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a0d0e21e 1/* op.h
79072805 2 *
bc89e66f 3 * Copyright (c) 1991-2001, Larry Wall
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4 *
5 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
6 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
7 *
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8 */
9
10/*
11 * The fields of BASEOP are:
12 * op_next Pointer to next ppcode to execute after this one.
13 * (Top level pre-grafted op points to first op,
14 * but this is replaced when op is grafted in, when
15 * this op will point to the real next op, and the new
16 * parent takes over role of remembering starting op.)
17 * op_ppaddr Pointer to current ppcode's function.
18 * op_type The type of the operation.
19 * op_flags Flags common to all operations. See OPf_* below.
20 * op_private Flags peculiar to a particular operation (BUT,
21 * by default, set to the number of children until
22 * the operation is privatized by a check routine,
23 * which may or may not check number of children).
24 */
25
4633a7c4 26typedef U32 PADOFFSET;
11343788 27#define NOT_IN_PAD ((PADOFFSET) -1)
79072805 28
4633a7c4 29#ifdef DEBUGGING_OPS
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30#define OPCODE opcode
31#else
32#define OPCODE U16
33#endif
34
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DL
35#ifdef BASEOP_DEFINITION
36#define BASEOP BASEOP_DEFINITION
37#else
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38#define BASEOP \
39 OP* op_next; \
40 OP* op_sibling; \
4f63d024 41 OP* (CPERLscope(*op_ppaddr))(pTHX); \
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42 PADOFFSET op_targ; \
43 OPCODE op_type; \
44 U16 op_seq; \
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45 U8 op_flags; \
46 U8 op_private;
0f4eea8f 47#endif
79072805 48
54310121
PP
49#define OP_GIMME(op,dfl) \
50 (((op)->op_flags & OPf_WANT) == OPf_WANT_VOID ? G_VOID : \
51 ((op)->op_flags & OPf_WANT) == OPf_WANT_SCALAR ? G_SCALAR : \
52 ((op)->op_flags & OPf_WANT) == OPf_WANT_LIST ? G_ARRAY : \
53 dfl)
54
954c1994
GS
55/*
56=for apidoc Amn|U32|GIMME_V
57The XSUB-writer's equivalent to Perl's C<wantarray>. Returns C<G_VOID>,
91e74348 58C<G_SCALAR> or C<G_ARRAY> for void, scalar or list context,
954c1994
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59respectively.
60
61=for apidoc Amn|U32|GIMME
62A backward-compatible version of C<GIMME_V> which can only return
63C<G_SCALAR> or C<G_ARRAY>; in a void context, it returns C<G_SCALAR>.
64Deprecated. Use C<GIMME_V> instead.
65
66=cut
67*/
68
533c011a 69#define GIMME_V OP_GIMME(PL_op, block_gimme())
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70
71/* Public flags */
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72
73#define OPf_WANT 3 /* Mask for "want" bits: */
74#define OPf_WANT_VOID 1 /* Want nothing */
75#define OPf_WANT_SCALAR 2 /* Want single value */
76#define OPf_WANT_LIST 3 /* Want list of any length */
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77#define OPf_KIDS 4 /* There is a firstborn child. */
78#define OPf_PARENS 8 /* This operator was parenthesized. */
463ee0b2 79 /* (Or block needs explicit scope entry.) */
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80#define OPf_REF 16 /* Certified reference. */
81 /* (Return container, not containee). */
82#define OPf_MOD 32 /* Will modify (lvalue). */
83#define OPf_STACKED 64 /* Some arg is arriving on the stack. */
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84#define OPf_SPECIAL 128 /* Do something weird for this op: */
85 /* On local LVAL, don't init local value. */
86 /* On OP_SORT, subroutine is inlined. */
87 /* On OP_NOT, inversion was implicit. */
a0d0e21e 88 /* On OP_LEAVE, don't restore curpm. */
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89 /* On truncate, we truncate filehandle */
90 /* On control verbs, we saw no label */
91 /* On flipflop, we saw ... instead of .. */
92 /* On UNOPs, saw bare parens, e.g. eof(). */
a0d0e21e 93 /* On OP_ENTERSUB || OP_NULL, saw a "do". */
afebc493 94 /* On OP_EXISTS, treat av as av, not avhv. */
f2ec2afd 95 /* On OP_(ENTER|LEAVE)EVAL, don't clear $@ */
54b9620d 96 /* On OP_ENTERITER, loop var is per-thread */
497711e7
GS
97 /* On pushre, re is /\s+/ imp. by split " " */
98 /* On regcomp, "use re 'eval'" was in scope */
79072805 99
54310121 100/* old names; don't use in new code, but don't break them, either */
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101#define OPf_LIST OPf_WANT_LIST
102#define OPf_KNOW OPf_WANT
954c1994 103
54310121 104#define GIMME \
62a559b8
NIS
105 (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_WANT \
106 ? ((PL_op->op_flags & OPf_WANT) == OPf_WANT_LIST \
d91ab173
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107 ? G_ARRAY \
108 : G_SCALAR) \
109 : dowantarray())
54310121 110
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111/* NOTE: OP_NEXTSTATE, OP_DBSTATE, and OP_SETSTATE (i.e. COPs) carry lower
112 * bits of PL_hints in op_private */
113
a0d0e21e 114/* Private for lvalues */
cd06dffe 115#define OPpLVAL_INTRO 128 /* Lvalue must be localized or lvalue sub */
a0d0e21e 116
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117/* Private for OP_LEAVE, OP_LEAVESUB, OP_LEAVESUBLV and OP_LEAVEWRITE */
118#define OPpREFCOUNTED 64 /* op_targ carries a refcount */
119
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120/* Private for OP_AASSIGN */
121#define OPpASSIGN_COMMON 64 /* Left & right have syms in common. */
10c8fecd 122#define OPpASSIGN_HASH 32 /* Assigning to possible pseudohash. */
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123
124/* Private for OP_SASSIGN */
125#define OPpASSIGN_BACKWARDS 64 /* Left & right switched. */
79072805 126
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127/* Private for OP_MATCH and OP_SUBST{,CONST} */
128#define OPpRUNTIME 64 /* Pattern coming in on the stack */
129
79072805 130/* Private for OP_TRANS */
4757a243
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131#define OPpTRANS_FROM_UTF 1
132#define OPpTRANS_TO_UTF 2
383e7cdd 133#define OPpTRANS_IDENTICAL 4 /* right side is same as left */
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134#define OPpTRANS_SQUASH 8
135#define OPpTRANS_DELETE 16
136#define OPpTRANS_COMPLEMENT 32
137#define OPpTRANS_GROWS 64
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138
139/* Private for OP_REPEAT */
a0d0e21e 140#define OPpREPEAT_DOLIST 64 /* List replication. */
79072805 141
d3011074 142/* Private for OP_RV2?V, OP_?ELEM */
5f05dabc
PP
143#define OPpDEREF (32|64) /* Want ref to something: */
144#define OPpDEREF_AV 32 /* Want ref to AV. */
145#define OPpDEREF_HV 64 /* Want ref to HV. */
146#define OPpDEREF_SV (32|64) /* Want ref to SV. */
68dc0745
PP
147 /* OP_ENTERSUB only */
148#define OPpENTERSUB_DB 16 /* Debug subroutine. */
d3011074 149#define OPpENTERSUB_HASTARG 32 /* Called from OP tree. */
7a52d87a 150 /* OP_RV2CV only */
68dc0745 151#define OPpENTERSUB_AMPER 8 /* Used & form to call. */
9675f7ac 152#define OPpENTERSUB_NOPAREN 128 /* bare sub call (without parens) */
cd06dffe 153#define OPpENTERSUB_INARGS 4 /* Lval used as arg to a sub. */
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154 /* OP_GV only */
155#define OPpEARLY_CV 32 /* foo() called before sub foo was parsed */
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156 /* OP_?ELEM only */
157#define OPpLVAL_DEFER 16 /* Defer creation of array/hash elem */
64aac5a9 158 /* OP_RV2?V, OP_GVSV only */
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159#define OPpOUR_INTRO 16 /* Variable was in an our() */
160 /* OP_RV2[AH]V, OP_PAD[AH]V, OP_[AH]ELEM */
161#define OPpMAYBE_LVSUB 8 /* We might be an lvalue to return */
192587c2 162 /* for OP_RV2?V, lower bits carry hints (currently only HINT_STRICT_REFS) */
79072805 163
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164/* Private for OPs with TARGLEX */
165 /* (lower bits may carry MAXARG) */
166#define OPpTARGET_MY 16 /* Target is PADMY. */
167
79072805 168/* Private for OP_CONST */
a27978d3 169#define OPpCONST_OCTAL 4 /* Octal constant. */
7a52d87a 170#define OPpCONST_STRICT 8 /* bearword subject to strict 'subs' */
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171#define OPpCONST_ENTERED 16 /* Has been entered as symbol. */
172#define OPpCONST_ARYBASE 32 /* Was a $[ translated to constant. */
a0d0e21e 173#define OPpCONST_BARE 64 /* Was a bare word (filehandle?). */
599cee73 174#define OPpCONST_WARNING 128 /* Was a $^W translated to constant. */
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175
176/* Private for OP_FLIP/FLOP */
a0d0e21e 177#define OPpFLIP_LINENUM 64 /* Range arg potentially a line num. */
79072805 178
ed6116ce 179/* Private for OP_LIST */
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180#define OPpLIST_GUESSED 64 /* Guessed that pushmark was needed. */
181
5f05dabc 182/* Private for OP_DELETE */
54310121 183#define OPpSLICE 64 /* Operating on a list of keys */
5f05dabc 184
afebc493
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185/* Private for OP_EXISTS */
186#define OPpEXISTS_SUB 64 /* Checking for &sub, not {} or []. */
187
9c007264
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188/* Private for OP_SORT */
189#define OPpSORT_NUMERIC 1 /* Optimized away { $a <=> $b } */
190#define OPpSORT_INTEGER 2 /* Ditto while under "use integer" */
191#define OPpSORT_REVERSE 4 /* Descending sort */
224a4551
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192/* Private for OP_THREADSV */
193#define OPpDONE_SVREF 64 /* Been through newSVREF once */
554b3eca 194
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195/* Private for OP_OPEN and OP_BACKTICK */
196#define OPpOPEN_IN_RAW 16 /* binmode(F,":raw") on input fh */
197#define OPpOPEN_IN_CRLF 32 /* binmode(F,":crlf") on input fh */
198#define OPpOPEN_OUT_RAW 64 /* binmode(F,":raw") on output fh */
199#define OPpOPEN_OUT_CRLF 128 /* binmode(F,":crlf") on output fh */
200
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201/* Private for OP_EXIT */
202#define OPpEXIT_VMSISH 128 /* exit(0) vs. exit(1) vmsish mode*/
203
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204struct op {
205 BASEOP
206};
207
208struct unop {
209 BASEOP
210 OP * op_first;
211};
212
213struct binop {
214 BASEOP
215 OP * op_first;
216 OP * op_last;
217};
218
219struct logop {
220 BASEOP
221 OP * op_first;
222 OP * op_other;
223};
224
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225struct listop {
226 BASEOP
227 OP * op_first;
228 OP * op_last;
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229};
230
231struct pmop {
232 BASEOP
233 OP * op_first;
234 OP * op_last;
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235 OP * op_pmreplroot;
236 OP * op_pmreplstart;
237 PMOP * op_pmnext; /* list of all scanpats */
238 REGEXP * op_pmregexp; /* compiled expression */
a0d0e21e 239 U16 op_pmflags;
4633a7c4 240 U16 op_pmpermflags;
48c036b1 241 U8 op_pmdynflags;
cb55de95
JH
242#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
243 char * op_pmstashpv;
244#else
245 HV * op_pmstash;
246#endif
79072805 247};
a0d0e21e 248
b9ed2502
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249#define PM_GETRE(o) ((o)->op_pmregexp)
250#define PM_SETRE(o,r) ((o)->op_pmregexp = (r))
4825b64b 251
48c036b1 252#define PMdf_USED 0x01 /* pm has been used once already */
b3eb6a9b 253#define PMdf_TAINTED 0x02 /* pm compiled from tainted pattern */
7e2040f0 254#define PMdf_UTF8 0x04 /* pm compiled from utf8 data */
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255#define PMdf_DYN_UTF8 0x08
256
257#define PMdf_CMP_UTF8 (PMdf_UTF8|PMdf_DYN_UTF8)
48c036b1 258
b3eb6a9b 259#define PMf_RETAINT 0x0001 /* taint $1 etc. if target tainted */
a0d0e21e 260#define PMf_ONCE 0x0002 /* use pattern only once per reset */
c277df42 261#define PMf_REVERSED 0x0004 /* Should be matched right->left */
ce862d02 262#define PMf_MAYBE_CONST 0x0008 /* replacement contains variables */
a0d0e21e 263#define PMf_SKIPWHITE 0x0010 /* skip leading whitespace for split */
8782bef2 264#define PMf_WHITE 0x0020 /* pattern is \s+ */
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265#define PMf_CONST 0x0040 /* subst replacement is constant */
266#define PMf_KEEP 0x0080 /* keep 1st runtime pattern forever */
267#define PMf_GLOBAL 0x0100 /* pattern had a g modifier */
c90c0ff4 268#define PMf_CONTINUE 0x0200 /* don't reset pos() if //g fails */
a0d0e21e 269#define PMf_EVAL 0x0400 /* evaluating replacement as expr */
8782bef2 270#define PMf_LOCALE 0x0800 /* use locale for character types */
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271#define PMf_MULTILINE 0x1000 /* assume multiple lines */
272#define PMf_SINGLELINE 0x2000 /* assume single line */
8782bef2 273#define PMf_FOLD 0x4000 /* case insensitivity */
a0d0e21e 274#define PMf_EXTENDED 0x8000 /* chuck embedded whitespace */
79072805 275
8782bef2
GB
276/* mask of bits stored in regexp->reganch */
277#define PMf_COMPILETIME (PMf_MULTILINE|PMf_SINGLELINE|PMf_LOCALE|PMf_FOLD|PMf_EXTENDED)
278
cb55de95
JH
279#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
280# define PmopSTASHPV(o) ((o)->op_pmstashpv)
60dadb69 281# define PmopSTASHPV_set(o,pv) ((o)->op_pmstashpv = ((pv) ? savepv(pv) : Nullch))
cb55de95
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282# define PmopSTASH(o) (PmopSTASHPV(o) \
283 ? gv_stashpv(PmopSTASHPV(o),GV_ADD) : Nullhv)
284# define PmopSTASH_set(o,hv) PmopSTASHPV_set(o, (hv) ? HvNAME(hv) : Nullch)
285#else
286# define PmopSTASH(o) ((o)->op_pmstash)
287# define PmopSTASH_set(o,hv) ((o)->op_pmstash = (hv))
288# define PmopSTASHPV(o) (PmopSTASH(o) ? HvNAME(PmopSTASH(o)) : Nullch)
289 /* op_pmstash is not refcounted */
290# define PmopSTASHPV_set(o,pv) PmopSTASH_set((o), gv_stashpv(pv,GV_ADD))
291#endif
292
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293struct svop {
294 BASEOP
295 SV * op_sv;
296};
297
7934575e 298struct padop {
79072805 299 BASEOP
7934575e 300 PADOFFSET op_padix;
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301};
302
303struct pvop {
304 BASEOP
305 char * op_pv;
306};
307
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308struct loop {
309 BASEOP
310 OP * op_first;
311 OP * op_last;
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312 OP * op_redoop;
313 OP * op_nextop;
314 OP * op_lastop;
315};
316
350de78d
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317#define cUNOPx(o) ((UNOP*)o)
318#define cBINOPx(o) ((BINOP*)o)
319#define cLISTOPx(o) ((LISTOP*)o)
320#define cLOGOPx(o) ((LOGOP*)o)
321#define cPMOPx(o) ((PMOP*)o)
322#define cSVOPx(o) ((SVOP*)o)
323#define cPADOPx(o) ((PADOP*)o)
324#define cPVOPx(o) ((PVOP*)o)
325#define cCOPx(o) ((COP*)o)
326#define cLOOPx(o) ((LOOP*)o)
327
328#define cUNOP cUNOPx(PL_op)
329#define cBINOP cBINOPx(PL_op)
330#define cLISTOP cLISTOPx(PL_op)
331#define cLOGOP cLOGOPx(PL_op)
332#define cPMOP cPMOPx(PL_op)
333#define cSVOP cSVOPx(PL_op)
334#define cPADOP cPADOPx(PL_op)
335#define cPVOP cPVOPx(PL_op)
336#define cCOP cCOPx(PL_op)
337#define cLOOP cLOOPx(PL_op)
338
339#define cUNOPo cUNOPx(o)
340#define cBINOPo cBINOPx(o)
341#define cLISTOPo cLISTOPx(o)
342#define cLOGOPo cLOGOPx(o)
343#define cPMOPo cPMOPx(o)
344#define cSVOPo cSVOPx(o)
345#define cPADOPo cPADOPx(o)
346#define cPVOPo cPVOPx(o)
347#define cCOPo cCOPx(o)
348#define cLOOPo cLOOPx(o)
349
350#define kUNOP cUNOPx(kid)
351#define kBINOP cBINOPx(kid)
352#define kLISTOP cLISTOPx(kid)
353#define kLOGOP cLOGOPx(kid)
354#define kPMOP cPMOPx(kid)
355#define kSVOP cSVOPx(kid)
356#define kPADOP cPADOPx(kid)
357#define kPVOP cPVOPx(kid)
358#define kCOP cCOPx(kid)
359#define kLOOP cLOOPx(kid)
360
361
362#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
638eceb6 363# define cGVOPx_gv(o) ((GV*)PL_curpad[cPADOPx(o)->op_padix])
743e66e6 364# define IS_PADGV(v) (v && SvTYPE(v) == SVt_PVGV && GvIN_PAD(v))
7766f137
GS
365# define IS_PADCONST(v) (v && SvREADONLY(v))
366# define cSVOPx_sv(v) (cSVOPx(v)->op_sv \
367 ? cSVOPx(v)->op_sv : PL_curpad[(v)->op_targ])
638eceb6
GS
368# define cSVOPx_svp(v) (cSVOPx(v)->op_sv \
369 ? &cSVOPx(v)->op_sv : &PL_curpad[(v)->op_targ])
350de78d 370#else
638eceb6 371# define cGVOPx_gv(o) ((GV*)cSVOPx(o)->op_sv)
743e66e6 372# define IS_PADGV(v) FALSE
7766f137
GS
373# define IS_PADCONST(v) FALSE
374# define cSVOPx_sv(v) (cSVOPx(v)->op_sv)
638eceb6 375# define cSVOPx_svp(v) (&cSVOPx(v)->op_sv)
350de78d 376#endif
79072805 377
638eceb6
GS
378#define cGVOP_gv cGVOPx_gv(PL_op)
379#define cGVOPo_gv cGVOPx_gv(o)
380#define kGVOP_gv cGVOPx_gv(kid)
381#define cSVOP_sv cSVOPx_sv(PL_op)
382#define cSVOPo_sv cSVOPx_sv(o)
383#define kSVOP_sv cSVOPx_sv(kid)
7766f137 384
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385#define Nullop Null(OP*)
386
91135acb 387/* Lowest byte-and-a-bit of PL_opargs */
a0d0e21e
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388#define OA_MARK 1
389#define OA_FOLDCONST 2
390#define OA_RETSCALAR 4
391#define OA_TARGET 8
392#define OA_RETINTEGER 16
393#define OA_OTHERINT 32
394#define OA_DANGEROUS 64
395#define OA_DEFGV 128
b162f9ea 396#define OA_TARGLEX 256
a0d0e21e 397
db173bac 398/* The next 4 bits encode op class information */
b162f9ea
IZ
399#define OCSHIFT 9
400
401#define OA_CLASS_MASK (15 << OCSHIFT)
402
403#define OA_BASEOP (0 << OCSHIFT)
404#define OA_UNOP (1 << OCSHIFT)
405#define OA_BINOP (2 << OCSHIFT)
406#define OA_LOGOP (3 << OCSHIFT)
1a67a97c
SM
407#define OA_LISTOP (4 << OCSHIFT)
408#define OA_PMOP (5 << OCSHIFT)
409#define OA_SVOP (6 << OCSHIFT)
7934575e 410#define OA_PADOP (7 << OCSHIFT)
1a67a97c
SM
411#define OA_PVOP_OR_SVOP (8 << OCSHIFT)
412#define OA_LOOP (9 << OCSHIFT)
413#define OA_COP (10 << OCSHIFT)
414#define OA_BASEOP_OR_UNOP (11 << OCSHIFT)
415#define OA_FILESTATOP (12 << OCSHIFT)
416#define OA_LOOPEXOP (13 << OCSHIFT)
b162f9ea
IZ
417
418#define OASHIFT 13
a0d0e21e 419
4369b173 420/* Remaining nybbles of PL_opargs */
a0d0e21e
LW
421#define OA_SCALAR 1
422#define OA_LIST 2
423#define OA_AVREF 3
424#define OA_HVREF 4
425#define OA_CVREF 5
426#define OA_FILEREF 6
427#define OA_SCALARREF 7
428#define OA_OPTIONAL 8
429
534825c4
GS
430#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
431# define OP_REFCNT_INIT MUTEX_INIT(&PL_op_mutex)
432# define OP_REFCNT_LOCK MUTEX_LOCK(&PL_op_mutex)
433# define OP_REFCNT_UNLOCK MUTEX_UNLOCK(&PL_op_mutex)
434# define OP_REFCNT_TERM MUTEX_DESTROY(&PL_op_mutex)
534825c4
GS
435#else
436# define OP_REFCNT_INIT NOOP
437# define OP_REFCNT_LOCK NOOP
438# define OP_REFCNT_UNLOCK NOOP
439# define OP_REFCNT_TERM NOOP
534825c4 440#endif
e4783991 441
282f25c9
JH
442#define OpREFCNT_set(o,n) ((o)->op_targ = (n))
443#define OpREFCNT_inc(o) ((o) ? (++(o)->op_targ, (o)) : Nullop)
444#define OpREFCNT_dec(o) (--(o)->op_targ)
445
e4783991
GS
446/* flags used by Perl_load_module() */
447#define PERL_LOADMOD_DENY 0x1
448#define PERL_LOADMOD_NOIMPORT 0x2
449#define PERL_LOADMOD_IMPORT_OPS 0x4