This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
Typo in #8312 when manually applying a problematic patch fragment.
[perl5.git] / INSTALL
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1=head1 NAME
2
3Install - Build and Installation guide for perl5.
4
5=head1 SYNOPSIS
6
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7First, make sure you are installing an up-to-date version of Perl. If
8you didn't get your Perl source from CPAN, check the latest version at
16dc217a 9<URL:http://www.cpan.org/src/>.
3ce0d271 10
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11The basic steps to build and install perl5 on a Unix system
12with all the defaults are:
8e07c86e 13
dc45a647 14 rm -f config.sh Policy.sh
491517e0 15 sh Configure -de
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16 make
17 make test
18 make install
36477c24 19
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20 # You may also wish to add these:
21 (cd /usr/include && h2ph *.h sys/*.h)
3e3baf6d 22 (installhtml --help)
aa689395 23 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
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24
25Each of these is explained in further detail below.
26
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27B<NOTE>: starting from the release 5.6.0 Perl will use a version
28scheme where even-numbered subreleases (like 5.6) are stable
29maintenance releases and odd-numbered subreleases (like 5.7) are
30unstable development releases. Development releases should not be
31used in production environments. Fixes and new features are first
32carefully tested in development releases and only if they prove
33themselves to be worthy will they be migrated to the maintenance
34releases.
35
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36The above commands will install Perl to /usr/local or /opt, depending
37on the platform. If that's not okay with you, use
38
39 rm -f config.sh Policy.sh
40 sh Configure
41 make
42 make test
43 make install
44
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45For information on non-Unix systems, see the section on
46L<"Porting information"> below.
7f678428 47
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48If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
49L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
50
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51For information on what's new in this release, see the
52pod/perldelta.pod file. For more detailed information about specific
53changes, see the Changes file.
c3edaffb 54
1ec51d55 55=head1 DESCRIPTION
edb1cbcb 56
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57This document is written in pod format as an easy way to indicate its
58structure. The pod format is described in pod/perlpod.pod, but you can
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59read it as is with any pager or editor. Headings and items are marked
60by lines beginning with '='. The other mark-up used is
61
62 B<text> embolden text, used for switches, programs or commands
63 C<code> literal code
64 L<name> A link (cross reference) to name
65
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66Although most of the defaults are probably fine for most users,
67you should probably at least skim through this entire document before
1ec51d55 68proceeding.
c3edaffb 69
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70If you're building Perl on a non-Unix system, you should also read
71the README file specific to your operating system, since this may
72provide additional or different instructions for building Perl.
73
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74If there is a hint file for your system (in the hints/ directory) you
75should also read that hint file for specific information for your
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76system. (Unixware users should use the svr4.sh hint file.) If
77there is a README file for your platform, then you should read
78that too. Additional information is in the Porting/ directory.
203c3eec 79
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80=head1 WARNING: This version requires an extra step to build old extensions.
81
825.005_53 and later releases do not export unadorned
83global symbols anymore. This means you may need to build older
84extensions that have not been updated for the new naming convention
85with:
86
87 perl Makefile.PL POLLUTE=1
d56c5707 88
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89Alternatively, you can enable CPP symbol pollution wholesale by
90building perl itself with:
91
92 sh Configure -Accflags=-DPERL_POLLUTE
93
94pod/perldelta.pod contains more details about this.
95
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96=head1 WARNING: This version may not be binary compatible with Perl 5.005.
97
98Using the default Configure options for building perl should get you
99a perl that will be binary compatible with the 5.005 release.
693762b4 100
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101However, if you run Configure with any custom options, such as
102-Dusethreads, -Dusemultiplicity, -Dusemymalloc, -Ubincompat5005 etc.,
103the resulting perl will not be binary compatible. Under these
104circumstances, if you have dynamically loaded extensions that were
105built under perl 5.005, you will need to rebuild and reinstall all
106those extensions to use them with 5.6.
107
108Pure perl modules without XS or C code should continue to work fine
109without reinstallation. See the discussions below on
110L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> and
111L<"Upgrading from 5.005 to 5.6"> for more details.
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112
113The standard extensions supplied with Perl will be handled automatically.
114
1b1c1ae2 115On a related issue, old modules may possibly be affected by the
693762b4 116changes in the Perl language in the current release. Please see
e02fdbd2 117pod/perldelta.pod (and pod/perl500Xdelta.pod) for a description of
c42e3e15 118what's changed. See your installed copy of the perllocal.pod
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119file for a (possibly incomplete) list of locally installed modules.
120Also see CPAN::autobundle for one way to make a "bundle" of your
121currently installed modules.
693762b4 122
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123=head1 WARNING: This version requires a compiler that supports ANSI C.
124
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125Most C compilers are now ANSI-compliant. However, a few current
126computers are delivered with an older C compiler expressly for
127rebuilding the system kernel, or for some other historical reason.
128Alternatively, you may have an old machine which was shipped before
129ANSI compliance became widespread. Such compilers are not suitable
130for building Perl.
131
132If you find that your default C compiler is not ANSI-capable, but you
133know that an ANSI-capable compiler is installed on your system, you
134can tell F<Configure> to use the correct compiler by means of the
135C<-Dcc=> command-line option -- see L<"gcc">.
136
137If do not have an ANSI-capable compiler there are several avenues open
138to you:
139
140=over 4
141
142=item *
143
144You may try obtaining GCC, available from GNU mirrors worldwide,
145listed at <URL:http://www.gnu.org/order/ftp.html>. If, rather than
146building gcc from source code, you locate a binary version configured
147for your platform, be sure that it is compiled for the version of the
148operating system that you are using.
149
150=item *
151
152You may purchase a commercial ANSI C compiler from your system
153supplier or elsewhere. (Or your organization may already have
154licensed such software -- ask your colleagues to find out how to
155access it.) If there is a README file for your system in the Perl
156distribution (for example, F<README.hpux>), it may contain advice on
157suitable compilers.
158
159=item *
160
d6baa268 161Another alternative may be to use a tool like ansi2knr to convert the
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162sources back to K&R style, but there is no guarantee this route will get
163you anywhere, since the prototypes are not the only ANSI features used
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164in the Perl sources. ansi2knr is usually found as part of the freely
165available Ghostscript distribution. Another similar tool is
166unprotoize, distributed with GCC. Since unprotoize requires GCC to
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167run, you may have to run it on a platform where GCC is available, and move
168the sources back to the platform without GCC.
169
170If you succeed in automatically converting the sources to a K&R compatible
7f2de2d2 171form, be sure to email perlbug@perl.org to let us know the steps you
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172followed. This will enable us to officially support this option.
173
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174=back
175
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176Although Perl can be compiled using a C++ compiler, the Configure script
177does not work with some C++ compilers.
178
aa689395 179=head1 Space Requirements
eed2e782 180
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181The complete perl5 source tree takes up about 20 MB of disk space.
182After completing make, it takes up roughly 30 MB, though the actual
d6baa268 183total is likely to be quite system-dependent. The installation
c42e3e15 184directories need something on the order of 20 MB, though again that
1ec51d55 185value is system-dependent.
8e07c86e 186
aa689395 187=head1 Start with a Fresh Distribution
8e07c86e 188
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189If you have built perl before, you should clean out the build directory
190with the command
191
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192 make distclean
193
194or
195
edb1cbcb 196 make realclean
c3edaffb 197
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198The only difference between the two is that make distclean also removes
199your old config.sh and Policy.sh files.
200
201The results of a Configure run are stored in the config.sh and Policy.sh
202files. If you are upgrading from a previous version of perl, or if you
203change systems or compilers or make other significant changes, or if
204you are experiencing difficulties building perl, you should probably
d6baa268 205not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it
8e07c86e 206
d6baa268 207 rm -f config.sh
4633a7c4 208
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209If you wish to use your old config.sh, be especially attentive to the
210version and architecture-specific questions and answers. For example,
211the default directory for architecture-dependent library modules
212includes the version name. By default, Configure will reuse your old
213name (e.g. /opt/perl/lib/i86pc-solaris/5.003) even if you're running
214Configure for a different version, e.g. 5.004. Yes, Configure should
215probably check and correct for this, but it doesn't, presently.
216Similarly, if you used a shared libperl.so (see below) with version
217numbers, you will probably want to adjust them as well.
218
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219Also, be careful to check your architecture name. For example, some
220Linux distributions use i386, while others may use i486. If you build
221it yourself, Configure uses the output of the arch command, which
222might be i586 or i686 instead. If you pick up a precompiled binary, or
223compile extensions on different systems, they might not all agree on
224the architecture name.
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225
226In short, if you wish to use your old config.sh, I recommend running
227Configure interactively rather than blindly accepting the defaults.
8e07c86e 228
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229If your reason to reuse your old config.sh is to save your particular
230installation choices, then you can probably achieve the same effect by
231using the Policy.sh file. See the section on L<"Site-wide Policy
232settings"> below. If you wish to start with a fresh distribution, you
233also need to remove any old Policy.sh files you may have with
234
235 rm -f Policy.sh
dc45a647 236
aa689395 237=head1 Run Configure
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238
239Configure will figure out various things about your system. Some
240things Configure will figure out for itself, other things it will ask
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241you about. To accept the default, just press RETURN. The default is
242almost always okay. It is normal for some things to be "NOT found",
243since Configure often searches for many different ways of performing
244the same function.
245
246At any Configure prompt, you can type &-d and Configure will use the
247defaults from then on.
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248
249After it runs, Configure will perform variable substitution on all the
1ec51d55 250*.SH files and offer to run make depend.
8e07c86e 251
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252=head2 Altering config.sh variables for C compiler switches etc.
253
254For most users, all of the Configure defaults are fine. Configure
255also has several convenient options which are all described below.
256However, if Configure doesn't have an option to do what you want,
257you can change Configure variables after the platform hints have been
258run, by using Configure's -A switch. For example, here's how to add
259a couple of extra flags to C compiler invocations:
260
261 sh Configure -Accflags="-DPERL_Y2KWARN -DPERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC"
262
263For more help on Configure switches, run:
264
265 sh Configure -h
266
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267=head2 Common Configure options
268
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269Configure supports a number of useful options. Run B<Configure -h> to
270get a listing. See the Porting/Glossary file for a complete list of
271Configure variables you can set and their definitions.
272
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273=over 4
274
275=item gcc
276
277To compile with gcc you should run
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278
279 sh Configure -Dcc=gcc
280
281This is the preferred way to specify gcc (or another alternative
282compiler) so that the hints files can set appropriate defaults.
283
d6baa268 284=item Installation prefix
4633a7c4 285
8e07c86e 286By default, for most systems, perl will be installed in
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287/usr/local/{bin, lib, man}. (See L<"Installation Directories">
288and L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> below for
289further details.)
290
291You can specify a different 'prefix' for the default installation
292directory, when Configure prompts you or by using the Configure command
293line option -Dprefix='/some/directory', e.g.
8e07c86e 294
25f94b33 295 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl
4633a7c4 296
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297If your prefix contains the string "perl", then the suggested
298directory structure is simplified. For example, if you use
299prefix=/opt/perl, then Configure will suggest /opt/perl/lib instead of
300/opt/perl/lib/perl5/. Again, see L<"Installation Directories"> below
301for more details.
8e07c86e 302
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303NOTE: You must not specify an installation directory that is the same
304as or below your perl source directory. If you do, installperl will
305attempt infinite recursion.
84902520 306
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307=item /usr/bin/perl
308
309It may seem obvious, but Perl is useful only when users can easily
310find it. It's often a good idea to have both /usr/bin/perl and
dd64f1c3 311/usr/local/bin/perl be symlinks to the actual binary. Be especially
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312careful, however, not to overwrite a version of perl supplied by your
313vendor unless you are sure you know what you are doing.
314
315By default, Configure will arrange for /usr/bin/perl to be linked to
316the current version of perl. You can turn off that behavior by running
317
318 Configure -Uinstallusrbinperl
319
320or by answering 'no' to the appropriate Configure prompt.
321
322In any case, system administrators are strongly encouraged to
dd64f1c3 323put (symlinks to) perl and its accompanying utilities, such as perldoc,
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324into a directory typically found along a user's PATH, or in another
325obvious and convenient place.
326
d6baa268 327=item Overriding an old config.sh
04d420f9 328
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329If you want to use your old config.sh but override some of the items
330with command line options, you need to use B<Configure -O>.
331
332=back
8e07c86e 333
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334If you are willing to accept all the defaults, and you want terse
335output, you can run
336
337 sh Configure -des
338
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339Note: for development releases (odd subreleases, like 5.7, as opposed
340to maintenance releases which have even subreleases, like 5.6)
341if you want to use Configure -d, you will also need to supply -Dusedevel
342to Configure, because the default answer to the question "do you really
343want to Configure a development version?" is "no". The -Dusedevel
344skips that sanity check.
345
346For example for my Solaris system, I usually use
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347
348 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl -Doptimize='-xpentium -xO4' -des
349
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350=head2 GNU-style configure
351
1ec51d55 352If you prefer the GNU-style configure command line interface, you can
dc45a647 353use the supplied configure.gnu command, e.g.
46bb10fb 354
693762b4 355 CC=gcc ./configure.gnu
46bb10fb 356
dc45a647 357The configure.gnu script emulates a few of the more common configure
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358options. Try
359
693762b4 360 ./configure.gnu --help
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361
362for a listing.
363
d6baa268 364Cross compiling and compiling in a different directory are not supported.
46bb10fb 365
dc45a647 366(The file is called configure.gnu to avoid problems on systems
693762b4 367that would not distinguish the files "Configure" and "configure".)
46bb10fb 368
aa689395 369=head2 Installation Directories
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370
371The installation directories can all be changed by answering the
372appropriate questions in Configure. For convenience, all the
373installation questions are near the beginning of Configure.
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374Further, there are a number of additions to the installation
375directories since 5.005, so reusing your old config.sh may not
376be sufficient to put everything where you want it.
4633a7c4 377
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378I highly recommend running Configure interactively to be sure it puts
379everything where you want it. At any point during the Configure
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380process, you can answer a question with &-d and Configure will use
381the defaults from then on.
382
383The defaults are intended to be reasonable and sensible for most
384people building from sources. Those who build and distribute binary
385distributions or who export perl to a range of systems will probably
386need to alter them. If you are content to just accept the defaults,
387you can safely skip the next section.
388
389The directories set up by Configure fall into three broad categories.
390
391=over 4
392
393=item Directories for the perl distribution
394
c42e3e15 395By default, Configure will use the following directories for 5.6.0.
d6baa268 396$version is the full perl version number, including subversion, e.g.
0a08c020 3975.6.0 or 5.6.1, and $archname is a string like sun4-sunos,
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398determined by Configure. The full definitions of all Configure
399variables are in the file Porting/Glossary.
400
401 Configure variable Default value
402 $prefix /usr/local
403 $bin $prefix/bin
404 $scriptdir $prefix/bin
405 $privlib $prefix/lib/perl5/$version
406 $archlib $prefix/lib/perl5/$version/$archname
407 $man1dir $prefix/man/man1
408 $man3dir $prefix/man/man3
409 $html1dir (none)
410 $html3dir (none)
411
412Actually, Configure recognizes the SVR3-style
413/usr/local/man/l_man/man1 directories, if present, and uses those
414instead. Also, if $prefix contains the string "perl", the library
415directories are simplified as described below. For simplicity, only
416the common style is shown here.
417
418=item Directories for site-specific add-on files
419
420After perl is installed, you may later wish to add modules (e.g. from
421CPAN) or scripts. Configure will set up the following directories to
c42e3e15 422be used for installing those add-on modules and scripts.
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423
424 Configure variable Default value
425 $siteprefix $prefix
426 $sitebin $siteprefix/bin
49c10eea 427 $sitescript $siteprefix/bin
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428 $sitelib $siteprefix/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version
429 $sitearch $siteprefix/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version/$archname
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430 $siteman1 $siteprefix/man/man1
431 $siteman3 $siteprefix/man/man3
432 $sitehtml1 (none)
433 $sitehtml3 (none)
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434
435By default, ExtUtils::MakeMaker will install architecture-independent
273cf8d1 436modules into $sitelib and architecture-dependent modules into $sitearch.
d6baa268 437
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438NOTE: As of 5.6.0, ExtUtils::MakeMaker will use $sitelib and $sitearch,
439but will not use the other site-specific directories. Volunteers to
440fix this are needed.
441
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442=item Directories for vendor-supplied add-on files
443
444Lastly, if you are building a binary distribution of perl for
445distribution, Configure can optionally set up the following directories
446for you to use to distribute add-on modules.
447
448 Configure variable Default value
449 $vendorprefix (none)
450 (The next ones are set only if vendorprefix is set.)
451 $vendorbin $vendorprefix/bin
49c10eea 452 $vendorscript $vendorprefix/bin
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453 $vendorlib $vendorprefix/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version
454 $vendorarch $vendorprefix/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version/$archname
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455 $vendorman1 $vendorprefix/man/man1
456 $vendorman3 $vendorprefix/man/man3
457 $vendorhtml1 (none)
458 $vendorhtml3 (none)
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459
460These are normally empty, but may be set as needed. For example,
461a vendor might choose the following settings:
462
463 $prefix /usr/bin
464 $siteprefix /usr/local/bin
465 $vendorprefix /usr/bin
466
467This would have the effect of setting the following:
468
469 $bin /usr/bin
470 $scriptdir /usr/bin
471 $privlib /usr/lib/perl5/$version
472 $archlib /usr/lib/perl5/$version/$archname
473 $man1dir /usr/man/man1
474 $man3dir /usr/man/man3
475
476 $sitebin /usr/local/bin
49c10eea 477 $sitescript /usr/local/bin
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478 $sitelib /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version
479 $sitearch /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version/$archname
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480 $siteman1 /usr/local/man/man1
481 $siteman3 /usr/local/man/man3
d6baa268 482
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483 $vendorbin /usr/bin
484 $vendorscript /usr/bin
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485 $vendorlib /usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version
486 $vendorarch /usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version/$archname
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487 $vendorman1 /usr/man/man1
488 $vendorman3 /usr/man/man3
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489
490Note how in this example, the vendor-supplied directories are in the
491/usr hierarchy, while the directories reserved for the end-user are in
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492the /usr/local hierarchy.
493
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494NOTE: As of 5.6.0, ExtUtils::MakeMaker does not use these directories.
495Volunteers to fix this are needed.
496
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497The entire installed library hierarchy is installed in locations with
498version numbers, keeping the installations of different versions distinct.
499However, later installations of Perl can still be configured to search the
500installed libraries corresponding to compatible earlier versions.
501See L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> below for more details
502on how Perl can be made to search older version directories.
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503
504Of course you may use these directories however you see fit. For
505example, you may wish to use $siteprefix for site-specific files that
506are stored locally on your own disk and use $vendorprefix for
507site-specific files that are stored elsewhere on your organization's
508network. One way to do that would be something like
509
510 sh Configure -Dsiteprefix=/usr/local -Dvendorprefix=/usr/share/perl
511
512=item otherlibdirs
513
514As a final catch-all, Configure also offers an $otherlibdirs
515variable. This variable contains a colon-separated list of additional
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516directories to add to @INC. By default, it will be empty.
517Perl will search these directories (including architecture and
518version-specific subdirectories) for add-on modules and extensions.
d6baa268 519
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520=item APPLLIB_EXP
521
522There is one other way of adding paths to @INC at perl build time, and
523that is by setting the APPLLIB_EXP C pre-processor token to a colon-
524separated list of directories, like this
525
526 sh Configure -Accflags='-DAPPLLIB_EXP=\"/usr/libperl\"'
527
528The directories defined by APPLLIB_EXP get added to @INC I<first>,
529ahead of any others, and so provide a way to override the standard perl
530modules should you, for example, want to distribute fixes without
531touching the perl distribution proper. And, like otherlib dirs,
532version and architecture specific subdirectories are also searched, if
533present, at run time. Of course, you can still search other @INC
534directories ahead of those in APPLLIB_EXP by using any of the standard
535run-time methods: $PERLLIB, $PERL5LIB, -I, use lib, etc.
536
d6baa268 537=item Man Pages
1ec51d55 538
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539In versions 5.005_57 and earlier, the default was to store module man
540pages in a version-specific directory, such as
541/usr/local/lib/perl5/$version/man/man3. The default for 5.005_58 and
542after is /usr/local/man/man3 so that most users can find the man pages
543without resetting MANPATH.
4633a7c4 544
d6baa268 545You can continue to use the old default from the command line with
4633a7c4 546
0a08c020 547 sh Configure -Dman3dir=/usr/local/lib/perl5/5.6.0/man/man3
8d74ce1c 548
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549Some users also prefer to use a .3pm suffix. You can do that with
550
551 sh Configure -Dman3ext=3pm
552
553Again, these are just the defaults, and can be changed as you run
554Configure.
555
556=item HTML pages
557
558As of perl5.005_57, the standard perl installation does not do
559anything with HTML documentation, but that may change in the future.
560Further, some add-on modules may wish to install HTML documents. The
561html Configure variables listed above are provided if you wish to
562specify where such documents should be placed. The default is "none",
563but will likely eventually change to something useful based on user
564feedback.
8d74ce1c 565
d6baa268 566=back
8d74ce1c 567
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568Some users prefer to append a "/share" to $privlib and $sitelib
569to emphasize that those directories can be shared among different
570architectures.
4633a7c4 571
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572Note that these are just the defaults. You can actually structure the
573directories any way you like. They don't even have to be on the same
574filesystem.
575
576Further details about the installation directories, maintenance and
577development subversions, and about supporting multiple versions are
578discussed in L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> below.
579
580If you specify a prefix that contains the string "perl", then the
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581library directory structure is slightly simplified. Instead of
582suggesting $prefix/lib/perl5/, Configure will suggest $prefix/lib.
8d74ce1c 583
d6baa268 584Thus, for example, if you Configure with
0a08c020 585-Dprefix=/opt/perl, then the default library directories for 5.6.0 are
3a6175e1 586
d6baa268 587 Configure variable Default value
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588 $privlib /opt/perl/lib/5.6.0
589 $archlib /opt/perl/lib/5.6.0/$archname
590 $sitelib /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.6.0
591 $sitearch /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.6.0/$archname
4633a7c4 592
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593=head2 Changing the installation directory
594
595Configure distinguishes between the directory in which perl (and its
596associated files) should be installed and the directory in which it
597will eventually reside. For most sites, these two are the same; for
598sites that use AFS, this distinction is handled automatically.
1ec51d55 599However, sites that use software such as depot to manage software
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600packages, or users building binary packages for distribution may also
601wish to install perl into a different directory and use that
602management software to move perl to its final destination. This
603section describes how to do that.
aa689395 604
0dcb58f4 605Suppose you want to install perl under the /tmp/perl5 directory. You
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606could edit config.sh and change all the install* variables to point to
607/tmp/perl5 instead of /usr/local, or you could simply use the
608following command line:
609
610 sh Configure -Dinstallprefix=/tmp/perl5
611
612(replace /tmp/perl5 by a directory of your choice).
aa689395 613
693762b4 614Beware, though, that if you go to try to install new add-on
d6baa268 615modules, they too will get installed in under '/tmp/perl5' if you
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616follow this example. The next section shows one way of dealing with
617that problem.
618
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619=head2 Creating an installable tar archive
620
621If you need to install perl on many identical systems, it is
622convenient to compile it once and create an archive that can be
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623installed on multiple systems. Suppose, for example, that you want to
624create an archive that can be installed in /opt/perl.
625Here's one way to do that:
aa689395 626
d6baa268 627 # Set up to install perl into a different directory,
aa689395 628 # e.g. /tmp/perl5 (see previous part).
d6baa268 629 sh Configure -Dinstallprefix=/tmp/perl5 -Dprefix=/opt/perl -des
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630 make
631 make test
d6c1b5d3 632 make install # This will install everything into /tmp/perl5.
aa689395 633 cd /tmp/perl5
d6c1b5d3 634 # Edit $archlib/Config.pm and $archlib/.packlist to change all the
fb73857a 635 # install* variables back to reflect where everything will
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636 # really be installed. (That is, change /tmp/perl5 to /opt/perl
637 # everywhere in those files.)
638 # Check the scripts in $scriptdir to make sure they have the correct
bfb7748a 639 # #!/wherever/perl line.
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640 tar cvf ../perl5-archive.tar .
641 # Then, on each machine where you want to install perl,
d6c1b5d3 642 cd /opt/perl # Or wherever you specified as $prefix
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643 tar xvf perl5-archive.tar
644
dc45a647 645=head2 Site-wide Policy settings
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646
647After Configure runs, it stores a number of common site-wide "policy"
648answers (such as installation directories and the local perl contact
649person) in the Policy.sh file. If you want to build perl on another
650system using the same policy defaults, simply copy the Policy.sh file
651to the new system and Configure will use it along with the appropriate
652hint file for your system.
653
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654Alternatively, if you wish to change some or all of those policy
655answers, you should
656
657 rm -f Policy.sh
658
659to ensure that Configure doesn't re-use them.
660
661Further information is in the Policy_sh.SH file itself.
662
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663If the generated Policy.sh file is unsuitable, you may freely edit it
664to contain any valid shell commands. It will be run just after the
665platform-specific hints files.
666
c42e3e15 667Note: Since the directory hierarchy for 5.6.0 contains a number of
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668new vendor* and site* entries, your Policy.sh file will probably not
669set them to your desired values. I encourage you to run Configure
670interactively to be sure it puts things where you want them.
671
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672=head2 Configure-time Options
673
674There are several different ways to Configure and build perl for your
675system. For most users, the defaults are sensible and will work.
676Some users, however, may wish to further customize perl. Here are
677some of the main things you can change.
678
693762b4 679=head2 Threads
aa689395 680
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681On some platforms, perl5.005 and later can be compiled with
682experimental support for threads. To enable this, read the file
683README.threads, and then try:
f7542a9d 684
693762b4 685 sh Configure -Dusethreads
aa689395 686
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687Currently, you need to specify -Dusethreads on the Configure command
688line so that the hint files can make appropriate adjustments.
689
690The default is to compile without thread support.
3fe9a6f1 691
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692As of v5.5.64, perl has two different internal threads implementations.
693The 5.005 version (5005threads) and an interpreter-based implementation
694(ithreads) with one interpreter per thread. By default, Configure selects
695ithreads if -Dusethreads is specified. However, you can select the old
6965005threads behavior instead by either
697
698 sh Configure -Dusethreads -Duse5005threads
699
700or by
701 sh Configure -Dusethreads -Uuseithreads
702
703Eventually (by perl v5.6.0) this internal confusion ought to disappear,
704and these options may disappear as well.
705
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706=head2 64 bit support.
707
708If your platform does not have 64 bits natively, but can simulate them with
709compiler flags and/or C<long long> or C<int64_t>, you can build a perl that
710uses 64 bits.
711
712There are actually two modes of 64-bitness: the first one is achieved
713using Configure -Duse64bitint and the second one using Configure
714-Duse64bitall. The difference is that the first one is minimal and
715the second one maximal. The first works in more places than the second.
716
717The C<use64bitint> does only as much as is required to get 64-bit
718integers into Perl (this may mean, for example, using "long longs")
719while your memory may still be limited to 2 gigabytes (because your
720pointers could still be 32-bit). Note that the name C<64bitint> does
721not imply that your C compiler will be using 64-bit C<int>s (it might,
722but it doesn't have to): the C<use64bitint> means that you will be
723able to have 64 bits wide scalar values.
724
725The C<use64bitall> goes all the way by attempting to switch also
726integers (if it can), longs (and pointers) to being 64-bit. This may
727create an even more binary incompatible Perl than -Duse64bitint: the
728resulting executable may not run at all in a 32-bit box, or you may
729have to reboot/reconfigure/rebuild your operating system to be 64-bit
730aware.
731
732Natively 64-bit systems like Alpha and Cray need neither -Duse64bitint
733nor -Duse64bitall.
734
735 NOTE: 64-bit support is still experimental on most platforms.
736 Existing support only covers the LP64 data model. In particular, the
737 LLP64 data model is not yet supported. 64-bit libraries and system
738 APIs on many platforms have not stabilized--your mileage may vary.
739
740=head2 Long doubles
741
742In some systems you may be able to use long doubles to enhance the
743range and precision of your double precision floating point numbers
744(that is, Perl's numbers). Use Configure -Duselongdouble to enable
745this support (if it is available).
746
747=head2 "more bits"
748
749You can "Configure -Dusemorebits" to turn on both the 64-bit support
750and the long double support.
751
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752=head2 Selecting File IO mechanisms
753
754Previous versions of perl used the standard IO mechanisms as defined in
1ec51d55 755stdio.h. Versions 5.003_02 and later of perl allow alternate IO
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756mechanisms via a "PerlIO" abstraction, but the stdio mechanism is still
757the default and is the only supported mechanism.
758
759This PerlIO abstraction can be enabled either on the Configure command
760line with
761
762 sh Configure -Duseperlio
763
764or interactively at the appropriate Configure prompt.
765
766If you choose to use the PerlIO abstraction layer, there are two
767(experimental) possibilities for the underlying IO calls. These have been
768tested to some extent on some platforms, but are not guaranteed to work
769everywhere.
770
771=over 4
772
773=item 1.
774
1ec51d55 775AT&T's "sfio". This has superior performance to stdio.h in many
aa689395 776cases, and is extensible by the use of "discipline" modules. Sfio
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777currently only builds on a subset of the UNIX platforms perl supports.
778Because the data structures are completely different from stdio, perl
779extension modules or external libraries may not work. This
780configuration exists to allow these issues to be worked on.
781
782This option requires the 'sfio' package to have been built and installed.
1b9c9cf5 783The latest sfio is available from http://www.research.att.com/sw/tools/sfio/
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784
785You select this option by
786
787 sh Configure -Duseperlio -Dusesfio
788
789If you have already selected -Duseperlio, and if Configure detects
790that you have sfio, then sfio will be the default suggested by
791Configure.
792
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793Note: On some systems, sfio's iffe configuration script fails to
794detect that you have an atexit function (or equivalent). Apparently,
795this is a problem at least for some versions of Linux and SunOS 4.
796Configure should detect this problem and warn you about problems with
797_exit vs. exit. If you have this problem, the fix is to go back to
798your sfio sources and correct iffe's guess about atexit.
33e6ee5f 799
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800=item 2.
801
802Normal stdio IO, but with all IO going through calls to the PerlIO
803abstraction layer. This configuration can be used to check that perl and
804extension modules have been correctly converted to use the PerlIO
805abstraction.
806
807This configuration should work on all platforms (but might not).
808
aa689395 809You select this option via:
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810
811 sh Configure -Duseperlio -Uusesfio
812
813If you have already selected -Duseperlio, and if Configure does not
814detect sfio, then this will be the default suggested by Configure.
815
816=back
817
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818=head2 SOCKS
819
820Perl can be configured to be 'socksified', that is, to use the SOCKS
821TCP/IP proxy protocol library. SOCKS is used to give applications
822access to transport layer network proxies. Perl supports only SOCKS
823Version 5. You can find more about SOCKS from http://www.socks.nec.com/
824
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825=head2 Dynamic Loading
826
827By default, Configure will compile perl to use dynamic loading if
828your system supports it. If you want to force perl to be compiled
829statically, you can either choose this when Configure prompts you or
830you can use the Configure command line option -Uusedl.
831
aa689395 832=head2 Building a shared libperl.so Perl library
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833
834Currently, for most systems, the main perl executable is built by
835linking the "perl library" libperl.a with perlmain.o, your static
836extensions (usually just DynaLoader.a) and various extra libraries,
837such as -lm.
838
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839On some systems that support dynamic loading, it may be possible to
840replace libperl.a with a shared libperl.so. If you anticipate building
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841several different perl binaries (e.g. by embedding libperl into
842different programs, or by using the optional compiler extension), then
9d67150a 843you might wish to build a shared libperl.so so that all your binaries
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844can share the same library.
845
846The disadvantages are that there may be a significant performance
9d67150a 847penalty associated with the shared libperl.so, and that the overall
aa689395 848mechanism is still rather fragile with respect to different versions
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849and upgrades.
850
851In terms of performance, on my test system (Solaris 2.5_x86) the perl
9d67150a 852test suite took roughly 15% longer to run with the shared libperl.so.
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853Your system and typical applications may well give quite different
854results.
855
856The default name for the shared library is typically something like
a6006777 857libperl.so.3.2 (for Perl 5.003_02) or libperl.so.302 or simply
9d67150a 858libperl.so. Configure tries to guess a sensible naming convention
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859based on your C library name. Since the library gets installed in a
860version-specific architecture-dependent directory, the exact name
861isn't very important anyway, as long as your linker is happy.
862
863For some systems (mostly SVR4), building a shared libperl is required
864for dynamic loading to work, and hence is already the default.
865
866You can elect to build a shared libperl by
867
868 sh Configure -Duseshrplib
869
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870To build a shared libperl, the environment variable controlling shared
871library search (LD_LIBRARY_PATH in most systems, DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH for
f556e5b9 872NeXTSTEP/OPENSTEP/Darwin, LIBRARY_PATH for BeOS, SHLIB_PATH for
4fabb596 873HP-UX, LIBPATH for AIX, PATH for Cygwin) must be set up to include
2bf2710f 874the Perl build directory because that's where the shared libperl will
d6baa268 875be created. Configure arranges makefile to have the correct shared
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876library search settings.
877
878However, there are some special cases where manually setting the
879shared library path might be required. For example, if you want to run
880something like the following with the newly-built but not-yet-installed
881./perl:
882
883 cd t; ./perl misc/failing_test.t
884or
885 ./perl -Ilib ~/my_mission_critical_test
886
887then you need to set up the shared library path explicitly.
888You can do this with
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889
890 LD_LIBRARY_PATH=`pwd`:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
891
892for Bourne-style shells, or
893
894 setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH `pwd`
895
2bf2710f 896for Csh-style shells. (This procedure may also be needed if for some
d6baa268 897unexpected reason Configure fails to set up makefile correctly.)
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898
899You can often recognize failures to build/use a shared libperl from error
900messages complaining about a missing libperl.so (or libperl.sl in HP-UX),
901for example:
90218126:./miniperl: /sbin/loader: Fatal Error: cannot map libperl.so
c3edaffb 903
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904There is also an potential problem with the shared perl library if you
905want to have more than one "flavor" of the same version of perl (e.g.
906with and without -DDEBUGGING). For example, suppose you build and
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907install a standard Perl 5.004 with a shared library. Then, suppose you
908try to build Perl 5.004 with -DDEBUGGING enabled, but everything else
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909the same, including all the installation directories. How can you
910ensure that your newly built perl will link with your newly built
7f678428 911libperl.so.4 rather with the installed libperl.so.4? The answer is
9d67150a 912that you might not be able to. The installation directory is encoded
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913in the perl binary with the LD_RUN_PATH environment variable (or
914equivalent ld command-line option). On Solaris, you can override that
7beaa944 915with LD_LIBRARY_PATH; on Linux you can't. On Digital Unix, you can
0dcb58f4 916override LD_LIBRARY_PATH by setting the _RLD_ROOT environment variable
7beaa944 917to point to the perl build directory.
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918
919The only reliable answer is that you should specify a different
920directory for the architecture-dependent library for your -DDEBUGGING
fb73857a 921version of perl. You can do this by changing all the *archlib*
d6baa268 922variables in config.sh to point to your new architecture-dependent library.
9d67150a 923
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924=head2 Malloc Issues
925
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926Perl relies heavily on malloc(3) to grow data structures as needed,
927so perl's performance can be noticeably affected by the performance of
928the malloc function on your system. The perl source is shipped with a
929version of malloc that has been optimized for the typical requests from
930perl, so there's a chance that it may be both faster and use less memory
931than your system malloc.
55479bb6 932
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933However, if your system already has an excellent malloc, or if you are
934experiencing difficulties with extensions that use third-party libraries
935that call malloc, then you should probably use your system's malloc.
936(Or, you might wish to explore the malloc flags discussed below.)
c3edaffb 937
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938=over 4
939
d6baa268 940=item Using the system malloc
2ae324a7 941
d6baa268 942To build without perl's malloc, you can use the Configure command
aa689395 943
d6baa268 944 sh Configure -Uusemymalloc
aa689395 945
d6baa268 946or you can answer 'n' at the appropriate interactive Configure prompt.
aa689395 947
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948=item -DPERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC
949
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950NOTE: This flag is enabled automatically on some platforms if you
951asked for binary compatibility with version 5.005, or if you just
952run Configure to accept all the defaults on those platforms. You
953can refuse the automatic binary compatibility flags wholesale by
954running:
955
956 sh Configure -Ubincompat5005
957
958or by answering 'n' at the appropriate prompt.
959
d6baa268 960Perl's malloc family of functions are called Perl_malloc(),
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961Perl_realloc(), Perl_calloc() and Perl_mfree(). When this flag is
962not enabled, the names do not clash with the system versions of
963these functions.
d6baa268 964
b2a6d19e 965If enabled, Perl's malloc family of functions will have the same
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966names as the system versions. This may be sometimes required when you
967have libraries that like to free() data that may have been allocated
968by Perl_malloc() and vice versa.
86058a2d 969
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970Note that enabling this option may sometimes lead to duplicate symbols
971from the linker for malloc et al. In such cases, the system probably
972does not allow its malloc functions to be fully replaced with custom
973versions.
86058a2d 974
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975=back
976
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977=head2 Building a debugging perl
978
979You can run perl scripts under the perl debugger at any time with
3fe9a6f1 980B<perl -d your_script>. If, however, you want to debug perl itself,
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981you probably want to do
982
983 sh Configure -Doptimize='-g'
984
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985This will do two independent things: First, it will force compilation
986to use cc -g so that you can use your system's debugger on the
987executable. (Note: Your system may actually require something like
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988cc -g2. Check your man pages for cc(1) and also any hint file for
989your system.) Second, it will add -DDEBUGGING to your ccflags
990variable in config.sh so that you can use B<perl -D> to access perl's
991internal state. (Note: Configure will only add -DDEBUGGING by default
992if you are not reusing your old config.sh. If you want to reuse your
993old config.sh, then you can just edit it and change the optimize and
994ccflags variables by hand and then propagate your changes as shown in
995L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below.)
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996
997You can actually specify -g and -DDEBUGGING independently, but usually
998it's convenient to have both.
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999
1000If you are using a shared libperl, see the warnings about multiple
1001versions of perl under L<Building a shared libperl.so Perl library>.
1002
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1003=head2 Extensions
1004
1005By default, Configure will offer to build every extension which appears
1006to be supported. For example, Configure will offer to build GDBM_File
1007only if it is able to find the gdbm library. (See examples below.)
1008B, DynaLoader, Fcntl, IO, and attrs are always built by default.
1009Configure does not contain code to test for POSIX compliance, so POSIX
1010is always built by default as well. If you wish to skip POSIX, you can
1011set the Configure variable useposix=false either in a hint file or from
1012the Configure command line. Similarly, the Opcode extension is always
1013built by default, but you can skip it by setting the Configure variable
1014useopcode=false either in a hint file for from the command line.
1015
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1016If you unpack any additional extensions in the ext/ directory before
1017running Configure, then Configure will offer to build those additional
1018extensions as well. Most users probably shouldn't have to do this --
1019it is usually easier to build additional extensions later after perl
1020has been installed. However, if you wish to have those additional
1021extensions statically linked into the perl binary, then this offers a
1022convenient way to do that in one step. (It is not necessary, however;
1023you can build and install extensions just fine even if you don't have
1024dynamic loading. See lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm for more details.)
1025
1026You can learn more about each of the supplied extensions by consulting the
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1027documentation in the individual .pm modules, located under the
1028ext/ subdirectory.
1029
1030Even if you do not have dynamic loading, you must still build the
1031DynaLoader extension; you should just build the stub dl_none.xs
1032version. (Configure will suggest this as the default.)
1033
1034In summary, here are the Configure command-line variables you can set
1035to turn off each extension:
1036
1037 B (Always included by default)
1038 DB_File i_db
1039 DynaLoader (Must always be included as a static extension)
1040 Fcntl (Always included by default)
1041 GDBM_File i_gdbm
1042 IO (Always included by default)
1043 NDBM_File i_ndbm
1044 ODBM_File i_dbm
1045 POSIX useposix
1046 SDBM_File (Always included by default)
1047 Opcode useopcode
1048 Socket d_socket
a2dab6bc 1049 Threads use5005threads
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1050 attrs (Always included by default)
1051
1052Thus to skip the NDBM_File extension, you can use
1053
1054 sh Configure -Ui_ndbm
1055
1056Again, this is taken care of automatically if you don't have the ndbm
1057library.
1058
1059Of course, you may always run Configure interactively and select only
1060the extensions you want.
1061
1062Note: The DB_File module will only work with version 1.x of Berkeley
1063DB or newer releases of version 2. Configure will automatically detect
1064this for you and refuse to try to build DB_File with earlier
1065releases of version 2.
1066
1067If you re-use your old config.sh but change your system (e.g. by
1068adding libgdbm) Configure will still offer your old choices of extensions
1069for the default answer, but it will also point out the discrepancy to
1070you.
1071
1072Finally, if you have dynamic loading (most modern Unix systems do)
1073remember that these extensions do not increase the size of your perl
1074executable, nor do they impact start-up time, so you probably might as
1075well build all the ones that will work on your system.
1076
1077=head2 Including locally-installed libraries
1078
1079Perl5 comes with interfaces to number of database extensions, including
1080dbm, ndbm, gdbm, and Berkeley db. For each extension, if
1081Configure can find the appropriate header files and libraries, it will
1082automatically include that extension. The gdbm and db libraries
1083are not included with perl. See the library documentation for
1084how to obtain the libraries.
1085
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1086If your database header (.h) files are not in a directory normally
1087searched by your C compiler, then you will need to include the
1088appropriate -I/your/directory option when prompted by Configure. If
1089your database library (.a) files are not in a directory normally
1090searched by your C compiler and linker, then you will need to include
1091the appropriate -L/your/directory option when prompted by Configure.
1092See the examples below.
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1093
1094=head2 Examples
1095
1096=over 4
1097
1098=item gdbm in /usr/local
1099
1100Suppose you have gdbm and want Configure to find it and build the
d6baa268 1101GDBM_File extension. This example assumes you have gdbm.h
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1102installed in /usr/local/include/gdbm.h and libgdbm.a installed in
1103/usr/local/lib/libgdbm.a. Configure should figure all the
1104necessary steps out automatically.
1105
1106Specifically, when Configure prompts you for flags for
1107your C compiler, you should include -I/usr/local/include.
1108
1109When Configure prompts you for linker flags, you should include
1110-L/usr/local/lib.
1111
1112If you are using dynamic loading, then when Configure prompts you for
1113linker flags for dynamic loading, you should again include
1114-L/usr/local/lib.
1115
d6baa268
JH
1116Again, this should all happen automatically. This should also work if
1117you have gdbm installed in any of (/usr/local, /opt/local, /usr/gnu,
1118/opt/gnu, /usr/GNU, or /opt/GNU).
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1119
1120=item gdbm in /usr/you
1121
1122Suppose you have gdbm installed in some place other than /usr/local/,
1123but you still want Configure to find it. To be specific, assume you
1124have /usr/you/include/gdbm.h and /usr/you/lib/libgdbm.a. You
1125still have to add -I/usr/you/include to cc flags, but you have to take
1126an extra step to help Configure find libgdbm.a. Specifically, when
1127Configure prompts you for library directories, you have to add
1128/usr/you/lib to the list.
1129
1130It is possible to specify this from the command line too (all on one
1131line):
1132
d6baa268 1133 sh Configure -de \
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1134 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include" \
1135 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib"
1136
1137locincpth is a space-separated list of include directories to search.
1138Configure will automatically add the appropriate -I directives.
1139
1140loclibpth is a space-separated list of library directories to search.
1141Configure will automatically add the appropriate -L directives. If
1142you have some libraries under /usr/local/ and others under
1143/usr/you, then you have to include both, namely
1144
d6baa268 1145 sh Configure -de \
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1146 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include /usr/local/include" \
1147 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib /usr/local/lib"
1148
1149=back
1150
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1151=head2 What if it doesn't work?
1152
8d74ce1c
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1153If you run into problems, try some of the following ideas.
1154If none of them help, then see L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
1155
8e07c86e
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1156=over 4
1157
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1158=item Running Configure Interactively
1159
1160If Configure runs into trouble, remember that you can always run
1161Configure interactively so that you can check (and correct) its
1162guesses.
1163
1164All the installation questions have been moved to the top, so you don't
aa689395 1165have to wait for them. Once you've handled them (and your C compiler and
1ec51d55 1166flags) you can type &-d at the next Configure prompt and Configure
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1167will use the defaults from then on.
1168
1169If you find yourself trying obscure command line incantations and
1170config.over tricks, I recommend you run Configure interactively
1171instead. You'll probably save yourself time in the long run.
1172
aa689395 1173=item Hint files
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1174
1175The perl distribution includes a number of system-specific hints files
1176in the hints/ directory. If one of them matches your system, Configure
1177will offer to use that hint file.
1178
1179Several of the hint files contain additional important information.
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1180If you have any problems, it is a good idea to read the relevant hint file
1181for further information. See hints/solaris_2.sh for an extensive example.
1182More information about writing good hints is in the hints/README.hints
1183file.
8e07c86e 1184
edb1cbcb
PP
1185=item *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1186
1187Occasionally, Configure makes a wrong guess. For example, on SunOS
11884.1.3, Configure incorrectly concludes that tzname[] is in the
1189standard C library. The hint file is set up to correct for this. You
1190will see a message:
1191
1192 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1193 The recommended value for $d_tzname on this machine was "undef"!
1194 Keep the recommended value? [y]
1195
1196You should always keep the recommended value unless, after reading the
1197relevant section of the hint file, you are sure you want to try
1198overriding it.
1199
1200If you are re-using an old config.sh, the word "previous" will be
1201used instead of "recommended". Again, you will almost always want
1202to keep the previous value, unless you have changed something on your
1203system.
1204
1205For example, suppose you have added libgdbm.a to your system
1206and you decide to reconfigure perl to use GDBM_File. When you run
1207Configure again, you will need to add -lgdbm to the list of libraries.
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1208Now, Configure will find your gdbm include file and library and will
1209issue a message:
edb1cbcb
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1210
1211 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1212 The previous value for $i_gdbm on this machine was "undef"!
1213 Keep the previous value? [y]
1214
1ec51d55 1215In this case, you do not want to keep the previous value, so you
c3edaffb 1216should answer 'n'. (You'll also have to manually add GDBM_File to
edb1cbcb
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1217the list of dynamic extensions to build.)
1218
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1219=item Changing Compilers
1220
1221If you change compilers or make other significant changes, you should
1ec51d55 1222probably not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or
8e07c86e
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1223rename it, e.g. mv config.sh config.sh.old. Then rerun Configure
1224with the options you want to use.
1225
1ec51d55
CS
1226This is a common source of problems. If you change from cc to
1227gcc, you should almost always remove your old config.sh.
8e07c86e 1228
c3edaffb 1229=item Propagating your changes to config.sh
8e07c86e 1230
1ec51d55
CS
1231If you make any changes to config.sh, you should propagate
1232them to all the .SH files by running
1233
1234 sh Configure -S
1235
1236You will then have to rebuild by running
9d67150a
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1237
1238 make depend
1239 make
8e07c86e
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1240
1241=item config.over
1242
1243You can also supply a shell script config.over to over-ride Configure's
1244guesses. It will get loaded up at the very end, just before config.sh
1245is created. You have to be careful with this, however, as Configure
d6baa268 1246does no checking that your changes make sense.
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1247
1248=item config.h
1249
1ec51d55
CS
1250Many of the system dependencies are contained in config.h.
1251Configure builds config.h by running the config_h.SH script.
1252The values for the variables are taken from config.sh.
8e07c86e 1253
1ec51d55
CS
1254If there are any problems, you can edit config.h directly. Beware,
1255though, that the next time you run Configure, your changes will be
8e07c86e
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1256lost.
1257
1258=item cflags
1259
1260If you have any additional changes to make to the C compiler command
1ec51d55
CS
1261line, they can be made in cflags.SH. For instance, to turn off the
1262optimizer on toke.c, find the line in the switch structure for
1263toke.c and put the command optimize='-g' before the ;; . You
1264can also edit cflags directly, but beware that your changes will be
1265lost the next time you run Configure.
8e07c86e 1266
f5b3b617
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1267To explore various ways of changing ccflags from within a hint file,
1268see the file hints/README.hints.
1269
1270To change the C flags for all the files, edit config.sh and change either
1271$ccflags or $optimize, and then re-run
1ec51d55
CS
1272
1273 sh Configure -S
1274 make depend
8e07c86e 1275
aa689395 1276=item No sh
8e07c86e 1277
c42e3e15
GS
1278If you don't have sh, you'll have to copy the sample file
1279Porting/config.sh to config.sh and edit your config.sh to reflect your
1280system's peculiarities. See Porting/pumpkin.pod for more information.
8e07c86e
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1281You'll probably also have to extensively modify the extension building
1282mechanism.
1283
d6baa268
JH
1284=item Environment variable clashes
1285
1286Configure uses a CONFIG variable that is reported to cause trouble on
1287ReliantUnix 5.44. If your system sets this variable, you can try
1288unsetting it before you run Configure. Configure should eventually
1289be fixed to avoid polluting the namespace of the environment.
1290
1291=item Digital UNIX/Tru64 UNIX and BIN_SH
1292
1293In Digital UNIX/Tru64 UNIX, Configure might abort with
1294
1295Build a threading Perl? [n]
1296Configure[2437]: Syntax error at line 1 : `config.sh' is not expected.
1297
1298This indicates that Configure is being run with a broken Korn shell
1299(even though you think you are using a Bourne shell by using
1300"sh Configure" or "./Configure"). The Korn shell bug has been reported
1301to Compaq as of February 1999 but in the meanwhile, the reason ksh is
1302being used is that you have the environment variable BIN_SH set to
1303'xpg4'. This causes /bin/sh to delegate its duties to /bin/posix/sh
1304(a ksh). Unset the environment variable and rerun Configure.
1305
1306=item HP-UX 11, pthreads, and libgdbm
1307
1308If you are running Configure with -Dusethreads in HP-UX 11, be warned
1309that POSIX threads and libgdbm (the GNU dbm library) compiled before
1310HP-UX 11 do not mix. This will cause a basic test run by Configure to
1311fail
1312
1313Pthread internal error: message: __libc_reinit() failed, file: ../pthreads/pthread.c, line: 1096
1314Return Pointer is 0xc082bf33
1315sh: 5345 Quit(coredump)
1316
1317and Configure will give up. The cure is to recompile and install
1318libgdbm under HP-UX 11.
1319
c3edaffb
PP
1320=item Porting information
1321
2ae324a7 1322Specific information for the OS/2, Plan9, VMS and Win32 ports is in the
1ec51d55
CS
1323corresponding README files and subdirectories. Additional information,
1324including a glossary of all those config.sh variables, is in the Porting
c42e3e15 1325subdirectory. Especially Porting/Glossary should come in handy.
c3edaffb 1326
7f678428 1327Ports for other systems may also be available. You should check out
1ec51d55 1328http://www.perl.com/CPAN/ports for current information on ports to
7f678428
PP
1329various other operating systems.
1330
491517e0
JA
1331If you plan to port Perl to a new architecture study carefully the
1332section titled "Philosophical Issues in Patching and Porting Perl"
1333in the file Porting/pumpkin.pod and the file Porting/patching.pod.
1334Study also how other non-UNIX ports have solved problems.
1335
8e07c86e
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1336=back
1337
1338=head1 make depend
1339
bfb7748a
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1340This will look for all the includes. The output is stored in makefile.
1341The only difference between Makefile and makefile is the dependencies at
1342the bottom of makefile. If you have to make any changes, you should edit
1343makefile, not Makefile since the Unix make command reads makefile first.
1344(On non-Unix systems, the output may be stored in a different file.
1345Check the value of $firstmakefile in your config.sh if in doubt.)
8e07c86e
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1346
1347Configure will offer to do this step for you, so it isn't listed
1348explicitly above.
1349
1350=head1 make
1351
1352This will attempt to make perl in the current directory.
1353
8d74ce1c
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1354=head2 What if it doesn't work?
1355
8e07c86e 1356If you can't compile successfully, try some of the following ideas.
7f678428 1357If none of them help, and careful reading of the error message and
8d74ce1c
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1358the relevant manual pages on your system doesn't help,
1359then see L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
8e07c86e
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1360
1361=over 4
1362
1ec51d55 1363=item hints
8e07c86e
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1364
1365If you used a hint file, try reading the comments in the hint file
1366for further tips and information.
1367
1ec51d55 1368=item extensions
8e07c86e 1369
1ec51d55 1370If you can successfully build miniperl, but the process crashes
c3edaffb
PP
1371during the building of extensions, you should run
1372
3a6175e1 1373 make minitest
c3edaffb
PP
1374
1375to test your version of miniperl.
1376
e57fd563
PP
1377=item locale
1378
bfb7748a
AD
1379If you have any locale-related environment variables set, try unsetting
1380them. I have some reports that some versions of IRIX hang while
1381running B<./miniperl configpm> with locales other than the C locale.
1382See the discussion under L<"make test"> below about locales and the
1383whole L<"Locale problems"> section in the file pod/perllocale.pod.
3e6e419a
JH
1384The latter is especially useful if you see something like this
1385
1386 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
1387 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
1388 LC_ALL = "En_US",
1389 LANG = (unset)
1390 are supported and installed on your system.
1391 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
1392
1393at Perl startup.
e57fd563 1394
7f678428 1395=item varargs
c3edaffb
PP
1396
1397If you get varargs problems with gcc, be sure that gcc is installed
bfb7748a
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1398correctly and that you are not passing -I/usr/include to gcc. When using
1399gcc, you should probably have i_stdarg='define' and i_varargs='undef'
1400in config.sh. The problem is usually solved by running fixincludes
1401correctly. If you do change config.sh, don't forget to propagate
1402your changes (see L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below).
7f678428 1403See also the L<"vsprintf"> item below.
c3edaffb 1404
bfb7748a 1405=item util.c
c3edaffb
PP
1406
1407If you get error messages such as the following (the exact line
bfb7748a 1408numbers and function name may vary in different versions of perl):
c3edaffb 1409
bfb7748a
AD
1410 util.c: In function `Perl_form':
1411 util.c:1107: number of arguments doesn't match prototype
1412 proto.h:125: prototype declaration
c3edaffb
PP
1413
1414it might well be a symptom of the gcc "varargs problem". See the
7f678428 1415previous L<"varargs"> item.
c3edaffb 1416
1ec51d55 1417=item LD_LIBRARY_PATH
c3edaffb
PP
1418
1419If you run into dynamic loading problems, check your setting of
aa689395
PP
1420the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable. If you're creating a static
1421Perl library (libperl.a rather than libperl.so) it should build
c3edaffb
PP
1422fine with LD_LIBRARY_PATH unset, though that may depend on details
1423of your local set-up.
1424
aa689395 1425=item nm extraction
c3edaffb
PP
1426
1427If Configure seems to be having trouble finding library functions,
1428try not using nm extraction. You can do this from the command line
1429with
1430
1431 sh Configure -Uusenm
1432
1433or by answering the nm extraction question interactively.
1ec51d55 1434If you have previously run Configure, you should not reuse your old
c3edaffb
PP
1435config.sh.
1436
bfb7748a
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1437=item umask not found
1438
1439If the build processes encounters errors relating to umask(), the problem
1440is probably that Configure couldn't find your umask() system call.
1441Check your config.sh. You should have d_umask='define'. If you don't,
1442this is probably the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above. Also,
1443try reading the hints file for your system for further information.
1444
7f678428 1445=item vsprintf
c3edaffb
PP
1446
1447If you run into problems with vsprintf in compiling util.c, the
1448problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
1449version of vsprintf(). Check whether your system has vprintf().
1450(Virtually all modern Unix systems do.) Then, check the variable
1451d_vprintf in config.sh. If your system has vprintf, it should be:
1452
1453 d_vprintf='define'
1454
1455If Configure guessed wrong, it is likely that Configure guessed wrong
bfb7748a
AD
1456on a number of other common functions too. This is probably
1457the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
c3edaffb 1458
3fe9a6f1
PP
1459=item do_aspawn
1460
1461If you run into problems relating to do_aspawn or do_spawn, the
1462problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
bfb7748a
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1463fork() function. Follow the procedure in the previous item
1464on L<"nm extraction">.
3fe9a6f1 1465
84902520
TB
1466=item __inet_* errors
1467
1468If you receive unresolved symbol errors during Perl build and/or test
1469referring to __inet_* symbols, check to see whether BIND 8.1 is
1470installed. It installs a /usr/local/include/arpa/inet.h that refers to
1471these symbols. Versions of BIND later than 8.1 do not install inet.h
1472in that location and avoid the errors. You should probably update to a
1473newer version of BIND. If you can't, you can either link with the
1474updated resolver library provided with BIND 8.1 or rename
1475/usr/local/bin/arpa/inet.h during the Perl build and test process to
1476avoid the problem.
1477
d6baa268
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1478=item #error "No DATAMODEL_NATIVE specified"
1479
1480This is a common error when trying to build perl on Solaris 2.6 with a
1481gcc installation from Solaris 2.5 or 2.5.1. The Solaris header files
1482changed, so you need to update your gcc installation. You can either
1483rerun the fixincludes script from gcc or take the opportunity to
1484update your gcc installation.
1485
aa689395 1486=item Optimizer
c3edaffb 1487
9d67150a 1488If you can't compile successfully, try turning off your compiler's
aa689395 1489optimizer. Edit config.sh and change the line
9d67150a
PP
1490
1491 optimize='-O'
1492
bfb7748a 1493to
9d67150a
PP
1494
1495 optimize=' '
1496
1497then propagate your changes with B<sh Configure -S> and rebuild
1498with B<make depend; make>.
1499
1ec51d55 1500=item CRIPPLED_CC
9d67150a 1501
1b1c1ae2
GS
1502If you still can't compile successfully, try:
1503
1504 sh Configure -Accflags=-DCRIPPLED_CC
1505
1506This flag simplifies some complicated expressions for compilers that get
1507indigestion easily. (Just because you get no errors doesn't mean it
1508compiled right!)
9d67150a
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1509
1510=item Missing functions
1511
1512If you have missing routines, you probably need to add some library or
1513other, or you need to undefine some feature that Configure thought was
1514there but is defective or incomplete. Look through config.h for
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1515likely suspects. If Configure guessed wrong on a number of functions,
1516you might have the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
8e07c86e 1517
1ec51d55 1518=item toke.c
8e07c86e 1519
1ec51d55
CS
1520Some compilers will not compile or optimize the larger files (such as
1521toke.c) without some extra switches to use larger jump offsets or
1522allocate larger internal tables. You can customize the switches for
1523each file in cflags. It's okay to insert rules for specific files into
1524makefile since a default rule only takes effect in the absence of a
8e07c86e
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1525specific rule.
1526
7f678428 1527=item Missing dbmclose
8e07c86e 1528
c3edaffb
PP
1529SCO prior to 3.2.4 may be missing dbmclose(). An upgrade to 3.2.4
1530that includes libdbm.nfs (which includes dbmclose()) may be available.
8e07c86e 1531
f3d9a6ba 1532=item Note (probably harmless): No library found for -lsomething
7f678428
PP
1533
1534If you see such a message during the building of an extension, but
1535the extension passes its tests anyway (see L<"make test"> below),
1536then don't worry about the warning message. The extension
1537Makefile.PL goes looking for various libraries needed on various
aa689395 1538systems; few systems will need all the possible libraries listed.
7f678428
PP
1539For example, a system may have -lcposix or -lposix, but it's
1540unlikely to have both, so most users will see warnings for the one
f3d9a6ba
CS
1541they don't have. The phrase 'probably harmless' is intended to
1542reassure you that nothing unusual is happening, and the build
1543process is continuing.
7f678428
PP
1544
1545On the other hand, if you are building GDBM_File and you get the
1546message
1547
f3d9a6ba 1548 Note (probably harmless): No library found for -lgdbm
7f678428
PP
1549
1550then it's likely you're going to run into trouble somewhere along
1551the line, since it's hard to see how you can use the GDBM_File
1552extension without the -lgdbm library.
1553
1554It is true that, in principle, Configure could have figured all of
1555this out, but Configure and the extension building process are not
1556quite that tightly coordinated.
1557
aa689395
PP
1558=item sh: ar: not found
1559
1560This is a message from your shell telling you that the command 'ar'
1561was not found. You need to check your PATH environment variable to
1562make sure that it includes the directory with the 'ar' command. This
1ec51d55 1563is a common problem on Solaris, where 'ar' is in the /usr/ccs/bin
aa689395
PP
1564directory.
1565
1566=item db-recno failure on tests 51, 53 and 55
1567
1568Old versions of the DB library (including the DB library which comes
1569with FreeBSD 2.1) had broken handling of recno databases with modified
1570bval settings. Upgrade your DB library or OS.
1571
6087ac44
JH
1572=item Bad arg length for semctl, is XX, should be ZZZ
1573
1574If you get this error message from the lib/ipc_sysv test, your System
1575V IPC may be broken. The XX typically is 20, and that is what ZZZ
1576also should be. Consider upgrading your OS, or reconfiguring your OS
1577to include the System V semaphores.
1578
220f3621
GS
1579=item lib/ipc_sysv........semget: No space left on device
1580
1581Either your account or the whole system has run out of semaphores. Or
1582both. Either list the semaphores with "ipcs" and remove the unneeded
1583ones (which ones these are depends on your system and applications)
1584with "ipcrm -s SEMAPHORE_ID_HERE" or configure more semaphores to your
1585system.
1586
d6baa268
JH
1587=item GNU binutils
1588
1589If you mix GNU binutils (nm, ld, ar) with equivalent vendor-supplied
1590tools you may be in for some trouble. For example creating archives
1591with an old GNU 'ar' and then using a new current vendor-supplied 'ld'
1592may lead into linking problems. Either recompile your GNU binutils
1593under your current operating system release, or modify your PATH not
1594to include the GNU utils before running Configure, or specify the
1595vendor-supplied utilities explicitly to Configure, for example by
1596Configure -Dar=/bin/ar.
1597
16dc217a
GS
1598=item THIS PACKAGE SEEMS TO BE INCOMPLETE
1599
1600The F<Configure> program has not been able to find all the files which
1601make up the complete Perl distribution. You may have a damaged source
1602archive file (in which case you may also have seen messages such as
1603C<gzip: stdin: unexpected end of file> and C<tar: Unexpected EOF on
1604archive file>), or you may have obtained a structurally-sound but
1605incomplete archive. In either case, try downloading again from the
1606official site named at the start of this document. If you do find
1607that any site is carrying a corrupted or incomplete source code
1608archive, please report it to the site's maintainer.
1609
16dc217a
GS
1610=item invalid token: ##
1611
1612You are using a non-ANSI-compliant C compiler. See L<WARNING: This
1613version requires a compiler that supports ANSI C>.
1614
1ec51d55 1615=item Miscellaneous
8e07c86e
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1616
1617Some additional things that have been reported for either perl4 or perl5:
1618
1619Genix may need to use libc rather than libc_s, or #undef VARARGS.
1620
1621NCR Tower 32 (OS 2.01.01) may need -W2,-Sl,2000 and #undef MKDIR.
1622
1ec51d55 1623UTS may need one or more of -DCRIPPLED_CC, -K or -g, and undef LSTAT.
8e07c86e 1624
220f3621
GS
1625FreeBSD can fail the lib/ipc_sysv.t test if SysV IPC has not been
1626configured to the kernel. Perl tries to detect this, though, and
1627you will get a message telling what to do.
6087ac44 1628
8e07c86e
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1629If you get syntax errors on '(', try -DCRIPPLED_CC.
1630
1631Machines with half-implemented dbm routines will need to #undef I_ODBM
1632
d6baa268
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1633HP-UX 11 Y2K patch "Y2K-1100 B.11.00.B0125 HP-UX Core OS Year 2000
1634Patch Bundle" has been reported to break the io/fs test #18 which
1635tests whether utime() can change timestamps. The Y2K patch seems to
1636break utime() so that over NFS the timestamps do not get changed
1637(on local filesystems utime() still works).
1638
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1639=back
1640
1641=head1 make test
1642
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1643This will run the regression tests on the perl you just made. If
1644'make test' doesn't say "All tests successful" then something went
1645wrong. See the file t/README in the t subdirectory.
84902520 1646
84902520 1647Note that you can't run the tests in background if this disables
fb73857a
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1648opening of /dev/tty. You can use 'make test-notty' in that case but
1649a few tty tests will be skipped.
c3edaffb 1650
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1651=head2 What if make test doesn't work?
1652
1ec51d55
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1653If make test bombs out, just cd to the t directory and run ./TEST
1654by hand to see if it makes any difference. If individual tests
c3edaffb 1655bomb, you can run them by hand, e.g.,
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1656
1657 ./perl op/groups.t
1658
aa689395 1659Another way to get more detailed information about failed tests and
1ec51d55 1660individual subtests is to cd to the t directory and run
aa689395
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1661
1662 ./perl harness
1663
fb73857a 1664(this assumes that most basic tests succeed, since harness uses
aa689395
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1665complicated constructs).
1666
fb73857a 1667You should also read the individual tests to see if there are any helpful
c3edaffb
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1668comments that apply to your system.
1669
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1670=over 4
1671
1672=item locale
1673
1ec51d55 1674Note: One possible reason for errors is that some external programs
c07a80fd 1675may be broken due to the combination of your environment and the way
3fe9a6f1 1676B<make test> exercises them. For example, this may happen if you have
1ec51d55
CS
1677one or more of these environment variables set: LC_ALL LC_CTYPE
1678LC_COLLATE LANG. In some versions of UNIX, the non-English locales
e57fd563
PP
1679are known to cause programs to exhibit mysterious errors.
1680
1681If you have any of the above environment variables set, please try
aa689395
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1682
1683 setenv LC_ALL C
1684
1685(for C shell) or
1686
1687 LC_ALL=C;export LC_ALL
1688
1ec51d55
CS
1689for Bourne or Korn shell) from the command line and then retry
1690make test. If the tests then succeed, you may have a broken program that
aa689395 1691is confusing the testing. Please run the troublesome test by hand as
e57fd563 1692shown above and see whether you can locate the program. Look for
1ec51d55
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1693things like: exec, `backquoted command`, system, open("|...") or
1694open("...|"). All these mean that Perl is trying to run some
e57fd563 1695external program.
eed2e782 1696
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1697=item Out of memory
1698
1699On some systems, particularly those with smaller amounts of RAM, some
1700of the tests in t/op/pat.t may fail with an "Out of memory" message.
7970f296
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1701For example, on my SparcStation IPC with 12 MB of RAM, in perl5.5.670,
1702test 85 will fail if run under either t/TEST or t/harness.
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1703
1704Try stopping other jobs on the system and then running the test by itself:
1705
1706 cd t; ./perl op/pat.t
1707
1708to see if you have any better luck. If your perl still fails this
1709test, it does not necessarily mean you have a broken perl. This test
1710tries to exercise the regular expression subsystem quite thoroughly,
1711and may well be far more demanding than your normal usage.
1712
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1713=item Test failures from lib/ftmp-security saying "system possibly insecure"
1714
1715Firstly, test failures from the ftmp-security are not necessarily
1716serious or indicative of a real security threat. That being said,
1717they bear investigating.
1718
1719The tests may fail for the following reasons. Note that each of the
1720tests is run both in the building directory and the temporary
1721directory, as returned by File::Spec->tmpdir().
1722
1723(1) If the directory the tests are being run is owned by somebody else
1724than the user running the tests, or root (uid 0). This failure can
1725happen if the Perl source code distribution is unpacked in a way that
1726the user ids in the distribution package are used as-is. Some tar
1727programs do this.
1728
1729(2) If the directory the test are being run in is writable by group
1730or by other (remember: with UNIX/POSIX semantics, write access to
1731a directory means the right to add/remove files in that directory),
1732and there is no sticky bit set in the directory. 'Sticky bit' is
1733a feature used in some UNIXes to give extra protection to files: if
1734the bit is on a directory, no one but the owner (or the root) can remove
1735that file even if the permissions of the directory would allow file
1736removal by others. This failure can happen if the permissions in the
1737directory simply are a bit too liberal for the tests' liking. This
1738may or may not be a real problem: it depends on the permissions policy
1739used on this particular directory/project/system/site. This failure
1740can also happen if the system either doesn't support the sticky bit
1741(this is the case with many non-UNIX platforms: in principle the
1742File::Temp should know about these platforms and skip the tests), or
1743if the system supports the sticky bit but for some reason or reasons
1744it is not being used. This is for example the case with HP-UX: as of
1745HP-UX release 11.00, the sticky bit is very much supported, but HP-UX
1746doesn't use it on its /tmp directory as shipped. Also as with the
1747permissions, some local policy might dictate that the stickiness is
1748not used.
1749
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1750(3) If the system supports the POSIX 'chown giveaway' feature and if
1751any of the parent directories of the temporary file back to the root
1752directory are 'unsafe', using the definitions given above in (1) and
1753(2).
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1754
1755See the documentation for the File::Temp module for more information
1756about the various security aspects.
1757
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1758=back
1759
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1760=head1 make install
1761
1762This will put perl into the public directory you specified to
1ec51d55 1763Configure; by default this is /usr/local/bin. It will also try
8e07c86e 1764to put the man pages in a reasonable place. It will not nroff the man
aa689395 1765pages, however. You may need to be root to run B<make install>. If you
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1766are not root, you must own the directories in question and you should
1767ignore any messages about chown not working.
1768
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1769=head2 Installing perl under different names
1770
1771If you want to install perl under a name other than "perl" (for example,
1772when installing perl with special features enabled, such as debugging),
1773indicate the alternate name on the "make install" line, such as:
1774
1775 make install PERLNAME=myperl
1776
beb13193
RS
1777You can separately change the base used for versioned names (like
1778"perl5.005") by setting PERLNAME_VERBASE, like
1779
1780 make install PERLNAME=perl5 PERLNAME_VERBASE=perl
1781
1782This can be useful if you have to install perl as "perl5" (due to an
1783ancient version in /usr/bin supplied by your vendor, eg). Without this
1784the versioned binary would be called "perl55.005".
1785
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1786=head2 Installed files
1787
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1788If you want to see exactly what will happen without installing
1789anything, you can run
4633a7c4 1790
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1791 ./perl installperl -n
1792 ./perl installman -n
1793
1ec51d55 1794make install will install the following:
8e07c86e 1795
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1796 binaries
1797
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1798 perl,
1799 perl5.nnn where nnn is the current release number. This
1800 will be a link to perl.
1801 suidperl,
1802 sperl5.nnn If you requested setuid emulation.
1803 a2p awk-to-perl translator
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1804
1805 scripts
1806
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1807 cppstdin This is used by perl -P, if your cc -E can't
1808 read from stdin.
1809 c2ph, pstruct Scripts for handling C structures in header files.
1810 s2p sed-to-perl translator
1811 find2perl find-to-perl translator
aa689395 1812 h2ph Extract constants and simple macros from C headers
8e07c86e 1813 h2xs Converts C .h header files to Perl extensions.
24b3df7f 1814 perlbug Tool to report bugs in Perl.
8e07c86e 1815 perldoc Tool to read perl's pod documentation.
aa689395 1816 pl2pm Convert Perl 4 .pl files to Perl 5 .pm modules
8e07c86e 1817 pod2html, Converters from perl's pod documentation format
aa689395 1818 pod2latex, to other useful formats.
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1819 pod2man,
1820 pod2text,
1821 pod2checker,
1822 pod2select,
1823 pod2usage
aa689395 1824 splain Describe Perl warnings and errors
95667ae4 1825 dprofpp Perl code profile post-processor
8e07c86e 1826
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1827 library files
1828
1829 in $privlib and $archlib specified to
8e07c86e 1830 Configure, usually under /usr/local/lib/perl5/.
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1831
1832 documentation
1833
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1834 man pages in $man1dir, usually /usr/local/man/man1.
1835 module man
1836 pages in $man3dir, usually /usr/local/man/man3.
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1837 pod/*.pod in $privlib/pod/.
1838
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1839Installperl will also create the directories listed above
1840in L<"Installation Directories">.
4633a7c4 1841
d56c5707 1842Perl's *.h header files and the libperl library are also installed
d6baa268 1843under $archlib so that any user may later build new modules, run the
56c6f531
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1844optional Perl compiler, or embed the perl interpreter into another
1845program even if the Perl source is no longer available.
8e07c86e 1846
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1847Sometimes you only want to install the version-specific parts of the perl
1848installation. For example, you may wish to install a newer version of
1849perl alongside an already installed production version of perl without
1850disabling installation of new modules for the production version.
1851To only install the version-specific parts of the perl installation, run
1852
1853 Configure -Dversiononly
1854
1855or answer 'y' to the appropriate Configure prompt. Alternatively,
1856you can just manually run
1857
1858 ./perl installperl -v
1859
1860and skip installman altogether.
1861See also L<"Maintaining completely separate versions"> for another
1862approach.
1863
aa689395 1864=head1 Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5
4633a7c4 1865
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1866In general, you can usually safely upgrade from one version of Perl (e.g.
18675.004_04) to another similar version (e.g. 5.004_05) without re-compiling
1868all of your add-on extensions. You can also safely leave the old version
1869around in case the new version causes you problems for some reason.
1870For example, if you want to be sure that your script continues to run
dc45a647 1871with 5.004_04, simply replace the '#!/usr/local/bin/perl' line at the
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1872top of the script with the particular version you want to run, e.g.
1873#!/usr/local/bin/perl5.00404.
1874
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1875Most extensions will probably not need to be recompiled to use
1876with a newer version of perl. Here is how it is supposed to work.
1877(These examples assume you accept all the Configure defaults.)
1878
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1879Suppose you already have version 5.005_03 installed. The directories
1880searched by 5.005_03 are
1881
1882 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.00503/$archname
1883 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.00503
1884 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/$archname
1885 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
1886
0a08c020
GS
1887Beginning with 5.6.0 the version number in the site libraries are
1888fully versioned. Now, suppose you install version 5.6.0. The directories
1889searched by version 5.6.0 will be
d6baa268 1890
0a08c020
GS
1891 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.6.0/$archname
1892 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.6.0
1893 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0/$archname
1894 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0
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1895
1896 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/$archname
1897 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
c42e3e15 1898 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
bfb7748a 1899
c42e3e15 1900Notice the last three entries -- Perl understands the default structure
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1901of the $sitelib directories and will look back in older, compatible
1902directories. This way, modules installed under 5.005_03 will continue
0a08c020 1903to be usable by 5.005_03 but will also accessible to 5.6.0. Further,
d6baa268 1904suppose that you upgrade a module to one which requires features
0a08c020
GS
1905present only in 5.6.0. That new module will get installed into
1906/usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0 and will be available to 5.6.0,
d6baa268 1907but will not interfere with the 5.005_03 version.
bfb7748a 1908
c42e3e15
GS
1909The last entry, /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/, is there so that
19105.6.0 will look for 5.004-era pure perl modules.
d6baa268 1911
0a08c020
GS
1912Lastly, suppose you now install version 5.6.1, which we'll assume is
1913binary compatible with 5.6.0 and 5.005. The directories searched
1914by 5.6.1 (if you don't change the Configure defaults) will be:
d6baa268 1915
265f5c4a
GS
1916 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.6.1/$archname
1917 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.6.1
0a08c020
GS
1918 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.1/$archname
1919 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.1
1920
1921 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0/$archname
1922 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.6.0
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1923
1924 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/$archname
1925 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
1926 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
bfb7748a 1927
0a08c020
GS
1928Assuming the users in your site are still actively using perl 5.6.0 and
19295.005 after you installed 5.6.1, you can continue to install add-on
1930extensions using any of perl 5.6.1, 5.6.0, or 5.005. The installations
1931of these different versions remain distinct, but remember that the newer
1932versions of perl are automatically set up to search the site libraries of
1933the older ones. This means that installing a new extension with 5.005
1934will make it visible to all three versions. Later, if you install the
1935same extension using, say, perl 5.6.1, it will override the 5.005-installed
1936version, but only for perl 5.6.1.
1937
1938This way, you can choose to share compatible extensions, but also upgrade
1939to a newer version of an extension that may be incompatible with earlier
1940versions, without breaking the earlier versions' installations.
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1941
1942=head2 Maintaining completely separate versions
4633a7c4 1943
1ec51d55 1944Many users prefer to keep all versions of perl in completely
d6baa268 1945separate directories. This guarantees that an update to one version
0a08c020
GS
1946won't interfere with another version. (The defaults guarantee this for
1947libraries after 5.6.0, but not for executables. TODO?) One convenient
1948way to do this is by using a separate prefix for each version, such as
d52d4e46 1949
46bb10fb 1950 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl5.004
d52d4e46 1951
46bb10fb 1952and adding /opt/perl5.004/bin to the shell PATH variable. Such users
d52d4e46
PP
1953may also wish to add a symbolic link /usr/local/bin/perl so that
1954scripts can still start with #!/usr/local/bin/perl.
1955
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1956Others might share a common directory for maintenance sub-versions
1957(e.g. 5.004 for all 5.004_0x versions), but change directory with
1958each major version.
1959
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1960If you are installing a development subversion, you probably ought to
1961seriously consider using a separate directory, since development
1962subversions may not have all the compatibility wrinkles ironed out
1963yet.
1964
0a08c020 1965=head2 Upgrading from 5.005 to 5.6.0
693762b4 1966
c42e3e15
GS
1967Most extensions built and installed with versions of perl
1968prior to 5.005_50 will not need to be recompiled to be used with
19695.6.0. If you find you do need to rebuild an extension with 5.6.0,
1970you may safely do so without disturbing the 5.005 installation.
1971(See L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> above.)
1972
1973See your installed copy of the perllocal.pod file for a (possibly
1974incomplete) list of locally installed modules. Note that you want
1975perllocal.pod not perllocale.pod for installed module information.
693762b4 1976
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1977=head1 Coexistence with perl4
1978
1979You can safely install perl5 even if you want to keep perl4 around.
1980
1ec51d55
CS
1981By default, the perl5 libraries go into /usr/local/lib/perl5/, so
1982they don't override the perl4 libraries in /usr/local/lib/perl/.
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1983
1984In your /usr/local/bin directory, you should have a binary named
1ec51d55 1985perl4.036. That will not be touched by the perl5 installation
8e07c86e
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1986process. Most perl4 scripts should run just fine under perl5.
1987However, if you have any scripts that require perl4, you can replace
d6baa268
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1988the #! line at the top of them by #!/usr/local/bin/perl4.036 (or
1989whatever the appropriate pathname is). See pod/perltrap.pod for
1990possible problems running perl4 scripts under perl5.
8e07c86e 1991
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1992=head1 cd /usr/include; h2ph *.h sys/*.h
1993
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1994Some perl scripts need to be able to obtain information from the
1995system header files. This command will convert the most commonly used
1ec51d55 1996header files in /usr/include into files that can be easily interpreted
d6baa268
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1997by perl. These files will be placed in the architecture-dependent
1998library ($archlib) directory you specified to Configure.
aa689395 1999
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2000Note: Due to differences in the C and perl languages, the conversion
2001of the header files is not perfect. You will probably have to
2002hand-edit some of the converted files to get them to parse correctly.
2003For example, h2ph breaks spectacularly on type casting and certain
2004structures.
aa689395 2005
fb73857a 2006=head1 installhtml --help
aa689395 2007
3e3baf6d
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2008Some sites may wish to make perl documentation available in HTML
2009format. The installhtml utility can be used to convert pod
fb73857a 2010documentation into linked HTML files and install them.
aa689395 2011
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2012Currently, the supplied ./installhtml script does not make use of the
2013html Configure variables. This should be fixed in a future release.
2014
fb73857a 2015The following command-line is an example of one used to convert
3e3baf6d 2016perl documentation:
aa689395 2017
3e3baf6d
TB
2018 ./installhtml \
2019 --podroot=. \
2020 --podpath=lib:ext:pod:vms \
2021 --recurse \
2022 --htmldir=/perl/nmanual \
2023 --htmlroot=/perl/nmanual \
2024 --splithead=pod/perlipc \
2025 --splititem=pod/perlfunc \
2026 --libpods=perlfunc:perlguts:perlvar:perlrun:perlop \
2027 --verbose
2028
2029See the documentation in installhtml for more details. It can take
2030many minutes to execute a large installation and you should expect to
2031see warnings like "no title", "unexpected directive" and "cannot
2032resolve" as the files are processed. We are aware of these problems
2033(and would welcome patches for them).
aa689395 2034
fb73857a
PP
2035You may find it helpful to run installhtml twice. That should reduce
2036the number of "cannot resolve" warnings.
2037
aa689395
PP
2038=head1 cd pod && make tex && (process the latex files)
2039
2040Some sites may also wish to make the documentation in the pod/ directory
2041available in TeX format. Type
2042
2043 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
2044
2045=head1 Reporting Problems
2046
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2047If you have difficulty building perl, and none of the advice in this file
2048helps, and careful reading of the error message and the relevant manual
2049pages on your system doesn't help either, then you should send a message
7f2de2d2 2050to either the comp.lang.perl.misc newsgroup or to perlbug@perl.org with
bfb7748a 2051an accurate description of your problem.
aa689395 2052
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2053Please include the output of the ./myconfig shell script that comes with
2054the distribution. Alternatively, you can use the perlbug program that
2055comes with the perl distribution, but you need to have perl compiled
2056before you can use it. (If you have not installed it yet, you need to
f5b3b617 2057run C<./perl -Ilib utils/perlbug> instead of a plain C<perlbug>.)
aa689395 2058
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2059Please try to make your message brief but clear. Trim out unnecessary
2060information. Do not include large files (such as config.sh or a complete
2061Configure or make log) unless absolutely necessary. Do not include a
2062complete transcript of your build session. Just include the failing
d6baa268 2063commands, the relevant error messages, and whatever preceding commands
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2064are necessary to give the appropriate context. Plain text should
2065usually be sufficient--fancy attachments or encodings may actually
2066reduce the number of people who read your message. Your message
2067will get relayed to over 400 subscribers around the world so please
2068try to keep it brief but clear.
aa689395 2069
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2070=head1 DOCUMENTATION
2071
bfb7748a
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2072Read the manual entries before running perl. The main documentation
2073is in the pod/ subdirectory and should have been installed during the
8e07c86e 2074build process. Type B<man perl> to get started. Alternatively, you
bfb7748a
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2075can type B<perldoc perl> to use the supplied perldoc script. This is
2076sometimes useful for finding things in the library modules.
8e07c86e 2077
1ec51d55 2078Under UNIX, you can produce a documentation book in postscript form,
bfb7748a
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2079along with its table of contents, by going to the pod/ subdirectory and
2080running (either):
34a2a22e
RM
2081
2082 ./roffitall -groff # If you have GNU groff installed
aa689395 2083 ./roffitall -psroff # If you have psroff
34a2a22e
RM
2084
2085This will leave you with two postscript files ready to be printed.
aa689395
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2086(You may need to fix the roffitall command to use your local troff
2087set-up.)
34a2a22e 2088
bfb7748a
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2089Note that you must have performed the installation already before running
2090the above, since the script collects the installed files to generate
2091the documentation.
34a2a22e 2092
8e07c86e
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2093=head1 AUTHOR
2094
bfb7748a
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2095Original author: Andy Dougherty doughera@lafayette.edu , borrowing very
2096heavily from the original README by Larry Wall, with lots of helpful
2097feedback and additions from the perl5-porters@perl.org folks.
fb73857a 2098
f5b3b617
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2099If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
2100L<"Reporting Problems"> above.
2101
2102=head1 REDISTRIBUTION
2103
2104This document is part of the Perl package and may be distributed under
d6baa268 2105the same terms as perl itself, with the following additional request:
f5b3b617 2106If you are distributing a modified version of perl (perhaps as part of
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2107a larger package) please B<do> modify these installation instructions
2108and the contact information to match your distribution.
8e07c86e 2109
a5f75d66 2110=head1 LAST MODIFIED
24b3df7f 2111
d6baa268 2112$Id: INSTALL,v 1.58 1999/07/23 14:43:00 doughera Exp $