS/390, z/OS
4755096e 2675
41ca3a40 2676chcp, dataset access, OS/390, z/OS iconv, locales
4755096e 2677
d396a558 2678=item VM/ESA?
4755096e 2679
d396a558 2680=item POSIX-BC?
4755096e 2681
d396a558 2682=back
4755096e 2683
9fa7f388
JH
2684=item BUGS
2685
b3b6085d
PP
2686=item SEE ALSO
2687
d396a558 2688=item REFERENCES
c2e66d9e 2689
41ca3a40
JH
2690=item HISTORY
2691
d396a558 2692=item AUTHOR
4755096e
GS
2693
2694=back
2695
d396a558 2696=head2 perlsec - Perl security
4755096e 2697
d420ca49 2698=over 4
4755096e 2699
4755096e
GS
2700=item DESCRIPTION
2701
d420ca49 2702=over 4
4755096e 2703
d396a558 2704=item Laundering and Detecting Tainted Data
4755096e 2705
d396a558 2706=item Switches On the "#!" Line
4755096e 2707
d396a558 2708=item Cleaning Up Your Path
c2e66d9e 2709
d396a558 2710=item Security Bugs
c2e66d9e 2711
d396a558 2712=item Protecting Your Programs
4755096e
GS
2713
2714=back
2715
c2e66d9e
GS
2716=item SEE ALSO
2717
4755096e
GS
2718=back
2719
c2e66d9e 2720=head2 perlmod - Perl modules (packages and symbol tables)
4755096e 2721
d420ca49 2722=over 4
4755096e
GS
2723
2724=item DESCRIPTION
2725
d420ca49 2726=over 4
4755096e 2727
c2e66d9e 2728=item Packages
4755096e 2729
c2e66d9e 2730=item Symbol Tables
4755096e 2731
c2e66d9e 2732=item Package Constructors and Destructors
4755096e 2733
c2e66d9e 2734=item Perl Classes
4755096e 2735
c2e66d9e 2736=item Perl Modules
4755096e 2737
a6fb92f1
JH
2738=item Making your module threadsafe
2739
4755096e
GS
2740=back
2741
c2e66d9e 2742=item SEE ALSO
4755096e 2743
c2e66d9e 2744=back
4755096e 2745
35bf961c
JH
2746=head2 perlmodinstall - Installing CPAN Modules
2747
2748=over 4
2749
2750=item DESCRIPTION
2751
2752=over 4
2753
2754=item PREAMBLE
2755
2756B<DECOMPRESS> the file, B<UNPACK> the file into a directory, B<BUILD> the
2757module (sometimes unnecessary), B<INSTALL> the module
2758
2759=back
2760
2761=item PORTABILITY
2762
2763=item HEY
2764
2765=item AUTHOR
2766
2767=item COPYRIGHT
2768
2769=back
2770
c2e66d9e 2771=head2 perlmodlib - constructing new Perl modules and finding existing ones
4755096e 2772
d420ca49 2773=over 4
4755096e 2774
c2e66d9e 2775=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2776
c2e66d9e 2777=item THE PERL MODULE LIBRARY
4755096e 2778
d420ca49 2779=over 4
4755096e 2780
c2e66d9e 2781=item Pragmatic Modules
4755096e 2782
04b01f78
JH
2783attributes, autouse, base, blib, bytes, charnames, constant, diagnostics,
2784encoding, fields, filetest, integer, less, locale, open, overload, sigtrap,
2785sort, strict, subs, utf8, vars, vmsish, warnings, warnings::register
4755096e 2786
c2e66d9e 2787=item Standard Modules
4755096e 2788
04b01f78
JH
2789AnyDBM_File, Attribute::Handlers, AutoLoader, AutoSplit, Benchmark, CGI,
2790CGI::Apache, CGI::Carp, CGI::Cookie, CGI::Fast, CGI::Pretty, CGI::Push,
2791CGI::Switch, CGI::Util, CPAN, CPAN::FirstTime, CPAN::Nox, Carp,
2792Carp::Heavy, Class::ISA, Class::Struct, Cwd, DB, Devel::SelfStubber,
2793Digest, DirHandle, Dumpvalue, English, Env, Exporter, Exporter::Heavy,
c27482a4
JH
2794ExtUtils::Command, ExtUtils::Constant, ExtUtils::Embed, ExtUtils::Install,
2795ExtUtils::Installed, ExtUtils::Liblist, ExtUtils::MM_Cygwin,
2796ExtUtils::MM_NW5, ExtUtils::MM_OS2, ExtUtils::MM_Unix, ExtUtils::MM_VMS,
2797ExtUtils::MM_Win32, ExtUtils::MakeMaker, ExtUtils::Manifest,
2798ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap, ExtUtils::Mksymlists, ExtUtils::Packlist,
04b01f78
JH
2799ExtUtils::testlib, Fatal, File::Basename, File::CheckTree, File::Compare,
2800File::Copy, File::DosGlob, File::Find, File::Path, File::Spec,
2801File::Spec::Cygwin, File::Spec::Epoc, File::Spec::Functions,
2802File::Spec::Mac, File::Spec::OS2, File::Spec::Unix, File::Spec::VMS,
2803File::Spec::Win32, File::Temp, File::stat, FileCache, FileHandle,
2804Filter::Simple, FindBin, Getopt::Long, Getopt::Std, I18N::Collate,
2805I18N::LangTags, I18N::LangTags::List, IPC::Open2, IPC::Open3,
2806Locale::Constants, Locale::Country, Locale::Currency, Locale::Language,
2807Locale::Maketext, Locale::Maketext::TPJ13, Math::BigFloat, Math::BigInt,
2808Math::BigInt::Calc, Math::Complex, Math::Trig, Memoize,
2809Memoize::AnyDBM_File, Memoize::Expire, Memoize::ExpireFile,
2810Memoize::ExpireTest, Memoize::NDBM_File, Memoize::SDBM_File,
2811Memoize::Storable, NEXT, Net::Cmd, Net::Config, Net::Domain, Net::FTP,
2812Net::NNTP, Net::Netrc, Net::POP3, Net::Ping, Net::SMTP, Net::Time,
2813Net::hostent, Net::libnetFAQ, Net::netent, Net::protoent, Net::servent,
2814PerlIO, Pod::Checker, Pod::Find, Pod::Functions, Pod::Html,
2815Pod::InputObjects, Pod::LaTeX, Pod::Man, Pod::ParseLink, Pod::ParseUtils,
2816Pod::Parser, Pod::Plainer, Pod::Select, Pod::Text, Pod::Text::Color,
2817Pod::Text::Overstrike, Pod::Text::Termcap, Pod::Usage, Pod::t::basic,
2818Search::Dict, SelectSaver, SelfLoader, Shell, Switch, Symbol,
2819Term::ANSIColor, Term::Cap, Term::Complete, Term::ReadLine, Test,
34babc16
JH
2820Test::Builder, Test::Harness, Test::More, Test::Simple, Test::Tutorial,
2821Text::Abbrev, Text::Balanced, Text::ParseWords, Text::Soundex, Text::Tabs,
2822Text::Wrap, Thread, Tie::Array, Tie::Handle, Tie::Hash, Tie::RefHash,
2823Tie::Scalar, Tie::SubstrHash, Time::Local, Time::gmtime, Time::localtime,
2824Time::tm, UNIVERSAL, Unicode::Collate, Unicode::UCD, User::grent,
e61ecf27 2825User::pwent, Win32
4755096e 2826
c2e66d9e 2827=item Extension Modules
4755096e 2828
c2e66d9e 2829=back
4755096e 2830
c2e66d9e 2831=item CPAN
4755096e 2832
603b90a8
JH
2833=over 4
2834
2835=item Africa
2836
2837=item Asia
2838
2839=item Central America
2840
2841=item Europe
2842
2843=item North America
2844
2845=item Oceania
2846
2847=item South America
2848
2849=back
4755096e 2850
c2e66d9e 2851=item Modules: Creation, Use, and Abuse
4755096e 2852
d420ca49 2853=over 4
4755096e 2854
c2e66d9e 2855=item Guidelines for Module Creation
4755096e 2856
c2e66d9e 2857=item Guidelines for Converting Perl 4 Library Scripts into Modules
4755096e 2858
c2e66d9e 2859=item Guidelines for Reusing Application Code
4755096e 2860
c2e66d9e 2861=back
4755096e 2862
c2e66d9e 2863=item NOTE
4755096e 2864
c2e66d9e 2865=back
4755096e 2866
35bf961c 2867=head2 perlmodstyle - Perl module style guide
4755096e 2868
d420ca49 2869=over 4
4755096e 2870
35bf961c
JH
2871=item INTRODUCTION
2872
2873=item QUICK CHECKLIST
4755096e 2874
d420ca49 2875=over 4
4755096e 2876
35bf961c 2877=item Before you start
4755096e 2878
35bf961c
JH
2879=item The API
2880
2881=item Stability
2882
2883=item Documentation
2884
2885=item Release considerations
4755096e 2886
c2e66d9e 2887=back
4755096e 2888
35bf961c 2889=item BEFORE YOU START WRITING A MODULE
a9ef4385 2890
35bf961c 2891=over 4
c2e66d9e 2892
35bf961c 2893=item Has it been done before?
c2e66d9e 2894
35bf961c
JH
2895=item Do one thing and do it well
2896
2897=item What's in a name?
2898
2899=back
2900
2901=item DESIGNING AND WRITING YOUR MODULE
2902
2903=over 4
2904
2905=item To OO or not to OO?
2906
2907=item Designing your API
2908
2909Write simple routines to do simple things, Separate functionality from
2910output, Provide sensible shortcuts and defaults, Naming conventions,
2911Parameter passing
2912
2913=item Strictness and warnings
2914
2915=item Backwards compatibility
2916
2917=item Error handling and messages
2918
2919=back
2920
2921=item DOCUMENTING YOUR MODULE
2922
2923=over 4
2924
2925=item POD
2926
2927=item README, INSTALL, release notes, changelogs
2928
2929=back
2930
2931=item RELEASE CONSIDERATIONS
2932
2933=over 4
2934
2935=item Version numbering
2936
2937=item Pre-requisites
2938
2939=item Testing
2940
2941=item Packaging
2942
2943=item Licensing
2944
2945=back
2946
2947=item COMMON PITFALLS
2948
2949=over 4
2950
2951=item Reinventing the wheel
2952
2953=item Trying to do too much
2954
2955=item Inappropriate documentation
2956
2957=back
2958
2959=item SEE ALSO
2960
2961L<perlstyle>, L<perlnewmod>, L<perlpod>, L<podchecker>, Testing tools,
2962http://pause.perl.org/, Any good book on software engineering
2963
2964=item AUTHOR
4755096e
GS
2965
2966=back
2967
c2e66d9e 2968=head2 perlnewmod - preparing a new module for distribution
4755096e 2969
d420ca49 2970=over 4
4755096e 2971
c2e66d9e 2972=item DESCRIPTION
4755096e 2973
d420ca49 2974=over 4
4755096e 2975
c2e66d9e 2976=item Warning
4755096e 2977
c2e66d9e 2978=item What should I make into a module?
4755096e 2979
c2e66d9e 2980=item Step-by-step: Preparing the ground
4755096e 2981
c2e66d9e 2982Look around, Check it's new, Discuss the need, Choose a name, Check again
4755096e 2983
c2e66d9e 2984=item Step-by-step: Making the module
4755096e 2985
c2e66d9e 2986Start with F<h2xs>, Use L<strict|strict> and L<warnings|warnings>, Use
4d4e713d
JH
2987L<Carp|Carp>, Use L<Exporter|Exporter> - wisely!, Use L<plain old
2988documentation|perlpod>, Write tests, Write the README
4755096e 2989
c2e66d9e 2990=item Step-by-step: Distributing your module
4755096e 2991
c2e66d9e
GS
2992Get a CPAN user ID, C<perl Makefile.PL; make test; make dist>, Upload the
2993tarball, Announce to the modules list, Announce to clpa, Fix bugs!
4755096e 2994
c2e66d9e 2995=back
4755096e 2996
c2e66d9e 2997=item AUTHOR
4755096e 2998
c2e66d9e 2999=item SEE ALSO
4755096e
GS
3000
3001=back
3002
fe9287c4
JH
3003=head2 perlfaq1 - General Questions About Perl ($Revision: 1.6 $, $Date:
30042002/01/31 01:46:23 $)
4755096e 3005
d420ca49 3006=over 4
4755096e
GS
3007
3008=item DESCRIPTION
3009
d420ca49 3010=over 4
4755096e
GS
3011
3012=item What is Perl?
3013
3014=item Who supports Perl? Who develops it? Why is it free?
3015
3016=item Which version of Perl should I use?
3017
3018=item What are perl4 and perl5?
3019
3020=item What is perl6?
3021
3022=item How stable is Perl?
3023
3024=item Is Perl difficult to learn?
3025
3026=item How does Perl compare with other languages like Java, Python, REXX,
3027Scheme, or Tcl?
3028
3029=item Can I do [task] in Perl?
3030
3031=item When shouldn't I program in Perl?
3032
3033=item What's the difference between "perl" and "Perl"?
3034
3035=item Is it a Perl program or a Perl script?
3036
3037=item What is a JAPH?
3038
3039=item Where can I get a list of Larry Wall witticisms?
3040
165c0277 3041=item How can I convince my sysadmin/supervisor/employees to use version
fe9287c4 30425/5.6.1/Perl instead of some other language?
4755096e
GS
3043
3044=back
3045
3046=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
3047
3048=back
3049
fe9287c4
JH
3050=head2 perlfaq2 - Obtaining and Learning about Perl ($Revision: 1.8 $,
3051$Date: 2002/02/08 22:31:57 $)
4755096e 3052
d420ca49 3053=over 4
4755096e
GS
3054
3055=item DESCRIPTION
3056
d420ca49 3057=over 4
4755096e
GS
3058
3059=item What machines support Perl? Where do I get it?
3060
3061=item How can I get a binary version of Perl?
3062
3063=item I don't have a C compiler on my system. How can I compile perl?
3064
3065=item I copied the Perl binary from one machine to another, but scripts
3066don't work.
3067
3068=item I grabbed the sources and tried to compile but gdbm/dynamic
3069loading/malloc/linking/... failed. How do I make it work?
3070
3071=item What modules and extensions are available for Perl? What is CPAN?
3072What does CPAN/src/... mean?
3073
3074=item Is there an ISO or ANSI certified version of Perl?
3075
3076=item Where can I get information on Perl?
3077
3078=item What are the Perl newsgroups on Usenet? Where do I post questions?
3079
3080=item Where should I post source code?
3081
3082=item Perl Books
3083
3084References, Tutorials, Task-Oriented, Special Topics
3085
3086=item Perl in Magazines
3087
3088=item Perl on the Net: FTP and WWW Access
3089
3090=item What mailing lists are there for Perl?
3091
3092=item Archives of comp.lang.perl.misc
3093
3094=item Where can I buy a commercial version of Perl?
3095
3096=item Where do I send bug reports?
3097
04b01f78 3098=item What is perl.com? Perl Mongers? pm.org? perl.org? cpan.org?
4755096e
GS
3099
3100=back
3101
3102=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
3103
3104=back
3105
12b7c5c7
JH
3106=head2 perlfaq3 - Programming Tools ($Revision: 1.15 $, $Date: 2002/02/11
310719:29:52 $)
4755096e 3108
d420ca49 3109=over 4
4755096e
GS
3110
3111=item DESCRIPTION
3112
d420ca49 3113=over 4
4755096e
GS
3114
3115=item How do I do (anything)?
3116
3117=item How can I use Perl interactively?
3118
3119=item Is there a Perl shell?
3120
3121=item How do I debug my Perl programs?
3122
3123=item How do I profile my Perl programs?
3124
3125=item How do I cross-reference my Perl programs?
3126
3127=item Is there a pretty-printer (formatter) for Perl?
3128
3129=item Is there a ctags for Perl?
3130
3131=item Is there an IDE or Windows Perl Editor?
3132
245d750e
JH
3133Komodo, The Object System, Open Perl IDE, PerlBuilder, visiPerl+,
3134CodeMagicCD, GNU Emacs, MicroEMACS, XEmacs, Elvis, Vile, Vim, Codewright,
603b90a8
JH
3135MultiEdit, SlickEdit, Bash, Ksh, Tcsh, Zsh, BBEdit and BBEdit Lite, Alpha
3136
4755096e
GS
3137=item Where can I get Perl macros for vi?
3138
3139=item Where can I get perl-mode for emacs?
3140
3141=item How can I use curses with Perl?
3142
3143=item How can I use X or Tk with Perl?
3144
3145=item How can I generate simple menus without using CGI or Tk?
3146
4755096e
GS
3147=item How can I make my Perl program run faster?
3148
3149=item How can I make my Perl program take less memory?
3150
35bf961c
JH
3151Don't slurp!, Use map and grep selectively, Avoid unnecessary quotes and
3152stringification, Pass by reference, Tie large variables to disk
3153
4755096e
GS
3154=item Is it unsafe to return a pointer to local data?
3155
3156=item How can I free an array or hash so my program shrinks?
3157
3158=item How can I make my CGI script more efficient?
3159
3160=item How can I hide the source for my Perl program?
3161
3162=item How can I compile my Perl program into byte code or C?
3163
3164=item How can I compile Perl into Java?
3165
3166=item How can I get C<#!perl> to work on [MS-DOS,NT,...]?
3167
3168=item Can I write useful Perl programs on the command line?
3169
3170=item Why don't Perl one-liners work on my DOS/Mac/VMS system?
3171
3172=item Where can I learn about CGI or Web programming in Perl?
3173
cb52f95f
JH
3174=item Where can I learn about object-oriented Perl programming?
3175
4755096e
GS
3176=item Where can I learn about linking C with Perl? [h2xs, xsubpp]
3177
3178=item I've read perlembed, perlguts, etc., but I can't embed perl in
d420ca49 3179my C program; what am I doing wrong?
4755096e 3180
fe9287c4 3181=item When I tried to run my script, I got this message. What does it mean?
4755096e
GS
3182
3183=item What's MakeMaker?
3184
3185=back
3186
3187=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
3188
3189=back
3190
fe9287c4
JH
3191=head2 perlfaq4 - Data Manipulation ($Revision: 1.14 $, $Date: 2002/02/08
319222:30:23 $)
4755096e 3193
d420ca49 3194=over 4
4755096e
GS
3195
3196=item DESCRIPTION
3197
3198=item Data: Numbers
3199
d420ca49 3200=over 4
4755096e
GS
3201
3202=item Why am I getting long decimals (eg, 19.9499999999999) instead of the
3203numbers I should be getting (eg, 19.95)?
3204
3205=item Why isn't my octal data interpreted correctly?
3206
3207=item Does Perl have a round() function? What about ceil() and floor()?
3208Trig functions?
3209
fe9287c4 3210=item How do I convert between numeric representations?
1fdc5aa6
JH
3211
3212B<How do I convert Hexadecimal into decimal:>, B<How do I convert from
3213decimal to hexadecimal:>, B<How do I convert from octal to decimal:>, B<How
3214do I convert from decimal to octal:>, B<How do I convert from binary to
3215decimal:>, B<How do I convert from decimal to binary:>
4755096e
GS
3216
3217=item Why doesn't & work the way I want it to?
3218
3219=item How do I multiply matrices?
3220
3221=item How do I perform an operation on a series of integers?
3222
3223=item How can I output Roman numerals?
3224
3225=item Why aren't my random numbers random?
3226
3227=back
3228
3229=item Data: Dates
3230
d420ca49 3231=over 4
4755096e
GS
3232
3233=item How do I find the week-of-the-year/day-of-the-year?
3234
3235=item How do I find the current century or millennium?
3236
3237=item How can I compare two dates and find the difference?
3238
3239=item How can I take a string and turn it into epoch seconds?
3240
3241=item How can I find the Julian Day?
3242
3243=item How do I find yesterday's date?
3244
3245=item Does Perl have a Year 2000 problem? Is Perl Y2K compliant?
3246
3247=back
3248
3249=item Data: Strings
3250
d420ca49 3251=over 4
4755096e
GS
3252
3253=item How do I validate input?
3254
3255=item How do I unescape a string?
3256
3257=item How do I remove consecutive pairs of characters?
3258
3259=item How do I expand function calls in a string?
3260
3261=item How do I find matching/nesting anything?
3262
3263=item How do I reverse a string?
3264
3265=item How do I expand tabs in a string?
3266
3267=item How do I reformat a paragraph?
3268
3269=item How can I access/change the first N letters of a string?
3270
3271=item How do I change the Nth occurrence of something?
3272
3273=item How can I count the number of occurrences of a substring within a
3274string?
3275
3276=item How do I capitalize all the words on one line?
3277
3278=item How can I split a [character] delimited string except when inside
3279[character]? (Comma-separated files)
3280
3281=item How do I strip blank space from the beginning/end of a string?
3282
3283=item How do I pad a string with blanks or pad a number with zeroes?
3284
3285=item How do I extract selected columns from a string?
3286
3287=item How do I find the soundex value of a string?
3288
3289=item How can I expand variables in text strings?
3290
3291=item What's wrong with always quoting "$vars"?
3292
3293=item Why don't my <<HERE documents work?
3294
32951. There must be no space after the << part, 2. There (probably) should be
3296a semicolon at the end, 3. You can't (easily) have any space in front of
3297the tag
3298
3299=back
3300
3301=item Data: Arrays
3302
d420ca49 3303=over 4
4755096e
GS
3304
3305=item What is the difference between a list and an array?
3306
3307=item What is the difference between $array[1] and @array[1]?
3308
3309=item How can I remove duplicate elements from a list or array?
3310
ab648d5e 3311a), b), c), d), e)
4755096e 3312
389925df
JH
3313=item How can I tell whether a certain element is contained in a list or
3314array?
4755096e
GS
3315
3316=item How do I compute the difference of two arrays? How do I compute the
3317intersection of two arrays?
3318
3319=item How do I test whether two arrays or hashes are equal?
3320
3321=item How do I find the first array element for which a condition is true?
3322
3323=item How do I handle linked lists?
3324
3325=item How do I handle circular lists?
3326
3327=item How do I shuffle an array randomly?
3328
3329=item How do I process/modify each element of an array?
3330
3331=item How do I select a random element from an array?
3332
3333=item How do I permute N elements of a list?
3334
3335=item How do I sort an array by (anything)?
3336
3337=item How do I manipulate arrays of bits?
3338
3339=item Why does defined() return true on empty arrays and hashes?
3340
3341=back
3342
3343=item Data: Hashes (Associative Arrays)
3344
d420ca49 3345=over 4
4755096e
GS
3346
3347=item How do I process an entire hash?
3348
3349=item What happens if I add or remove keys from a hash while iterating over
3350it?
3351
3352=item How do I look up a hash element by value?
3353
3354=item How can I know how many entries are in a hash?
3355
3356=item How do I sort a hash (optionally by value instead of key)?
3357
3358=item How can I always keep my hash sorted?
3359
3360=item What's the difference between "delete" and "undef" with hashes?
3361
3362=item Why don't my tied hashes make the defined/exists distinction?
3363
3364=item How do I reset an each() operation part-way through?
3365
3366=item How can I get the unique keys from two hashes?
3367
3368=item How can I store a multidimensional array in a DBM file?
3369
3370=item How can I make my hash remember the order I put elements into it?
3371
3372=item Why does passing a subroutine an undefined element in a hash create
3373it?
3374
3375=item How can I make the Perl equivalent of a C structure/C++ class/hash or
3376array of hashes or arrays?
3377
3378=item How can I use a reference as a hash key?
3379
3380=back
3381
3382=item Data: Misc
3383
d420ca49 3384=over 4
4755096e
GS
3385
3386=item How do I handle binary data correctly?
3387
3388=item How do I determine whether a scalar is a number/whole/integer/float?
3389
3390=item How do I keep persistent data across program calls?
3391
3392=item How do I print out or copy a recursive data structure?
3393
3394=item How do I define methods for every class/object?
3395
3396=item How do I verify a credit card checksum?
3397
3398=item How do I pack arrays of doubles or floats for XS code?
3399
3400=back
3401
3402=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
3403
3404=back
3405
12b7c5c7
JH
3406=head2 perlfaq5 - Files and Formats ($Revision: 1.9 $, $Date: 2002/02/11
340719:30:21 $)
4755096e 3408
d420ca49 3409=over 4
4755096e
GS
3410
3411=item DESCRIPTION
3412
d420ca49 3413=over 4
4755096e
GS
3414
3415=item How do I flush/unbuffer an output filehandle? Why must I do this?
3416
3417=item How do I change one line in a file/delete a line in a file/insert a
3418line in the middle of a file/append to the beginning of a file?
3419
3420=item How do I count the number of lines in a file?
3421
3422=item How do I make a temporary file name?
3423
3424=item How can I manipulate fixed-record-length files?
3425
3426=item How can I make a filehandle local to a subroutine? How do I pass
3427filehandles between subroutines? How do I make an array of filehandles?
3428
3429=item How can I use a filehandle indirectly?
3430
3431=item How can I set up a footer format to be used with write()?
3432
3433=item How can I write() into a string?
3434
3435=item How can I output my numbers with commas added?
3436
3437=item How can I translate tildes (~) in a filename?
3438
3439=item How come when I open a file read-write it wipes it out?
3440
3441=item Why do I sometimes get an "Argument list too long" when I use <*>?
3442
3443=item Is there a leak/bug in glob()?
3444
3445=item How can I open a file with a leading ">" or trailing blanks?
3446
3447=item How can I reliably rename a file?
3448
3449=item How can I lock a file?
3450
3451=item Why can't I just open(FH, ">file.lock")?
3452
3453=item I still don't get locking. I just want to increment the number in
3454the file. How can I do this?
3455
1fa7ca25
JH
3456=item All I want to do is append a small amount of text to the end of a
3457file. Do I still have to use locking?
3458
4755096e
GS
3459=item How do I randomly update a binary file?
3460
3461=item How do I get a file's timestamp in perl?
3462
3463=item How do I set a file's timestamp in perl?
3464
3465=item How do I print to more than one file at once?
3466
3467=item How can I read in an entire file all at once?
3468
3469=item How can I read in a file by paragraphs?
3470
3471=item How can I read a single character from a file? From the keyboard?
3472
3473=item How can I tell whether there's a character waiting on a filehandle?
3474
3475=item How do I do a C<tail -f> in perl?
3476
3477=item How do I dup() a filehandle in Perl?
3478
3479=item How do I close a file descriptor by number?
3480
3481=item Why can't I use "C:\temp\foo" in DOS paths? What doesn't
3482`C:\temp\foo.exe` work?
3483
3484=item Why doesn't glob("*.*") get all the files?