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PerlIO on EBCDIC on BS2000 advice from Thomas Dorner.
[perl5.git] / README.bs2000
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c2e66d9e 1This document is written in pod format hence there are punctuation
d1be9408 2characters in odd places. Do not worry, you've apparently got the
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3ASCII->EBCDIC translation worked out correctly. You can read more
4about pod in pod/perlpod.pod or the short summary in the INSTALL file.
5
6=head1 NAME
7
453189b6 8README.BS2000 - building and installing Perl for BS2000.
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9
10=head1 SYNOPSIS
11
12This document will help you Configure, build, test and install Perl
13on BS2000 in the POSIX subsystem.
14
15=head1 DESCRIPTION
16
17This is a ported perl for the POSIX subsystem in BS2000 VERSION OSD
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18V3.1A or later. It may work on other versions, but we started porting
19and testing it with 3.1A and are currently using Version V4.0A.
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20
21You may need the following GNU programs in order to install perl:
22
a83b6f46 23=head2 gzip on BS2000
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24
25We used version 1.2.4, which could be installed out of the box with
26one failure during 'make check'.
27
a83b6f46 28=head2 bison on BS2000
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29
30The yacc coming with BS2000 POSIX didn't work for us. So we had to
31use bison. We had to make a few changes to perl in order to use the
32pure (reentrant) parser of bison. We used version 1.25, but we had to
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33add a few changes due to EBCDIC. See below for more details
34concerning yacc.
a1a0e61e 35
a83b6f46 36=head2 Unpacking Perl Distribution on BS2000
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37
38To extract an ASCII tar archive on BS2000 POSIX you need an ASCII
39filesystem (we used the mountpoint /usr/local/ascii for this). Now
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40you extract the archive in the ASCII filesystem without
41I/O-conversion:
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42
43cd /usr/local/ascii
44export IO_CONVERSION=NO
45gunzip < /usr/local/src/perl.tar.gz | pax -r
46
47You may ignore the error message for the first element of the archive
48(this doesn't look like a tar archive / skipping to next file...),
c2e66d9e 49it's only the directory which will be created automatically anyway.
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50
51After extracting the archive you copy the whole directory tree to your
c2e66d9e 52EBCDIC filesystem. B<This time you use I/O-conversion>:
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53
54cd /usr/local/src
55IO_CONVERSION=YES
56cp -r /usr/local/ascii/perl5.005_02 ./
57
a83b6f46 58=head2 Compiling Perl on BS2000
a1a0e61e 59
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60There is a "hints" file for BS2000 called hints.posix-bc (because
61posix-bc is the OS name given by `uname`) that specifies the correct
62values for most things. The major problem is (of course) the EBCDIC
63character set. We have german EBCDIC version.
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64
65Because of our problems with the native yacc we used GNU bison to
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66generate a pure (=reentrant) parser for perly.y. So our yacc is
67really the following script:
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69-----8<-----/usr/local/bin/yacc-----8<-----
70#! /usr/bin/sh
a1a0e61e 71
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72# Bison as a reentrant yacc:
73
74# save parameters:
75params=""
76while [[ $# -gt 1 ]]; do
77 params="$params $1"
78 shift
79done
80
81# add flag %pure_parser:
82
83tmpfile=/tmp/bison.$$.y
84echo %pure_parser > $tmpfile
85cat $1 >> $tmpfile
86
87# call bison:
88
89echo "/usr/local/bin/bison --yacc $params $1\t\t\t(Pure Parser)"
90/usr/local/bin/bison --yacc $params $tmpfile
91
92# cleanup:
93
94rm -f $tmpfile
95-----8<----------8<-----
96
97We still use the normal yacc for a2p.y though!!! We made a softlink
98called byacc to distinguish between the two versions:
99
100ln -s /usr/bin/yacc /usr/local/bin/byacc
a1a0e61e 101
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102We build perl using GNU make. We tried the native make once and it
103worked too.
a1a0e61e 104
a83b6f46 105=head2 Testing Perl on BS2000
a1a0e61e 106
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107We still got a few errors during C<make test>. Some of them are the
108result of using bison. Bison prints I<parser error> instead of I<syntax
109error>, so we may ignore them. The following list shows
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110our errors, your results may differ:
111
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112op/numconvert.......FAILED tests 1409-1440
113op/regexp...........FAILED tests 483, 496
114op/regexp_noamp.....FAILED tests 483, 496
a1a0e61e 115pragma/overload.....FAILED tests 152-153, 170-171
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116pragma/warnings.....FAILED tests 14, 82, 129, 155, 192, 205, 207
117lib/bigfloat........FAILED tests 351-352, 355
118lib/bigfltpm........FAILED tests 354-355, 358
119lib/complex.........FAILED tests 267, 487
120lib/dumper..........FAILED tests 43, 45
121Failed 11/231 test scripts, 95.24% okay. 57/10595 subtests failed, 99.46% okay.
a1a0e61e 122
a83b6f46 123=head2 Installing Perl on BS2000
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124
125We have no nroff on BS2000 POSIX (yet), so we ignored any errors while
126installing the documentation.
127
128
a83b6f46 129=head2 Using Perl in the Posix-Shell of BS2000
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130
131BS2000 POSIX doesn't support the shebang notation
c2e66d9e 132(C<#!/usr/local/bin/perl>), so you have to use the following lines
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133instead:
134
135: # use perl
136 eval 'exec /usr/local/bin/perl -S $0 ${1+"$@"}'
137 if $running_under_some_shell;
c2e66d9e 138
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139=head2 Using Perl in "native" BS2000
140
141We don't have much experience with this yet, but try the following:
142
143Copy your Perl executable to a BS2000 LLM using bs2cp:
144
145C<bs2cp /usr/local/bin/perl 'bs2:perl(perl,l)'>
146
147Now you can start it with the following (SDF) command:
148
149C</START-PROG FROM-FILE=*MODULE(PERL,PERL),PROG-MODE=*ANY,RUN-MODE=*ADV>
150
151First you get the BS2000 commandline prompt ('*'). Here you may enter
152your parameters, e.g. C<-e 'print "Hello World!\\n";'> (note the
153double backslash!) or C<-w> and the name of your Perl script.
d1be9408 154Filenames starting with C</> are searched in the Posix filesystem,
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155others are searched in the BS2000 filesystem. You may even use
156wildcards if you put a C<%> in front of your filename (e.g. C<-w
157checkfiles.pl %*.c>). Read your C/C++ manual for additional
158possibilities of the commandline prompt (look for
159PARAMETER-PROMPTING).
160
a83b6f46 161=head2 Floating point anomalies on BS2000
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162
163There appears to be a bug in the floating point implementation on BS2000 POSIX
164systems such that calling int() on the product of a number and a small
165magnitude number is not the same as calling int() on the quotient of
166that number and a large magnitude number. For example, in the following
167Perl code:
168
169 my $x = 100000.0;
170 my $y = int($x * 1e-5) * 1e5; # '0'
171 my $z = int($x / 1e+5) * 1e5; # '100000'
172 print "\$y is $y and \$z is $z\n"; # $y is 0 and $z is 100000
173
174Although one would expect the quantities $y and $z to be the same and equal
175to 100000 they will differ and instead will be 0 and 100000 respectively.
176
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177=head2 Using PerlIO and different encodings on ASCII and EBCDIC partitions
178
179Since version 5.8 Perl uses the new PerlIO on BS2000. This enables
180you using different encodings per IO channel. For example you may use
181
182 use Encode;
183 open($f, ">:encoding(ascii)", "test.ascii");
184 print $f "Hello World!\n";
185 open($f, ">:encoding(posix-bc)", "test.ebcdic");
186 print $f "Hello World!\n";
187 open($f, ">:encoding(latin1)", "test.latin1");
188 print $f "Hello World!\n";
189 open($f, ">:encoding(utf8)", "test.utf8");
190 print $f "Hello World!\n";
191
192to get two files containing "Hello World!\n" in ASCII, EBCDIC, ISO
193Latin-1 (in this example identical to ASCII) respective UTF-EBCDIC (in
194this example identical to normal EBCDIC). See the documentation of
195Encode::PerlIO for details.
196
197As the PerlIO layer uses raw IO internally, all this totally ignores
198the type of your filesystem (ASCII or EBCDIC) and the IO_CONVERSION
199environment variable. If you want to get the old behavior, that the
200BS2000 IO functions determine conversion depending on the filesystem
201PerlIO still is your friend. You use IO_CONVERSION as usual and tell
202Perl, that it should use the native IO layer:
203
204 export IO_CONVERSION=YES
205 export PERLIO=stdio
206
207Now your IO would be ASCII on ASCII partitions and EBCDIC on EBCDIC
208partitions. See the documentation of PerlIO (without C<Encode::>!)
209for further posibilities.
210
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211=head1 AUTHORS
212
213Thomas Dorner
214
215=head1 SEE ALSO
216
217L<INSTALL>, L<perlport>.
218
219=head2 Mailing list
220
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221If you are interested in the VM/ESA, z/OS (formerly known as OS/390)
222and POSIX-BC (BS2000) ports of Perl then see the perl-mvs mailing list.
223To subscribe, send an empty message to perl-mvs-subscribe@perl.org.
c2e66d9e 224
3f66d419 225See also:
c2e66d9e 226
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227 http://lists.perl.org/showlist.cgi?name=perl-mvs
228
229There are web archives of the mailing list at:
230
231 http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/
232 http://archive.develooper.com/perl-mvs@perl.org/
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233
234=head1 HISTORY
235
236This document was originally written by Thomas Dorner for the 5.005
237release of Perl.
238
239This document was podified for the 5.6 release of perl 11 July 2000.
240
241=cut