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1
2=head1 NAME
3
4perltoc - perl documentation table of contents
5
6=head1 DESCRIPTION
7
8This page provides a brief table of contents for the rest of the Perl
28757baa 9documentation set. It is meant to be scanned quickly or grepped
402d0d99 10through to locate the proper section you're looking for.
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11
12=head1 BASIC DOCUMENTATION
13
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14=head2 perl - Practical Extraction and Report Language
15
16=item SYNOPSIS
17
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18=item DESCRIPTION
19
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20Many usability enhancements, Simplified grammar, Lexical scoping,
21Arbitrarily nested data structures, Modularity and reusability,
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22Object-oriented programming, Embeddable and Extensible, POSIX compliant,
23Package constructors and destructors, Multiple simultaneous DBM
24implementations, Subroutine definitions may now be autoloaded, Regular
25expression enhancements, Innumerable Unbundled Modules, Compilability
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26
27=item ENVIRONMENT
28
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29=item AUTHOR
30
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31=item FILES
32
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33=item SEE ALSO
34
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35=item DIAGNOSTICS
36
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37=item BUGS
38
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39=item NOTES
40
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41=head2 perlfaq - frequently asked questions about Perl ($Date: 1997/04/24
4222:46:06 $)
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43
44=item DESCRIPTION
45
46perlfaq: Structural overview of the FAQ, L<perlfaq1>: General Questions
47About Perl, L<perlfaq2>: Obtaining and Learning about Perl, L<perlfaq3>:
48Programming Tools, L<perlfaq4>: Data Manipulation, L<perlfaq5>: Files and
49Formats, L<perlfaq6>: Regexps, L<perlfaq7>: General Perl Language Issues,
50L<perlfaq8>: System Interaction, L<perlfaq9>: Networking
51
52=over
53
54=item Where to get this document
55
56=item How to contribute to this document
57
58=item What will happen if you mail your Perl programming problems to the
59authors
60
61=back
62
63=item Credits
64
65=item Author and Copyright Information
66
67=over
68
54310121 69=item Noncommercial Reproduction
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70
71=item Commercial Reproduction
72
73=item Disclaimer
74
75=back
76
77=item Changes
78
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7924/April/97, 23/April/97, 25/March/97, 18/March/97, 17/March/97 Version,
80Initial Release: 11/March/97
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82=head2 perlfaq1 - General Questions About Perl ($Revision: 1.12 $, $Date:
831997/04/24 22:43:34 $)
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84
85=item DESCRIPTION
86
87=over
88
89=item What is Perl?
90
91=item Who supports Perl? Who develops it? Why is it free?
92
93=item Which version of Perl should I use?
94
95=item What are perl4 and perl5?
96
97=item How stable is Perl?
98
99=item Is Perl difficult to learn?
100
101=item How does Perl compare with other languages like Java, Python, REXX,
102Scheme, or Tcl?
103
104=item Can I do [task] in Perl?
105
106=item When shouldn't I program in Perl?
107
108=item What's the difference between "perl" and "Perl"?
109
110=item Is it a Perl program or a Perl script?
111
112=item What is a JAPH?
113
114=item Where can I get a list of Larry Wall witticisms?
115
116=item How can I convince my sysadmin/supervisor/employees to use version
117(5/5.004/Perl instead of some other language)?
118
119=back
120
121=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
122
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123=head2 perlfaq2 - Obtaining and Learning about Perl ($Revision: 1.16 $,
124$Date: 1997/04/23 18:04:09 $)
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125
126=item DESCRIPTION
127
128=over
129
130=item What machines support Perl? Where do I get it?
131
132=item How can I get a binary version of Perl?
133
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134=item I don't have a C compiler on my system. How can I compile perl?
135
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136=item I copied the Perl binary from one machine to another, but scripts
137don't work.
138
139=item I grabbed the sources and tried to compile but gdbm/dynamic
140loading/malloc/linking/... failed. How do I make it work?
141
142=item What modules and extensions are available for Perl? What is CPAN?
143What does CPAN/src/... mean?
144
145=item Is there an ISO or ANSI certified version of Perl?
146
147=item Where can I get information on Perl?
148
149=item What are the Perl newsgroups on USENET? Where do I post questions?
150
151=item Where should I post source code?
152
153=item Perl Books
154
155=item Perl in Magazines
156
157=item Perl on the Net: FTP and WWW Access
158
159=item What mailing lists are there for perl?
160
161MacPerl, Perl5-Porters, NTPerl, Perl-Packrats
162
163=item Archives of comp.lang.perl.misc
164
165=item Perl Training
166
167=item Where can I buy a commercial version of Perl?
168
169=item Where do I send bug reports?
170
171=item What is perl.com? perl.org? The Perl Institute?
172
173=item How do I learn about object-oriented Perl programming?
174
175=back
176
177=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
178
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179=head2 perlfaq3 - Programming Tools ($Revision: 1.22 $, $Date: 1997/04/24
18022:43:42 $)
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181
182=item DESCRIPTION
183
184=over
185
186=item How do I do (anything)?
187
188=item How can I use Perl interactively?
189
190=item Is there a Perl shell?
191
192=item How do I debug my Perl programs?
193
194=item How do I profile my Perl programs?
195
196=item How do I cross-reference my Perl programs?
197
198=item Is there a pretty-printer (formatter) for Perl?
199
200=item Is there a ctags for Perl?
201
202=item Where can I get Perl macros for vi?
203
204=item Where can I get perl-mode for emacs?
205
206=item How can I use curses with Perl?
207
208=item How can I use X or Tk with Perl?
209
210=item How can I generate simple menus without using CGI or Tk?
211
212=item Can I dynamically load C routines into Perl?
213
214=item What is undump?
215
216=item How can I make my Perl program run faster?
217
218=item How can I make my Perl program take less memory?
219
220=item Is it unsafe to return a pointer to local data?
221
222=item How can I free an array or hash so my program shrinks?
223
224=item How can I make my CGI script more efficient?
225
226=item How can I hide the source for my Perl program?
227
54310121 228=item How can I compile my Perl program into byte code or C?
68dc0745 229
46fc3d4c 230=item How can I get '#!perl' to work on [MS-DOS,NT,...]?
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231
232=item Can I write useful perl programs on the command line?
233
46fc3d4c 234=item Why don't perl one-liners work on my DOS/Mac/VMS system?
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235
236=item Where can I learn about CGI or Web programming in Perl?
237
238=item Where can I learn about object-oriented Perl programming?
239
240=item Where can I learn about linking C with Perl? [h2xs, xsubpp]
241
242=item I've read perlembed, perlguts, etc., but I can't embed perl in
243my C program, what am I doing wrong?
244
245=item When I tried to run my script, I got this message. What does it
246mean?
247
248=item What's MakeMaker?
249
250=back
251
252=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
253
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254=head2 perlfaq4 - Data Manipulation ($Revision: 1.19 $, $Date: 1997/04/24
25522:43:57 $)
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256
257=item DESCRIPTION
258
259=item Data: Numbers
260
261=over
262
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263=item Why am I getting long decimals (eg, 19.9499999999999) instead of the
264numbers I should be getting (eg, 19.95)?
265
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266=item Why isn't my octal data interpreted correctly?
267
268=item Does perl have a round function? What about ceil() and floor()?
269Trig functions?
270
271=item How do I convert bits into ints?
272
273=item How do I multiply matrices?
274
275=item How do I perform an operation on a series of integers?
276
277=item How can I output Roman numerals?
278
279=item Why aren't my random numbers random?
280
281=back
282
283=item Data: Dates
284
285=over
286
287=item How do I find the week-of-the-year/day-of-the-year?
288
289=item How can I compare two date strings?
290
291=item How can I take a string and turn it into epoch seconds?
292
293=item How can I find the Julian Day?
294
295=item Does Perl have a year 2000 problem?
296
297=back
298
299=item Data: Strings
300
301=over
302
303=item How do I validate input?
304
305=item How do I unescape a string?
306
307=item How do I remove consecutive pairs of characters?
308
309=item How do I expand function calls in a string?
310
311=item How do I find matching/nesting anything?
312
313=item How do I reverse a string?
314
315=item How do I expand tabs in a string?
316
317=item How do I reformat a paragraph?
318
319=item How can I access/change the first N letters of a string?
320
321=item How do I change the Nth occurrence of something?
322
323=item How can I count the number of occurrences of a substring within a
324string?
325
326=item How do I capitalize all the words on one line?
327
328=item How can I split a [character] delimited string except when inside
329[character]? (Comma-separated files)
330
331=item How do I strip blank space from the beginning/end of a string?
332
333=item How do I extract selected columns from a string?
334
335=item How do I find the soundex value of a string?
336
337=item How can I expand variables in text strings?
338
339=item What's wrong with always quoting "$vars"?
340
341=item Why don't my <<HERE documents work?
342
3431. There must be no space after the << part, 2. There (probably) should be
344a semicolon at the end, 3. You can't (easily) have any space in front of
345the tag
346
347=back
348
349=item Data: Arrays
350
351=over
352
353=item What is the difference between $array[1] and @array[1]?
354
355=item How can I extract just the unique elements of an array?
356
357a) If @in is sorted, and you want @out to be sorted:, b) If you don't know
358whether @in is sorted:, c) Like (b), but @in contains only small integers:,
359d) A way to do (b) without any loops or greps:, e) Like (d), but @in
360contains only small positive integers:
361
362=item How can I tell whether an array contains a certain element?
363
364=item How do I compute the difference of two arrays? How do I compute the
365intersection of two arrays?
366
367=item How do I find the first array element for which a condition is true?
368
369=item How do I handle linked lists?
370
371=item How do I handle circular lists?
372
373=item How do I shuffle an array randomly?
374
375=item How do I process/modify each element of an array?
376
377=item How do I select a random element from an array?
378
379=item How do I permute N elements of a list?
380
381=item How do I sort an array by (anything)?
382
383=item How do I manipulate arrays of bits?
384
385=item Why does defined() return true on empty arrays and hashes?
386
387=back
388
389=item Data: Hashes (Associative Arrays)
390
391=over
392
393=item How do I process an entire hash?
394
395=item What happens if I add or remove keys from a hash while iterating over
396it?
397
398=item How do I look up a hash element by value?
399
400=item How can I know how many entries are in a hash?
401
402=item How do I sort a hash (optionally by value instead of key)?
403
404=item How can I always keep my hash sorted?
405
406=item What's the difference between "delete" and "undef" with hashes?
407
408=item Why don't my tied hashes make the defined/exists distinction?
409
410=item How do I reset an each() operation part-way through?
411
412=item How can I get the unique keys from two hashes?
413
414=item How can I store a multidimensional array in a DBM file?
415
416=item How can I make my hash remember the order I put elements into it?
417
418=item Why does passing a subroutine an undefined element in a hash create
419it?
420
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421=item How can I make the Perl equivalent of a C structure/C++ class/hash or
422array of hashes or arrays?
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423
424=item How can I use a reference as a hash key?
425
426=back
427
428=item Data: Misc
429
430=over
431
432=item How do I handle binary data correctly?
433
434=item How do I determine whether a scalar is a number/whole/integer/float?
435
436=item How do I keep persistent data across program calls?
437
438=item How do I print out or copy a recursive data structure?
439
440=item How do I define methods for every class/object?
441
442=item How do I verify a credit card checksum?
443
444=back
445
446=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
447
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448=head2 perlfaq5 - Files and Formats ($Revision: 1.22 $, $Date: 1997/04/24
44922:44:02 $)
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450
451=item DESCRIPTION
452
453=over
454
455=item How do I flush/unbuffer a filehandle? Why must I do this?
456
457=item How do I change one line in a file/delete a line in a file/insert a
458line in the middle of a file/append to the beginning of a file?
459
460=item How do I count the number of lines in a file?
461
462=item How do I make a temporary file name?
463
464=item How can I manipulate fixed-record-length files?
465
466=item How can I make a filehandle local to a subroutine? How do I pass
467filehandles between subroutines? How do I make an array of filehandles?
468
469=item How can I set up a footer format to be used with write()?
470
471=item How can I write() into a string?
472
473=item How can I output my numbers with commas added?
474
475=item How can I translate tildes (~) in a filename?
476
477=item How come when I open the file read-write it wipes it out?
478
479=item Why do I sometimes get an "Argument list too long" when I use <*>?
480
481=item Is there a leak/bug in glob()?
482
483=item How can I open a file with a leading "E<gt>" or trailing blanks?
484
485=item How can I reliably rename a file?
486
487=item How can I lock a file?
488
489=item What can't I just open(FH, ">file.lock")?
490
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491=item I still don't get locking. I just want to increment the number in
492the file. How can I do this?
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493
494=item How do I randomly update a binary file?
495
496=item How do I get a file's timestamp in perl?
497
498=item How do I set a file's timestamp in perl?
499
500=item How do I print to more than one file at once?
501
502=item How can I read in a file by paragraphs?
503
504=item How can I read a single character from a file? From the keyboard?
505
506=item How can I tell if there's a character waiting on a filehandle?
507
508=item How do I open a file without blocking?
509
510=item How do I create a file only if it doesn't exist?
511
512=item How do I do a C<tail -f> in perl?
513
514=item How do I dup() a filehandle in Perl?
515
516=item How do I close a file descriptor by number?
517
46fc3d4c 518=item Why can't I use "C:\temp\foo" in DOS paths? What doesn't
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519`C:\temp\foo.exe` work?
520
521=item Why doesn't glob("*.*") get all the files?
522
523=item Why does Perl let me delete read-only files? Why does C<-i> clobber
524protected files? Isn't this a bug in Perl?
525
526=item How do I select a random line from a file?
527
528=back
529
530=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
531
fc36a67e 532=head2 perlfaq6 - Regexps ($Revision: 1.17 $, $Date: 1997/04/24 22:44:10 $)
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533
534=item DESCRIPTION
535
536=over
537
538=item How can I hope to use regular expressions without creating illegible
54310121 539and unmaintainable code?
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540
541Comments Outside the Regexp, Comments Inside the Regexp, Different
542Delimiters
543
544=item I'm having trouble matching over more than one line. What's wrong?
545
546=item How can I pull out lines between two patterns that are themselves on
547different lines?
548
549=item I put a regular expression into $/ but it didn't work. What's wrong?
550
551=item How do I substitute case insensitively on the LHS, but preserving
552case on the RHS?
553
554=item How can I make C<\w> match accented characters?
555
556=item How can I match a locale-smart version of C</[a-zA-Z]/>?
557
54310121 558=item How can I quote a variable to use in a regexp?
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559
560=item What is C</o> really for?
561
562=item How do I use a regular expression to strip C style comments from a
563file?
564
565=item Can I use Perl regular expressions to match balanced text?
566
567=item What does it mean that regexps are greedy? How can I get around it?
568
569=item How do I process each word on each line?
570
571=item How can I print out a word-frequency or line-frequency summary?
572
573=item How can I do approximate matching?
574
575=item How do I efficiently match many regular expressions at once?
576
577=item Why don't word-boundary searches with C<\b> work for me?
578
579=item Why does using $&, $`, or $' slow my program down?
580
581=item What good is C<\G> in a regular expression?
582
583=item Are Perl regexps DFAs or NFAs? Are they POSIX compliant?
584
585=item What's wrong with using grep or map in a void context?
586
54310121 587=item How can I match strings with multibyte characters?
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588
589=back
590
591=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
592
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593=head2 perlfaq7 - Perl Language Issues ($Revision: 1.18 $, $Date:
5941997/04/24 22:44:14 $)
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595
596=item DESCRIPTION
597
598=over
599
600=item Can I get a BNF/yacc/RE for the Perl language?
601
602=item What are all these $@%* punctuation signs, and how do I know when to
603use them?
604
605=item Do I always/never have to quote my strings or use semicolons and
606commas?
607
608=item How do I skip some return values?
609
610=item How do I temporarily block warnings?
611
612=item What's an extension?
613
614=item Why do Perl operators have different precedence than C operators?
615
616=item How do I declare/create a structure?
617
618=item How do I create a module?
619
620=item How do I create a class?
621
622=item How can I tell if a variable is tainted?
623
624=item What's a closure?
625
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626=item What is variable suicide and how can I prevent it?
627
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628=item How can I pass/return a {Function, FileHandle, Array, Hash, Method,
629Regexp}?
630
631Passing Variables and Functions, Passing Filehandles, Passing Regexps,
632Passing Methods
633
634=item How do I create a static variable?
635
636=item What's the difference between dynamic and lexical (static) scoping?
637Between local() and my()?
638
639=item How can I access a dynamic variable while a similarly named lexical
640is in scope?
641
642=item What's the difference between deep and shallow binding?
643
644=item Why doesn't "local($foo) = <FILE>;" work right?
645
54310121 646=item How do I redefine a builtin function, operator, or method?
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647
648=item What's the difference between calling a function as &foo and foo()?
649
650=item How do I create a switch or case statement?
651
652=item How can I catch accesses to undefined variables/functions/methods?
653
654=item Why can't a method included in this same file be found?
655
656=item How can I find out my current package?
657
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658=item How can I comment out a large block of perl code?
659
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660=back
661
662=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
663
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664=head2 perlfaq8 - System Interaction ($Revision: 1.21 $, $Date: 1997/04/24
66522:44:19 $)
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666
667=item DESCRIPTION
668
669=over
670
671=item How do I find out which operating system I'm running under?
672
673=item How come exec() doesn't return?
674
675=item How do I do fancy stuff with the keyboard/screen/mouse?
676
677Keyboard, Screen, Mouse
678
679=item How do I ask the user for a password?
680
681=item How do I read and write the serial port?
682
683lockfiles, open mode, end of line, flushing output, non-blocking input
684
685=item How do I decode encrypted password files?
686
687=item How do I start a process in the background?
688
689STDIN, STDOUT and STDERR are shared, Signals, Zombies
690
691=item How do I trap control characters/signals?
692
693=item How do I modify the shadow password file on a Unix system?
694
695=item How do I set the time and date?
696
697=item How can I sleep() or alarm() for under a second?
698
699=item How can I measure time under a second?
700
701=item How can I do an atexit() or setjmp()/longjmp()? (Exception handling)
702
703=item Why doesn't my sockets program work under System V (Solaris)? What
704does the error message "Protocol not supported" mean?
705
706=item How can I call my system's unique C functions from Perl?
707
708=item Where do I get the include files to do ioctl() or syscall()?
709
710=item Why do setuid perl scripts complain about kernel problems?
711
712=item How can I open a pipe both to and from a command?
713
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714=item Why can't I get the output of a command with system()?
715
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716=item How can I capture STDERR from an external command?
717
718=item Why doesn't open() return an error when a pipe open fails?
719
720=item What's wrong with using backticks in a void context?
721
722=item How can I call backticks without shell processing?
723
724=item Why can't my script read from STDIN after I gave it EOF (^D on Unix,
54310121 725^Z on MS-DOS)?
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726
727=item How can I convert my shell script to perl?
728
729=item Can I use perl to run a telnet or ftp session?
730
731=item How can I write expect in Perl?
732
733=item Is there a way to hide perl's command line from programs such as
734"ps"?
735
736=item I {changed directory, modified my environment} in a perl script. How
737come the change disappeared when I exited the script? How do I get my
738changes to be visible?
739
740Unix, VMS
741
742=item How do I close a process's filehandle without waiting for it to
743complete?
744
745=item How do I fork a daemon process?
746
747=item How do I make my program run with sh and csh?
748
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749=item How do I find out if I'm running interactively or not?
750
751=item How do I timeout a slow event?
752
753=item How do I set CPU limits?
754
755=item How do I avoid zombies on a Unix system?
756
757=item How do I use an SQL database?
758
759=item How do I make a system() exit on control-C?
760
761=item How do I open a file without blocking?
762
763=item How do I install a CPAN module?
764
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765=item How do I keep my own module/library directory?
766
767=item How do I add the directory my program lives in to the module/library
768search path?
769
770=item How do I add a directory to my include path at runtime?
771
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772=back
773
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774=item How do I get one key from the terminal at a time, under POSIX?
775
776=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
777
3e3baf6d 778=head2 perlfaq9 - Networking ($Revision: 1.17 $, $Date: 1997/04/24 22:44:29
3fe9a6f1 779$)
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780
781=item DESCRIPTION
782
783=over
784
785=item My CGI script runs from the command line but not the browser. Can
786you help me fix it?
787
788=item How do I remove HTML from a string?
789
790=item How do I extract URLs?
791
792=item How do I download a file from the user's machine? How do I open a
793file on another machine?
794
795=item How do I make a pop-up menu in HTML?
796
797=item How do I fetch an HTML file?
798
799=item how do I decode or create those %-encodings on the web?
800
801=item How do I redirect to another page?
802
803=item How do I put a password on my web pages?
804
805=item How do I edit my .htpasswd and .htgroup files with Perl?
806
46fc3d4c
PP
807=item How do I make sure users can't enter values into a form that cause my
808CGI script to do bad things?
809
68dc0745
PP
810=item How do I parse an email header?
811
812=item How do I decode a CGI form?
813
814=item How do I check a valid email address?
815
816=item How do I decode a MIME/BASE64 string?
817
818=item How do I return the user's email address?
819
820=item How do I send/read mail?
821
822=item How do I find out my hostname/domainname/IP address?
823
824=item How do I fetch a news article or the active newsgroups?
825
826=item How do I fetch/put an FTP file?
827
828=item How can I do RPC in Perl?
829
830=back
831
832=item AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
833
774d564b 834=head2 perldelta - what's new for perl5.004
cb1a09d0 835
8ebc5c01 836=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 837
8ebc5c01 838=item Supported Environments
cb1a09d0 839
8ebc5c01 840=item Core Changes
cb1a09d0 841
8ebc5c01 842=over
cb1a09d0 843
3e3baf6d
TB
844=item List assignment to %ENV works
845
846=item "Can't locate Foo.pm in @INC" error now lists @INC
847
54310121
PP
848=item Compilation option: Binary compatibility with 5.003
849
850=item $PERL5OPT environment variable
851
c90c0ff4 852=item Limitations on B<-M>, B<-m>, and B<-T> options
8cc95fdb 853
54310121 854=item More precise warnings
cb1a09d0 855
dc848c6f 856=item Deprecated: Inherited C<AUTOLOAD> for non-methods
cb1a09d0 857
3e3baf6d
TB
858=item Previously deprecated %OVERLOAD is no longer usable
859
dc848c6f 860=item Subroutine arguments created only when they're modified
54310121 861
8cc95fdb 862=item Group vector changeable with C<$)>
5cd24f17 863
54310121
PP
864=item Fixed parsing of $$<digit>, &$<digit>, etc.
865
d516a115
JH
866=item Fixed localization of $<digit>, $&, etc.
867
54310121 868=item No resetting of $. on implicit close
aa689395 869
54310121 870=item C<wantarray> may return undef
68dc0745 871
d516a115
JH
872=item C<eval EXPR> determines value of EXPR in scalar context
873
54310121 874=item Changes to tainting checks
9607fc9c 875
c90c0ff4
PP
876No glob() or <*>, No spawning if tainted $CDPATH, $ENV, $BASH_ENV, No
877spawning if tainted $TERM doesn't look like a terminal name
878
54310121 879=item New Opcode module and revised Safe module
2ae324a7 880
54310121 881=item Embedding improvements
68dc0745 882
54310121 883=item Internal change: FileHandle class based on IO::* classes
cb1a09d0 884
54310121 885=item Internal change: PerlIO abstraction interface
cb1a09d0 886
6da72b64
CS
887=item New and changed syntax
888
889$coderef->(PARAMS)
890
c635e13b
PP
891=item New and changed builtin constants
892
893__PACKAGE__
894
54310121 895=item New and changed builtin variables
cb1a09d0 896
ff0cee69 897$^E, $^H, $^M
cb1a09d0 898
54310121 899=item New and changed builtin functions
cb1a09d0 900
4fdae800 901delete on slices, flock, printf and sprintf, keys as an lvalue, my() in
8903cb82 902Control Structures, pack() and unpack(), sysseek(), use VERSION, use Module
c90c0ff4 903VERSION LIST, prototype(FUNCTION), srand, $_ as Default, C<m//gc> does not
8903cb82
PP
904reset search position on failure, C<m//x> ignores whitespace before ?*+{},
905nested C<sub{}> closures work now, formats work right on changing lexicals
44a8e56a 906
54310121 907=item New builtin methods
cb1a09d0 908
ff0cee69 909isa(CLASS), can(METHOD), VERSION( [NEED] )
cb1a09d0 910
54310121 911=item TIEHANDLE now supported
cb1a09d0 912
46fc3d4c
PP
913TIEHANDLE classname, LIST, PRINT this, LIST, PRINTF this, LIST, READ this
914LIST, READLINE this, GETC this, DESTROY this
aa689395 915
54310121 916=item Malloc enhancements
aa689395 917
d516a115 918-DPERL_EMERGENCY_SBRK, -DPACK_MALLOC, -DTWO_POT_OPTIMIZE
aa689395 919
54310121 920=item Miscellaneous efficiency enhancements
8ebc5c01
PP
921
922=back
923
7bac28a0
PP
924=item Support for More Operating Systems
925
926=over
927
928=item Win32
929
930=item Plan 9
931
932=item QNX
933
934=item AmigaOS
935
936=back
937
8ebc5c01 938=item Pragmata
cb1a09d0 939
54310121
PP
940use autouse MODULE => qw(sub1 sub2 sub3), use blib, use blib 'dir', use
941constant NAME => VALUE, use locale, use ops, use vmsish
cb1a09d0 942
8ebc5c01 943=item Modules
cb1a09d0 944
8ebc5c01
PP
945=over
946
5cd24f17
PP
947=item Required Updates
948
54310121 949=item Installation directories
f86702cc 950
54310121 951=item Module information summary
774d564b 952
54310121 953=item Fcntl
cb1a09d0 954
8ebc5c01 955=item IO
cb1a09d0 956
8ebc5c01
PP
957=item Math::Complex
958
4a6725af
NT
959=item Math::Trig
960
0a753a76
PP
961=item DB_File
962
963=item Net::Ping
964
54310121 965=item Object-oriented overrides for builtin operators
cb1a09d0
AD
966
967=back
968
774d564b
PP
969=item Utility Changes
970
971=over
972
7bac28a0
PP
973=item pod2html
974
975Sends converted HTML to standard output
976
774d564b
PP
977=item xsubpp
978
979C<void> XSUBs now default to returning nothing
980
981=back
cb1a09d0 982
0a753a76
PP
983=item C Language API Changes
984
137443ea
PP
985C<gv_fetchmethod> and C<perl_call_sv>, C<perl_eval_pv>, Extended API for
986manipulating hashes
0a753a76 987
8ebc5c01 988=item Documentation Changes
cb1a09d0 989
c90c0ff4
PP
990L<perldelta>, L<perlfaq>, L<perllocale>, L<perltoot>, L<perlapio>,
991L<perlmodlib>, L<perldebug>, L<perlsec>
cb1a09d0 992
8ebc5c01 993=item New Diagnostics
cb1a09d0 994
774d564b
PP
995"my" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same scope, %s argument is
996not a HASH element or slice, Allocation too large: %lx, Allocation too
54310121
PP
997large, Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s), Attempt to free
998nonexistent shared string, Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr,
7bac28a0
PP
999Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s, Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s
1000ref while "strict refs" in use, Cannot resolve method `%s' overloading `%s'
1001in package `%s', Constant subroutine %s redefined, Constant subroutine %s
1002undefined, Copy method did not return a reference, Died, Exiting
1003pseudo-block via %s, Identifier too long, Illegal character %s (carriage
1004return), Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s, Integer overflow in hex number,
1005Integer overflow in octal number, internal error: glob failed, Invalid
1006conversion in %s: "%s", Invalid type in pack: '%s', Invalid type in unpack:
1007'%s', Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo, Null picture in
1008formline, Offset outside string, Out of memory!, Out of memory during
1009request for %s, panic: frexp, Possible attempt to put comments in qw()
1010list, Possible attempt to separate words with commas, Scalar value @%s{%s}
1011better written as $%s{%s}, Stub found while resolving method `%s'
1012overloading `%s' in package `%s', Too late for "B<-T>" option, untie
1013attempted while %d inner references still exist, Unrecognized character %s,
1014Unsupported function fork, Use of "$$<digit>" to mean "${$}<digit>" is
1015deprecated, Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined(), Variable "%s" may
1016be unavailable, Variable "%s" will not stay shared, Warning: something's
1017wrong, Ill-formed logical name |%s| in prime_env_iter, Got an error from
1018DosAllocMem, Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX, PERL_SH_DIR too long, Process
1019terminated by SIG%s
cb1a09d0 1020
8ebc5c01 1021=item BUGS
cb1a09d0 1022
8ebc5c01 1023=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 1024
8ebc5c01 1025=item HISTORY
cb1a09d0 1026
8ebc5c01 1027=head2 perldata - Perl data types
cb1a09d0 1028
8ebc5c01 1029=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 1030
8ebc5c01 1031=over
cb1a09d0 1032
8ebc5c01 1033=item Variable names
cb1a09d0 1034
8ebc5c01 1035=item Context
cb1a09d0 1036
8ebc5c01 1037=item Scalar values
cb1a09d0 1038
8ebc5c01 1039=item Scalar value constructors
cb1a09d0 1040
8ebc5c01 1041=item List value constructors
cb1a09d0 1042
8ebc5c01 1043=item Typeglobs and Filehandles
cb1a09d0 1044
8ebc5c01 1045=back
cb1a09d0 1046
8ebc5c01 1047=head2 perlsyn - Perl syntax
cb1a09d0 1048
8ebc5c01 1049=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 1050
8ebc5c01 1051=over
cb1a09d0 1052
8ebc5c01 1053=item Declarations
cb1a09d0 1054
8ebc5c01 1055=item Simple statements
cb1a09d0 1056
8ebc5c01 1057=item Compound statements
cb1a09d0 1058
8ebc5c01 1059=item Loop Control
cb1a09d0 1060
8ebc5c01 1061=item For Loops
cb1a09d0 1062
8ebc5c01 1063=item Foreach Loops
cb1a09d0 1064
8ebc5c01 1065=item Basic BLOCKs and Switch Statements
cb1a09d0 1066
8ebc5c01 1067=item Goto
cb1a09d0 1068
8ebc5c01 1069=item PODs: Embedded Documentation
cb1a09d0 1070
774d564b
PP
1071=item Plain Old Comments (Not!)
1072
8ebc5c01 1073=back
cb1a09d0
AD
1074
1075=head2 perlop - Perl operators and precedence
1076
1077=item SYNOPSIS
1078
cb1a09d0
AD
1079=item DESCRIPTION
1080
cb1a09d0
AD
1081=over
1082
1083=item Terms and List Operators (Leftward)
1084
cb1a09d0
AD
1085=item The Arrow Operator
1086
5f05dabc 1087=item Auto-increment and Auto-decrement
cb1a09d0 1088
cb1a09d0
AD
1089=item Exponentiation
1090
cb1a09d0
AD
1091=item Symbolic Unary Operators
1092
cb1a09d0
AD
1093=item Binding Operators
1094
cb1a09d0
AD
1095=item Multiplicative Operators
1096
cb1a09d0
AD
1097=item Additive Operators
1098
cb1a09d0
AD
1099=item Shift Operators
1100
cb1a09d0
AD
1101=item Named Unary Operators
1102
cb1a09d0
AD
1103=item Relational Operators
1104
cb1a09d0
AD
1105=item Equality Operators
1106
cb1a09d0
AD
1107=item Bitwise And
1108
cb1a09d0
AD
1109=item Bitwise Or and Exclusive Or
1110
cb1a09d0
AD
1111=item C-style Logical And
1112
cb1a09d0
AD
1113=item C-style Logical Or
1114
cb1a09d0
AD
1115=item Range Operator
1116
cb1a09d0
AD
1117=item Conditional Operator
1118
cb1a09d0
AD
1119=item Assignment Operators
1120
cb1a09d0
AD
1121=item Comma Operator
1122
cb1a09d0
AD
1123=item List Operators (Rightward)
1124
cb1a09d0
AD
1125=item Logical Not
1126
cb1a09d0
AD
1127=item Logical And
1128
cb1a09d0
AD
1129=item Logical or and Exclusive Or
1130
cb1a09d0
AD
1131=item C Operators Missing From Perl
1132
cb1a09d0
AD
1133unary &, unary *, (TYPE)
1134
5f05dabc 1135=item Quote and Quote-like Operators
cb1a09d0 1136
8ebc5c01 1137=item Regexp Quote-Like Operators
cb1a09d0 1138
d516a115 1139?PATTERN?, m/PATTERN/cgimosx, /PATTERN/cgimosx, q/STRING/, C<'STRING'>,
cb1a09d0
AD
1140qq/STRING/, "STRING", qx/STRING/, `STRING`, qw/STRING/,
1141s/PATTERN/REPLACEMENT/egimosx, tr/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds,
1142y/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds
1143
1144=item I/O Operators
1145
cb1a09d0
AD
1146=item Constant Folding
1147
55497cff 1148=item Integer Arithmetic
cb1a09d0 1149
68dc0745
PP
1150=item Floating-point Arithmetic
1151
cb1a09d0
AD
1152=back
1153
cb1a09d0
AD
1154=head2 perlre - Perl regular expressions
1155
1156=item DESCRIPTION
1157
55497cff
PP
1158i, m, s, x
1159
cb1a09d0
AD
1160=over
1161
1162=item Regular Expressions
1163
d516a115
JH
1164C<(?#text)>, C<(?:regexp)>, C<(?=regexp)>, C<(?!regexp)>, C<(?<=regexp)>,
1165C<(?<!regexp)>, C<(?{ code })>, C<(?E<gt>regexp)>,
1166C<(?(condition)yes-regexp|no-regexp)>, C<(?(condition)yes-regexp)>,
1167C<(?imsx)>
cb1a09d0 1168
7d2bfb28
PP
1169=item Backtracking
1170
cb1a09d0
AD
1171=item Version 8 Regular Expressions
1172
cb1a09d0
AD
1173=item WARNING on \1 vs $1
1174
7bac28a0
PP
1175=item SEE ALSO
1176
cb1a09d0
AD
1177=back
1178
cb1a09d0
AD
1179=head2 perlrun - how to execute the Perl interpreter
1180
1181=item SYNOPSIS
1182
cb1a09d0
AD
1183=item DESCRIPTION
1184
cb1a09d0
AD
1185=over
1186
68dc0745
PP
1187=item #! and quoting on non-Unix systems
1188
54310121 1189OS/2, MS-DOS, Win95/NT, Macintosh
68dc0745 1190
cb1a09d0
AD
1191=item Switches
1192
d516a115
JH
1193B<-0>[I<digits>], B<-a>, B<-c>, B<-d>, B<-d:>I<foo>, B<-D>I<letters>,
1194B<-D>I<number>, B<-e> I<commandline>, B<-F>I<pattern>, B<-h>,
8ebc5c01
PP
1195B<-i>[I<extension>], B<-I>I<directory>, B<-l>[I<octnum>],
1196B<-m>[B<->]I<module>, B<-M>[B<->]I<module>, B<-M>[B<->]I<'module ...'>,
1197B<-[mM]>[B<->]I<module=arg[,arg]...>, B<-n>, B<-p>, B<-P>, B<-s>, B<-S>,
1198B<-T>, B<-u>, B<-U>, B<-v>, B<-V>, B<-V:>I<name>, B<-w>, B<-x> I<directory>
cb1a09d0
AD
1199
1200=back
1201
1e422769
PP
1202=item ENVIRONMENT
1203
3e3baf6d
TB
1204HOME, LOGDIR, PATH, PERL5LIB, PERL5OPT, PERLLIB, PERL5DB, PERL5SHELL
1205(specific to WIN32 port), PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS, PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL
1e422769 1206
cb1a09d0
AD
1207=head2 perlfunc - Perl builtin functions
1208
1209=item DESCRIPTION
1210
8ebc5c01 1211 I<THERE IS NO GENERAL RULE FOR CONVERTING A LIST INTO A SCALAR!>
cb1a09d0
AD
1212
1213=over
1214
1215=item Perl Functions by Category
1216
8ebc5c01
PP
1217Functions for SCALARs or strings, Regular expressions and pattern matching,
1218Numeric functions, Functions for real @ARRAYs, Functions for list data,
1219Functions for real %HASHes, Input and output functions, Functions for fixed
1220length data or records, Functions for filehandles, files, or directories,
1221Keywords related to the control flow of your perl program, Keywords related
1222to scoping, Miscellaneous functions, Functions for processes and process
1223groups, Keywords related to perl modules, Keywords related to classes and
1224object-orientedness, Low-level socket functions, System V interprocess
1225communication functions, Fetching user and group info, Fetching network
1226info, Time-related functions, Functions new in perl5, Functions obsoleted
1227in perl5
cb1a09d0
AD
1228
1229=item Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions
1230
d516a115 1231I<-X> FILEHANDLE, I<-X> EXPR, I<-X>, abs VALUE, abs, accept
8ebc5c01
PP
1232NEWSOCKET,GENERICSOCKET, alarm SECONDS, alarm, atan2 Y,X, bind SOCKET,NAME,
1233binmode FILEHANDLE, bless REF,CLASSNAME, bless REF, caller EXPR, caller,
1234chdir EXPR, chmod LIST, chomp VARIABLE, chomp LIST, chomp, chop VARIABLE,
1235chop LIST, chop, chown LIST, chr NUMBER, chr, chroot FILENAME, chroot,
1236close FILEHANDLE, closedir DIRHANDLE, connect SOCKET,NAME, continue BLOCK,
aa689395
PP
1237cos EXPR, crypt PLAINTEXT,SALT, dbmclose HASH, dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MODE,
1238defined EXPR, defined, delete EXPR, die LIST, do BLOCK, do
1239SUBROUTINE(LIST), do EXPR, dump LABEL, each HASH, eof FILEHANDLE, eof (),
1240eof, eval EXPR, eval BLOCK, exec LIST, exists EXPR, exit EXPR, exp EXPR,
1241exp, fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, fileno FILEHANDLE, flock
8903cb82
PP
1242FILEHANDLE,OPERATION, fork, format, formline PICTURE,LIST, getc FILEHANDLE,
1243getc, getlogin, getpeername SOCKET, getpgrp PID, getppid, getpriority
1244WHICH,WHO, getpwnam NAME, getgrnam NAME, gethostbyname NAME, getnetbyname
1245NAME, getprotobyname NAME, getpwuid UID, getgrgid GID, getservbyname
1246NAME,PROTO, gethostbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE,
1247getprotobynumber NUMBER, getservbyport PORT,PROTO, getpwent, getgrent,
1248gethostent, getnetent, getprotoent, getservent, setpwent, setgrent,
1249sethostent STAYOPEN, setnetent STAYOPEN, setprotoent STAYOPEN, setservent
1250STAYOPEN, endpwent, endgrent, endhostent, endnetent, endprotoent,
1251endservent, getsockname SOCKET, getsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME, glob EXPR,
1252glob, gmtime EXPR, goto LABEL, goto EXPR, goto &NAME, grep BLOCK LIST, grep
1253EXPR,LIST, hex EXPR, hex, import, index STR,SUBSTR,POSITION, index
1254STR,SUBSTR, int EXPR, int, ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, join
1255EXPR,LIST, keys HASH, kill LIST, last LABEL, last, lc EXPR, lc, lcfirst
1256EXPR, lcfirst, length EXPR, length, link OLDFILE,NEWFILE, listen
1257SOCKET,QUEUESIZE, local EXPR, localtime EXPR, log EXPR, log, lstat
1258FILEHANDLE, lstat EXPR, lstat, m//, map BLOCK LIST, map EXPR,LIST, mkdir
1259FILENAME,MODE, msgctl ID,CMD,ARG, msgget KEY,FLAGS, msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS,
1260msgrcv ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS, my EXPR, next LABEL, next, no Module LIST,
1261oct EXPR, oct, open FILEHANDLE,EXPR, open FILEHANDLE, opendir
aa689395
PP
1262DIRHANDLE,EXPR, ord EXPR, ord, pack TEMPLATE,LIST, package NAMESPACE, pipe
1263READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE, pop ARRAY, pop, pos SCALAR, pos, print FILEHANDLE
1264LIST, print LIST, print, printf FILEHANDLE FORMAT, LIST, printf FORMAT,
1265LIST, prototype FUNCTION, push ARRAY,LIST, q/STRING/, qq/STRING/,
1266qx/STRING/, qw/STRING/, quotemeta EXPR, quotemeta, rand EXPR, rand, read
1267FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, readdir
d516a115
JH
1268DIRHANDLE, readline EXPR, readlink EXPR, readlink, readpipe EXPR, recv
1269SOCKET,SCALAR,LEN,FLAGS, redo LABEL, redo, ref EXPR, ref, rename
1270OLDNAME,NEWNAME, require EXPR, require, reset EXPR, reset, return EXPR,
1271return, reverse LIST, rewinddir DIRHANDLE, rindex STR,SUBSTR,POSITION,
1272rindex STR,SUBSTR, rmdir FILENAME, rmdir, s///, scalar EXPR, seek
1273FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE, seekdir DIRHANDLE,POS, select FILEHANDLE,
1274select, select RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIMEOUT, semctl ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG, semget
1275KEY,NSEMS,FLAGS, semop KEY,OPSTRING, send SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS,TO, send
1276SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS, setpgrp PID,PGRP, setpriority WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY,
1277setsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,OPTVAL, shift ARRAY, shift, shmctl
1278ID,CMD,ARG, shmget KEY,SIZE,FLAGS, shmread ID,VAR,POS,SIZE, shmwrite
1279ID,STRING,POS,SIZE, shutdown SOCKET,HOW, sin EXPR, sin, sleep EXPR, sleep,
1280socket SOCKET,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, socketpair
8ebc5c01
PP
1281SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, sort SUBNAME LIST, sort BLOCK LIST,
1282sort LIST, splice ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH,LIST, splice ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH,
1283splice ARRAY,OFFSET, split /PATTERN/,EXPR,LIMIT, split /PATTERN/,EXPR,
1284split /PATTERN/, split, sprintf FORMAT, LIST, sqrt EXPR, sqrt, srand EXPR,
b971f6e4
PP
1285srand, stat FILEHANDLE, stat EXPR, stat, study SCALAR, study, sub BLOCK,
1286sub NAME, sub NAME BLOCK, substr EXPR,OFFSET,LEN, substr EXPR,OFFSET,
1287symlink OLDFILE,NEWFILE, syscall LIST, sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE,
1288sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE,PERMS, sysread
137443ea 1289FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, sysread FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, sysseek
8903cb82
PP
1290FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE, system LIST, syswrite
1291FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, tell
1292FILEHANDLE, tell, telldir DIRHANDLE, tie VARIABLE,CLASSNAME,LIST, tied
1293VARIABLE, time, times, tr///, truncate FILEHANDLE,LENGTH, truncate
1294EXPR,LENGTH, uc EXPR, uc, ucfirst EXPR, ucfirst, umask EXPR, umask, undef
1295EXPR, undef, unlink LIST, unlink, unpack TEMPLATE,EXPR, untie VARIABLE,
1296unshift ARRAY,LIST, use Module LIST, use Module, use Module VERSION LIST,
1297use VERSION, utime LIST, values HASH, vec EXPR,OFFSET,BITS, wait, waitpid
1298PID,FLAGS, wantarray, warn LIST, write FILEHANDLE, write EXPR, write, y///
cb1a09d0
AD
1299
1300=back
1301
cb1a09d0
AD
1302=head2 perlvar - Perl predefined variables
1303
1304=item DESCRIPTION
1305
cb1a09d0
AD
1306=over
1307
1308=item Predefined Names
1309
8ebc5c01
PP
1310$ARG, $_, $E<lt>I<digit>E<gt>, $MATCH, $&, $PREMATCH, $`, $POSTMATCH, $',
1311$LAST_PAREN_MATCH, $+, $MULTILINE_MATCHING, $*, input_line_number HANDLE
1312EXPR, $INPUT_LINE_NUMBER, $NR, $, input_record_separator HANDLE EXPR,
1313$INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $RS, $/, autoflush HANDLE EXPR, $OUTPUT_AUTOFLUSH,
1314$|, output_field_separator HANDLE EXPR, $OUTPUT_FIELD_SEPARATOR, $OFS, $,,
1315output_record_separator HANDLE EXPR, $OUTPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $ORS, $\,
1316$LIST_SEPARATOR, $", $SUBSCRIPT_SEPARATOR, $SUBSEP, $;, $OFMT, $#,
1317format_page_number HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_PAGE_NUMBER, $%,
1318format_lines_per_page HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_LINES_PER_PAGE, $=,
1319format_lines_left HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_LINES_LEFT, $-, format_name HANDLE
1320EXPR, $FORMAT_NAME, $~, format_top_name HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_TOP_NAME, $^,
1321format_line_break_characters HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_LINE_BREAK_CHARACTERS,
1322$:, format_formfeed HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_FORMFEED, $^L, $ACCUMULATOR, $^A,
ff0cee69
PP
1323$CHILD_ERROR, $?, $OS_ERROR, $ERRNO, $!, $EXTENDED_OS_ERROR, $^E,
1324$EVAL_ERROR, $@, $PROCESS_ID, $PID, $$, $REAL_USER_ID, $UID, $<,
1325$EFFECTIVE_USER_ID, $EUID, $>, $REAL_GROUP_ID, $GID, $(,
1326$EFFECTIVE_GROUP_ID, $EGID, $), $PROGRAM_NAME, $0, $[, $PERL_VERSION, $],
d516a115
JH
1327$DEBUGGING, $^D, $SYSTEM_FD_MAX, $^F, $^H, $INPLACE_EDIT, $^I, $^M,
1328$OSNAME, $^O, $PERLDB, $^P, 0x01, 0x02, 0x04, 0x08, 0x10, 0x20, $^S,
1329$BASETIME, $^T, $WARNING, $^W, $EXECUTABLE_NAME, $^X, $ARGV, @ARGV, @INC,
1330@_, %INC, %ENV $ENV{expr}, %SIG $SIG{expr}
cb1a09d0
AD
1331
1332=back
1333
cb1a09d0
AD
1334=head2 perlsub - Perl subroutines
1335
1336=item SYNOPSIS
1337
cb1a09d0
AD
1338=item DESCRIPTION
1339
cb1a09d0
AD
1340=over
1341
1342=item Private Variables via my()
1343
cb1a09d0
AD
1344=item Temporary Values via local()
1345
cb1a09d0
AD
1346=item Passing Symbol Table Entries (typeglobs)
1347
cb1a09d0
AD
1348=item Pass by Reference
1349
cb1a09d0
AD
1350=item Prototypes
1351
44a8e56a
PP
1352=item Constant Functions
1353
cb1a09d0
AD
1354=item Overriding Builtin Functions
1355
cb1a09d0
AD
1356=item Autoloading
1357
cb1a09d0
AD
1358=back
1359
1360=item SEE ALSO
1361
c635e13b 1362=head2 perlmod - Perl modules (packages and symbol tables)
cb1a09d0
AD
1363
1364=item DESCRIPTION
1365
cb1a09d0
AD
1366=over
1367
1368=item Packages
1369
cb1a09d0
AD
1370=item Symbol Tables
1371
cb1a09d0
AD
1372=item Package Constructors and Destructors
1373
cb1a09d0
AD
1374=item Perl Classes
1375
cb1a09d0
AD
1376=item Perl Modules
1377
cb1a09d0
AD
1378=back
1379
c635e13b
PP
1380=item SEE ALSO
1381
1382=head2 perlmodlib - constructing new Perl modules and finding existing ones
1383
1384=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 1385
cb1a09d0
AD
1386=item THE PERL MODULE LIBRARY
1387
cb1a09d0
AD
1388=over
1389
1390=item Pragmatic Modules
1391
c635e13b
PP
1392use autouse MODULE => qw(sub1 sub2 sub3), blib, diagnostics, integer, less,
1393lib, locale, ops, overload, sigtrap, strict, subs, vmsish, vars
cb1a09d0
AD
1394
1395=item Standard Modules
1396
8ebc5c01 1397AnyDBM_File, AutoLoader, AutoSplit, Benchmark, CPAN, CPAN::FirstTime,
8cc95fdb 1398CPAN::Nox, Carp, Class::Struct, Config, Cwd, DB_File, Devel::SelfStubber,
8ebc5c01
PP
1399DirHandle, DynaLoader, English, Env, Exporter, ExtUtils::Embed,
1400ExtUtils::Install, ExtUtils::Liblist, ExtUtils::MM_OS2, ExtUtils::MM_Unix,
1401ExtUtils::MM_VMS, ExtUtils::MakeMaker, ExtUtils::Manifest,
d516a115
JH
1402ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap, ExtUtils::Mksymlists, ExtUtils::testlib, Fatal,
1403Fcntl, File::Basename, File::CheckTree, File::Compare, File::Copy,
1404File::Find, File::Path, File::stat, FileCache, FileHandle, FindBin,
1405GDBM_File, Getopt::Long, Getopt::Std, I18N::Collate, IO, IO::File,
1406IO::Handle, IO::Pipe, IO::Seekable, IO::Select, IO::Socket, IPC::Open2,
1407IPC::Open3, Math::BigFloat, Math::BigInt, Math::Complex, Math::Trig,
1408NDBM_File, Net::Ping, Net::hostent, Net::netent, Net::protoent,
1409Net::servent, Opcode, Pod::Text, POSIX, SDBM_File, Safe, Search::Dict,
1410SelectSaver, SelfLoader, Shell, Socket, Symbol, Sys::Hostname, Sys::Syslog,
1411Term::Cap, Term::Complete, Term::ReadLine, Test::Harness, Text::Abbrev,
878e08df
PP
1412Text::ParseWords, Text::Soundex, Text::Tabs, Text::Wrap, Tie::Hash,
1413Tie::RefHash, Tie::Scalar, Tie::SubstrHash, Time::Local, Time::gmtime,
1414Time::localtime, Time::tm, UNIVERSAL, User::grent, User::pwent
cb1a09d0
AD
1415
1416=item Extension Modules
1417
cb1a09d0
AD
1418=back
1419
1420=item CPAN
1421
8ebc5c01
PP
1422Language Extensions and Documentation Tools, Development Support, Operating
1423System Interfaces, Networking, Device Control (modems) and InterProcess
1424Communication, Data Types and Data Type Utilities, Database Interfaces,
1425User Interfaces, Interfaces to / Emulations of Other Programming Languages,
1426File Names, File Systems and File Locking (see also File Handles), String
1427Processing, Language Text Processing, Parsing, and Searching, Option,
1428Argument, Parameter, and Configuration File Processing,
1429Internationalization and Locale, Authentication, Security, and Encryption,
1430World Wide Web, HTML, HTTP, CGI, MIME, Server and Daemon Utilities,
1431Archiving and Compression, Images, Pixmap and Bitmap Manipulation, Drawing,
1432and Graphing, Mail and Usenet News, Control Flow Utilities (callbacks and
1433exceptions etc), File Handle and Input/Output Stream Utilities,
9607fc9c
PP
1434Miscellaneous Modules, Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, North America,
1435South America
8ebc5c01
PP
1436
1437=item Modules: Creation, Use, and Abuse
cb1a09d0
AD
1438
1439=over
1440
1441=item Guidelines for Module Creation
1442
cb1a09d0 1443Do similar modules already exist in some form?, Try to design the new
8ebc5c01
PP
1444module to be easy to extend and reuse, Some simple style guidelines, Select
1445what to export, Select a name for the module, Have you got it right?,
1446README and other Additional Files, A description of the
1447module/package/extension etc, A copyright notice - see below, Prerequisites
1448- what else you may need to have, How to build it - possible changes to
1449Makefile.PL etc, How to install it, Recent changes in this release,
1450especially incompatibilities, Changes / enhancements you plan to make in
1451the future, Adding a Copyright Notice, Give the module a
1452version/issue/release number, How to release and distribute a module, Take
1453care when changing a released module
cb1a09d0
AD
1454
1455=item Guidelines for Converting Perl 4 Library Scripts into Modules
1456
cb1a09d0 1457There is no requirement to convert anything, Consider the implications,
8ebc5c01
PP
1458Make the most of the opportunity, The pl2pm utility will get you started,
1459Adds the standard Module prologue lines, Converts package specifiers from '
1460to ::, Converts die(...) to croak(...), Several other minor changes
cb1a09d0
AD
1461
1462=item Guidelines for Reusing Application Code
1463
cb1a09d0 1464Complete applications rarely belong in the Perl Module Library, Many
8ebc5c01
PP
1465applications contain some perl code which could be reused, Break-out the
1466reusable code into one or more separate module files, Take the opportunity
1467to reconsider and redesign the interfaces, In some cases the 'application'
1468can then be reduced to a small
cb1a09d0
AD
1469
1470=back
1471
c635e13b
PP
1472=item NOTE
1473
8ebc5c01 1474=head2 perlform - Perl formats
cb1a09d0
AD
1475
1476=item DESCRIPTION
1477
cb1a09d0
AD
1478=over
1479
8ebc5c01 1480=item Format Variables
cb1a09d0 1481
8ebc5c01 1482=back
cb1a09d0 1483
8ebc5c01 1484=item NOTES
cb1a09d0 1485
8ebc5c01 1486=over
cb1a09d0 1487
8ebc5c01 1488=item Footers
cb1a09d0 1489
8ebc5c01 1490=item Accessing Formatting Internals
cb1a09d0
AD
1491
1492=back
1493
8ebc5c01 1494=item WARNINGS
cb1a09d0 1495
8ebc5c01
PP
1496=head2 perllocale - Perl locale handling (internationalization and
1497localization)
cb1a09d0 1498
8ebc5c01 1499=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 1500
8ebc5c01 1501=item PREPARING TO USE LOCALES
cb1a09d0 1502
8ebc5c01 1503=item USING LOCALES
cb1a09d0 1504
8ebc5c01 1505=over
cb1a09d0 1506
8ebc5c01 1507=item The use locale pragma
cb1a09d0 1508
8ebc5c01 1509=item The setlocale function
cb1a09d0 1510
8ebc5c01 1511=item The localeconv function
cb1a09d0 1512
8ebc5c01 1513=back
cb1a09d0 1514
8ebc5c01 1515=item LOCALE CATEGORIES
cb1a09d0 1516
8ebc5c01 1517=over
cb1a09d0 1518
8ebc5c01 1519=item Category LC_COLLATE: Collation
cb1a09d0 1520
8ebc5c01 1521=item Category LC_CTYPE: Character Types
cb1a09d0 1522
8ebc5c01 1523=item Category LC_NUMERIC: Numeric Formatting
cb1a09d0 1524
8ebc5c01 1525=item Category LC_MONETARY: Formatting of monetary amounts
cb1a09d0 1526
8ebc5c01 1527=item LC_TIME
cb1a09d0 1528
8ebc5c01 1529=item Other categories
cb1a09d0 1530
8ebc5c01 1531=back
cb1a09d0 1532
8ebc5c01 1533=item SECURITY
cb1a09d0 1534
8ebc5c01
PP
1535B<Comparison operators> (C<lt>, C<le>, C<ge>, C<gt> and C<cmp>):,
1536B<Case-mapping interpolation> (with C<\l>, C<\L>, C<\u> or <\U>),
1537B<Matching operator> (C<m//>):, B<Substitution operator> (C<s///>):,
1538B<In-memory formatting function> (sprintf()):, B<Output formatting
1539functions> (printf() and write()):, B<Case-mapping functions> (lc(),
1540lcfirst(), uc(), ucfirst()):, B<POSIX locale-dependent functions>
1541(localeconv(), strcoll(),strftime(), strxfrm()):, B<POSIX character class
1542tests> (isalnum(), isalpha(), isdigit(),isgraph(), islower(), isprint(),
1543ispunct(), isspace(), isupper(),
1544isxdigit()):
cb1a09d0 1545
8ebc5c01 1546=item ENVIRONMENT
cb1a09d0 1547
8ebc5c01
PP
1548PERL_BADLANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_COLLATE, LC_MONETARY, LC_NUMERIC,
1549LC_TIME, LANG
cb1a09d0 1550
8ebc5c01 1551=item NOTES
cb1a09d0
AD
1552
1553=over
1554
8ebc5c01 1555=item Backward compatibility
cb1a09d0 1556
8ebc5c01 1557=item I18N:Collate obsolete
cb1a09d0 1558
8ebc5c01 1559=item Sort speed and memory use impacts
cb1a09d0 1560
8ebc5c01 1561=item write() and LC_NUMERIC
cb1a09d0 1562
8ebc5c01 1563=item Freely available locale definitions
cb1a09d0 1564
8ebc5c01 1565=item I18n and l10n
cb1a09d0 1566
8ebc5c01 1567=item An imperfect standard
cb1a09d0
AD
1568
1569=back
1570
8ebc5c01 1571=item BUGS
cb1a09d0
AD
1572
1573=over
1574
8ebc5c01 1575=item Broken systems
cb1a09d0 1576
8ebc5c01 1577=back
cb1a09d0 1578
8ebc5c01 1579=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 1580
8ebc5c01 1581=item HISTORY
cb1a09d0 1582
8ebc5c01 1583=head2 perlref - Perl references and nested data structures
cb1a09d0 1584
8ebc5c01 1585=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 1586
8ebc5c01 1587=over
cb1a09d0 1588
8ebc5c01 1589=item Symbolic references
cb1a09d0 1590
8ebc5c01 1591=item Not-so-symbolic references
cb1a09d0 1592
8ebc5c01 1593=back
cb1a09d0 1594
8ebc5c01 1595=item WARNING
cb1a09d0 1596
8ebc5c01 1597=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 1598
8ebc5c01 1599=head2 perldsc - Perl Data Structures Cookbook
cb1a09d0 1600
8ebc5c01 1601=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 1602
8ebc5c01 1603arrays of arrays, hashes of arrays, arrays of hashes, hashes of hashes,
28757baa 1604more elaborate constructs
cb1a09d0 1605
8ebc5c01 1606=item REFERENCES
cb1a09d0 1607
8ebc5c01 1608=item COMMON MISTAKES
cb1a09d0 1609
8ebc5c01 1610=item CAVEAT ON PRECEDENCE
cb1a09d0 1611
8ebc5c01 1612=item WHY YOU SHOULD ALWAYS C<use strict>
cb1a09d0 1613
8ebc5c01 1614=item DEBUGGING
cb1a09d0 1615
8ebc5c01 1616=item CODE EXAMPLES
cb1a09d0 1617
8ebc5c01 1618=item LISTS OF LISTS
cb1a09d0
AD
1619
1620=over
1621
8ebc5c01 1622=item Declaration of a LIST OF LISTS
cb1a09d0 1623
8ebc5c01 1624=item Generation of a LIST OF LISTS
cb1a09d0 1625
8ebc5c01 1626=item Access and Printing of a LIST OF LISTS
cb1a09d0 1627
8ebc5c01 1628=back
cb1a09d0 1629
8ebc5c01
PP
1630=item HASHES OF LISTS
1631
1632=over
cb1a09d0 1633
8ebc5c01 1634=item Declaration of a HASH OF LISTS
cb1a09d0 1635
8ebc5c01 1636=item Generation of a HASH OF LISTS
cb1a09d0 1637
8ebc5c01 1638=item Access and Printing of a HASH OF LISTS
cb1a09d0
AD
1639
1640=back
1641
8ebc5c01 1642=item LISTS OF HASHES
cb1a09d0
AD
1643
1644=over
1645
8ebc5c01 1646=item Declaration of a LIST OF HASHES
cb1a09d0 1647
8ebc5c01 1648=item Generation of a LIST OF HASHES
cb1a09d0 1649
8ebc5c01 1650=item Access and Printing of a LIST OF HASHES
cb1a09d0 1651
8ebc5c01 1652=back
cb1a09d0 1653
8ebc5c01
PP
1654=item HASHES OF HASHES
1655
1656=over
cb1a09d0 1657
8ebc5c01 1658=item Declaration of a HASH OF HASHES
cb1a09d0 1659
8ebc5c01 1660=item Generation of a HASH OF HASHES
cb1a09d0 1661
8ebc5c01 1662=item Access and Printing of a HASH OF HASHES
cb1a09d0
AD
1663
1664=back
1665
8ebc5c01 1666=item MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
7d2bfb28 1667
8ebc5c01 1668=over
7d2bfb28 1669
8ebc5c01 1670=item Declaration of MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
cb1a09d0 1671
8ebc5c01 1672=item Declaration of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
cb1a09d0 1673
8ebc5c01 1674=item Generation of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
cb1a09d0 1675
8ebc5c01 1676=back
cb1a09d0 1677
8ebc5c01 1678=item Database Ties
cb1a09d0 1679
8ebc5c01 1680=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 1681
8ebc5c01 1682=item AUTHOR
cb1a09d0
AD
1683
1684=head2 perllol, perlLoL - Manipulating Lists of Lists in Perl
1685
1686=item DESCRIPTION
1687
cb1a09d0
AD
1688=item Declaration and Access of Lists of Lists
1689
cb1a09d0
AD
1690=item Growing Your Own
1691
cb1a09d0
AD
1692=item Access and Printing
1693
cb1a09d0
AD
1694=item Slices
1695
cb1a09d0
AD
1696=item SEE ALSO
1697
cb1a09d0
AD
1698=item AUTHOR
1699
8ebc5c01 1700=head2 perltoot - Tom's object-oriented tutorial for perl
cb1a09d0 1701
8ebc5c01 1702=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 1703
8ebc5c01 1704=item Creating a Class
cb1a09d0 1705
8ebc5c01 1706=over
cb1a09d0 1707
8ebc5c01 1708=item Object Representation
cb1a09d0 1709
8ebc5c01
PP
1710=item Class Interface
1711
1712=item Constructors and Instance Methods
1713
1714=item Planning for the Future: Better Constructors
1715
1716=item Destructors
cb1a09d0 1717
8ebc5c01
PP
1718=item Other Object Methods
1719
1720=back
1721
1722=item Class Data
cb1a09d0
AD
1723
1724=over
1725
8ebc5c01 1726=item Accessing Class Data
cb1a09d0 1727
8ebc5c01 1728=item Debugging Methods
cb1a09d0 1729
8ebc5c01 1730=item Class Destructors
cb1a09d0 1731
8ebc5c01 1732=item Documenting the Interface
cb1a09d0 1733
8ebc5c01 1734=back
cb1a09d0 1735
8ebc5c01 1736=item Aggregation
cb1a09d0 1737
8ebc5c01 1738=item Inheritance
cb1a09d0 1739
8ebc5c01 1740=over
cb1a09d0 1741
8ebc5c01 1742=item Overridden Methods
55497cff 1743
8ebc5c01 1744=item Multiple Inheritance
55497cff 1745
8ebc5c01 1746=item UNIVERSAL: The Root of All Objects
55497cff 1747
8ebc5c01 1748=back
cb1a09d0 1749
8ebc5c01 1750=item Alternate Object Representations
cb1a09d0 1751
8ebc5c01 1752=over
cb1a09d0 1753
8ebc5c01 1754=item Arrays as Objects
cb1a09d0 1755
8ebc5c01
PP
1756=item Closures as Objects
1757
1758=back
cb1a09d0 1759
8ebc5c01 1760=item AUTOLOAD: Proxy Methods
cb1a09d0 1761
8ebc5c01
PP
1762=over
1763
1764=item Autoloaded Data Methods
1765
1766=item Inherited Autoloaded Data Methods
1767
1768=back
1769
1770=item Metaclassical Tools
cb1a09d0 1771
8ebc5c01
PP
1772=over
1773
8cc95fdb 1774=item Class::Struct
cb1a09d0 1775
8ebc5c01
PP
1776=item Data Members as Variables
1777
1778=item NOTES
cb1a09d0 1779
8ebc5c01 1780=item Object Terminology
cb1a09d0
AD
1781
1782=back
1783
1784=item SEE ALSO
1785
8ebc5c01
PP
1786=item COPYRIGHT
1787
1788=over
1789
1790=item Acknowledgments
1791
1792=back
1793
1794=head2 perlobj - Perl objects
1795
1796=item DESCRIPTION
1797
1798=over
1799
1800=item An Object is Simply a Reference
1801
1802=item A Class is Simply a Package
1803
1804=item A Method is Simply a Subroutine
1805
1806=item Method Invocation
1807
1808=item Default UNIVERSAL methods
1809
ff0cee69 1810isa(CLASS), can(METHOD), VERSION( [NEED] )
8ebc5c01 1811
54310121 1812=item Destructors
8ebc5c01
PP
1813
1814=item WARNING
1815
1816=item Summary
cb1a09d0 1817
8ebc5c01 1818=item Two-Phased Garbage Collection
cb1a09d0 1819
8ebc5c01 1820=back
cb1a09d0 1821
8ebc5c01 1822=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0
AD
1823
1824=head2 perltie - how to hide an object class in a simple variable
1825
1826=item SYNOPSIS
1827
cb1a09d0
AD
1828=item DESCRIPTION
1829
cb1a09d0
AD
1830=over
1831
1832=item Tying Scalars
1833
cb1a09d0
AD
1834TIESCALAR classname, LIST, FETCH this, STORE this, value, DESTROY this
1835
1836=item Tying Arrays
1837
cb1a09d0
AD
1838TIEARRAY classname, LIST, FETCH this, index, STORE this, index, value,
1839DESTROY this
1840
1841=item Tying Hashes
1842
8ebc5c01
PP
1843USER, HOME, CLOBBER, LIST, TIEHASH classname, LIST, FETCH this, key, STORE
1844this, key, value, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this, EXISTS this, key, FIRSTKEY
1845this, NEXTKEY this, lastkey, DESTROY this
cb1a09d0
AD
1846
1847=item Tying FileHandles
1848
46fc3d4c
PP
1849TIEHANDLE classname, LIST, PRINT this, LIST, PRINTF this, LIST, READ this
1850LIST, READLINE this, GETC this, DESTROY this
cb1a09d0 1851
4fdae800
PP
1852=item The C<untie> Gotcha
1853
cb1a09d0
AD
1854=back
1855
1856=item SEE ALSO
1857
cb1a09d0
AD
1858=item BUGS
1859
cb1a09d0
AD
1860=item AUTHOR
1861
cb1a09d0
AD
1862=head2 perlbot - Bag'o Object Tricks (the BOT)
1863
1864=item DESCRIPTION
1865
cb1a09d0
AD
1866=item OO SCALING TIPS
1867
cb1a09d0
AD
1868=item INSTANCE VARIABLES
1869
cb1a09d0
AD
1870=item SCALAR INSTANCE VARIABLES
1871
cb1a09d0
AD
1872=item INSTANCE VARIABLE INHERITANCE
1873
cb1a09d0
AD
1874=item OBJECT RELATIONSHIPS
1875
cb1a09d0
AD
1876=item OVERRIDING SUPERCLASS METHODS
1877
cb1a09d0
AD
1878=item USING RELATIONSHIP WITH SDBM
1879
cb1a09d0
AD
1880=item THINKING OF CODE REUSE
1881
cb1a09d0
AD
1882=item CLASS CONTEXT AND THE OBJECT
1883
cb1a09d0
AD
1884=item INHERITING A CONSTRUCTOR
1885
cb1a09d0
AD
1886=item DELEGATION
1887
8ebc5c01
PP
1888=head2 perlipc - Perl interprocess communication (signals, fifos, pipes,
1889safe subprocesses, sockets, and semaphores)
cb1a09d0 1890
8ebc5c01 1891=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 1892
8ebc5c01 1893=item Signals
cb1a09d0 1894
8ebc5c01 1895=item Named Pipes
cb1a09d0 1896
8ebc5c01 1897=item Using open() for IPC
cb1a09d0 1898
8ebc5c01 1899=over
cb1a09d0 1900
68dc0745
PP
1901=item Filehandles
1902
1903=item Background Processes
1904
1905=item Complete Dissociation of Child from Parent
1906
8ebc5c01 1907=item Safe Pipe Opens
cb1a09d0 1908
c90c0ff4 1909=item Bidirectional Communication with Another Process
55497cff 1910
8ebc5c01
PP
1911=back
1912
1913=item Sockets: Client/Server Communication
55497cff 1914
cb1a09d0
AD
1915=over
1916
8ebc5c01 1917=item Internet TCP Clients and Servers
55497cff 1918
8ebc5c01 1919=item Unix-Domain TCP Clients and Servers
55497cff 1920
c90c0ff4
PP
1921=back
1922
1923=item TCP Clients with IO::Socket
1924
1925=over
1926
1927=item A Simple Client
1928
1929C<Proto>, C<PeerAddr>, C<PeerPort>
1930
1931=item A Webget Client
1932
1933=item Interactive Client with IO::Socket
cb1a09d0 1934
8ebc5c01 1935=back
cb1a09d0 1936
c90c0ff4 1937=item TCP Servers with IO::Socket
cb1a09d0 1938
c90c0ff4
PP
1939Proto, LocalPort, Listen, Reuse
1940
1941=item UDP: Message Passing
1942
1943=item SysV IPC
cb1a09d0 1944
8ebc5c01 1945=item NOTES
cb1a09d0 1946
8ebc5c01 1947=item BUGS
55497cff 1948
8ebc5c01 1949=item AUTHOR
55497cff 1950
8ebc5c01 1951=item SEE ALSO
55497cff 1952
8ebc5c01 1953=head2 perldebug - Perl debugging
55497cff 1954
8ebc5c01 1955=item DESCRIPTION
55497cff 1956
8ebc5c01 1957=item The Perl Debugger
55497cff 1958
8ebc5c01 1959=over
55497cff 1960
8ebc5c01 1961=item Debugger Commands
a6006777 1962
774d564b
PP
1963h [command], p expr, x expr, V [pkg [vars]], X [vars], T, s [expr], n
1964[expr], E<lt>CRE<gt>, c [line|sub], l, l min+incr, l min-max, l line, l
1965subname, -, w [line], f filename, /pattern/, ?pattern?, L, S [[!]pattern],
1966t, t expr, b [line] [condition], b subname [condition], b postpone subname
1967[condition], b load filename, b compile subname, d [line], D, a [line]
1968command, A, O [opt[=val]] [opt"val"] [opt?].., C<recallCommand>,
1969C<ShellBang>, C<pager>, C<tkRunning>, C<signalLevel>, C<warnLevel>,
1970C<dieLevel>, C<AutoTrace>, C<LineInfo>, C<inhibit_exit>, C<PrintRet>,
7bac28a0
PP
1971C<ornaments>, C<frame>, C<maxTraceLen>, C<arrayDepth>, C<hashDepth>,
1972C<compactDump>, C<veryCompact>, C<globPrint>, C<DumpDBFiles>,
1973C<DumpPackages>, C<quote>, C<HighBit>, C<undefPrint>, C<UsageOnly>, C<TTY>,
1974C<noTTY>, C<ReadLine>, C<NonStop>, E<lt> [ command ], E<lt>E<lt> command,
1975E<gt> command, E<gt>E<gt> command, { [ command ], {{ command, ! number, !
d516a115
JH
1976-number, ! pattern, !! cmd, H -number, q or ^D, R, |dbcmd, ||dbcmd,
1977command, m expr, m package
774d564b
PP
1978
1979=item Debugger input/output
1980
54310121 1981Prompt, Multiline commands, Stack backtrace, Listing, Frame listing
774d564b
PP
1982
1983=item Debugging compile-time statements
cb1a09d0 1984
8ebc5c01 1985=item Debugger Customization
cb1a09d0 1986
8ebc5c01 1987=item Readline Support
cb1a09d0 1988
8ebc5c01 1989=item Editor Support for Debugging
cb1a09d0 1990
8ebc5c01 1991=item The Perl Profiler
cb1a09d0 1992
8ebc5c01 1993=item Debugger support in perl
cb1a09d0 1994
8ebc5c01 1995=item Debugger Internals
cb1a09d0 1996
8ebc5c01 1997=item Other resources
cb1a09d0 1998
8ebc5c01 1999=back
cb1a09d0 2000
8ebc5c01 2001=item BUGS
cb1a09d0
AD
2002
2003=head2 perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
2004
2005=item DESCRIPTION
2006
8ebc5c01 2007=head2 perlsec - Perl security
cb1a09d0
AD
2008
2009=item DESCRIPTION
2010
cb1a09d0
AD
2011=over
2012
55497cff
PP
2013=item Laundering and Detecting Tainted Data
2014
b971f6e4
PP
2015=item Switches On the "#!" Line
2016
55497cff 2017=item Cleaning Up Your Path
cb1a09d0 2018
55497cff 2019=item Security Bugs
a6006777 2020
68dc0745
PP
2021=item Protecting Your Programs
2022
cb1a09d0
AD
2023=back
2024
8ebc5c01 2025=head2 perltrap - Perl traps for the unwary
cb1a09d0 2026
8ebc5c01 2027=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0
AD
2028
2029=over
2030
8ebc5c01 2031=item Awk Traps
cb1a09d0 2032
8ebc5c01 2033=item C Traps
cb1a09d0 2034
8ebc5c01 2035=item Sed Traps
cb1a09d0 2036
8ebc5c01 2037=item Shell Traps
cb1a09d0 2038
8ebc5c01 2039=item Perl Traps
cb1a09d0 2040
8ebc5c01 2041=item Perl4 to Perl5 Traps
cb1a09d0 2042
8ebc5c01
PP
2043Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps, Parsing Traps, Numerical
2044Traps, General data type traps, Context Traps - scalar, list contexts,
2045Precedence Traps, General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc,
2046Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps, OS Traps, DBM Traps, Unclassified Traps
cb1a09d0 2047
8ebc5c01 2048=item Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps
cb1a09d0 2049
8ebc5c01
PP
2050Discontinuance, Deprecation, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance,
2051Discontinuance, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance, BugFix,
68dc0745 2052Discontinuance, Discontinuance, Deprecation, Discontinuance
cb1a09d0 2053
8ebc5c01 2054=item Parsing Traps
cb1a09d0 2055
8ebc5c01 2056Parsing, Parsing, Parsing
cb1a09d0 2057
8ebc5c01 2058=item Numerical Traps
cb1a09d0 2059
8ebc5c01 2060Numerical, Numerical, Numerical
cb1a09d0 2061
8ebc5c01 2062=item General data type traps
cb1a09d0 2063
8ebc5c01
PP
2064(Arrays), (Arrays), (Hashes), (Globs), (Scalar String), (Constants),
2065(Scalars), (Variable Suicide)
cb1a09d0 2066
8ebc5c01 2067=item Context Traps - scalar, list contexts
cb1a09d0 2068
8ebc5c01 2069(list context), (scalar context), (scalar context), (list, builtin)
cb1a09d0 2070
8ebc5c01 2071=item Precedence Traps
cb1a09d0 2072
d516a115 2073Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence
cb1a09d0 2074
8ebc5c01 2075=item General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc.
cb1a09d0 2076
8ebc5c01 2077Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular
44a8e56a 2078Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression,
68dc0745 2079Regular Expression, Regular Expression
cb1a09d0 2080
8ebc5c01 2081=item Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps
cb1a09d0 2082
2ae324a7 2083(Signals), (Sort Subroutine), warn() won't let you specify a filehandle
cb1a09d0 2084
8ebc5c01 2085=item OS Traps
cb1a09d0 2086
8ebc5c01 2087(SysV), (SysV)
cb1a09d0 2088
8ebc5c01 2089=item Interpolation Traps
cb1a09d0 2090
8ebc5c01
PP
2091Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation,
2092Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation
cb1a09d0 2093
8ebc5c01 2094=item DBM Traps
cb1a09d0 2095
8ebc5c01 2096DBM, DBM
cb1a09d0 2097
8ebc5c01 2098=item Unclassified Traps
cb1a09d0 2099
d516a115
JH
2100C<require>/C<do> trap using returned value, C<split> on empty string with
2101LIMIT specified
cb1a09d0 2102
8ebc5c01 2103=back
cb1a09d0 2104
8ebc5c01 2105=head2 perlstyle - Perl style guide
cb1a09d0 2106
8ebc5c01 2107=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2108
8ebc5c01 2109=head2 perlpod - plain old documentation
cb1a09d0 2110
8ebc5c01 2111=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2112
d516a115
JH
2113=over
2114
2115=item Verbatim Paragraph
2116
2117=item Command Paragraph
2118
2119=item Ordinary Block of Text
2120
2121=item The Intent
2122
8ebc5c01 2123=item Embedding Pods in Perl Modules
cb1a09d0 2124
8ebc5c01 2125=item Common Pod Pitfalls
cb1a09d0 2126
d516a115
JH
2127=back
2128
8ebc5c01 2129=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 2130
8ebc5c01 2131=item AUTHOR
cb1a09d0 2132
8ebc5c01 2133=head2 perlbook - Perl book information
cb1a09d0 2134
8ebc5c01 2135=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2136
8ebc5c01 2137=head2 perlembed - how to embed perl in your C program
cb1a09d0 2138
8ebc5c01 2139=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2140
8ebc5c01 2141=over
cb1a09d0 2142
8ebc5c01 2143=item PREAMBLE
cb1a09d0 2144
54310121 2145B<Use C from Perl?>, B<Use a Unix program from Perl?>, B<Use Perl from
8ebc5c01 2146Perl?>, B<Use C from C?>, B<Use Perl from C?>
cb1a09d0 2147
8ebc5c01 2148=item ROADMAP
cb1a09d0 2149
8ebc5c01 2150=item Compiling your C program
cb1a09d0 2151
8ebc5c01 2152=item Adding a Perl interpreter to your C program
cb1a09d0 2153
8ebc5c01 2154=item Calling a Perl subroutine from your C program
cb1a09d0 2155
8ebc5c01 2156=item Evaluating a Perl statement from your C program
cb1a09d0 2157
8ebc5c01 2158=item Performing Perl pattern matches and substitutions from your C program
cb1a09d0 2159
8ebc5c01 2160=item Fiddling with the Perl stack from your C program
cb1a09d0 2161
8ebc5c01 2162=item Maintaining a persistent interpreter
cb1a09d0 2163
8ebc5c01 2164=item Maintaining multiple interpreter instances
cb1a09d0 2165
8ebc5c01
PP
2166=item Using Perl modules, which themselves use C libraries, from your C
2167program
cb1a09d0 2168
8ebc5c01 2169=back
cb1a09d0 2170
3e3baf6d
TB
2171=item Embedding Perl under Win32
2172
8ebc5c01 2173=item MORAL
cb1a09d0 2174
8ebc5c01 2175=item AUTHOR
cb1a09d0 2176
f86702cc
PP
2177=item COPYRIGHT
2178
28757baa 2179=head2 perlapio - perl's IO abstraction interface.
cb1a09d0 2180
8ebc5c01 2181=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0
AD
2182
2183=item DESCRIPTION
2184
8ebc5c01
PP
2185B<PerlIO *>, B<PerlIO_stdin()>, B<PerlIO_stdout()>, B<PerlIO_stderr()>,
2186B<PerlIO_open(path, mode)>, B<PerlIO_fdopen(fd,mode)>,
2187B<PerlIO_printf(f,fmt,...)>, B<PerlIO_vprintf(f,fmt,a)>,
2188B<PerlIO_stdoutf(fmt,...)>, B<PerlIO_read(f,buf,count)>,
d516a115
JH
2189B<PerlIO_write(f,buf,count)>, B<PerlIO_close(f)>, B<PerlIO_puts(f,s)>,
2190B<PerlIO_putc(f,c)>, B<PerlIO_ungetc(f,c)>, B<PerlIO_getc(f)>,
8ebc5c01
PP
2191B<PerlIO_eof(f)>, B<PerlIO_error(f)>, B<PerlIO_fileno(f)>,
2192B<PerlIO_clearerr(f)>, B<PerlIO_flush(f)>, B<PerlIO_tell(f)>,
2193B<PerlIO_seek(f,o,w)>, B<PerlIO_getpos(f,p)>, B<PerlIO_setpos(f,p)>,
2194B<PerlIO_rewind(f)>, B<PerlIO_tmpfile()>
cb1a09d0
AD
2195
2196=over
2197
8ebc5c01 2198=item Co-existence with stdio
cb1a09d0 2199
8ebc5c01
PP
2200B<PerlIO_importFILE(f,flags)>, B<PerlIO_exportFILE(f,flags)>,
2201B<PerlIO_findFILE(f)>, B<PerlIO_releaseFILE(p,f)>, B<PerlIO_setlinebuf(f)>,
2202B<PerlIO_has_cntptr(f)>, B<PerlIO_get_ptr(f)>, B<PerlIO_get_cnt(f)>,
2203B<PerlIO_canset_cnt(f)>, B<PerlIO_fast_gets(f)>,
2204B<PerlIO_set_ptrcnt(f,p,c)>, B<PerlIO_set_cnt(f,c)>, B<PerlIO_has_base(f)>,
2205B<PerlIO_get_base(f)>, B<PerlIO_get_bufsiz(f)>
cb1a09d0 2206
8ebc5c01 2207=back
cb1a09d0 2208
8ebc5c01 2209=head2 perlxs - XS language reference manual
cb1a09d0 2210
8ebc5c01 2211=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2212
8ebc5c01 2213=over
cb1a09d0
AD
2214
2215=item Introduction
2216
cb1a09d0
AD
2217=item On The Road
2218
cb1a09d0
AD
2219=item The Anatomy of an XSUB
2220
cb1a09d0
AD
2221=item The Argument Stack
2222
cb1a09d0
AD
2223=item The RETVAL Variable
2224
cb1a09d0
AD
2225=item The MODULE Keyword
2226
cb1a09d0
AD
2227=item The PACKAGE Keyword
2228
cb1a09d0
AD
2229=item The PREFIX Keyword
2230
cb1a09d0
AD
2231=item The OUTPUT: Keyword
2232
cb1a09d0
AD
2233=item The CODE: Keyword
2234
7d2bfb28
PP
2235=item The INIT: Keyword
2236
cb1a09d0
AD
2237=item The NO_INIT Keyword
2238
cb1a09d0
AD
2239=item Initializing Function Parameters
2240
cb1a09d0
AD
2241=item Default Parameter Values
2242
7d2bfb28
PP
2243=item The PREINIT: Keyword
2244
8ebc5c01 2245=item The SCOPE: Keyword
7d2bfb28
PP
2246
2247=item The INPUT: Keyword
2248
cb1a09d0
AD
2249=item Variable-length Parameter Lists
2250
cb1a09d0
AD
2251=item The PPCODE: Keyword
2252
cb1a09d0
AD
2253=item Returning Undef And Empty Lists
2254
cb1a09d0
AD
2255=item The REQUIRE: Keyword
2256
cb1a09d0
AD
2257=item The CLEANUP: Keyword
2258
cb1a09d0
AD
2259=item The BOOT: Keyword
2260
7d2bfb28
PP
2261=item The VERSIONCHECK: Keyword
2262
7d2bfb28
PP
2263=item The PROTOTYPES: Keyword
2264
7d2bfb28
PP
2265=item The PROTOTYPE: Keyword
2266
7d2bfb28
PP
2267=item The ALIAS: Keyword
2268
7d2bfb28
PP
2269=item The INCLUDE: Keyword
2270
7d2bfb28
PP
2271=item The CASE: Keyword
2272
7d2bfb28
PP
2273=item The & Unary Operator
2274
cb1a09d0
AD
2275=item Inserting Comments and C Preprocessor Directives
2276
cb1a09d0
AD
2277=item Using XS With C++
2278
cb1a09d0
AD
2279=item Interface Strategy
2280
cb1a09d0
AD
2281=item Perl Objects And C Structures
2282
cb1a09d0
AD
2283=item The Typemap
2284
cb1a09d0
AD
2285=back
2286
2287=item EXAMPLES
2288
7d2bfb28
PP
2289=item XS VERSION
2290
cb1a09d0
AD
2291=item AUTHOR
2292
8ebc5c01 2293=head2 perlxstut, perlXStut - Tutorial for XSUBs
cb1a09d0
AD
2294
2295=item DESCRIPTION
2296
7d2bfb28
PP
2297=over
2298
2299=item VERSION CAVEAT
2300
7d2bfb28
PP
2301=item DYNAMIC VERSUS STATIC
2302
cb1a09d0
AD
2303=item EXAMPLE 1
2304
cb1a09d0
AD
2305=item EXAMPLE 2
2306
cb1a09d0
AD
2307=item WHAT HAS GONE ON?
2308
8ebc5c01 2309=item WRITING GOOD TEST SCRIPTS
cb1a09d0
AD
2310
2311=item EXAMPLE 3
2312
cb1a09d0
AD
2313=item WHAT'S NEW HERE?
2314
cb1a09d0
AD
2315=item INPUT AND OUTPUT PARAMETERS
2316
cb1a09d0
AD
2317=item THE XSUBPP COMPILER
2318
cb1a09d0
AD
2319=item THE TYPEMAP FILE
2320
cb1a09d0
AD
2321=item WARNING
2322
8ebc5c01 2323=item EXAMPLE 4
cb1a09d0 2324
8ebc5c01 2325=item WHAT HAS HAPPENED HERE?
7d2bfb28 2326
8ebc5c01 2327=item SPECIFYING ARGUMENTS TO XSUBPP
7d2bfb28
PP
2328
2329=item THE ARGUMENT STACK
2330
7d2bfb28
PP
2331=item EXTENDING YOUR EXTENSION
2332
7d2bfb28
PP
2333=item DOCUMENTING YOUR EXTENSION
2334
7d2bfb28
PP
2335=item INSTALLING YOUR EXTENSION
2336
7d2bfb28 2337=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 2338
cb1a09d0
AD
2339=item Author
2340
cb1a09d0
AD
2341=item Last Changed
2342
7d2bfb28
PP
2343=back
2344
cb1a09d0
AD
2345=head2 perlguts - Perl's Internal Functions
2346
2347=item DESCRIPTION
2348
0a753a76
PP
2349=item Variables
2350
8ebc5c01 2351=over
cb1a09d0
AD
2352
2353=item Datatypes
2354
cb1a09d0
AD
2355=item What is an "IV"?
2356
54310121 2357=item Working with SVs
cb1a09d0 2358
cb1a09d0
AD
2359=item What's Really Stored in an SV?
2360
54310121 2361=item Working with AVs
cb1a09d0 2362
54310121 2363=item Working with HVs
cb1a09d0 2364
1e422769
PP
2365=item Hash API Extensions
2366
cb1a09d0
AD
2367=item References
2368
cb1a09d0
AD
2369=item Blessed References and Class Objects
2370
cb1a09d0
AD
2371=item Creating New Variables
2372
8ebc5c01 2373=item Reference Counts and Mortality
cb1a09d0 2374
8ebc5c01 2375=item Stashes and Globs
cb1a09d0 2376
54310121 2377=item Double-Typed SVs
0a753a76
PP
2378
2379=item Magic Variables
cb1a09d0 2380
cb1a09d0
AD
2381=item Assigning Magic
2382
cb1a09d0
AD
2383=item Magic Virtual Tables
2384
cb1a09d0
AD
2385=item Finding Magic
2386
3e3baf6d
TB
2387=item Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays
2388
d516a115
JH
2389=item Localizing changes
2390
2391C<SAVEINT(int i)>, C<SAVEIV(IV i)>, C<SAVEI32(I32 i)>, C<SAVELONG(long i)>,
2392C<SAVESPTR(s)>, C<SAVEPPTR(p)>, C<SAVEFREESV(SV *sv)>, C<SAVEFREEOP(OP
2393*op)>, C<SAVEFREEPV(p)>, C<SAVECLEARSV(SV *sv)>, C<SAVEDELETE(HV *hv, char
2394*key, I32 length)>, C<SAVEDESTRUCTOR(f,p)>, C<SAVESTACK_POS()>, C<SV*
2395save_scalar(GV *gv)>, C<AV* save_ary(GV *gv)>, C<HV* save_hash(GV *gv)>,
2396C<void save_item(SV *item)>, C<void save_list(SV **sarg, I32 maxsarg)>,
2397C<SV* save_svref(SV **sptr)>, C<void save_aptr(AV **aptr)>, C<void
2398save_hptr(HV **hptr)>
2399
0a753a76
PP
2400=back
2401
2402=item Subroutines
2403
2404=over
cb1a09d0 2405
68dc0745 2406=item XSUBs and the Argument Stack
cb1a09d0
AD
2407
2408=item Calling Perl Routines from within C Programs
2409
cb1a09d0
AD
2410=item Memory Allocation
2411
8ebc5c01 2412=item PerlIO
cb1a09d0 2413
8ebc5c01 2414=item Putting a C value on Perl stack
cb1a09d0 2415
8ebc5c01 2416=item Scratchpads
cb1a09d0 2417
2ae324a7 2418=item Scratchpads and recursion
cb1a09d0 2419
0a753a76
PP
2420=back
2421
2422=item Compiled code
2423
2424=over
2425
2426=item Code tree
2427
2428=item Examining the tree
2429
2430=item Compile pass 1: check routines
2431
2432=item Compile pass 1a: constant folding
2433
2434=item Compile pass 2: context propagation
2435
2436=item Compile pass 3: peephole optimization
2437
2438=back
2439
8ebc5c01 2440=item API LISTING
cb1a09d0 2441
8ebc5c01
PP
2442AvFILL, av_clear, av_extend, av_fetch, av_len, av_make, av_pop, av_push,
2443av_shift, av_store, av_undef, av_unshift, CLASS, Copy, croak, CvSTASH,
2444DBsingle, DBsub, DBtrace, dMARK, dORIGMARK, dowarn, dSP, dXSARGS, dXSI32,
d516a115
JH
2445ENTER, EXTEND, FREETMPS, G_ARRAY, G_DISCARD, G_EVAL, GIMME, GIMME_V,
2446G_NOARGS, G_SCALAR, G_VOID, gv_fetchmeth, gv_fetchmethod,
dc848c6f
PP
2447gv_fetchmethod_autoload, gv_stashpv, gv_stashsv, GvSV, HEf_SVKEY, HeHASH,
2448HeKEY, HeKLEN, HePV, HeSVKEY, HeSVKEY_force, HeSVKEY_set, HeVAL, hv_clear,
2449hv_delayfree_ent, hv_delete, hv_delete_ent, hv_exists, hv_exists_ent,
2450hv_fetch, hv_fetch_ent, hv_free_ent, hv_iterinit, hv_iterkey, hv_iterkeysv,
2451hv_iternext, hv_iternextsv, hv_iterval, hv_magic, HvNAME, hv_store,
2452hv_store_ent, hv_undef, isALNUM, isALPHA, isDIGIT, isLOWER, isSPACE,
2453isUPPER, items, ix, LEAVE, MARK, mg_clear, mg_copy, mg_find, mg_free,
2454mg_get, mg_len, mg_magical, mg_set, Move, na, New, Newc, Newz, newAV,
9da1e3b5 2455newHV, newRV_inc, newRV_noinc, NEWSV, newSViv, newSVnv, newSVpv, newSVpvn,
d516a115
JH
2456newSVrv, newSVsv, newXS, newXSproto, Nullav, Nullch, Nullcv, Nullhv,
2457Nullsv, ORIGMARK, perl_alloc, perl_call_argv, perl_call_method,
2458perl_call_pv, perl_call_sv, perl_construct, perl_destruct, perl_eval_sv,
2459perl_eval_pv, perl_free, perl_get_av, perl_get_cv, perl_get_hv,
2460perl_get_sv, perl_parse, perl_require_pv, perl_run, POPi, POPl, POPp, POPn,
2461POPs, PUSHMARK, PUSHi, PUSHn, PUSHp, PUSHs, PUTBACK, Renew, Renewc, RETVAL,
2462safefree, safemalloc, saferealloc, savepv, savepvn, SAVETMPS, SP, SPAGAIN,
2463ST, strEQ, strGE, strGT, strLE, strLT, strNE, strnEQ, strnNE, sv_2mortal,
2464sv_bless, sv_catpv, sv_catpv_mg, sv_catpvn, sv_catpvn_mg, sv_catpvf,
2465sv_catpvf_mg, sv_catsv, sv_catsv_mg, sv_cmp, SvCUR, SvCUR_set, sv_dec,
2466SvEND, sv_eq, SvGETMAGIC, SvGROW, sv_grow, sv_inc, SvIOK, SvIOK_off,
2467SvIOK_on, SvIOK_only, SvIOKp, sv_isa, SvIV, sv_isobject, SvIVX, SvLEN,
2468sv_len, sv_magic, sv_mortalcopy, SvOK, sv_newmortal, sv_no, SvNIOK,
2469SvNIOK_off, SvNIOKp, SvNOK, SvNOK_off, SvNOK_on, SvNOK_only, SvNOKp, SvNV,
2470SvNVX, SvPOK, SvPOK_off, SvPOK_on, SvPOK_only, SvPOKp, SvPV, SvPVX,
2471SvREFCNT, SvREFCNT_dec, SvREFCNT_inc, SvROK, SvROK_off, SvROK_on, SvRV,
2472SvSETMAGIC, SvTAINT, SvTAINTED, SvTAINTED_off, SvTAINTED_on, sv_setiv,
2473sv_setiv_mg, sv_setnv, sv_setnv_mg, sv_setpv, sv_setpv_mg, sv_setpviv,
2474sv_setpviv_mg, sv_setpvn, sv_setpvn_mg, sv_setpvf, sv_setpvf_mg,
2475sv_setref_iv, sv_setref_nv, sv_setref_pv, sv_setref_pvn, SvSetSV,
2476SvSetSV_nosteal, sv_setsv, sv_setsv_mg, sv_setuv, sv_setuv_mg, SvSTASH,
2477SVt_IV, SVt_PV, SVt_PVAV, SVt_PVCV, SVt_PVHV, SVt_PVMG, SVt_NV, SvTRUE,
2478SvTYPE, svtype, SvUPGRADE, sv_upgrade, sv_undef, sv_unref, sv_usepvn,
2479sv_usepvn_mg, sv_yes, THIS, toLOWER, toUPPER, warn, XPUSHi, XPUSHn, XPUSHp,
46fc3d4c
PP
2480XPUSHs, XS, XSRETURN, XSRETURN_EMPTY, XSRETURN_IV, XSRETURN_NO,
2481XSRETURN_NV, XSRETURN_PV, XSRETURN_UNDEF, XSRETURN_YES, XST_mIV, XST_mNV,
2482XST_mNO, XST_mPV, XST_mUNDEF, XST_mYES, XS_VERSION, XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK,
2483Zero
cb1a09d0 2484
8ebc5c01 2485=item EDITOR
cb1a09d0 2486
8ebc5c01 2487=item DATE
cb1a09d0
AD
2488
2489=head2 perlcall - Perl calling conventions from C
2490
2491=item DESCRIPTION
2492
cb1a09d0
AD
2493An Error Handler, An Event Driven Program
2494
2495=item THE PERL_CALL FUNCTIONS
2496
8ebc5c01 2497B<perl_call_sv>, B<perl_call_pv>, B<perl_call_method>, B<perl_call_argv>
cb1a09d0
AD
2498
2499=item FLAG VALUES
2500
cb1a09d0
AD
2501=over
2502
54310121
PP
2503=item G_VOID
2504
cb1a09d0
AD
2505=item G_SCALAR
2506
cb1a09d0
AD
2507=item G_ARRAY
2508
cb1a09d0
AD
2509=item G_DISCARD
2510
cb1a09d0
AD
2511=item G_NOARGS
2512
54310121 2513=item G_EVAL
cb1a09d0 2514
7d2bfb28
PP
2515=item G_KEEPERR
2516
54310121 2517=item Determining the Context
cb1a09d0
AD
2518
2519=back
2520
2521=item KNOWN PROBLEMS
2522
cb1a09d0
AD
2523=item EXAMPLES
2524
cb1a09d0
AD
2525=over
2526
2527=item No Parameters, Nothing returned
2528
cb1a09d0
AD
2529=item Passing Parameters
2530
cb1a09d0
AD
2531=item Returning a Scalar
2532
cb1a09d0
AD
2533=item Returning a list of values
2534
cb1a09d0
AD
2535=item Returning a list in a scalar context
2536
cb1a09d0
AD
2537=item Returning Data from Perl via the parameter list
2538
cb1a09d0
AD
2539=item Using G_EVAL
2540
7d2bfb28
PP
2541=item Using G_KEEPERR
2542
cb1a09d0
AD
2543=item Using perl_call_sv
2544
cb1a09d0
AD
2545=item Using perl_call_argv
2546
cb1a09d0
AD
2547=item Using perl_call_method
2548
54310121 2549=item Using GIMME_V
cb1a09d0 2550
cb1a09d0
AD
2551=item Using Perl to dispose of temporaries
2552
cb1a09d0
AD
2553=item Strategies for storing Callback Context Information
2554
cb1a09d0
AD
25551. Ignore the problem - Allow only 1 callback, 2. Create a sequence of
2556callbacks - hard wired limit, 3. Use a parameter to map to the Perl
2557callback
2558
2559=item Alternate Stack Manipulation
2560
5cd24f17
PP
2561=item Creating and calling an anonymous subroutine in C
2562
cb1a09d0
AD
2563=back
2564
2565=item SEE ALSO
2566
cb1a09d0
AD
2567=item AUTHOR
2568
cb1a09d0
AD
2569=item DATE
2570
d516a115
JH
2571=head2 perlhist - the Perl history records
2572
2573=item DESCRIPTION
2574
2575=item INTRODUCTION
2576
2577=item THE KEEPERS OF THE PUMPKIN
2578
2579=over
2580
2581=item PUMPKIN?
2582
2583=back
2584
2585=item THE RECORDS
2586
2587=over
2588
2589=item SELECTED RELEASE SIZES
2590
2591=item SELECTED PATCH SIZES
2592
2593=back
2594
2595=item THE KEEPERS OF THE RECORDS
2596
8ebc5c01 2597=head1 PRAGMA DOCUMENTATION
cb1a09d0 2598
d516a115
JH
2599=head2 attrs - set/get attributes of a subroutine
2600
2601=item SYNOPSIS
2602
2603=item DESCRIPTION
2604
2605method, locked
2606
68dc0745
PP
2607=head2 autouse - postpone load of modules until a function is used
2608
2609=item SYNOPSIS
2610
2611=item DESCRIPTION
2612
2613=item WARNING
2614
2615=item BUGS
2616
2617=item AUTHOR
2618
2619=item SEE ALSO
2620
d516a115
JH
2621=head2 base - Establish IS-A relationship with base class at compile time
2622
2623=item SYNOPSIS
2624
2625=item DESCRIPTION
2626
2627=item BUGS
2628
8ebc5c01 2629=head2 blib - Use MakeMaker's uninstalled version of a package
cb1a09d0 2630
8ebc5c01 2631=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2632
8ebc5c01 2633=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2634
8ebc5c01 2635=item BUGS
cb1a09d0 2636
8ebc5c01 2637=item AUTHOR
cb1a09d0 2638
54310121
PP
2639=head2 constant - Perl pragma to declare constants
2640
2641=item SYNOPSIS
2642
2643=item DESCRIPTION
2644
2645=item NOTES
2646
2647=item TECHNICAL NOTE
2648
2649=item BUGS
2650
2651=item AUTHOR
2652
2653=item COPYRIGHT
2654
8ebc5c01
PP
2655=head2 diagnostics - Perl compiler pragma to force verbose warning
2656diagnostics
cb1a09d0 2657
8ebc5c01 2658=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2659
8ebc5c01 2660=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2661
8ebc5c01 2662=over
cb1a09d0 2663
8ebc5c01 2664=item The C<diagnostics> Pragma
cb1a09d0 2665
8ebc5c01 2666=item The I<splain> Program
cb1a09d0 2667
8ebc5c01 2668=back
cb1a09d0 2669
8ebc5c01 2670=item EXAMPLES
cb1a09d0 2671
8ebc5c01 2672=item INTERNALS
cb1a09d0 2673
8ebc5c01 2674=item BUGS
cb1a09d0 2675
8ebc5c01 2676=item AUTHOR
cb1a09d0 2677
d516a115
JH
2678=head2 fields - compile-time class fields
2679
2680=item SYNOPSIS
2681
2682=item DESCRIPTION
2683
8ebc5c01
PP
2684=head2 integer - Perl pragma to compute arithmetic in integer instead of
2685double
cb1a09d0 2686
8ebc5c01 2687=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2688
8ebc5c01 2689=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2690
8ebc5c01 2691=head2 less - perl pragma to request less of something from the compiler
cb1a09d0 2692
8ebc5c01 2693=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2694
8ebc5c01 2695=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2696
8ebc5c01 2697=head2 lib - manipulate @INC at compile time
cb1a09d0 2698
8ebc5c01 2699=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2700
8ebc5c01 2701=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2702
8ebc5c01
PP
2703=over
2704
2705=item ADDING DIRECTORIES TO @INC
cb1a09d0 2706
8ebc5c01 2707=item DELETING DIRECTORIES FROM @INC
cb1a09d0 2708
8ebc5c01 2709=item RESTORING ORIGINAL @INC
cb1a09d0 2710
8ebc5c01 2711=back
cb1a09d0 2712
8ebc5c01 2713=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 2714
8ebc5c01 2715=item AUTHOR
cb1a09d0 2716
8ebc5c01
PP
2717=head2 locale - Perl pragma to use and avoid POSIX locales for built-in
2718operations
cb1a09d0 2719
8ebc5c01 2720=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0
AD
2721
2722=item DESCRIPTION
2723
8ebc5c01 2724=head2 overload - Package for overloading perl operations
cb1a09d0 2725
8ebc5c01 2726=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2727
8ebc5c01 2728=item CAVEAT SCRIPTOR
cb1a09d0 2729
8ebc5c01 2730=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2731
8ebc5c01 2732=over
cb1a09d0 2733
8ebc5c01 2734=item Declaration of overloaded functions
cb1a09d0 2735
8ebc5c01 2736=item Calling Conventions for Binary Operations
cb1a09d0 2737
8ebc5c01 2738FALSE, TRUE, C<undef>
cb1a09d0 2739
8ebc5c01 2740=item Calling Conventions for Unary Operations
cb1a09d0 2741
8ebc5c01 2742=item Overloadable Operations
cb1a09d0 2743
8ebc5c01
PP
2744I<Arithmetic operations>, I<Comparison operations>, I<Bit operations>,
2745I<Increment and decrement>, I<Transcendental functions>, I<Boolean, string
2746and numeric conversion>, I<Special>
cb1a09d0 2747
774d564b
PP
2748=item Inheritance and overloading
2749
2750Strings as values of C<use overload> directive, Overloading of an operation
2751is inherited by derived classes
2752
8ebc5c01 2753=back
cb1a09d0 2754
8ebc5c01 2755=item SPECIAL SYMBOLS FOR C<use overload>
cb1a09d0 2756
8ebc5c01 2757=over
cb1a09d0 2758
774d564b 2759=item Last Resort
cb1a09d0 2760
8ebc5c01 2761=item Fallback
cb1a09d0 2762
8ebc5c01 2763C<undef>, TRUE, defined, but FALSE
cb1a09d0 2764
8ebc5c01 2765=item Copy Constructor
cb1a09d0 2766
8ebc5c01 2767B<Example>
cb1a09d0 2768
8ebc5c01 2769=back
cb1a09d0 2770
8ebc5c01 2771=item MAGIC AUTOGENERATION
cb1a09d0 2772
8ebc5c01
PP
2773I<Assignment forms of arithmetic operations>, I<Conversion operations>,
2774I<Increment and decrement>, C<abs($a)>, I<Unary minus>, I<Negation>,
2775I<Concatenation>, I<Comparison operations>, I<Copy operator>
cb1a09d0 2776
8ebc5c01 2777=item WARNING
cb1a09d0 2778
8ebc5c01 2779=item Run-time Overloading
cb1a09d0 2780
8ebc5c01 2781=item Public functions
cb1a09d0 2782
8ebc5c01 2783overload::StrVal(arg), overload::Overloaded(arg), overload::Method(obj,op)
cb1a09d0 2784
8ebc5c01 2785=item IMPLEMENTATION
cb1a09d0 2786
8ebc5c01 2787=item AUTHOR
cb1a09d0 2788
8ebc5c01 2789=item DIAGNOSTICS
cb1a09d0 2790
8ebc5c01 2791=item BUGS
cb1a09d0 2792
8ebc5c01 2793=head2 sigtrap - Perl pragma to enable simple signal handling
cb1a09d0 2794
8ebc5c01 2795=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2796
8ebc5c01 2797=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2798
8ebc5c01 2799=item OPTIONS
cb1a09d0 2800
8ebc5c01 2801=over
cb1a09d0 2802
8ebc5c01 2803=item SIGNAL HANDLERS
cb1a09d0 2804
8ebc5c01 2805B<stack-trace>, B<die>, B<handler> I<your-handler>
cb1a09d0 2806
8ebc5c01 2807=item SIGNAL LISTS
cb1a09d0 2808
8ebc5c01 2809B<normal-signals>, B<error-signals>, B<old-interface-signals>
cb1a09d0 2810
8ebc5c01 2811=item OTHER
cb1a09d0 2812
8ebc5c01 2813B<untrapped>, B<any>, I<signal>, I<number>
cb1a09d0 2814
8ebc5c01 2815=back
cb1a09d0 2816
8ebc5c01 2817=item EXAMPLES
cb1a09d0 2818
8ebc5c01 2819=head2 strict - Perl pragma to restrict unsafe constructs
cb1a09d0 2820
8ebc5c01 2821=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2822
8ebc5c01 2823=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2824
8ebc5c01 2825C<strict refs>, C<strict vars>, C<strict subs>
cb1a09d0 2826
8ebc5c01 2827=head2 subs - Perl pragma to predeclare sub names
cb1a09d0
AD
2828
2829=item SYNOPSIS
2830
cb1a09d0
AD
2831=item DESCRIPTION
2832
8ebc5c01 2833=head2 vars - Perl pragma to predeclare global variable names
cb1a09d0 2834
8ebc5c01 2835=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2836
8ebc5c01 2837=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2838
8ebc5c01 2839=head1 MODULE DOCUMENTATION
cb1a09d0 2840
8ebc5c01 2841=head2 AnyDBM_File - provide framework for multiple DBMs
cb1a09d0
AD
2842
2843=item SYNOPSIS
2844
cb1a09d0
AD
2845=item DESCRIPTION
2846
cb1a09d0
AD
2847=over
2848
8ebc5c01 2849=item DBM Comparisons
cb1a09d0 2850
8ebc5c01 2851[0], [1], [2], [3]
cb1a09d0 2852
8ebc5c01 2853=back
cb1a09d0 2854
8ebc5c01 2855=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 2856
4a6725af 2857=head2 AutoLoader - load subroutines only on demand
cb1a09d0 2858
8ebc5c01 2859=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2860
8ebc5c01 2861=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2862
8ebc5c01 2863=over
cb1a09d0 2864
4a6725af
NT
2865=item Subroutine Stubs
2866
2867=item Using B<AutoLoader>'s AUTOLOAD Subroutine
cb1a09d0 2868
4a6725af 2869=item Overriding B<AutoLoader>'s AUTOLOAD Subroutine
cb1a09d0 2870
8ebc5c01 2871=item Package Lexicals
cb1a09d0 2872
4a6725af 2873=item B<AutoLoader> vs. B<SelfLoader>
cb1a09d0 2874
8ebc5c01 2875=back
cb1a09d0 2876
4a6725af
NT
2877=item CAVEATS
2878
2879=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 2880
8ebc5c01 2881=head2 AutoSplit - split a package for autoloading
cb1a09d0 2882
8ebc5c01 2883=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 2884
8ebc5c01 2885=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 2886
8ebc5c01 2887=item CAVEATS
cb1a09d0 2888
8ebc5c01 2889=item DIAGNOSTICS
cb1a09d0 2890
8ebc5c01 2891=head2 Benchmark - benchmark running times of code
cb1a09d0 2892
8ebc5c01 2893=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0
AD
2894
2895=item DESCRIPTION
2896
cb1a09d0
AD
2897=over
2898
8ebc5c01 2899=item Methods
cb1a09d0 2900
8ebc5c01 2901new, debug
cb1a09d0 2902
8ebc5c01 2903=item Standard Exports
cb1a09d0 2904
54310121
PP
2905timeit(COUNT, CODE), timethis ( COUNT, CODE, [ TITLE, [ STYLE ]] ),
2906timethese ( COUNT, CODEHASHREF, [ STYLE ] ), timediff ( T1, T2 ), timestr (
2907TIMEDIFF, [ STYLE, [ FORMAT ]] )
cb1a09d0 2908
8ebc5c01 2909=item Optional Exports
cb1a09d0 2910
54310121
PP
2911clearcache ( COUNT ), clearallcache ( ), disablecache ( ), enablecache ( )
2912
8ebc5c01 2913=back
cb1a09d0 2914
8ebc5c01 2915=item NOTES
cb1a09d0 2916
8ebc5c01 2917=item INHERITANCE
cb1a09d0 2918
8ebc5c01 2919=item CAVEATS
cb1a09d0 2920
8ebc5c01 2921=item AUTHORS
cb1a09d0 2922
8ebc5c01 2923=item MODIFICATION HISTORY
cb1a09d0 2924
f86702cc
PP
2925=head2 Bundle::CPAN - A bundle to play with all the other modules on CPAN
2926
2927=item SYNOPSIS
2928
2929=item CONTENTS
2930
2931=item DESCRIPTION
2932
2933=item AUTHOR
2934
54310121
PP
2935=head2 CGI - Simple Common Gateway Interface Class
2936
dc848c6f
PP
2937=item SYNOPSIS
2938
54310121
PP
2939=item ABSTRACT
2940
c635e13b 2941=item INSTALLATION
54310121
PP
2942
2943=item DESCRIPTION
2944
2945=over
2946
2947=item CREATING A NEW QUERY OBJECT:
2948
2949=item CREATING A NEW QUERY OBJECT FROM AN INPUT FILE
2950
2951=item FETCHING A LIST OF KEYWORDS FROM THE QUERY:
2952
2953=item FETCHING THE NAMES OF ALL THE PARAMETERS PASSED TO YOUR SCRIPT:
2954
2955=item FETCHING THE VALUE OR VALUES OF A SINGLE NAMED PARAMETER:
2956
2957=item SETTING THE VALUE(S) OF A NAMED PARAMETER:
2958
2959=item APPENDING ADDITIONAL VALUES TO A NAMED PARAMETER:
2960
2961=item IMPORTING ALL PARAMETERS INTO A NAMESPACE:
2962
2963=item DELETING A PARAMETER COMPLETELY:
2964
2965=item DELETING ALL PARAMETERS:
2966
2967=item SAVING THE STATE OF THE FORM TO A FILE:
2968
2969=item CREATING A SELF-REFERENCING URL THAT PRESERVES STATE INFORMATION:
2970
2971=item COMPATIBILITY WITH CGI-LIB.PL
2972
2973=item CALLING CGI FUNCTIONS THAT TAKE MULTIPLE ARGUMENTS
2974
2975=item CREATING THE HTTP HEADER:
2976
2977=item GENERATING A REDIRECTION INSTRUCTION
2978
2979=item CREATING THE HTML HEADER:
2980
2981B<Parameters:>, 4, 5, 6..
2982
2983=item ENDING THE HTML DOCUMENT:
2984
2985=back
2986
c635e13b 2987=item CREATING FORMS
54310121
PP
2988
2989=over
2990
2991=item CREATING AN ISINDEX TAG
2992
2993=item STARTING AND ENDING A FORM
2994
2995B<application/x-www-form-urlencoded>, B<multipart/form-data>
2996
2997=item CREATING A TEXT FIELD
2998
2999B<Parameters>
3000
3001=item CREATING A BIG TEXT FIELD
3002
3003=item CREATING A PASSWORD FIELD
3004
3005=item CREATING A FILE UPLOAD FIELD
3006
3007B<Parameters>
3008
3009=item CREATING A POPUP MENU
3010
3011=item CREATING A SCROLLING LIST
3012
3013B<Parameters:>
3014
3015=item CREATING A GROUP OF RELATED CHECKBOXES
3016
3017B<Parameters:>
3018
3019=item CREATING A STANDALONE CHECKBOX
3020
3021B<Parameters:>
3022
3023=item CREATING A RADIO BUTTON GROUP
3024
3025B<Parameters:>
3026
3027=item CREATING A SUBMIT BUTTON
3028
3029B<Parameters:>
3030
3031=item CREATING A RESET BUTTON
3032
3033=item CREATING A DEFAULT BUTTON
3034
3035=item CREATING A HIDDEN FIELD
3036
3037B<Parameters:>
3038
3039=item CREATING A CLICKABLE IMAGE BUTTON
3040
3041B<Parameters:>, 3.The third option (-align, optional) is an alignment type,
3042and may be
3043TOP, BOTTOM or MIDDLE
3044
3045=item CREATING A JAVASCRIPT ACTION BUTTON
3046
3047=back
3048
3049=item NETSCAPE COOKIES
3050
30511. an expiration time, 2. a domain, 3. a path, 4. a "secure" flag,
3052B<-name>, B<-value>, B<-path>, B<-domain>, B<-expires>, B<-secure>
3053
3054=item WORKING WITH NETSCAPE FRAMES
3055
30561. Create a <Frameset> document, 2. Specify the destination for the
3057document in the HTTP header, 3. Specify the destination for the document in
3058the <FORM> tag
3059
c90c0ff4
PP
3060=item LIMITED SUPPORT FOR CASCADING STYLE SHEETS
3061
54310121
PP
3062=item DEBUGGING
3063
3064=over
3065
3066=item DUMPING OUT ALL THE NAME/VALUE PAIRS
3067
3068=back
3069
3070=item FETCHING ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
3071
3072B<accept()>, B<raw_cookie()>, B<user_agent()>, B<path_info()>,
3073B<path_translated()>, B<remote_host()>, B<script_name()>Return the script
3074name as a partial URL, for self-refering
3075scripts, B<referer()>, B<auth_type ()>, B<server_name ()>, B<virtual_host
3076()>, B<server_software ()>, B<remote_user ()>, B<user_name ()>,
3077B<request_method()>
3078
c635e13b 3079=item CREATING HTML ELEMENTS
54310121
PP
3080
3081=over
3082
3083=item PROVIDING ARGUMENTS TO HTML SHORTCUTS
3084
3085=item Generating new HTML tags
3086
3087=back
3088
3089=item IMPORTING CGI METHOD CALLS INTO YOUR NAME SPACE
3090
3091B<cgi>, B<form>, B<html2>, B<html3>, B<netscape>, B<shortcuts>,
3092B<standard>, B<all>
3093
3094=item USING NPH SCRIPTS
3095
3096In the B<use> statementSimply add ":nph" to the list of symbols to be
3097imported into your script:, By calling the B<nph()> method:, By using
3098B<-nph> parameters in the B<header()> and B<redirect()> statements:
3099
3100=item AUTHOR INFORMATION
3101
3102=item CREDITS
3103
3104Matt Heffron (heffron@falstaff.css.beckman.com), James Taylor
3105(james.taylor@srs.gov), Scott Anguish <sanguish@digifix.com>, Mike Jewell
3106(mlj3u@virginia.edu), Timothy Shimmin (tes@kbs.citri.edu.au), Joergen Haegg
3107(jh@axis.se), Laurent Delfosse (delfosse@csgrad1.cs.wvu.edu), Richard
3108Resnick (applepi1@aol.com), Craig Bishop (csb@barwonwater.vic.gov.au), Tony
3109Curtis (tc@vcpc.univie.ac.at), Tim Bunce (Tim.Bunce@ig.co.uk), Tom
3110Christiansen (tchrist@convex.com), Andreas Koenig
3111(k@franz.ww.TU-Berlin.DE), Tim MacKenzie (Tim.MacKenzie@fulcrum.com.au),
3112Kevin B. Hendricks (kbhend@dogwood.tyler.wm.edu), Stephen Dahmen
3113(joyfire@inxpress.net), Ed Jordan (ed@fidalgo.net), David Alan Pisoni
3114(david@cnation.com), ...and many many more..
3115
3116=item A COMPLETE EXAMPLE OF A SIMPLE FORM-BASED SCRIPT
3117
3118=item BUGS
3119
3120=item SEE ALSO
3121
3122=head2 CGI::Apache - Make things work with CGI.pm against Perl-Apache API
3123
3124=item SYNOPSIS
3125
3126=item DESCRIPTION
3127
137443ea
PP
3128=item NOTE 1
3129
3130=item NOTE 2
54310121
PP
3131
3132=item SEE ALSO
3133
3134=item AUTHOR
3135
3136=head2 CGI::Carp, B<CGI::Carp> - CGI routines for writing to the HTTPD (or
3137other) error log
3138
3139=item SYNOPSIS
3140
3141=item DESCRIPTION
3142
3143=item REDIRECTING ERROR MESSAGES
3144
3145=item MAKING PERL ERRORS APPEAR IN THE BROWSER WINDOW
3146
3147=item CHANGE LOG
3148
3149=item AUTHORS
3150
3151=item SEE ALSO
3152
3153=head2 CGI::Fast - CGI Interface for Fast CGI
3154
3155=item SYNOPSIS
3156
3157=item DESCRIPTION
3158
3159=item OTHER PIECES OF THE PUZZLE
3160
3161=item WRITING FASTCGI PERL SCRIPTS
3162
3163=item INSTALLING FASTCGI SCRIPTS
3164
3165=item USING FASTCGI SCRIPTS AS CGI SCRIPTS
3166
3167=item CAVEATS
3168
3169=item AUTHOR INFORMATION
3170
3171=item BUGS
3172
3173=item SEE ALSO
3174
3175=head2 CGI::Push - Simple Interface to Server Push
3176
3177=item SYNOPSIS
3178
3179=item DESCRIPTION
3180
3181=item USING CGI::Push
3182
d516a115 3183-next_page, -last_page, -type, -delay, -cookie, -target, -expires
54310121
PP
3184
3185=item INSTALLING CGI::Push SCRIPTS
3186
3187=item CAVEATS
3188
3189=item AUTHOR INFORMATION
3190
3191=item BUGS
3192
3193=item SEE ALSO
3194
3195=head2 CGI::Switch - Try more than one constructors and return the first
3196object available
3197
3198=item SYNOPSIS
3199
3200=item DESCRIPTION
3201
3202=item SEE ALSO
3203
3204=item AUTHOR
3205
8ebc5c01 3206=head2 CPAN - query, download and build perl modules from CPAN sites
cb1a09d0 3207
8ebc5c01 3208=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 3209
8ebc5c01 3210=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0
AD
3211
3212=over
3213
8ebc5c01 3214=item Interactive Mode
cb1a09d0 3215
8ebc5c01 3216Searching for authors, bundles, distribution files and modules, make, test,
774d564b
PP
3217install, clean modules or distributions, readme, look module or
3218distribution
cb1a09d0 3219
8ebc5c01 3220=item CPAN::Shell
cb1a09d0 3221
774d564b
PP
3222=item autobundle
3223
3224=item recompile
3225
d516a115 3226=item The four C<CPAN::*> Classes: Author, Bundle, Module, Distribution
dc848c6f 3227
8ebc5c01 3228=item ProgrammerE<39>s interface
cb1a09d0 3229
dc848c6f
PP
3230expand($type,@things), Programming Examples
3231
d516a115
JH
3232=item Methods in the four
3233
8ebc5c01 3234=item Cache Manager
cb1a09d0 3235
8ebc5c01 3236=item Bundles
cb1a09d0 3237
774d564b 3238=item Prerequisites
cb1a09d0 3239
774d564b
PP
3240=item Debugging
3241
3242=item Floppy, Zip, and all that Jazz
cb1a09d0
AD
3243
3244=back
3245
8ebc5c01 3246=item CONFIGURATION
cb1a09d0 3247
8ebc5c01
PP
3248o conf E<lt>scalar optionE<gt>, o conf E<lt>scalar optionE<gt>
3249E<lt>valueE<gt>, o conf E<lt>list optionE<gt>, o conf E<lt>list optionE<gt>
3250[shift|pop], o conf E<lt>list optionE<gt> [unshift|push|splice]
3251E<lt>listE<gt>
cb1a09d0 3252
d516a115
JH
3253=over
3254
3255=item CD-ROM support
3256
3257=back
3258
8ebc5c01 3259=item SECURITY
cb1a09d0 3260
8ebc5c01 3261=item EXPORT
cb1a09d0 3262
774d564b 3263=item BUGS
cb1a09d0
AD
3264
3265=item AUTHOR
3266
8ebc5c01 3267=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 3268
8ebc5c01 3269=head2 CPAN::FirstTime - Utility for CPAN::Config file Initialization
cb1a09d0
AD
3270
3271=item SYNOPSIS
3272
cb1a09d0
AD
3273=item DESCRIPTION
3274
8ebc5c01
PP
3275=head2 CPANox, CPAN::Nox - Wrapper around CPAN.pm without using any XS
3276module
cb1a09d0
AD
3277
3278=item SYNOPSIS
3279
cb1a09d0
AD
3280=item DESCRIPTION
3281
8ebc5c01 3282=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 3283
d516a115 3284=head2 Carp, carp - warn of errors (from perspective of caller)
cb1a09d0 3285
8ebc5c01 3286=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 3287
8ebc5c01 3288=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 3289
d516a115
JH
3290=over
3291
3292=item Forcing a Stack Trace
3293
3294=back
3295
8cc95fdb 3296=head2 Class::Struct - declare struct-like datatypes as Perl classes
cb1a09d0
AD
3297
3298=item SYNOPSIS
3299
cb1a09d0
AD
3300=item DESCRIPTION
3301
8cc95fdb
PP
3302=over
3303
3304=item The C<struct()> function
3305
3306=item Element Types and Accessor Methods
3307
3308Scalar (C<'$'> or C<'*$'>), Array (C<'@'> or C<'*@'>), Hash (C<'%'> or
3309C<'*%'>), Class (C<'Class_Name'> or C<'*Class_Name'>)
3310
3311=back
3312
8ebc5c01 3313=item EXAMPLES
cb1a09d0 3314
8ebc5c01 3315Example 1, Example 2
cb1a09d0 3316
8cc95fdb 3317=item Author and Modification History
cb1a09d0 3318
8ebc5c01 3319=head2 Cwd, getcwd - get pathname of current working directory
cb1a09d0 3320
8ebc5c01 3321=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 3322
8ebc5c01 3323=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 3324
d516a115 3325=head2 DB_File - Perl5 access to Berkeley DB version 1.x
cb1a09d0
AD
3326
3327=item SYNOPSIS
3328
cb1a09d0
AD
3329=item DESCRIPTION
3330
8ebc5c01 3331B<DB_HASH>, B<DB_BTREE>, B<DB_RECNO>
cb1a09d0
AD
3332
3333=over
3334
d516a115
JH
3335=item Using DB_File with Berkeley DB version 2
3336
68dc0745 3337=item Interface to Berkeley DB
cb1a09d0 3338
8ebc5c01 3339=item Opening a Berkeley DB Database File
cb1a09d0 3340
8ebc5c01 3341=item Default Parameters
cb1a09d0 3342
8ebc5c01 3343=item In Memory Databases
cb1a09d0
AD
3344
3345=back
3346
8ebc5c01 3347=item DB_HASH
cb1a09d0 3348
8ebc5c01 3349=over
cb1a09d0 3350
68dc0745 3351=item A Simple Example
cb1a09d0 3352
8ebc5c01 3353=back
cb1a09d0 3354
8ebc5c01 3355=item DB_BTREE
cb1a09d0 3356
8ebc5c01 3357=over
cb1a09d0 3358
8ebc5c01 3359=item Changing the BTREE sort order
cb1a09d0 3360
68dc0745 3361=item Handling Duplicate Keys
cb1a09d0 3362
68dc0745 3363=item The get_dup() Method
cb1a09d0 3364
8ebc5c01 3365=item Matching Partial Keys
cb1a09d0 3366
8ebc5c01 3367=back
cb1a09d0 3368
8ebc5c01 3369=item DB_RECNO
cb1a09d0 3370
8ebc5c01 3371=over
cb1a09d0 3372
68dc0745 3373=item The 'bval' Option
cb1a09d0 3374
8ebc5c01 3375=item A Simple Example
cb1a09d0 3376
8ebc5c01 3377=item Extra Methods
cb1a09d0 3378
8ebc5c01
PP
3379B<$X-E<gt>push(list) ;>, B<$value = $X-E<gt>pop ;>, B<$X-E<gt>shift>,
3380B<$X-E<gt>unshift(list) ;>, B<$X-E<gt>length>
cb1a09d0 3381
8ebc5c01 3382=item Another Example
cb1a09d0 3383
8ebc5c01 3384=back
cb1a09d0 3385
8ebc5c01 3386=item THE API INTERFACE
cb1a09d0 3387
8ebc5c01
PP
3388B<$status = $X-E<gt>get($key, $value [, $flags]) ;>, B<$status =
3389$X-E<gt>put($key, $value [, $flags]) ;>, B<$status = $X-E<gt>del($key [,
3390$flags]) ;>, B<$status = $X-E<gt>fd ;>, B<$status = $X-E<gt>seq($key,
3391$value, $flags) ;>, B<$status = $X-E<gt>sync([$flags]) ;>
cb1a09d0 3392
8ebc5c01 3393=item HINTS AND TIPS
cb1a09d0 3394
8ebc5c01
PP
3395=over
3396
3397=item Locking Databases
cb1a09d0 3398
68dc0745 3399=item Sharing Databases With C Applications
cb1a09d0 3400
68dc0745 3401=item The untie() Gotcha
4fdae800 3402
8ebc5c01 3403=back
cb1a09d0 3404
8ebc5c01 3405=item COMMON QUESTIONS
cb1a09d0
AD
3406
3407=over
3408
8ebc5c01 3409=item Why is there Perl source in my database?
cb1a09d0 3410
8ebc5c01 3411=item How do I store complex data structures with DB_File?
cb1a09d0 3412
8ebc5c01 3413=item What does "Invalid Argument" mean?
cb1a09d0 3414
8ebc5c01 3415=item What does "Bareword 'DB_File' not allowed" mean?
cb1a09d0 3416
8ebc5c01 3417=back
cb1a09d0 3418
8ebc5c01 3419=item HISTORY
cb1a09d0 3420
8ebc5c01 3421=item BUGS
cb1a09d0 3422
8ebc5c01 3423=item AVAILABILITY
cb1a09d0 3424
d516a115
JH
3425=item COPYRIGHT
3426
8ebc5c01 3427=item SEE ALSO
cb1a09d0 3428
8ebc5c01 3429=item AUTHOR
cb1a09d0 3430
8ebc5c01 3431=head2 Devel::SelfStubber - generate stubs for a SelfLoading module
cb1a09d0 3432
8ebc5c01 3433=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 3434
8ebc5c01 3435=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 3436
8ebc5c01 3437=head2 DirHandle - supply object methods for directory handles
cb1a09d0 3438
8ebc5c01 3439=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 3440
8ebc5c01 3441=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 3442
8ebc5c01 3443=head2 DynaLoader - Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code
cb1a09d0 3444
8ebc5c01 3445=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 3446
8ebc5c01 3447=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 3448
774d564b
PP
3449@dl_library_path, @dl_resolve_using, @dl_require_symbols, @dl_librefs,
3450@dl_modules, dl_error(), $dl_debug, dl_findfile(), dl_expandspec(),
3451dl_load_file(), dl_loadflags(), dl_find_symbol(),
3452dl_find_symbol_anywhere(), dl_undef_symbols(), dl_install_xsub(),
3453bootstrap()
cb1a09d0 3454
8ebc5c01 3455=item AUTHOR
cb1a09d0 3456
8ebc5c01
PP
3457=head2 English - use nice English (or awk) names for ugly punctuation
3458variables
cb1a09d0 3459
8ebc5c01 3460=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 3461
8ebc5c01 3462=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 3463
8ebc5c01 3464=head2 Env - perl module that imports environment variables
cb1a09d0
AD
3465
3466=item SYNOPSIS
3467
cb1a09d0
AD
3468=item DESCRIPTION
3469
8ebc5c01 3470=item AUTHOR
cb1a09d0 3471
8ebc5c01 3472=head2 Exporter - Implements default import method for modules
cb1a09d0 3473
8ebc5c01 3474=item SYNOPSIS
cb1a09d0 3475
8ebc5c01 3476=item DESCRIPTION
cb1a09d0 3477
8ebc5c01 3478=over
cb1a09d0 3479
8ebc5c01 3480=item Selecting What To Export
cb1a09d0 3481
8ebc5c01 3482=item Specialised Import Lists
cb1a09d0 3483
d516a115
JH
3484=item Exporting without using Export's import method
3485
8ebc5c01 3486=item Module Version Checking
cb1a09d0 3487
8ebc5c01 3488=item Managing Unknown Symbols
cb1a09d0 3489
8ebc5c01 3490=item Tag Handling Utility Functions
cb1a09d0 3491
8ebc5c01 3492=back
cb1a09d0 3493
68dc0745
PP
3494=head2 ExtUtils::Command - utilities to replace common UNIX commands in
3495Makefiles etc.
3496
dc848c6f 3497=item SYNOPSIS
68dc0745
PP
3498
3499=item DESCRIPTION
3500
3501cat, eqtime src dst, rm_f files..., rm_f files..., touch files .., mv
3502source... destination, cp source... destination, chmod mode files.., mkpath
3503directory.., test_f file
3504
3505=item BUGS
3506
3507=item SEE ALSO
3508
3509=item AUTHOR
3510
8ebc5c01 3511=head2 ExtUtils::Embed - Utilities for embedding Perl in C/C++ applications
cb1a09d0
AD
3512
3513=item SYNOPSIS
3514
cb1a09d0
AD
3515=item DESCRIPTION
3516
8ebc5c01 3517=item @EXPORT
cb1a09d0 3518
8ebc5c01 3519=item FUNCTIONS
cb1a09d0 3520
8ebc5c01
PP
3521xsinit(), Exam