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a0d0e21e 1/* sv.c
79072805 2 *
1129b882 3 * Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000,
83706693
RGS
4 * 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 by Larry Wall
5 * and others
79072805
LW
6 *
7 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
8 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
9 *
4ac71550
TC
10 */
11
12/*
13 * 'I wonder what the Entish is for "yes" and "no",' he thought.
14 * --Pippin
15 *
16 * [p.480 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/iv: "Treebeard"]
17 */
18
19/*
645c22ef
DM
20 *
21 *
5e045b90
AMS
22 * This file contains the code that creates, manipulates and destroys
23 * scalar values (SVs). The other types (AV, HV, GV, etc.) reuse the
24 * structure of an SV, so their creation and destruction is handled
25 * here; higher-level functions are in av.c, hv.c, and so on. Opcode
26 * level functions (eg. substr, split, join) for each of the types are
27 * in the pp*.c files.
79072805
LW
28 */
29
30#include "EXTERN.h"
864dbfa3 31#define PERL_IN_SV_C
79072805 32#include "perl.h"
d2f185dc 33#include "regcomp.h"
79072805 34
51371543 35#define FCALL *f
2c5424a7 36
2f8ed50e
OS
37#ifdef __Lynx__
38/* Missing proto on LynxOS */
39 char *gconvert(double, int, int, char *);
40#endif
41
e23c8137 42#ifdef PERL_UTF8_CACHE_ASSERT
ab455f60 43/* if adding more checks watch out for the following tests:
e23c8137
JH
44 * t/op/index.t t/op/length.t t/op/pat.t t/op/substr.t
45 * lib/utf8.t lib/Unicode/Collate/t/index.t
46 * --jhi
47 */
6f207bd3 48# define ASSERT_UTF8_CACHE(cache) \
ab455f60
NC
49 STMT_START { if (cache) { assert((cache)[0] <= (cache)[1]); \
50 assert((cache)[2] <= (cache)[3]); \
51 assert((cache)[3] <= (cache)[1]);} \
52 } STMT_END
e23c8137 53#else
6f207bd3 54# define ASSERT_UTF8_CACHE(cache) NOOP
e23c8137
JH
55#endif
56
f8c7b90f 57#ifdef PERL_OLD_COPY_ON_WRITE
765f542d 58#define SV_COW_NEXT_SV(sv) INT2PTR(SV *,SvUVX(sv))
607fa7f2 59#define SV_COW_NEXT_SV_SET(current,next) SvUV_set(current, PTR2UV(next))
b5ccf5f2 60/* This is a pessimistic view. Scalar must be purely a read-write PV to copy-
765f542d 61 on-write. */
765f542d 62#endif
645c22ef
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63
64/* ============================================================================
65
66=head1 Allocation and deallocation of SVs.
67
d2a0f284
JC
68An SV (or AV, HV, etc.) is allocated in two parts: the head (struct
69sv, av, hv...) contains type and reference count information, and for
70many types, a pointer to the body (struct xrv, xpv, xpviv...), which
71contains fields specific to each type. Some types store all they need
72in the head, so don't have a body.
73
74In all but the most memory-paranoid configuations (ex: PURIFY), heads
75and bodies are allocated out of arenas, which by default are
76approximately 4K chunks of memory parcelled up into N heads or bodies.
93e68bfb
JC
77Sv-bodies are allocated by their sv-type, guaranteeing size
78consistency needed to allocate safely from arrays.
79
d2a0f284
JC
80For SV-heads, the first slot in each arena is reserved, and holds a
81link to the next arena, some flags, and a note of the number of slots.
82Snaked through each arena chain is a linked list of free items; when
83this becomes empty, an extra arena is allocated and divided up into N
84items which are threaded into the free list.
85
86SV-bodies are similar, but they use arena-sets by default, which
87separate the link and info from the arena itself, and reclaim the 1st
88slot in the arena. SV-bodies are further described later.
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89
90The following global variables are associated with arenas:
91
92 PL_sv_arenaroot pointer to list of SV arenas
93 PL_sv_root pointer to list of free SV structures
94
d2a0f284
JC
95 PL_body_arenas head of linked-list of body arenas
96 PL_body_roots[] array of pointers to list of free bodies of svtype
97 arrays are indexed by the svtype needed
93e68bfb 98
d2a0f284
JC
99A few special SV heads are not allocated from an arena, but are
100instead directly created in the interpreter structure, eg PL_sv_undef.
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JC
101The size of arenas can be changed from the default by setting
102PERL_ARENA_SIZE appropriately at compile time.
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103
104The SV arena serves the secondary purpose of allowing still-live SVs
105to be located and destroyed during final cleanup.
106
107At the lowest level, the macros new_SV() and del_SV() grab and free
108an SV head. (If debugging with -DD, del_SV() calls the function S_del_sv()
109to return the SV to the free list with error checking.) new_SV() calls
110more_sv() / sv_add_arena() to add an extra arena if the free list is empty.
111SVs in the free list have their SvTYPE field set to all ones.
112
ff276b08 113At the time of very final cleanup, sv_free_arenas() is called from
645c22ef 114perl_destruct() to physically free all the arenas allocated since the
6a93a7e5 115start of the interpreter.
645c22ef 116
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117The function visit() scans the SV arenas list, and calls a specified
118function for each SV it finds which is still live - ie which has an SvTYPE
119other than all 1's, and a non-zero SvREFCNT. visit() is used by the
120following functions (specified as [function that calls visit()] / [function
121called by visit() for each SV]):
122
123 sv_report_used() / do_report_used()
f2524eef 124 dump all remaining SVs (debugging aid)
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125
126 sv_clean_objs() / do_clean_objs(),do_clean_named_objs()
127 Attempt to free all objects pointed to by RVs,
128 and, unless DISABLE_DESTRUCTOR_KLUDGE is defined,
129 try to do the same for all objects indirectly
130 referenced by typeglobs too. Called once from
131 perl_destruct(), prior to calling sv_clean_all()
132 below.
133
134 sv_clean_all() / do_clean_all()
135 SvREFCNT_dec(sv) each remaining SV, possibly
136 triggering an sv_free(). It also sets the
137 SVf_BREAK flag on the SV to indicate that the
138 refcnt has been artificially lowered, and thus
139 stopping sv_free() from giving spurious warnings
140 about SVs which unexpectedly have a refcnt
141 of zero. called repeatedly from perl_destruct()
142 until there are no SVs left.
143
93e68bfb 144=head2 Arena allocator API Summary
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145
146Private API to rest of sv.c
147
148 new_SV(), del_SV(),
149
150 new_XIV(), del_XIV(),
151 new_XNV(), del_XNV(),
152 etc
153
154Public API:
155
8cf8f3d1 156 sv_report_used(), sv_clean_objs(), sv_clean_all(), sv_free_arenas()
645c22ef 157
645c22ef
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158=cut
159
3e8320cc 160 * ========================================================================= */
645c22ef 161
4561caa4
CS
162/*
163 * "A time to plant, and a time to uproot what was planted..."
164 */
165
77354fb4 166void
de37a194 167Perl_offer_nice_chunk(pTHX_ void *const chunk, const U32 chunk_size)
77354fb4 168{
97aff369 169 dVAR;
77354fb4
NC
170 void *new_chunk;
171 U32 new_chunk_size;
7918f24d
NC
172
173 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_OFFER_NICE_CHUNK;
174
77354fb4
NC
175 new_chunk = (void *)(chunk);
176 new_chunk_size = (chunk_size);
177 if (new_chunk_size > PL_nice_chunk_size) {
178 Safefree(PL_nice_chunk);
179 PL_nice_chunk = (char *) new_chunk;
180 PL_nice_chunk_size = new_chunk_size;
181 } else {
182 Safefree(chunk);
183 }
77354fb4 184}
cac9b346 185
d7a2c63c
MHM
186#ifdef PERL_MEM_LOG
187# define MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(sv, file, line, func) \
188 Perl_mem_log_new_sv(sv, file, line, func)
189# define MEM_LOG_DEL_SV(sv, file, line, func) \
190 Perl_mem_log_del_sv(sv, file, line, func)
191#else
192# define MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(sv, file, line, func) NOOP
193# define MEM_LOG_DEL_SV(sv, file, line, func) NOOP
194#endif
195
fd0854ff 196#ifdef DEBUG_LEAKING_SCALARS
22162ca8 197# define FREE_SV_DEBUG_FILE(sv) Safefree((sv)->sv_debug_file)
d7a2c63c
MHM
198# define DEBUG_SV_SERIAL(sv) \
199 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf": (%05ld) del_SV\n", \
200 PTR2UV(sv), (long)(sv)->sv_debug_serial))
fd0854ff
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201#else
202# define FREE_SV_DEBUG_FILE(sv)
d7a2c63c 203# define DEBUG_SV_SERIAL(sv) NOOP
fd0854ff
DM
204#endif
205
48614a46
NC
206#ifdef PERL_POISON
207# define SvARENA_CHAIN(sv) ((sv)->sv_u.svu_rv)
daba3364 208# define SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv,val) (sv)->sv_u.svu_rv = MUTABLE_SV((val))
48614a46
NC
209/* Whilst I'd love to do this, it seems that things like to check on
210 unreferenced scalars
7e337ee0 211# define POSION_SV_HEAD(sv) PoisonNew(sv, 1, struct STRUCT_SV)
48614a46 212*/
7e337ee0
JH
213# define POSION_SV_HEAD(sv) PoisonNew(&SvANY(sv), 1, void *), \
214 PoisonNew(&SvREFCNT(sv), 1, U32)
48614a46
NC
215#else
216# define SvARENA_CHAIN(sv) SvANY(sv)
3eef1deb 217# define SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv,val) SvANY(sv) = (void *)(val)
48614a46
NC
218# define POSION_SV_HEAD(sv)
219#endif
220
990198f0
DM
221/* Mark an SV head as unused, and add to free list.
222 *
223 * If SVf_BREAK is set, skip adding it to the free list, as this SV had
224 * its refcount artificially decremented during global destruction, so
225 * there may be dangling pointers to it. The last thing we want in that
226 * case is for it to be reused. */
227
053fc874
GS
228#define plant_SV(p) \
229 STMT_START { \
990198f0 230 const U32 old_flags = SvFLAGS(p); \
d7a2c63c
MHM
231 MEM_LOG_DEL_SV(p, __FILE__, __LINE__, FUNCTION__); \
232 DEBUG_SV_SERIAL(p); \
fd0854ff 233 FREE_SV_DEBUG_FILE(p); \
48614a46 234 POSION_SV_HEAD(p); \
053fc874 235 SvFLAGS(p) = SVTYPEMASK; \
990198f0 236 if (!(old_flags & SVf_BREAK)) { \
3eef1deb 237 SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(p, PL_sv_root); \
990198f0
DM
238 PL_sv_root = (p); \
239 } \
053fc874
GS
240 --PL_sv_count; \
241 } STMT_END
a0d0e21e 242
053fc874
GS
243#define uproot_SV(p) \
244 STMT_START { \
245 (p) = PL_sv_root; \
daba3364 246 PL_sv_root = MUTABLE_SV(SvARENA_CHAIN(p)); \
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GS
247 ++PL_sv_count; \
248 } STMT_END
249
645c22ef 250
cac9b346
NC
251/* make some more SVs by adding another arena */
252
cac9b346
NC
253STATIC SV*
254S_more_sv(pTHX)
255{
97aff369 256 dVAR;
cac9b346
NC
257 SV* sv;
258
259 if (PL_nice_chunk) {
260 sv_add_arena(PL_nice_chunk, PL_nice_chunk_size, 0);
bd61b366 261 PL_nice_chunk = NULL;
cac9b346
NC
262 PL_nice_chunk_size = 0;
263 }
264 else {
265 char *chunk; /* must use New here to match call to */
d2a0f284 266 Newx(chunk,PERL_ARENA_SIZE,char); /* Safefree() in sv_free_arenas() */
2e7ed132 267 sv_add_arena(chunk, PERL_ARENA_SIZE, 0);
cac9b346
NC
268 }
269 uproot_SV(sv);
270 return sv;
271}
272
645c22ef
DM
273/* new_SV(): return a new, empty SV head */
274
eba0f806
DM
275#ifdef DEBUG_LEAKING_SCALARS
276/* provide a real function for a debugger to play with */
277STATIC SV*
d7a2c63c 278S_new_SV(pTHX_ const char *file, int line, const char *func)
eba0f806
DM
279{
280 SV* sv;
281
eba0f806
DM
282 if (PL_sv_root)
283 uproot_SV(sv);
284 else
cac9b346 285 sv = S_more_sv(aTHX);
eba0f806
DM
286 SvANY(sv) = 0;
287 SvREFCNT(sv) = 1;
288 SvFLAGS(sv) = 0;
fd0854ff 289 sv->sv_debug_optype = PL_op ? PL_op->op_type : 0;
e385c3bf
DM
290 sv->sv_debug_line = (U16) (PL_parser && PL_parser->copline != NOLINE
291 ? PL_parser->copline
292 : PL_curcop
f24aceb1
DM
293 ? CopLINE(PL_curcop)
294 : 0
e385c3bf 295 );
fd0854ff
DM
296 sv->sv_debug_inpad = 0;
297 sv->sv_debug_cloned = 0;
fd0854ff 298 sv->sv_debug_file = PL_curcop ? savepv(CopFILE(PL_curcop)): NULL;
d7a2c63c
MHM
299
300 sv->sv_debug_serial = PL_sv_serial++;
301
302 MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(sv, file, line, func);
303 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf": (%05ld) new_SV (from %s:%d [%s])\n",
304 PTR2UV(sv), (long)sv->sv_debug_serial, file, line, func));
305
eba0f806
DM
306 return sv;
307}
d7a2c63c 308# define new_SV(p) (p)=S_new_SV(aTHX_ __FILE__, __LINE__, FUNCTION__)
eba0f806
DM
309
310#else
311# define new_SV(p) \
053fc874 312 STMT_START { \
053fc874
GS
313 if (PL_sv_root) \
314 uproot_SV(p); \
315 else \
cac9b346 316 (p) = S_more_sv(aTHX); \
053fc874
GS
317 SvANY(p) = 0; \
318 SvREFCNT(p) = 1; \
319 SvFLAGS(p) = 0; \
d7a2c63c 320 MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(p, __FILE__, __LINE__, FUNCTION__); \
053fc874 321 } STMT_END
eba0f806 322#endif
463ee0b2 323
645c22ef
DM
324
325/* del_SV(): return an empty SV head to the free list */
326
a0d0e21e 327#ifdef DEBUGGING
4561caa4 328
053fc874
GS
329#define del_SV(p) \
330 STMT_START { \
aea4f609 331 if (DEBUG_D_TEST) \
053fc874
GS
332 del_sv(p); \
333 else \
334 plant_SV(p); \
053fc874 335 } STMT_END
a0d0e21e 336
76e3520e 337STATIC void
cea2e8a9 338S_del_sv(pTHX_ SV *p)
463ee0b2 339{
97aff369 340 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
341
342 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_DEL_SV;
343
aea4f609 344 if (DEBUG_D_TEST) {
4633a7c4 345 SV* sva;
a3b680e6 346 bool ok = 0;
daba3364 347 for (sva = PL_sv_arenaroot; sva; sva = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(sva))) {
53c1dcc0
AL
348 const SV * const sv = sva + 1;
349 const SV * const svend = &sva[SvREFCNT(sva)];
c0ff570e 350 if (p >= sv && p < svend) {
a0d0e21e 351 ok = 1;
c0ff570e
NC
352 break;
353 }
a0d0e21e
LW
354 }
355 if (!ok) {
9b387841
NC
356 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_INTERNAL),
357 "Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%"UVxf
358 pTHX__FORMAT, PTR2UV(p) pTHX__VALUE);
a0d0e21e
LW
359 return;
360 }
361 }
4561caa4 362 plant_SV(p);
463ee0b2 363}
a0d0e21e 364
4561caa4
CS
365#else /* ! DEBUGGING */
366
367#define del_SV(p) plant_SV(p)
368
369#endif /* DEBUGGING */
463ee0b2 370
645c22ef
DM
371
372/*
ccfc67b7
JH
373=head1 SV Manipulation Functions
374
645c22ef
DM
375=for apidoc sv_add_arena
376
377Given a chunk of memory, link it to the head of the list of arenas,
378and split it into a list of free SVs.
379
380=cut
381*/
382
d2bd4e7f
NC
383static void
384S_sv_add_arena(pTHX_ char *const ptr, const U32 size, const U32 flags)
463ee0b2 385{
97aff369 386 dVAR;
daba3364 387 SV *const sva = MUTABLE_SV(ptr);
463ee0b2
LW
388 register SV* sv;
389 register SV* svend;
4633a7c4 390
7918f24d
NC
391 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_ADD_ARENA;
392
4633a7c4 393 /* The first SV in an arena isn't an SV. */
3280af22 394 SvANY(sva) = (void *) PL_sv_arenaroot; /* ptr to next arena */
4633a7c4
LW
395 SvREFCNT(sva) = size / sizeof(SV); /* number of SV slots */
396 SvFLAGS(sva) = flags; /* FAKE if not to be freed */
397
3280af22
NIS
398 PL_sv_arenaroot = sva;
399 PL_sv_root = sva + 1;
4633a7c4
LW
400
401 svend = &sva[SvREFCNT(sva) - 1];
402 sv = sva + 1;
463ee0b2 403 while (sv < svend) {
3eef1deb 404 SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv, (sv + 1));
03e36789 405#ifdef DEBUGGING
978b032e 406 SvREFCNT(sv) = 0;
03e36789 407#endif
4b69cbe3 408 /* Must always set typemask because it's always checked in on cleanup
03e36789 409 when the arenas are walked looking for objects. */
8990e307 410 SvFLAGS(sv) = SVTYPEMASK;
463ee0b2
LW
411 sv++;
412 }
3eef1deb 413 SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv, 0);
03e36789
NC
414#ifdef DEBUGGING
415 SvREFCNT(sv) = 0;
416#endif
4633a7c4
LW
417 SvFLAGS(sv) = SVTYPEMASK;
418}
419
055972dc
DM
420/* visit(): call the named function for each non-free SV in the arenas
421 * whose flags field matches the flags/mask args. */
645c22ef 422
5226ed68 423STATIC I32
de37a194 424S_visit(pTHX_ SVFUNC_t f, const U32 flags, const U32 mask)
8990e307 425{
97aff369 426 dVAR;
4633a7c4 427 SV* sva;
5226ed68 428 I32 visited = 0;
8990e307 429
7918f24d
NC
430 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_VISIT;
431
daba3364 432 for (sva = PL_sv_arenaroot; sva; sva = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(sva))) {
53c1dcc0 433 register const SV * const svend = &sva[SvREFCNT(sva)];
a3b680e6 434 register SV* sv;
4561caa4 435 for (sv = sva + 1; sv < svend; ++sv) {
055972dc
DM
436 if (SvTYPE(sv) != SVTYPEMASK
437 && (sv->sv_flags & mask) == flags
438 && SvREFCNT(sv))
439 {
acfe0abc 440 (FCALL)(aTHX_ sv);
5226ed68
JH
441 ++visited;
442 }
8990e307
LW
443 }
444 }
5226ed68 445 return visited;
8990e307
LW
446}
447
758a08c3
JH
448#ifdef DEBUGGING
449
645c22ef
DM
450/* called by sv_report_used() for each live SV */
451
452static void
5fa45a31 453do_report_used(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
645c22ef
DM
454{
455 if (SvTYPE(sv) != SVTYPEMASK) {
456 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "****\n");
457 sv_dump(sv);
458 }
459}
758a08c3 460#endif
645c22ef
DM
461
462/*
463=for apidoc sv_report_used
464
465Dump the contents of all SVs not yet freed. (Debugging aid).
466
467=cut
468*/
469
8990e307 470void
864dbfa3 471Perl_sv_report_used(pTHX)
4561caa4 472{
ff270d3a 473#ifdef DEBUGGING
055972dc 474 visit(do_report_used, 0, 0);
96a5add6
AL
475#else
476 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
ff270d3a 477#endif
4561caa4
CS
478}
479
645c22ef
DM
480/* called by sv_clean_objs() for each live SV */
481
482static void
de37a194 483do_clean_objs(pTHX_ SV *const ref)
645c22ef 484{
97aff369 485 dVAR;
ea724faa
NC
486 assert (SvROK(ref));
487 {
823a54a3
AL
488 SV * const target = SvRV(ref);
489 if (SvOBJECT(target)) {
490 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Cleaning object ref:\n "), sv_dump(ref)));
491 if (SvWEAKREF(ref)) {
492 sv_del_backref(target, ref);
493 SvWEAKREF_off(ref);
494 SvRV_set(ref, NULL);
495 } else {
496 SvROK_off(ref);
497 SvRV_set(ref, NULL);
498 SvREFCNT_dec(target);
499 }
645c22ef
DM
500 }
501 }
502
503 /* XXX Might want to check arrays, etc. */
504}
505
506/* called by sv_clean_objs() for each live SV */
507
508#ifndef DISABLE_DESTRUCTOR_KLUDGE
509static void
f30de749 510do_clean_named_objs(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
645c22ef 511{
97aff369 512 dVAR;
ea724faa 513 assert(SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVGV);
d011219a
NC
514 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
515 if (GvGP(sv)) {
c69033f2
NC
516 if ((
517#ifdef PERL_DONT_CREATE_GVSV
518 GvSV(sv) &&
519#endif
520 SvOBJECT(GvSV(sv))) ||
645c22ef
DM
521 (GvAV(sv) && SvOBJECT(GvAV(sv))) ||
522 (GvHV(sv) && SvOBJECT(GvHV(sv))) ||
9c12f1e5
RGS
523 /* In certain rare cases GvIOp(sv) can be NULL, which would make SvOBJECT(GvIO(sv)) dereference NULL. */
524 (GvIO(sv) ? (SvFLAGS(GvIOp(sv)) & SVs_OBJECT) : 0) ||
645c22ef
DM
525 (GvCV(sv) && SvOBJECT(GvCV(sv))) )
526 {
527 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Cleaning named glob object:\n "), sv_dump(sv)));
ec5f3c78 528 SvFLAGS(sv) |= SVf_BREAK;
645c22ef
DM
529 SvREFCNT_dec(sv);
530 }
531 }
532}
533#endif
534
535/*
536=for apidoc sv_clean_objs
537
538Attempt to destroy all objects not yet freed
539
540=cut
541*/
542
4561caa4 543void
864dbfa3 544Perl_sv_clean_objs(pTHX)
4561caa4 545{
97aff369 546 dVAR;
3280af22 547 PL_in_clean_objs = TRUE;
055972dc 548 visit(do_clean_objs, SVf_ROK, SVf_ROK);
4561caa4 549#ifndef DISABLE_DESTRUCTOR_KLUDGE
2d0f3c12 550 /* some barnacles may yet remain, clinging to typeglobs */
d011219a 551 visit(do_clean_named_objs, SVt_PVGV|SVpgv_GP, SVTYPEMASK|SVp_POK|SVpgv_GP);
4561caa4 552#endif
3280af22 553 PL_in_clean_objs = FALSE;
4561caa4
CS
554}
555
645c22ef
DM
556/* called by sv_clean_all() for each live SV */
557
558static void
de37a194 559do_clean_all(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
645c22ef 560{
97aff369 561 dVAR;
daba3364 562 if (sv == (const SV *) PL_fdpid || sv == (const SV *)PL_strtab) {
cddfcddc 563 /* don't clean pid table and strtab */
d17ea597 564 return;
cddfcddc 565 }
645c22ef
DM
566 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Cleaning loops: SV at 0x%"UVxf"\n", PTR2UV(sv)) ));
567 SvFLAGS(sv) |= SVf_BREAK;
568 SvREFCNT_dec(sv);
569}
570
571/*
572=for apidoc sv_clean_all
573
574Decrement the refcnt of each remaining SV, possibly triggering a
575cleanup. This function may have to be called multiple times to free
ff276b08 576SVs which are in complex self-referential hierarchies.
645c22ef
DM
577
578=cut
579*/
580
5226ed68 581I32
864dbfa3 582Perl_sv_clean_all(pTHX)
8990e307 583{
97aff369 584 dVAR;
5226ed68 585 I32 cleaned;
3280af22 586 PL_in_clean_all = TRUE;
055972dc 587 cleaned = visit(do_clean_all, 0,0);
3280af22 588 PL_in_clean_all = FALSE;
5226ed68 589 return cleaned;
8990e307 590}
463ee0b2 591
5e258f8c
JC
592/*
593 ARENASETS: a meta-arena implementation which separates arena-info
594 into struct arena_set, which contains an array of struct
595 arena_descs, each holding info for a single arena. By separating
596 the meta-info from the arena, we recover the 1st slot, formerly
597 borrowed for list management. The arena_set is about the size of an
39244528 598 arena, avoiding the needless malloc overhead of a naive linked-list.
5e258f8c
JC
599
600 The cost is 1 arena-set malloc per ~320 arena-mallocs, + the unused
601 memory in the last arena-set (1/2 on average). In trade, we get
602 back the 1st slot in each arena (ie 1.7% of a CV-arena, less for
d2a0f284 603 smaller types). The recovery of the wasted space allows use of
e15dad31
JC
604 small arenas for large, rare body types, by changing array* fields
605 in body_details_by_type[] below.
5e258f8c 606*/
5e258f8c 607struct arena_desc {
398c677b
NC
608 char *arena; /* the raw storage, allocated aligned */
609 size_t size; /* its size ~4k typ */
e5973ed5 610 svtype utype; /* bodytype stored in arena */
5e258f8c
JC
611};
612
e6148039
NC
613struct arena_set;
614
615/* Get the maximum number of elements in set[] such that struct arena_set
e15dad31 616 will fit within PERL_ARENA_SIZE, which is probably just under 4K, and
e6148039
NC
617 therefore likely to be 1 aligned memory page. */
618
619#define ARENAS_PER_SET ((PERL_ARENA_SIZE - sizeof(struct arena_set*) \
620 - 2 * sizeof(int)) / sizeof (struct arena_desc))
5e258f8c
JC
621
622struct arena_set {
623 struct arena_set* next;
0a848332
NC
624 unsigned int set_size; /* ie ARENAS_PER_SET */
625 unsigned int curr; /* index of next available arena-desc */
5e258f8c
JC
626 struct arena_desc set[ARENAS_PER_SET];
627};
628
645c22ef
DM
629/*
630=for apidoc sv_free_arenas
631
632Deallocate the memory used by all arenas. Note that all the individual SV
633heads and bodies within the arenas must already have been freed.
634
635=cut
636*/
4633a7c4 637void
864dbfa3 638Perl_sv_free_arenas(pTHX)
4633a7c4 639{
97aff369 640 dVAR;
4633a7c4
LW
641 SV* sva;
642 SV* svanext;
0a848332 643 unsigned int i;
4633a7c4
LW
644
645 /* Free arenas here, but be careful about fake ones. (We assume
646 contiguity of the fake ones with the corresponding real ones.) */
647
3280af22 648 for (sva = PL_sv_arenaroot; sva; sva = svanext) {
daba3364 649 svanext = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(sva));
4633a7c4 650 while (svanext && SvFAKE(svanext))
daba3364 651 svanext = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(svanext));
4633a7c4
LW
652
653 if (!SvFAKE(sva))
1df70142 654 Safefree(sva);
4633a7c4 655 }
93e68bfb 656
5e258f8c 657 {
0a848332
NC
658 struct arena_set *aroot = (struct arena_set*) PL_body_arenas;
659
660 while (aroot) {
661 struct arena_set *current = aroot;
662 i = aroot->curr;
663 while (i--) {
5e258f8c
JC
664 assert(aroot->set[i].arena);
665 Safefree(aroot->set[i].arena);
666 }
0a848332
NC
667 aroot = aroot->next;
668 Safefree(current);
5e258f8c
JC
669 }
670 }
dc8220bf 671 PL_body_arenas = 0;
fdda85ca 672
0a848332
NC
673 i = PERL_ARENA_ROOTS_SIZE;
674 while (i--)
93e68bfb 675 PL_body_roots[i] = 0;
93e68bfb 676
43c5f42d 677 Safefree(PL_nice_chunk);
bd61b366 678 PL_nice_chunk = NULL;
3280af22
NIS
679 PL_nice_chunk_size = 0;
680 PL_sv_arenaroot = 0;
681 PL_sv_root = 0;
4633a7c4
LW
682}
683
bd81e77b
NC
684/*
685 Here are mid-level routines that manage the allocation of bodies out
686 of the various arenas. There are 5 kinds of arenas:
29489e7c 687
bd81e77b
NC
688 1. SV-head arenas, which are discussed and handled above
689 2. regular body arenas
690 3. arenas for reduced-size bodies
691 4. Hash-Entry arenas
29489e7c 692
bd81e77b
NC
693 Arena types 2 & 3 are chained by body-type off an array of
694 arena-root pointers, which is indexed by svtype. Some of the
695 larger/less used body types are malloced singly, since a large
696 unused block of them is wasteful. Also, several svtypes dont have
697 bodies; the data fits into the sv-head itself. The arena-root
698 pointer thus has a few unused root-pointers (which may be hijacked
699 later for arena types 4,5)
29489e7c 700
bd81e77b
NC
701 3 differs from 2 as an optimization; some body types have several
702 unused fields in the front of the structure (which are kept in-place
703 for consistency). These bodies can be allocated in smaller chunks,
704 because the leading fields arent accessed. Pointers to such bodies
705 are decremented to point at the unused 'ghost' memory, knowing that
706 the pointers are used with offsets to the real memory.
29489e7c 707
bd81e77b
NC
708 HE, HEK arenas are managed separately, with separate code, but may
709 be merge-able later..
bd81e77b
NC
710*/
711
bd26d9a3 712/* get_arena(size): this creates custom-sized arenas
5e258f8c
JC
713 TBD: export properly for hv.c: S_more_he().
714*/
715void*
e5973ed5 716Perl_get_arena(pTHX_ const size_t arena_size, const svtype bodytype)
5e258f8c 717{
7a89be66 718 dVAR;
5e258f8c 719 struct arena_desc* adesc;
39244528 720 struct arena_set *aroot = (struct arena_set*) PL_body_arenas;
0a848332 721 unsigned int curr;
5e258f8c 722
476a1e16
JC
723 /* shouldnt need this
724 if (!arena_size) arena_size = PERL_ARENA_SIZE;
725 */
5e258f8c
JC
726
727 /* may need new arena-set to hold new arena */
39244528
NC
728 if (!aroot || aroot->curr >= aroot->set_size) {
729 struct arena_set *newroot;
5e258f8c
JC
730 Newxz(newroot, 1, struct arena_set);
731 newroot->set_size = ARENAS_PER_SET;
39244528
NC
732 newroot->next = aroot;
733 aroot = newroot;
734 PL_body_arenas = (void *) newroot;
52944de8 735 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "new arenaset %p\n", (void*)aroot));
5e258f8c
JC
736 }
737
738 /* ok, now have arena-set with at least 1 empty/available arena-desc */
39244528
NC
739 curr = aroot->curr++;
740 adesc = &(aroot->set[curr]);
5e258f8c
JC
741 assert(!adesc->arena);
742
89086707 743 Newx(adesc->arena, arena_size, char);
5e258f8c 744 adesc->size = arena_size;
e5973ed5 745 adesc->utype = bodytype;
d67b3c53
JH
746 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "arena %d added: %p size %"UVuf"\n",
747 curr, (void*)adesc->arena, (UV)arena_size));
5e258f8c
JC
748
749 return adesc->arena;
5e258f8c
JC
750}
751
53c1dcc0 752
bd81e77b 753/* return a thing to the free list */
29489e7c 754
bd81e77b
NC
755#define del_body(thing, root) \
756 STMT_START { \
00b6aa41 757 void ** const thing_copy = (void **)thing;\
bd81e77b
NC
758 *thing_copy = *root; \
759 *root = (void*)thing_copy; \
bd81e77b 760 } STMT_END
29489e7c 761
bd81e77b 762/*
d2a0f284
JC
763
764=head1 SV-Body Allocation
765
766Allocation of SV-bodies is similar to SV-heads, differing as follows;
767the allocation mechanism is used for many body types, so is somewhat
768more complicated, it uses arena-sets, and has no need for still-live
769SV detection.
770
771At the outermost level, (new|del)_X*V macros return bodies of the
772appropriate type. These macros call either (new|del)_body_type or
773(new|del)_body_allocated macro pairs, depending on specifics of the
774type. Most body types use the former pair, the latter pair is used to
775allocate body types with "ghost fields".
776
777"ghost fields" are fields that are unused in certain types, and
69ba284b 778consequently don't need to actually exist. They are declared because
d2a0f284
JC
779they're part of a "base type", which allows use of functions as
780methods. The simplest examples are AVs and HVs, 2 aggregate types
781which don't use the fields which support SCALAR semantics.
782
69ba284b 783For these types, the arenas are carved up into appropriately sized
d2a0f284
JC
784chunks, we thus avoid wasted memory for those unaccessed members.
785When bodies are allocated, we adjust the pointer back in memory by the
69ba284b 786size of the part not allocated, so it's as if we allocated the full
d2a0f284
JC
787structure. (But things will all go boom if you write to the part that
788is "not there", because you'll be overwriting the last members of the
789preceding structure in memory.)
790
69ba284b
NC
791We calculate the correction using the STRUCT_OFFSET macro on the first
792member present. If the allocated structure is smaller (no initial NV
793actually allocated) then the net effect is to subtract the size of the NV
794from the pointer, to return a new pointer as if an initial NV were actually
795allocated. (We were using structures named *_allocated for this, but
796this turned out to be a subtle bug, because a structure without an NV
797could have a lower alignment constraint, but the compiler is allowed to
798optimised accesses based on the alignment constraint of the actual pointer
799to the full structure, for example, using a single 64 bit load instruction
800because it "knows" that two adjacent 32 bit members will be 8-byte aligned.)
d2a0f284
JC
801
802This is the same trick as was used for NV and IV bodies. Ironically it
803doesn't need to be used for NV bodies any more, because NV is now at
804the start of the structure. IV bodies don't need it either, because
805they are no longer allocated.
806
807In turn, the new_body_* allocators call S_new_body(), which invokes
808new_body_inline macro, which takes a lock, and takes a body off the
809linked list at PL_body_roots[sv_type], calling S_more_bodies() if
810necessary to refresh an empty list. Then the lock is released, and
811the body is returned.
812
813S_more_bodies calls get_arena(), and carves it up into an array of N
814bodies, which it strings into a linked list. It looks up arena-size
815and body-size from the body_details table described below, thus
816supporting the multiple body-types.
817
818If PURIFY is defined, or PERL_ARENA_SIZE=0, arenas are not used, and
819the (new|del)_X*V macros are mapped directly to malloc/free.
820
821*/
822
823/*
824
825For each sv-type, struct body_details bodies_by_type[] carries
826parameters which control these aspects of SV handling:
827
828Arena_size determines whether arenas are used for this body type, and if
829so, how big they are. PURIFY or PERL_ARENA_SIZE=0 set this field to
830zero, forcing individual mallocs and frees.
831
832Body_size determines how big a body is, and therefore how many fit into
833each arena. Offset carries the body-pointer adjustment needed for
69ba284b 834"ghost fields", and is used in *_allocated macros.
d2a0f284
JC
835
836But its main purpose is to parameterize info needed in
837Perl_sv_upgrade(). The info here dramatically simplifies the function
69ba284b 838vs the implementation in 5.8.8, making it table-driven. All fields
d2a0f284
JC
839are used for this, except for arena_size.
840
841For the sv-types that have no bodies, arenas are not used, so those
842PL_body_roots[sv_type] are unused, and can be overloaded. In
843something of a special case, SVt_NULL is borrowed for HE arenas;
c6f8b1d0 844PL_body_roots[HE_SVSLOT=SVt_NULL] is filled by S_more_he, but the
d2a0f284 845bodies_by_type[SVt_NULL] slot is not used, as the table is not
c6f8b1d0 846available in hv.c.
d2a0f284 847
29489e7c
DM
848*/
849
bd81e77b 850struct body_details {
0fb58b32 851 U8 body_size; /* Size to allocate */
10666ae3 852 U8 copy; /* Size of structure to copy (may be shorter) */
0fb58b32 853 U8 offset;
10666ae3
NC
854 unsigned int type : 4; /* We have space for a sanity check. */
855 unsigned int cant_upgrade : 1; /* Cannot upgrade this type */
856 unsigned int zero_nv : 1; /* zero the NV when upgrading from this */
857 unsigned int arena : 1; /* Allocated from an arena */
858 size_t arena_size; /* Size of arena to allocate */
bd81e77b 859};
29489e7c 860
bd81e77b
NC
861#define HADNV FALSE
862#define NONV TRUE
29489e7c 863
d2a0f284 864
bd81e77b
NC
865#ifdef PURIFY
866/* With -DPURFIY we allocate everything directly, and don't use arenas.
867 This seems a rather elegant way to simplify some of the code below. */
868#define HASARENA FALSE
869#else
870#define HASARENA TRUE
871#endif
872#define NOARENA FALSE
29489e7c 873
d2a0f284
JC
874/* Size the arenas to exactly fit a given number of bodies. A count
875 of 0 fits the max number bodies into a PERL_ARENA_SIZE.block,
876 simplifying the default. If count > 0, the arena is sized to fit
877 only that many bodies, allowing arenas to be used for large, rare
878 bodies (XPVFM, XPVIO) without undue waste. The arena size is
879 limited by PERL_ARENA_SIZE, so we can safely oversize the
880 declarations.
881 */
95db5f15
MB
882#define FIT_ARENA0(body_size) \
883 ((size_t)(PERL_ARENA_SIZE / body_size) * body_size)
884#define FIT_ARENAn(count,body_size) \
885 ( count * body_size <= PERL_ARENA_SIZE) \
886 ? count * body_size \
887 : FIT_ARENA0 (body_size)
888#define FIT_ARENA(count,body_size) \
889 count \
890 ? FIT_ARENAn (count, body_size) \
891 : FIT_ARENA0 (body_size)
d2a0f284 892
bd81e77b
NC
893/* Calculate the length to copy. Specifically work out the length less any
894 final padding the compiler needed to add. See the comment in sv_upgrade
895 for why copying the padding proved to be a bug. */
29489e7c 896
bd81e77b
NC
897#define copy_length(type, last_member) \
898 STRUCT_OFFSET(type, last_member) \
daba3364 899 + sizeof (((type*)SvANY((const SV *)0))->last_member)
29489e7c 900
bd81e77b 901static const struct body_details bodies_by_type[] = {
10666ae3
NC
902 { sizeof(HE), 0, 0, SVt_NULL,
903 FALSE, NONV, NOARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(HE)) },
d2a0f284 904
1cb9cd50 905 /* The bind placeholder pretends to be an RV for now.
c6f8b1d0 906 Also it's marked as "can't upgrade" to stop anyone using it before it's
1cb9cd50
NC
907 implemented. */
908 { 0, 0, 0, SVt_BIND, TRUE, NONV, NOARENA, 0 },
909
db93c0c4
NC
910 /* IVs are in the head, so the allocation size is 0. */
911 { 0,
d2a0f284 912 sizeof(IV), /* This is used to copy out the IV body. */
10666ae3 913 STRUCT_OFFSET(XPVIV, xiv_iv), SVt_IV, FALSE, NONV,
db93c0c4 914 NOARENA /* IVS don't need an arena */, 0
d2a0f284
JC
915 },
916
bd81e77b 917 /* 8 bytes on most ILP32 with IEEE doubles */
6e128786
NC
918 { sizeof(NV), sizeof(NV),
919 STRUCT_OFFSET(XPVNV, xnv_u),
920 SVt_NV, FALSE, HADNV, HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(NV)) },
d2a0f284 921
bd81e77b 922 /* 8 bytes on most ILP32 with IEEE doubles */
601dfd0a
NC
923 { sizeof(XPV),
924 copy_length(XPV, xpv_len),
925 0,
69ba284b 926 SVt_PV, FALSE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 927 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPV)) },
d2a0f284 928
bd81e77b 929 /* 12 */
601dfd0a
NC
930 { sizeof(XPVIV),
931 copy_length(XPVIV, xiv_u),
932 0,
69ba284b 933 SVt_PVIV, FALSE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 934 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPV)) },
d2a0f284 935
bd81e77b 936 /* 20 */
6e128786 937 { sizeof(XPVNV), copy_length(XPVNV, xnv_u), 0, SVt_PVNV, FALSE, HADNV,
d2a0f284
JC
938 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVNV)) },
939
bd81e77b 940 /* 28 */
6e128786 941 { sizeof(XPVMG), copy_length(XPVMG, xnv_u), 0, SVt_PVMG, FALSE, HADNV,
d2a0f284 942 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVMG)) },
4df7f6af 943
288b8c02 944 /* something big */
601dfd0a
NC
945 { sizeof(regexp),
946 sizeof(regexp),
947 0,
08e44740 948 SVt_REGEXP, FALSE, NONV, HASARENA,
b6f60916 949 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(regexp) - STRUCT_OFFSET(regexp, xpv_cur))
5c35adbb 950 },
4df7f6af 951
bd81e77b 952 /* 48 */
10666ae3 953 { sizeof(XPVGV), sizeof(XPVGV), 0, SVt_PVGV, TRUE, HADNV,
d2a0f284
JC
954 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVGV)) },
955
bd81e77b 956 /* 64 */
10666ae3 957 { sizeof(XPVLV), sizeof(XPVLV), 0, SVt_PVLV, TRUE, HADNV,
d2a0f284
JC
958 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVLV)) },
959
601dfd0a 960 { sizeof(XPVAV),
6e128786 961 copy_length(XPVAV, xiv_u),
601dfd0a 962 0,
69ba284b 963 SVt_PVAV, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 964 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVAV)) },
d2a0f284 965
601dfd0a 966 { sizeof(XPVHV),
6e128786 967 copy_length(XPVHV, xiv_u),
601dfd0a 968 0,
69ba284b 969 SVt_PVHV, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 970 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVHV)) },
d2a0f284 971
c84c4652 972 /* 56 */
601dfd0a
NC
973 { sizeof(XPVCV),
974 sizeof(XPVCV),
975 0,
69ba284b 976 SVt_PVCV, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 977 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVCV)) },
69ba284b 978
601dfd0a
NC
979 { sizeof(XPVFM),
980 sizeof(XPVFM),
981 0,
69ba284b 982 SVt_PVFM, TRUE, NONV, NOARENA,
601dfd0a 983 FIT_ARENA(20, sizeof(XPVFM)) },
d2a0f284
JC
984
985 /* XPVIO is 84 bytes, fits 48x */
601dfd0a
NC
986 { sizeof(XPVIO),
987 sizeof(XPVIO),
988 0,
b6f60916 989 SVt_PVIO, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 990 FIT_ARENA(24, sizeof(XPVIO)) },
bd81e77b 991};
29489e7c 992
bd81e77b 993#define new_body_allocated(sv_type) \
d2a0f284 994 (void *)((char *)S_new_body(aTHX_ sv_type) \
bd81e77b 995 - bodies_by_type[sv_type].offset)
29489e7c 996
bd81e77b
NC
997#define del_body_allocated(p, sv_type) \
998 del_body(p + bodies_by_type[sv_type].offset, &PL_body_roots[sv_type])
29489e7c 999
29489e7c 1000
bd81e77b
NC
1001#define my_safemalloc(s) (void*)safemalloc(s)
1002#define my_safecalloc(s) (void*)safecalloc(s, 1)
1003#define my_safefree(p) safefree((char*)p)
29489e7c 1004
bd81e77b 1005#ifdef PURIFY
29489e7c 1006
bd81e77b
NC
1007#define new_XNV() my_safemalloc(sizeof(XPVNV))
1008#define del_XNV(p) my_safefree(p)
29489e7c 1009
bd81e77b
NC
1010#define new_XPVNV() my_safemalloc(sizeof(XPVNV))
1011#define del_XPVNV(p) my_safefree(p)
29489e7c 1012
bd81e77b
NC
1013#define new_XPVAV() my_safemalloc(sizeof(XPVAV))
1014#define del_XPVAV(p) my_safefree(p)
29489e7c 1015
bd81e77b
NC
1016#define new_XPVHV() my_safemalloc(sizeof(XPVHV))
1017#define del_XPVHV(p) my_safefree(p)
29489e7c 1018
bd81e77b
NC
1019#define new_XPVMG() my_safemalloc(sizeof(XPVMG))
1020#define del_XPVMG(p) my_safefree(p)
29489e7c 1021
bd81e77b
NC
1022#define new_XPVGV() my_safemalloc(sizeof(XPVGV))
1023#define del_XPVGV(p) my_safefree(p)
29489e7c 1024
bd81e77b 1025#else /* !PURIFY */
29489e7c 1026
65ac1738
NC
1027#define new_XNV() new_body_allocated(SVt_NV)
1028#define del_XNV(p) del_body_allocated(p, SVt_NV)
29489e7c 1029
65ac1738
NC
1030#define new_XPVNV() new_body_allocated(SVt_PVNV)
1031#define del_XPVNV(p) del_body_allocated(p, SVt_PVNV)
29489e7c 1032
bd81e77b
NC
1033#define new_XPVAV() new_body_allocated(SVt_PVAV)
1034#define del_XPVAV(p) del_body_allocated(p, SVt_PVAV)
645c22ef 1035
bd81e77b
NC
1036#define new_XPVHV() new_body_allocated(SVt_PVHV)
1037#define del_XPVHV(p) del_body_allocated(p, SVt_PVHV)
645c22ef 1038
65ac1738
NC
1039#define new_XPVMG() new_body_allocated(SVt_PVMG)
1040#define del_XPVMG(p) del_body_allocated(p, SVt_PVMG)
645c22ef 1041
65ac1738
NC
1042#define new_XPVGV() new_body_allocated(SVt_PVGV)
1043#define del_XPVGV(p) del_body_allocated(p, SVt_PVGV)
1d7c1841 1044
bd81e77b 1045#endif /* PURIFY */
93e68bfb 1046
bd81e77b 1047/* no arena for you! */
93e68bfb 1048
bd81e77b 1049#define new_NOARENA(details) \
d2a0f284 1050 my_safemalloc((details)->body_size + (details)->offset)
bd81e77b 1051#define new_NOARENAZ(details) \
d2a0f284
JC
1052 my_safecalloc((details)->body_size + (details)->offset)
1053
1054STATIC void *
de37a194 1055S_more_bodies (pTHX_ const svtype sv_type)
d2a0f284
JC
1056{
1057 dVAR;
1058 void ** const root = &PL_body_roots[sv_type];
96a5add6 1059 const struct body_details * const bdp = &bodies_by_type[sv_type];
d2a0f284
JC
1060 const size_t body_size = bdp->body_size;
1061 char *start;
1062 const char *end;
d8fca402 1063 const size_t arena_size = Perl_malloc_good_size(bdp->arena_size);
0b2d3faa 1064#if defined(DEBUGGING) && !defined(PERL_GLOBAL_STRUCT_PRIVATE)
23e9d66c
NC
1065 static bool done_sanity_check;
1066
0b2d3faa
JH
1067 /* PERL_GLOBAL_STRUCT_PRIVATE cannot coexist with global
1068 * variables like done_sanity_check. */
10666ae3 1069 if (!done_sanity_check) {
ea471437 1070 unsigned int i = SVt_LAST;
10666ae3
NC
1071
1072 done_sanity_check = TRUE;
1073
1074 while (i--)
1075 assert (bodies_by_type[i].type == i);
1076 }
1077#endif
1078
23e9d66c
NC
1079 assert(bdp->arena_size);
1080
d8fca402 1081 start = (char*) Perl_get_arena(aTHX_ arena_size, sv_type);
d2a0f284 1082
d8fca402 1083 end = start + arena_size - 2 * body_size;
d2a0f284 1084
d2a0f284 1085 /* computed count doesnt reflect the 1st slot reservation */
d8fca402
NC
1086#if defined(MYMALLOC) || defined(HAS_MALLOC_GOOD_SIZE)
1087 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1088 "arena %p end %p arena-size %d (from %d) type %d "
1089 "size %d ct %d\n",
1090 (void*)start, (void*)end, (int)arena_size,
1091 (int)bdp->arena_size, sv_type, (int)body_size,
1092 (int)arena_size / (int)body_size));
1093#else
d2a0f284
JC
1094 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1095 "arena %p end %p arena-size %d type %d size %d ct %d\n",
6c9570dc 1096 (void*)start, (void*)end,
0e84aef4
JH
1097 (int)bdp->arena_size, sv_type, (int)body_size,
1098 (int)bdp->arena_size / (int)body_size));
d8fca402 1099#endif
d2a0f284
JC
1100 *root = (void *)start;
1101
d8fca402 1102 while (start <= end) {
d2a0f284
JC
1103 char * const next = start + body_size;
1104 *(void**) start = (void *)next;
1105 start = next;
1106 }
1107 *(void **)start = 0;
1108
1109 return *root;
1110}
1111
1112/* grab a new thing from the free list, allocating more if necessary.
1113 The inline version is used for speed in hot routines, and the
1114 function using it serves the rest (unless PURIFY).
1115*/
1116#define new_body_inline(xpv, sv_type) \
1117 STMT_START { \
1118 void ** const r3wt = &PL_body_roots[sv_type]; \
11b79775
DD
1119 xpv = (PTR_TBL_ENT_t*) (*((void **)(r3wt)) \
1120 ? *((void **)(r3wt)) : more_bodies(sv_type)); \
d2a0f284 1121 *(r3wt) = *(void**)(xpv); \
d2a0f284
JC
1122 } STMT_END
1123
1124#ifndef PURIFY
1125
1126STATIC void *
de37a194 1127S_new_body(pTHX_ const svtype sv_type)
d2a0f284
JC
1128{
1129 dVAR;
1130 void *xpv;
1131 new_body_inline(xpv, sv_type);
1132 return xpv;
1133}
1134
1135#endif
93e68bfb 1136
238b27b3
NC
1137static const struct body_details fake_rv =
1138 { 0, 0, 0, SVt_IV, FALSE, NONV, NOARENA, 0 };
1139
bd81e77b
NC
1140/*
1141=for apidoc sv_upgrade
93e68bfb 1142
bd81e77b
NC
1143Upgrade an SV to a more complex form. Generally adds a new body type to the
1144SV, then copies across as much information as possible from the old body.
1145You generally want to use the C<SvUPGRADE> macro wrapper. See also C<svtype>.
93e68bfb 1146
bd81e77b 1147=cut
93e68bfb 1148*/
93e68bfb 1149
bd81e77b 1150void
aad570aa 1151Perl_sv_upgrade(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, svtype new_type)
cac9b346 1152{
97aff369 1153 dVAR;
bd81e77b
NC
1154 void* old_body;
1155 void* new_body;
42d0e0b7 1156 const svtype old_type = SvTYPE(sv);
d2a0f284 1157 const struct body_details *new_type_details;
238b27b3 1158 const struct body_details *old_type_details
bd81e77b 1159 = bodies_by_type + old_type;
4df7f6af 1160 SV *referant = NULL;
cac9b346 1161
7918f24d
NC
1162 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UPGRADE;
1163
1776cbe8
NC
1164 if (old_type == new_type)
1165 return;
1166
1167 /* This clause was purposefully added ahead of the early return above to
1168 the shared string hackery for (sort {$a <=> $b} keys %hash), with the
1169 inference by Nick I-S that it would fix other troublesome cases. See
1170 changes 7162, 7163 (f130fd4589cf5fbb24149cd4db4137c8326f49c1 and parent)
1171
1172 Given that shared hash key scalars are no longer PVIV, but PV, there is
1173 no longer need to unshare so as to free up the IVX slot for its proper
1174 purpose. So it's safe to move the early return earlier. */
1175
bd81e77b
NC
1176 if (new_type != SVt_PV && SvIsCOW(sv)) {
1177 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
1178 }
cac9b346 1179
bd81e77b 1180 old_body = SvANY(sv);
de042e1d 1181
bd81e77b
NC
1182 /* Copying structures onto other structures that have been neatly zeroed
1183 has a subtle gotcha. Consider XPVMG
cac9b346 1184
bd81e77b
NC
1185 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+
1186 | NV | CUR | LEN | IV | MAGIC | STASH |
1187 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+
1188 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28
645c22ef 1189
bd81e77b
NC
1190 where NVs are aligned to 8 bytes, so that sizeof that structure is
1191 actually 32 bytes long, with 4 bytes of padding at the end:
08742458 1192
bd81e77b
NC
1193 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+
1194 | NV | CUR | LEN | IV | MAGIC | STASH | ??? |
1195 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+
1196 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32
08742458 1197
bd81e77b 1198 so what happens if you allocate memory for this structure:
30f9da9e 1199
bd81e77b
NC
1200 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+------+...
1201 | NV | CUR | LEN | IV | MAGIC | STASH | GP | NAME |
1202 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+------+...
1203 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36
bfc44f79 1204
bd81e77b
NC
1205 zero it, then copy sizeof(XPVMG) bytes on top of it? Not quite what you
1206 expect, because you copy the area marked ??? onto GP. Now, ??? may have
1207 started out as zero once, but it's quite possible that it isn't. So now,
1208 rather than a nicely zeroed GP, you have it pointing somewhere random.
1209 Bugs ensue.
bfc44f79 1210
bd81e77b
NC
1211 (In fact, GP ends up pointing at a previous GP structure, because the
1212 principle cause of the padding in XPVMG getting garbage is a copy of
6c9e42f7
NC
1213 sizeof(XPVMG) bytes from a XPVGV structure in sv_unglob. Right now
1214 this happens to be moot because XPVGV has been re-ordered, with GP
1215 no longer after STASH)
30f9da9e 1216
bd81e77b
NC
1217 So we are careful and work out the size of used parts of all the
1218 structures. */
bfc44f79 1219
bd81e77b
NC
1220 switch (old_type) {
1221 case SVt_NULL:
1222 break;
1223 case SVt_IV:
4df7f6af
NC
1224 if (SvROK(sv)) {
1225 referant = SvRV(sv);
238b27b3
NC
1226 old_type_details = &fake_rv;
1227 if (new_type == SVt_NV)
1228 new_type = SVt_PVNV;
4df7f6af
NC
1229 } else {
1230 if (new_type < SVt_PVIV) {
1231 new_type = (new_type == SVt_NV)
1232 ? SVt_PVNV : SVt_PVIV;
1233 }
bd81e77b
NC
1234 }
1235 break;
1236 case SVt_NV:
1237 if (new_type < SVt_PVNV) {
1238 new_type = SVt_PVNV;
bd81e77b
NC
1239 }
1240 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1241 case SVt_PV:
1242 assert(new_type > SVt_PV);
1243 assert(SVt_IV < SVt_PV);
1244 assert(SVt_NV < SVt_PV);
1245 break;
1246 case SVt_PVIV:
1247 break;
1248 case SVt_PVNV:
1249 break;
1250 case SVt_PVMG:
1251 /* Because the XPVMG of PL_mess_sv isn't allocated from the arena,
1252 there's no way that it can be safely upgraded, because perl.c
1253 expects to Safefree(SvANY(PL_mess_sv)) */
1254 assert(sv != PL_mess_sv);
1255 /* This flag bit is used to mean other things in other scalar types.
1256 Given that it only has meaning inside the pad, it shouldn't be set
1257 on anything that can get upgraded. */
00b1698f 1258 assert(!SvPAD_TYPED(sv));
bd81e77b
NC
1259 break;
1260 default:
1261 if (old_type_details->cant_upgrade)
c81225bc
NC
1262 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't upgrade %s (%" UVuf ") to %" UVuf,
1263 sv_reftype(sv, 0), (UV) old_type, (UV) new_type);
bd81e77b 1264 }
3376de98
NC
1265
1266 if (old_type > new_type)
1267 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "sv_upgrade from type %d down to type %d",
1268 (int)old_type, (int)new_type);
1269
2fa1109b 1270 new_type_details = bodies_by_type + new_type;
645c22ef 1271
bd81e77b
NC
1272 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~SVTYPEMASK;
1273 SvFLAGS(sv) |= new_type;
932e9ff9 1274
ab4416c0
NC
1275 /* This can't happen, as SVt_NULL is <= all values of new_type, so one of
1276 the return statements above will have triggered. */
1277 assert (new_type != SVt_NULL);
bd81e77b 1278 switch (new_type) {
bd81e77b
NC
1279 case SVt_IV:
1280 assert(old_type == SVt_NULL);
1281 SvANY(sv) = (XPVIV*)((char*)&(sv->sv_u.svu_iv) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPVIV, xiv_iv));
1282 SvIV_set(sv, 0);
1283 return;
1284 case SVt_NV:
1285 assert(old_type == SVt_NULL);
1286 SvANY(sv) = new_XNV();
1287 SvNV_set(sv, 0);
1288 return;
bd81e77b 1289 case SVt_PVHV:
bd81e77b 1290 case SVt_PVAV:
d2a0f284 1291 assert(new_type_details->body_size);
c1ae03ae
NC
1292
1293#ifndef PURIFY
1294 assert(new_type_details->arena);
d2a0f284 1295 assert(new_type_details->arena_size);
c1ae03ae 1296 /* This points to the start of the allocated area. */
d2a0f284
JC
1297 new_body_inline(new_body, new_type);
1298 Zero(new_body, new_type_details->body_size, char);
c1ae03ae
NC
1299 new_body = ((char *)new_body) - new_type_details->offset;
1300#else
1301 /* We always allocated the full length item with PURIFY. To do this
1302 we fake things so that arena is false for all 16 types.. */
1303 new_body = new_NOARENAZ(new_type_details);
1304#endif
1305 SvANY(sv) = new_body;
1306 if (new_type == SVt_PVAV) {
1307 AvMAX(sv) = -1;
1308 AvFILLp(sv) = -1;
1309 AvREAL_only(sv);
64484faa 1310 if (old_type_details->body_size) {
ac572bf4
NC
1311 AvALLOC(sv) = 0;
1312 } else {
1313 /* It will have been zeroed when the new body was allocated.
1314 Lets not write to it, in case it confuses a write-back
1315 cache. */
1316 }
78ac7dd9
NC
1317 } else {
1318 assert(!SvOK(sv));
1319 SvOK_off(sv);
1320#ifndef NODEFAULT_SHAREKEYS
1321 HvSHAREKEYS_on(sv); /* key-sharing on by default */
1322#endif
1323 HvMAX(sv) = 7; /* (start with 8 buckets) */
64484faa 1324 if (old_type_details->body_size) {
78ac7dd9
NC
1325 HvFILL(sv) = 0;
1326 } else {
1327 /* It will have been zeroed when the new body was allocated.
1328 Lets not write to it, in case it confuses a write-back
1329 cache. */
1330 }
c1ae03ae 1331 }
aeb18a1e 1332
bd81e77b
NC
1333 /* SVt_NULL isn't the only thing upgraded to AV or HV.
1334 The target created by newSVrv also is, and it can have magic.
1335 However, it never has SvPVX set.
1336 */
4df7f6af
NC
1337 if (old_type == SVt_IV) {
1338 assert(!SvROK(sv));
1339 } else if (old_type >= SVt_PV) {
bd81e77b
NC
1340 assert(SvPVX_const(sv) == 0);
1341 }
aeb18a1e 1342
bd81e77b 1343 if (old_type >= SVt_PVMG) {
e736a858 1344 SvMAGIC_set(sv, ((XPVMG*)old_body)->xmg_u.xmg_magic);
bd81e77b 1345 SvSTASH_set(sv, ((XPVMG*)old_body)->xmg_stash);
797c7171
NC
1346 } else {
1347 sv->sv_u.svu_array = NULL; /* or svu_hash */
bd81e77b
NC
1348 }
1349 break;
93e68bfb 1350
93e68bfb 1351
b9ad13ac
NC
1352 case SVt_REGEXP:
1353 /* This ensures that SvTHINKFIRST(sv) is true, and hence that
1354 sv_force_normal_flags(sv) is called. */
1355 SvFAKE_on(sv);
bd81e77b
NC
1356 case SVt_PVIV:
1357 /* XXX Is this still needed? Was it ever needed? Surely as there is
1358 no route from NV to PVIV, NOK can never be true */
1359 assert(!SvNOKp(sv));
1360 assert(!SvNOK(sv));
1361 case SVt_PVIO:
1362 case SVt_PVFM:
bd81e77b
NC
1363 case SVt_PVGV:
1364 case SVt_PVCV:
1365 case SVt_PVLV:
1366 case SVt_PVMG:
1367 case SVt_PVNV:
1368 case SVt_PV:
93e68bfb 1369
d2a0f284 1370 assert(new_type_details->body_size);
bd81e77b
NC
1371 /* We always allocated the full length item with PURIFY. To do this
1372 we fake things so that arena is false for all 16 types.. */
1373 if(new_type_details->arena) {
1374 /* This points to the start of the allocated area. */
d2a0f284
JC
1375 new_body_inline(new_body, new_type);
1376 Zero(new_body, new_type_details->body_size, char);
bd81e77b
NC
1377 new_body = ((char *)new_body) - new_type_details->offset;
1378 } else {
1379 new_body = new_NOARENAZ(new_type_details);
1380 }
1381 SvANY(sv) = new_body;
5e2fc214 1382
bd81e77b 1383 if (old_type_details->copy) {
f9ba3d20
NC
1384 /* There is now the potential for an upgrade from something without
1385 an offset (PVNV or PVMG) to something with one (PVCV, PVFM) */
1386 int offset = old_type_details->offset;
1387 int length = old_type_details->copy;
1388
1389 if (new_type_details->offset > old_type_details->offset) {
d4c19fe8 1390 const int difference
f9ba3d20
NC
1391 = new_type_details->offset - old_type_details->offset;
1392 offset += difference;
1393 length -= difference;
1394 }
1395 assert (length >= 0);
1396
1397 Copy((char *)old_body + offset, (char *)new_body + offset, length,
1398 char);
bd81e77b
NC
1399 }
1400
1401#ifndef NV_ZERO_IS_ALLBITS_ZERO
f2524eef 1402 /* If NV 0.0 is stores as all bits 0 then Zero() already creates a
e5ce394c
NC
1403 * correct 0.0 for us. Otherwise, if the old body didn't have an
1404 * NV slot, but the new one does, then we need to initialise the
1405 * freshly created NV slot with whatever the correct bit pattern is
1406 * for 0.0 */
e22a937e
NC
1407 if (old_type_details->zero_nv && !new_type_details->zero_nv
1408 && !isGV_with_GP(sv))
bd81e77b 1409 SvNV_set(sv, 0);
82048762 1410#endif
5e2fc214 1411
85dca89a
NC
1412 if (new_type == SVt_PVIO) {
1413 IO * const io = MUTABLE_IO(sv);
d963bf01 1414 GV *iogv = gv_fetchpvs("IO::File::", GV_ADD, SVt_PVHV);
85dca89a
NC
1415
1416 SvOBJECT_on(io);
1417 /* Clear the stashcache because a new IO could overrule a package
1418 name */
1419 hv_clear(PL_stashcache);
1420
85dca89a 1421 SvSTASH_set(io, MUTABLE_HV(SvREFCNT_inc(GvHV(iogv))));
f2524eef 1422 IoPAGE_LEN(sv) = 60;
85dca89a 1423 }
4df7f6af
NC
1424 if (old_type < SVt_PV) {
1425 /* referant will be NULL unless the old type was SVt_IV emulating
1426 SVt_RV */
1427 sv->sv_u.svu_rv = referant;
1428 }
bd81e77b
NC
1429 break;
1430 default:
afd78fd5
JH
1431 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: sv_upgrade to unknown type %lu",
1432 (unsigned long)new_type);
bd81e77b 1433 }
73171d91 1434
db93c0c4 1435 if (old_type > SVt_IV) {
bd81e77b
NC
1436#ifdef PURIFY
1437 my_safefree(old_body);
1438#else
bc786448
GG
1439 /* Note that there is an assumption that all bodies of types that
1440 can be upgraded came from arenas. Only the more complex non-
1441 upgradable types are allowed to be directly malloc()ed. */
1442 assert(old_type_details->arena);
bd81e77b
NC
1443 del_body((void*)((char*)old_body + old_type_details->offset),
1444 &PL_body_roots[old_type]);
1445#endif
1446 }
1447}
73171d91 1448
bd81e77b
NC
1449/*
1450=for apidoc sv_backoff
73171d91 1451
bd81e77b
NC
1452Remove any string offset. You should normally use the C<SvOOK_off> macro
1453wrapper instead.
73171d91 1454
bd81e77b 1455=cut
73171d91
NC
1456*/
1457
bd81e77b 1458int
aad570aa 1459Perl_sv_backoff(pTHX_ register SV *const sv)
bd81e77b 1460{
69240efd 1461 STRLEN delta;
7a4bba22 1462 const char * const s = SvPVX_const(sv);
7918f24d
NC
1463
1464 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_BACKOFF;
96a5add6 1465 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
7918f24d 1466
bd81e77b
NC
1467 assert(SvOOK(sv));
1468 assert(SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVHV);
1469 assert(SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV);
7a4bba22 1470
69240efd
NC
1471 SvOOK_offset(sv, delta);
1472
7a4bba22
NC
1473 SvLEN_set(sv, SvLEN(sv) + delta);
1474 SvPV_set(sv, SvPVX(sv) - delta);
1475 Move(s, SvPVX(sv), SvCUR(sv)+1, char);
bd81e77b
NC
1476 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~SVf_OOK;
1477 return 0;
1478}
73171d91 1479
bd81e77b
NC
1480/*
1481=for apidoc sv_grow
73171d91 1482
bd81e77b
NC
1483Expands the character buffer in the SV. If necessary, uses C<sv_unref> and
1484upgrades the SV to C<SVt_PV>. Returns a pointer to the character buffer.
1485Use the C<SvGROW> wrapper instead.
93e68bfb 1486
bd81e77b
NC
1487=cut
1488*/
93e68bfb 1489
bd81e77b 1490char *
aad570aa 1491Perl_sv_grow(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, register STRLEN newlen)
bd81e77b
NC
1492{
1493 register char *s;
93e68bfb 1494
7918f24d
NC
1495 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_GROW;
1496
5db06880
NC
1497 if (PL_madskills && newlen >= 0x100000) {
1498 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1499 "Allocation too large: %"UVxf"\n", (UV)newlen);
1500 }
bd81e77b
NC
1501#ifdef HAS_64K_LIMIT
1502 if (newlen >= 0x10000) {
1503 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1504 "Allocation too large: %"UVxf"\n", (UV)newlen);
1505 my_exit(1);
1506 }
1507#endif /* HAS_64K_LIMIT */
1508 if (SvROK(sv))
1509 sv_unref(sv);
1510 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PV) {
1511 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PV);
1512 s = SvPVX_mutable(sv);
1513 }
1514 else if (SvOOK(sv)) { /* pv is offset? */
1515 sv_backoff(sv);
1516 s = SvPVX_mutable(sv);
1517 if (newlen > SvLEN(sv))
1518 newlen += 10 * (newlen - SvCUR(sv)); /* avoid copy each time */
1519#ifdef HAS_64K_LIMIT
1520 if (newlen >= 0x10000)
1521 newlen = 0xFFFF;
1522#endif
1523 }
1524 else
1525 s = SvPVX_mutable(sv);
aeb18a1e 1526
bd81e77b 1527 if (newlen > SvLEN(sv)) { /* need more room? */
aedff202 1528#ifndef Perl_safesysmalloc_size
bd81e77b 1529 newlen = PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP(newlen);
bd81e77b 1530#endif
98653f18 1531 if (SvLEN(sv) && s) {
10edeb5d 1532 s = (char*)saferealloc(s, newlen);
bd81e77b
NC
1533 }
1534 else {
10edeb5d 1535 s = (char*)safemalloc(newlen);
bd81e77b
NC
1536 if (SvPVX_const(sv) && SvCUR(sv)) {
1537 Move(SvPVX_const(sv), s, (newlen < SvCUR(sv)) ? newlen : SvCUR(sv), char);
1538 }
1539 }
1540 SvPV_set(sv, s);
ca7c1a29 1541#ifdef Perl_safesysmalloc_size
98653f18
NC
1542 /* Do this here, do it once, do it right, and then we will never get
1543 called back into sv_grow() unless there really is some growing
1544 needed. */
ca7c1a29 1545 SvLEN_set(sv, Perl_safesysmalloc_size(s));
98653f18 1546#else
bd81e77b 1547 SvLEN_set(sv, newlen);
98653f18 1548#endif
bd81e77b
NC
1549 }
1550 return s;
1551}
aeb18a1e 1552
bd81e77b
NC
1553/*
1554=for apidoc sv_setiv
932e9ff9 1555
bd81e77b
NC
1556Copies an integer into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.
1557Does not handle 'set' magic. See also C<sv_setiv_mg>.
463ee0b2 1558
bd81e77b
NC
1559=cut
1560*/
463ee0b2 1561
bd81e77b 1562void
aad570aa 1563Perl_sv_setiv(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const IV i)
bd81e77b 1564{
97aff369 1565 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1566
1567 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETIV;
1568
bd81e77b
NC
1569 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(sv);
1570 switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
1571 case SVt_NULL:
bd81e77b 1572 case SVt_NV:
3376de98 1573 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_IV);
bd81e77b 1574 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1575 case SVt_PV:
1576 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
1577 break;
463ee0b2 1578
bd81e77b 1579 case SVt_PVGV:
6e592b3a
BM
1580 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv))
1581 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1582 case SVt_PVAV:
1583 case SVt_PVHV:
1584 case SVt_PVCV:
1585 case SVt_PVFM:
1586 case SVt_PVIO:
1587 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't coerce %s to integer in %s", sv_reftype(sv,0),
1588 OP_DESC(PL_op));
42d0e0b7 1589 default: NOOP;
bd81e77b
NC
1590 }
1591 (void)SvIOK_only(sv); /* validate number */
1592 SvIV_set(sv, i);
1593 SvTAINT(sv);
1594}
932e9ff9 1595
bd81e77b
NC
1596/*
1597=for apidoc sv_setiv_mg
d33b2eba 1598
bd81e77b 1599Like C<sv_setiv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
1c846c1f 1600
bd81e77b
NC
1601=cut
1602*/
d33b2eba 1603
bd81e77b 1604void
aad570aa 1605Perl_sv_setiv_mg(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const IV i)
bd81e77b 1606{
7918f24d
NC
1607 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETIV_MG;
1608
bd81e77b
NC
1609 sv_setiv(sv,i);
1610 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
1611}
727879eb 1612
bd81e77b
NC
1613/*
1614=for apidoc sv_setuv
d33b2eba 1615
bd81e77b
NC
1616Copies an unsigned integer into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.
1617Does not handle 'set' magic. See also C<sv_setuv_mg>.
9b94d1dd 1618
bd81e77b
NC
1619=cut
1620*/
d33b2eba 1621
bd81e77b 1622void
aad570aa 1623Perl_sv_setuv(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const UV u)
bd81e77b 1624{
7918f24d
NC
1625 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETUV;
1626
bd81e77b
NC
1627 /* With these two if statements:
1628 u=1.49 s=0.52 cu=72.49 cs=10.64 scripts=270 tests=20865
d33b2eba 1629
bd81e77b
NC
1630 without
1631 u=1.35 s=0.47 cu=73.45 cs=11.43 scripts=270 tests=20865
1c846c1f 1632
bd81e77b
NC
1633 If you wish to remove them, please benchmark to see what the effect is
1634 */
1635 if (u <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
1636 sv_setiv(sv, (IV)u);
1637 return;
1638 }
1639 sv_setiv(sv, 0);
1640 SvIsUV_on(sv);
1641 SvUV_set(sv, u);
1642}
d33b2eba 1643
bd81e77b
NC
1644/*
1645=for apidoc sv_setuv_mg
727879eb 1646
bd81e77b 1647Like C<sv_setuv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
9b94d1dd 1648
bd81e77b
NC
1649=cut
1650*/
5e2fc214 1651
bd81e77b 1652void
aad570aa 1653Perl_sv_setuv_mg(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const UV u)
bd81e77b 1654{
7918f24d
NC
1655 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETUV_MG;
1656
bd81e77b
NC
1657 sv_setuv(sv,u);
1658 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
1659}
5e2fc214 1660
954c1994 1661/*
bd81e77b 1662=for apidoc sv_setnv
954c1994 1663
bd81e77b
NC
1664Copies a double into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.
1665Does not handle 'set' magic. See also C<sv_setnv_mg>.
954c1994
GS
1666
1667=cut
1668*/
1669
63f97190 1670void
aad570aa 1671Perl_sv_setnv(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const NV num)
79072805 1672{
97aff369 1673 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1674
1675 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETNV;
1676
bd81e77b
NC
1677 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(sv);
1678 switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
79072805 1679 case SVt_NULL:
79072805 1680 case SVt_IV:
bd81e77b 1681 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_NV);
79072805
LW
1682 break;
1683 case SVt_PV:
79072805 1684 case SVt_PVIV:
bd81e77b 1685 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
79072805 1686 break;
bd4b1eb5 1687
bd4b1eb5 1688 case SVt_PVGV:
6e592b3a
BM
1689 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv))
1690 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1691 case SVt_PVAV:
1692 case SVt_PVHV:
79072805 1693 case SVt_PVCV:
bd81e77b
NC
1694 case SVt_PVFM:
1695 case SVt_PVIO:
1696 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't coerce %s to number in %s", sv_reftype(sv,0),
94bbb3f4 1697 OP_DESC(PL_op));
42d0e0b7 1698 default: NOOP;
2068cd4d 1699 }
bd81e77b
NC
1700 SvNV_set(sv, num);
1701 (void)SvNOK_only(sv); /* validate number */
1702 SvTAINT(sv);
79072805
LW
1703}
1704
645c22ef 1705/*
bd81e77b 1706=for apidoc sv_setnv_mg
645c22ef 1707
bd81e77b 1708Like C<sv_setnv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
645c22ef
DM
1709
1710=cut
1711*/
1712
bd81e77b 1713void
aad570aa 1714Perl_sv_setnv_mg(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const NV num)
79072805 1715{
7918f24d
NC
1716 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETNV_MG;
1717
bd81e77b
NC
1718 sv_setnv(sv,num);
1719 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
79072805
LW
1720}
1721
bd81e77b
NC
1722/* Print an "isn't numeric" warning, using a cleaned-up,
1723 * printable version of the offending string
1724 */
954c1994 1725
bd81e77b 1726STATIC void
aad570aa 1727S_not_a_number(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
79072805 1728{
97aff369 1729 dVAR;
bd81e77b
NC
1730 SV *dsv;
1731 char tmpbuf[64];
1732 const char *pv;
94463019 1733
7918f24d
NC
1734 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_NOT_A_NUMBER;
1735
94463019 1736 if (DO_UTF8(sv)) {
84bafc02 1737 dsv = newSVpvs_flags("", SVs_TEMP);
94463019
JH
1738 pv = sv_uni_display(dsv, sv, 10, 0);
1739 } else {
1740 char *d = tmpbuf;
551405c4 1741 const char * const limit = tmpbuf + sizeof(tmpbuf) - 8;
94463019
JH
1742 /* each *s can expand to 4 chars + "...\0",
1743 i.e. need room for 8 chars */
ecdeb87c 1744
00b6aa41
AL
1745 const char *s = SvPVX_const(sv);
1746 const char * const end = s + SvCUR(sv);
1747 for ( ; s < end && d < limit; s++ ) {
94463019
JH
1748 int ch = *s & 0xFF;
1749 if (ch & 128 && !isPRINT_LC(ch)) {
1750 *d++ = 'M';
1751 *d++ = '-';
1752 ch &= 127;
1753 }
1754 if (ch == '\n') {
1755 *d++ = '\\';
1756 *d++ = 'n';
1757 }
1758 else if (ch == '\r') {
1759 *d++ = '\\';
1760 *d++ = 'r';
1761 }
1762 else if (ch == '\f') {
1763 *d++ = '\\';
1764 *d++ = 'f';
1765 }
1766 else if (ch == '\\') {
1767 *d++ = '\\';
1768 *d++ = '\\';
1769 }
1770 else if (ch == '\0') {
1771 *d++ = '\\';
1772 *d++ = '0';
1773 }
1774 else if (isPRINT_LC(ch))
1775 *d++ = ch;
1776 else {
1777 *d++ = '^';
1778 *d++ = toCTRL(ch);
1779 }
1780 }
1781 if (s < end) {
1782 *d++ = '.';
1783 *d++ = '.';
1784 *d++ = '.';
1785 }
1786 *d = '\0';
1787 pv = tmpbuf;
a0d0e21e 1788 }
a0d0e21e 1789
533c011a 1790 if (PL_op)
9014280d 1791 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NUMERIC),
94463019
JH
1792 "Argument \"%s\" isn't numeric in %s", pv,
1793 OP_DESC(PL_op));
a0d0e21e 1794 else
9014280d 1795 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NUMERIC),
94463019 1796 "Argument \"%s\" isn't numeric", pv);
a0d0e21e
LW
1797}
1798
c2988b20
NC
1799/*
1800=for apidoc looks_like_number
1801
645c22ef
DM
1802Test if the content of an SV looks like a number (or is a number).
1803C<Inf> and C<Infinity> are treated as numbers (so will not issue a
1804non-numeric warning), even if your atof() doesn't grok them.
c2988b20
NC
1805
1806=cut
1807*/
1808
1809I32
aad570aa 1810Perl_looks_like_number(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
c2988b20 1811{
a3b680e6 1812 register const char *sbegin;
c2988b20
NC
1813 STRLEN len;
1814
7918f24d
NC
1815 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_LOOKS_LIKE_NUMBER;
1816
c2988b20 1817 if (SvPOK(sv)) {
3f7c398e 1818 sbegin = SvPVX_const(sv);
c2988b20
NC
1819 len = SvCUR(sv);
1820 }
1821 else if (SvPOKp(sv))
83003860 1822 sbegin = SvPV_const(sv, len);
c2988b20 1823 else
e0ab1c0e 1824 return SvFLAGS(sv) & (SVf_NOK|SVp_NOK|SVf_IOK|SVp_IOK);
c2988b20
NC
1825 return grok_number(sbegin, len, NULL);
1826}
25da4f38 1827
19f6321d
NC
1828STATIC bool
1829S_glob_2number(pTHX_ GV * const gv)
180488f8
NC
1830{
1831 const U32 wasfake = SvFLAGS(gv) & SVf_FAKE;
1832 SV *const buffer = sv_newmortal();
1833
7918f24d
NC
1834 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_GLOB_2NUMBER;
1835
180488f8
NC
1836 /* FAKE globs can get coerced, so need to turn this off temporarily if it
1837 is on. */
1838 SvFAKE_off(gv);
1839 gv_efullname3(buffer, gv, "*");
1840 SvFLAGS(gv) |= wasfake;
1841
675c862f
AL
1842 /* We know that all GVs stringify to something that is not-a-number,
1843 so no need to test that. */
1844 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
1845 not_a_number(buffer);
1846 /* We just want something true to return, so that S_sv_2iuv_common
1847 can tail call us and return true. */
19f6321d 1848 return TRUE;
675c862f
AL
1849}
1850
25da4f38
IZ
1851/* Actually, ISO C leaves conversion of UV to IV undefined, but
1852 until proven guilty, assume that things are not that bad... */
1853
645c22ef
DM
1854/*
1855 NV_PRESERVES_UV:
1856
1857 As 64 bit platforms often have an NV that doesn't preserve all bits of
28e5dec8
JH
1858 an IV (an assumption perl has been based on to date) it becomes necessary
1859 to remove the assumption that the NV always carries enough precision to
1860 recreate the IV whenever needed, and that the NV is the canonical form.
1861 Instead, IV/UV and NV need to be given equal rights. So as to not lose
645c22ef 1862 precision as a side effect of conversion (which would lead to insanity
28e5dec8
JH
1863 and the dragon(s) in t/op/numconvert.t getting very angry) the intent is
1864 1) to distinguish between IV/UV/NV slots that have cached a valid
1865 conversion where precision was lost and IV/UV/NV slots that have a
1866 valid conversion which has lost no precision
645c22ef 1867 2) to ensure that if a numeric conversion to one form is requested that
28e5dec8
JH
1868 would lose precision, the precise conversion (or differently
1869 imprecise conversion) is also performed and cached, to prevent
1870 requests for different numeric formats on the same SV causing
1871 lossy conversion chains. (lossless conversion chains are perfectly
1872 acceptable (still))
1873
1874
1875 flags are used:
1876 SvIOKp is true if the IV slot contains a valid value
1877 SvIOK is true only if the IV value is accurate (UV if SvIOK_UV true)
1878 SvNOKp is true if the NV slot contains a valid value
1879 SvNOK is true only if the NV value is accurate
1880
1881 so
645c22ef 1882 while converting from PV to NV, check to see if converting that NV to an
28e5dec8
JH
1883 IV(or UV) would lose accuracy over a direct conversion from PV to
1884 IV(or UV). If it would, cache both conversions, return NV, but mark
1885 SV as IOK NOKp (ie not NOK).
1886
645c22ef 1887 While converting from PV to IV, check to see if converting that IV to an
28e5dec8
JH
1888 NV would lose accuracy over a direct conversion from PV to NV. If it
1889 would, cache both conversions, flag similarly.
1890
1891 Before, the SV value "3.2" could become NV=3.2 IV=3 NOK, IOK quite
1892 correctly because if IV & NV were set NV *always* overruled.
645c22ef
DM
1893 Now, "3.2" will become NV=3.2 IV=3 NOK, IOKp, because the flag's meaning
1894 changes - now IV and NV together means that the two are interchangeable:
28e5dec8 1895 SvIVX == (IV) SvNVX && SvNVX == (NV) SvIVX;
d460ef45 1896
645c22ef
DM
1897 The benefit of this is that operations such as pp_add know that if
1898 SvIOK is true for both left and right operands, then integer addition
1899 can be used instead of floating point (for cases where the result won't
1900 overflow). Before, floating point was always used, which could lead to
28e5dec8
JH
1901 loss of precision compared with integer addition.
1902
1903 * making IV and NV equal status should make maths accurate on 64 bit
1904 platforms
1905 * may speed up maths somewhat if pp_add and friends start to use
645c22ef 1906 integers when possible instead of fp. (Hopefully the overhead in
28e5dec8
JH
1907 looking for SvIOK and checking for overflow will not outweigh the
1908 fp to integer speedup)
1909 * will slow down integer operations (callers of SvIV) on "inaccurate"
1910 values, as the change from SvIOK to SvIOKp will cause a call into
1911 sv_2iv each time rather than a macro access direct to the IV slot
1912 * should speed up number->string conversion on integers as IV is
645c22ef 1913 favoured when IV and NV are equally accurate
28e5dec8
JH
1914
1915 ####################################################################
645c22ef
DM
1916 You had better be using SvIOK_notUV if you want an IV for arithmetic:
1917 SvIOK is true if (IV or UV), so you might be getting (IV)SvUV.
1918 On the other hand, SvUOK is true iff UV.
28e5dec8
JH
1919 ####################################################################
1920
645c22ef 1921 Your mileage will vary depending your CPU's relative fp to integer
28e5dec8
JH
1922 performance ratio.
1923*/
1924
1925#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
645c22ef
DM
1926# define IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_IV 1
1927# define IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_UV 2
1928# define IS_NUMBER_IV_AND_UV 2
1929# define IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_IV 4
1930# define IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_UV 5
1931
1932/* sv_2iuv_non_preserve(): private routine for use by sv_2iv() and sv_2uv() */
28e5dec8
JH
1933
1934/* For sv_2nv these three cases are "SvNOK and don't bother casting" */
1935STATIC int
5de3775c 1936S_sv_2iuv_non_preserve(pTHX_ register SV *const sv
47031da6
NC
1937# ifdef DEBUGGING
1938 , I32 numtype
1939# endif
1940 )
28e5dec8 1941{
97aff369 1942 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1943
1944 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2IUV_NON_PRESERVE;
1945
3f7c398e 1946 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,"sv_2iuv_non '%s', IV=0x%"UVxf" NV=%"NVgf" inttype=%"UVXf"\n", SvPVX_const(sv), SvIVX(sv), SvNVX(sv), (UV)numtype));
28e5dec8
JH
1947 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MIN) {
1948 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
1949 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
45977657 1950 SvIV_set(sv, IV_MIN);
28e5dec8
JH
1951 return IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_IV;
1952 }
1953 if (SvNVX(sv) > (NV)UV_MAX) {
1954 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
1955 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
1956 SvIsUV_on(sv);
607fa7f2 1957 SvUV_set(sv, UV_MAX);
28e5dec8
JH
1958 return IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_UV;
1959 }
c2988b20
NC
1960 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
1961 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
1962 /* Can't use strtol etc to convert this string. (See truth table in
1963 sv_2iv */
1964 if (SvNVX(sv) <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
45977657 1965 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
c2988b20
NC
1966 if ((NV)(SvIVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
1967 SvIOK_on(sv); /* Integer is precise. NOK, IOK */
1968 } else {
1969 /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp */
1970 }
1971 return SvNVX(sv) < 0 ? IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_UV : IS_NUMBER_IV_AND_UV;
1972 }
1973 SvIsUV_on(sv);
607fa7f2 1974 SvUV_set(sv, U_V(SvNVX(sv)));
c2988b20
NC
1975 if ((NV)(SvUVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
1976 if (SvUVX(sv) == UV_MAX) {
1977 /* As we know that NVs don't preserve UVs, UV_MAX cannot
1978 possibly be preserved by NV. Hence, it must be overflow.
1979 NOK, IOKp */
1980 return IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_UV;
1981 }
1982 SvIOK_on(sv); /* Integer is precise. NOK, UOK */
1983 } else {
1984 /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp */
28e5dec8 1985 }
c2988b20 1986 return IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_IV;
28e5dec8 1987}
645c22ef
DM
1988#endif /* !NV_PRESERVES_UV*/
1989
af359546 1990STATIC bool
7918f24d
NC
1991S_sv_2iuv_common(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
1992{
97aff369 1993 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1994
1995 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2IUV_COMMON;
1996
af359546 1997 if (SvNOKp(sv)) {
28e5dec8
JH
1998 /* erm. not sure. *should* never get NOKp (without NOK) from sv_2nv
1999 * without also getting a cached IV/UV from it at the same time
2000 * (ie PV->NV conversion should detect loss of accuracy and cache
af359546
NC
2001 * IV or UV at same time to avoid this. */
2002 /* IV-over-UV optimisation - choose to cache IV if possible */
25da4f38
IZ
2003
2004 if (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_NV)
2005 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
2006
28e5dec8
JH
2007 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv); /* Must do this first, to clear any SvOOK */
2008 /* < not <= as for NV doesn't preserve UV, ((NV)IV_MAX+1) will almost
2009 certainly cast into the IV range at IV_MAX, whereas the correct
2010 answer is the UV IV_MAX +1. Hence < ensures that dodgy boundary
2011 cases go to UV */
cab190d4
JD
2012#if defined(NAN_COMPARE_BROKEN) && defined(Perl_isnan)
2013 if (Perl_isnan(SvNVX(sv))) {
2014 SvUV_set(sv, 0);
2015 SvIsUV_on(sv);
fdbe6d7c 2016 return FALSE;
cab190d4 2017 }
cab190d4 2018#endif
28e5dec8 2019 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MAX + 0.5) {
45977657 2020 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
28e5dec8
JH
2021 if (SvNVX(sv) == (NV) SvIVX(sv)
2022#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
2023 && (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) >
2024 (UV)(SvIVX(sv) > 0 ? SvIVX(sv) : -SvIVX(sv)))
2025 /* Don't flag it as "accurately an integer" if the number
2026 came from a (by definition imprecise) NV operation, and
2027 we're outside the range of NV integer precision */
2028#endif
2029 ) {
a43d94f2
NC
2030 if (SvNOK(sv))
2031 SvIOK_on(sv); /* Can this go wrong with rounding? NWC */
2032 else {
2033 /* scalar has trailing garbage, eg "42a" */
2034 }
28e5dec8 2035 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
7234c960 2036 "0x%"UVxf" iv(%"NVgf" => %"IVdf") (precise)\n",
28e5dec8
JH
2037 PTR2UV(sv),
2038 SvNVX(sv),
2039 SvIVX(sv)));
2040
2041 } else {
2042 /* IV not precise. No need to convert from PV, as NV
2043 conversion would already have cached IV if it detected
2044 that PV->IV would be better than PV->NV->IV
2045 flags already correct - don't set public IOK. */
2046 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
7234c960 2047 "0x%"UVxf" iv(%"NVgf" => %"IVdf") (imprecise)\n",
28e5dec8
JH
2048 PTR2UV(sv),
2049 SvNVX(sv),
2050 SvIVX(sv)));
2051 }
2052 /* Can the above go wrong if SvIVX == IV_MIN and SvNVX < IV_MIN,
2053 but the cast (NV)IV_MIN rounds to a the value less (more
2054 negative) than IV_MIN which happens to be equal to SvNVX ??
2055 Analogous to 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF rounding up to NV (2**64) and
2056 NV rounding back to 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF, so UVX == UV(NVX) and
2057 (NV)UVX == NVX are both true, but the values differ. :-(
2058 Hopefully for 2s complement IV_MIN is something like
2059 0x8000000000000000 which will be exact. NWC */
d460ef45 2060 }
25da4f38 2061 else {
607fa7f2 2062 SvUV_set(sv, U_V(SvNVX(sv)));
28e5dec8
JH
2063 if (
2064 (SvNVX(sv) == (NV) SvUVX(sv))
2065#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
2066 /* Make sure it's not 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF */
2067 /*&& (SvUVX(sv) != UV_MAX) irrelevant with code below */
2068 && (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) > SvUVX(sv))
2069 /* Don't flag it as "accurately an integer" if the number
2070 came from a (by definition imprecise) NV operation, and
2071 we're outside the range of NV integer precision */
2072#endif
a43d94f2 2073 && SvNOK(sv)
28e5dec8
JH
2074 )
2075 SvIOK_on(sv);
25da4f38 2076 SvIsUV_on(sv);
1c846c1f 2077 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
57def98f 2078 "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%"UVuf" => %"IVdf") (as unsigned)\n",
56431972 2079 PTR2UV(sv),
57def98f
JH
2080 SvUVX(sv),
2081 SvUVX(sv)));
25da4f38 2082 }
748a9306
LW
2083 }
2084 else if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvLEN(sv)) {
c2988b20 2085 UV value;
504618e9 2086 const int numtype = grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), &value);
af359546 2087 /* We want to avoid a possible problem when we cache an IV/ a UV which
25da4f38 2088 may be later translated to an NV, and the resulting NV is not
c2988b20
NC
2089 the same as the direct translation of the initial string
2090 (eg 123.456 can shortcut to the IV 123 with atol(), but we must
2091 be careful to ensure that the value with the .456 is around if the
2092 NV value is requested in the future).
1c846c1f 2093
af359546 2094 This means that if we cache such an IV/a UV, we need to cache the
25da4f38 2095 NV as well. Moreover, we trade speed for space, and do not
28e5dec8 2096 cache the NV if we are sure it's not needed.
25da4f38 2097 */
16b7a9a4 2098
c2988b20
NC
2099 /* SVt_PVNV is one higher than SVt_PVIV, hence this order */
2100 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2101 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
5e045b90 2102 /* It's definitely an integer, only upgrade to PVIV */
28e5dec8
JH
2103 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVIV)
2104 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
f7bbb42a 2105 (void)SvIOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2106 } else if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2107 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
28e5dec8 2108
f2524eef 2109 /* If NVs preserve UVs then we only use the UV value if we know that
c2988b20
NC
2110 we aren't going to call atof() below. If NVs don't preserve UVs
2111 then the value returned may have more precision than atof() will
2112 return, even though value isn't perfectly accurate. */
2113 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV
2114#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
2115 | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT
2116#endif
2117 )) == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2118 /* This won't turn off the public IOK flag if it was set above */
2119 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2120
2121 if (!(numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG)) {
2122 /* positive */;
2123 if (value <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
45977657 2124 SvIV_set(sv, (IV)value);
c2988b20 2125 } else {
af359546 2126 /* it didn't overflow, and it was positive. */
607fa7f2 2127 SvUV_set(sv, value);
c2988b20
NC
2128 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2129 }
2130 } else {
2131 /* 2s complement assumption */
2132 if (value <= (UV)IV_MIN) {
45977657 2133 SvIV_set(sv, -(IV)value);
c2988b20
NC
2134 } else {
2135 /* Too negative for an IV. This is a double upgrade, but
d1be9408 2136 I'm assuming it will be rare. */
c2988b20
NC
2137 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2138 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
2139 SvNOK_on(sv);
2140 SvIOK_off(sv);
2141 SvIOKp_on(sv);
9d6ce603 2142 SvNV_set(sv, -(NV)value);
45977657 2143 SvIV_set(sv, IV_MIN);
c2988b20
NC
2144 }
2145 }
2146 }
2147 /* For !NV_PRESERVES_UV and IS_NUMBER_IN_UV and IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT we
2148 will be in the previous block to set the IV slot, and the next
2149 block to set the NV slot. So no else here. */
2150
2151 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2152 != IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2153 /* It wasn't an (integer that doesn't overflow the UV). */
3f7c398e 2154 SvNV_set(sv, Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
28e5dec8 2155
c2988b20
NC
2156 if (! numtype && ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
2157 not_a_number(sv);
28e5dec8 2158
65202027 2159#if defined(USE_LONG_DOUBLE)
c2988b20
NC
2160 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%" PERL_PRIgldbl ")\n",
2161 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv)));
65202027 2162#else
1779d84d 2163 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%"NVgf")\n",
c2988b20 2164 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv)));
65202027 2165#endif
28e5dec8 2166
28e5dec8 2167#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
af359546
NC
2168 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2169 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
2170 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MAX + 0.5) {
2171 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
2172 if ((NV)(SvIVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
2173 SvIOK_on(sv);
2174 } else {
6f207bd3 2175 NOOP; /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp */
af359546
NC
2176 }
2177 /* UV will not work better than IV */
2178 } else {
2179 if (SvNVX(sv) > (NV)UV_MAX) {
2180 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2181 /* Integer is inaccurate. NOK, IOKp, is UV */
2182 SvUV_set(sv, UV_MAX);
af359546
NC
2183 } else {
2184 SvUV_set(sv, U_V(SvNVX(sv)));
2185 /* 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF not an issue in here, NVs
2186 NV preservse UV so can do correct comparison. */
2187 if ((NV)(SvUVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
2188 SvIOK_on(sv);
af359546 2189 } else {
6f207bd3 2190 NOOP; /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp, is UV */
af359546
NC
2191 }
2192 }
4b0c9573 2193 SvIsUV_on(sv);
af359546 2194 }
28e5dec8 2195#else /* NV_PRESERVES_UV */
c2988b20
NC
2196 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2197 == (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT)) {
af359546 2198 /* The IV/UV slot will have been set from value returned by
c2988b20
NC
2199 grok_number above. The NV slot has just been set using
2200 Atof. */
560b0c46 2201 SvNOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2202 assert (SvIOKp(sv));
2203 } else {
2204 if (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) >
2205 U_V(SvNVX(sv) > 0 ? SvNVX(sv) : -SvNVX(sv))) {
2206 /* Small enough to preserve all bits. */
2207 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2208 SvNOK_on(sv);
45977657 2209 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
c2988b20
NC
2210 if ((NV)(SvIVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv))
2211 SvIOK_on(sv);
2212 /* Assumption: first non-preserved integer is < IV_MAX,
2213 this NV is in the preserved range, therefore: */
2214 if (!(U_V(SvNVX(sv) > 0 ? SvNVX(sv) : -SvNVX(sv))
2215 < (UV)IV_MAX)) {
32fdb065 2216 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "sv_2iv assumed (U_V(fabs((double)SvNVX(sv))) < (UV)IV_MAX) but SvNVX(sv)=%"NVgf" U_V is 0x%"UVxf", IV_MAX is 0x%"UVxf"\n", SvNVX(sv), U_V(SvNVX(sv)), (UV)IV_MAX);
c2988b20
NC
2217 }
2218 } else {
2219 /* IN_UV NOT_INT
2220 0 0 already failed to read UV.
2221 0 1 already failed to read UV.
2222 1 0 you won't get here in this case. IV/UV
2223 slot set, public IOK, Atof() unneeded.
2224 1 1 already read UV.
2225 so there's no point in sv_2iuv_non_preserve() attempting
2226 to use atol, strtol, strtoul etc. */
47031da6 2227# ifdef DEBUGGING
40a17c4c 2228 sv_2iuv_non_preserve (sv, numtype);
47031da6
NC
2229# else
2230 sv_2iuv_non_preserve (sv);
2231# endif
c2988b20
NC
2232 }
2233 }
28e5dec8 2234#endif /* NV_PRESERVES_UV */
a43d94f2
NC
2235 /* It might be more code efficient to go through the entire logic above
2236 and conditionally set with SvIOKp_on() rather than SvIOK(), but it
2237 gets complex and potentially buggy, so more programmer efficient
2238 to do it this way, by turning off the public flags: */
2239 if (!numtype)
2240 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~(SVf_IOK|SVf_NOK);
25da4f38 2241 }
af359546
NC
2242 }
2243 else {
675c862f 2244 if (isGV_with_GP(sv))
159b6efe 2245 return glob_2number(MUTABLE_GV(sv));
180488f8 2246
af359546
NC
2247 if (!(SvFLAGS(sv) & SVs_PADTMP)) {
2248 if (!PL_localizing && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
2249 report_uninit(sv);
2250 }
25da4f38
IZ
2251 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_IV)
2252 /* Typically the caller expects that sv_any is not NULL now. */
2253 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_IV);
af359546
NC
2254 /* Return 0 from the caller. */
2255 return TRUE;
2256 }
2257 return FALSE;
2258}
2259
2260/*
2261=for apidoc sv_2iv_flags
2262
2263Return the integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string
2264conversion. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first.
2265Normally used via the C<SvIV(sv)> and C<SvIVx(sv)> macros.
2266
2267=cut
2268*/
2269
2270IV
5de3775c 2271Perl_sv_2iv_flags(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
af359546 2272{
97aff369 2273 dVAR;
af359546 2274 if (!sv)
a0d0e21e 2275 return 0;
cecf5685
NC
2276 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) || (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVGV && SvVALID(sv))) {
2277 /* FBMs use the same flag bit as SVf_IVisUV, so must let them
50caf62e
NC
2278 cache IVs just in case. In practice it seems that they never
2279 actually anywhere accessible by user Perl code, let alone get used
2280 in anything other than a string context. */
af359546
NC
2281 if (flags & SV_GMAGIC)
2282 mg_get(sv);
2283 if (SvIOKp(sv))
2284 return SvIVX(sv);
2285 if (SvNOKp(sv)) {
2286 return I_V(SvNVX(sv));
2287 }
71c558c3
NC
2288 if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvLEN(sv)) {
2289 UV value;
2290 const int numtype
2291 = grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), &value);
2292
2293 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2294 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2295 /* It's definitely an integer */
2296 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) {
2297 if (value < (UV)IV_MIN)
2298 return -(IV)value;
2299 } else {
2300 if (value < (UV)IV_MAX)
2301 return (IV)value;
2302 }
2303 }
2304 if (!numtype) {
2305 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
2306 not_a_number(sv);
2307 }
2308 return I_V(Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
2309 }
1c7ff15e
NC
2310 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2311 goto return_rok;
af359546 2312 }
1c7ff15e
NC
2313 assert(SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG);
2314 /* This falls through to the report_uninit inside S_sv_2iuv_common. */
4cb1ec55 2315 } else if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
af359546 2316 if (SvROK(sv)) {
1c7ff15e 2317 return_rok:
af359546 2318 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
aee036bb
DM
2319 SV * tmpstr;
2320 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2321 return 0;
2322 tmpstr=AMG_CALLun(sv,numer);
af359546
NC
2323 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2324 return SvIV(tmpstr);
2325 }
2326 }
2327 return PTR2IV(SvRV(sv));
2328 }
2329 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
2330 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
2331 }
2332 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
2333 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
2334 report_uninit(sv);
2335 return 0;
2336 }
2337 }
2338 if (!SvIOKp(sv)) {
2339 if (S_sv_2iuv_common(aTHX_ sv))
2340 return 0;
79072805 2341 }
1d7c1841
GS
2342 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%"IVdf")\n",
2343 PTR2UV(sv),SvIVX(sv)));
25da4f38 2344 return SvIsUV(sv) ? (IV)SvUVX(sv) : SvIVX(sv);
79072805
LW
2345}
2346
645c22ef 2347/*
891f9566 2348=for apidoc sv_2uv_flags
645c22ef
DM
2349
2350Return the unsigned integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string
891f9566
YST
2351conversion. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first.
2352Normally used via the C<SvUV(sv)> and C<SvUVx(sv)> macros.
645c22ef
DM
2353
2354=cut
2355*/
2356
ff68c719 2357UV
5de3775c 2358Perl_sv_2uv_flags(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
ff68c719 2359{
97aff369 2360 dVAR;
ff68c719 2361 if (!sv)
2362 return 0;
cecf5685
NC
2363 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) || (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVGV && SvVALID(sv))) {
2364 /* FBMs use the same flag bit as SVf_IVisUV, so must let them
50caf62e 2365 cache IVs just in case. */
891f9566
YST
2366 if (flags & SV_GMAGIC)
2367 mg_get(sv);
ff68c719 2368 if (SvIOKp(sv))
2369 return SvUVX(sv);
2370 if (SvNOKp(sv))
2371 return U_V(SvNVX(sv));
71c558c3
NC
2372 if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvLEN(sv)) {
2373 UV value;
2374 const int numtype
2375 = grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), &value);
2376
2377 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2378 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2379 /* It's definitely an integer */
2380 if (!(numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG))
2381 return value;
2382 }
2383 if (!numtype) {
2384 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
2385 not_a_number(sv);
2386 }
2387 return U_V(Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
2388 }
1c7ff15e
NC
2389 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2390 goto return_rok;
3fe9a6f1 2391 }
1c7ff15e
NC
2392 assert(SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG);
2393 /* This falls through to the report_uninit inside S_sv_2iuv_common. */
4cb1ec55 2394 } else if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
ff68c719 2395 if (SvROK(sv)) {
1c7ff15e 2396 return_rok:
deb46114 2397 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
aee036bb
DM
2398 SV *tmpstr;
2399 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2400 return 0;
2401 tmpstr = AMG_CALLun(sv,numer);
deb46114
NC
2402 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2403 return SvUV(tmpstr);
2404 }
2405 }
2406 return PTR2UV(SvRV(sv));
ff68c719 2407 }
765f542d
NC
2408 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
2409 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
8a818333 2410 }
0336b60e 2411 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
0336b60e 2412 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2413 report_uninit(sv);
ff68c719 2414 return 0;
2415 }
2416 }
af359546
NC
2417 if (!SvIOKp(sv)) {
2418 if (S_sv_2iuv_common(aTHX_ sv))
2419 return 0;
ff68c719 2420 }
25da4f38 2421
1d7c1841
GS
2422 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2uv(%"UVuf")\n",
2423 PTR2UV(sv),SvUVX(sv)));
25da4f38 2424 return SvIsUV(sv) ? SvUVX(sv) : (UV)SvIVX(sv);
ff68c719 2425}
2426
645c22ef
DM
2427/*
2428=for apidoc sv_2nv
2429
2430Return the num value of an SV, doing any necessary string or integer
39d5de13
DM
2431conversion. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first.
2432Normally used via the C<SvNV(sv)> and C<SvNVx(sv)> macros.
645c22ef
DM
2433
2434=cut
2435*/
2436
65202027 2437NV
39d5de13 2438Perl_sv_2nv_flags(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
79072805 2439{
97aff369 2440 dVAR;
79072805
LW
2441 if (!sv)
2442 return 0.0;
cecf5685
NC
2443 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) || (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVGV && SvVALID(sv))) {
2444 /* FBMs use the same flag bit as SVf_IVisUV, so must let them
50caf62e 2445 cache IVs just in case. */
39d5de13
DM
2446 if (flags & SV_GMAGIC)
2447 mg_get(sv);
463ee0b2
LW
2448 if (SvNOKp(sv))
2449 return SvNVX(sv);
0aa395f8 2450 if ((SvPOKp(sv) && SvLEN(sv)) && !SvIOKp(sv)) {
041457d9 2451 if (!SvIOKp(sv) && ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC) &&
504618e9 2452 !grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), NULL))
a0d0e21e 2453 not_a_number(sv);
3f7c398e 2454 return Atof(SvPVX_const(sv));
a0d0e21e 2455 }
25da4f38 2456 if (SvIOKp(sv)) {
1c846c1f 2457 if (SvIsUV(sv))
65202027 2458 return (NV)SvUVX(sv);
25da4f38 2459 else
65202027 2460 return (NV)SvIVX(sv);
47a72cb8
NC
2461 }
2462 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2463 goto return_rok;
2464 }
2465 assert(SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG);
2466 /* This falls through to the report_uninit near the end of the
2467 function. */
2468 } else if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
a0d0e21e 2469 if (SvROK(sv)) {
47a72cb8 2470 return_rok:
deb46114 2471 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
aee036bb
DM
2472 SV *tmpstr;
2473 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2474 return 0;
2475 tmpstr = AMG_CALLun(sv,numer);
deb46114
NC
2476 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2477 return SvNV(tmpstr);
2478 }
2479 }
2480 return PTR2NV(SvRV(sv));
a0d0e21e 2481 }
765f542d
NC
2482 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
2483 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
8a818333 2484 }
0336b60e 2485 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
599cee73 2486 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2487 report_uninit(sv);
ed6116ce
LW
2488 return 0.0;
2489 }
79072805
LW
2490 }
2491 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_NV) {
7e25a7e9
NC
2492 /* The logic to use SVt_PVNV if necessary is in sv_upgrade. */
2493 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_NV);
906f284f 2494#ifdef USE_LONG_DOUBLE
097ee67d 2495 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2496 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1d7c1841
GS
2497 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2498 "0x%"UVxf" num(%" PERL_PRIgldbl ")\n",
2499 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
572bbb43
GS
2500 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2501 });
65202027 2502#else
572bbb43 2503 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2504 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1779d84d 2505 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" num(%"NVgf")\n",
1d7c1841 2506 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
097ee67d
JH
2507 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2508 });
572bbb43 2509#endif
79072805
LW
2510 }
2511 else if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2512 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
59d8ce62
NC
2513 if (SvNOKp(sv)) {
2514 return SvNVX(sv);
61604483 2515 }
59d8ce62 2516 if (SvIOKp(sv)) {
9d6ce603 2517 SvNV_set(sv, SvIsUV(sv) ? (NV)SvUVX(sv) : (NV)SvIVX(sv));
28e5dec8 2518#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
a43d94f2
NC
2519 if (SvIOK(sv))
2520 SvNOK_on(sv);
2521 else
2522 SvNOKp_on(sv);
28e5dec8
JH
2523#else
2524 /* Only set the public NV OK flag if this NV preserves the IV */
2525 /* Check it's not 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF */
a43d94f2
NC
2526 if (SvIOK(sv) &&
2527 SvIsUV(sv) ? ((SvUVX(sv) != UV_MAX)&&(SvUVX(sv) == U_V(SvNVX(sv))))
28e5dec8
JH
2528 : (SvIVX(sv) == I_V(SvNVX(sv))))
2529 SvNOK_on(sv);
2530 else
2531 SvNOKp_on(sv);
2532#endif
93a17b20 2533 }
748a9306 2534 else if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvLEN(sv)) {
c2988b20 2535 UV value;
3f7c398e 2536 const int numtype = grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), &value);
041457d9 2537 if (!SvIOKp(sv) && !numtype && ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
a0d0e21e 2538 not_a_number(sv);
28e5dec8 2539#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
c2988b20
NC
2540 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2541 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
5e045b90 2542 /* It's definitely an integer */
9d6ce603 2543 SvNV_set(sv, (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) ? -(NV)value : (NV)value);
c2988b20 2544 } else
3f7c398e 2545 SvNV_set(sv, Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
a43d94f2
NC
2546 if (numtype)
2547 SvNOK_on(sv);
2548 else
2549 SvNOKp_on(sv);
28e5dec8 2550#else
3f7c398e 2551 SvNV_set(sv, Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
28e5dec8
JH
2552 /* Only set the public NV OK flag if this NV preserves the value in
2553 the PV at least as well as an IV/UV would.
2554 Not sure how to do this 100% reliably. */
2555 /* if that shift count is out of range then Configure's test is
2556 wonky. We shouldn't be in here with NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS ==
2557 UV_BITS */
2558 if (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) >
c2988b20 2559 U_V(SvNVX(sv) > 0 ? SvNVX(sv) : -SvNVX(sv))) {
28e5dec8 2560 SvNOK_on(sv); /* Definitely small enough to preserve all bits */
c2988b20
NC
2561 } else if (!(numtype & IS_NUMBER_IN_UV)) {
2562 /* Can't use strtol etc to convert this string, so don't try.
2563 sv_2iv and sv_2uv will use the NV to convert, not the PV. */
2564 SvNOK_on(sv);
2565 } else {
2566 /* value has been set. It may not be precise. */
2567 if ((numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) && (value > (UV)IV_MIN)) {
2568 /* 2s complement assumption for (UV)IV_MIN */
2569 SvNOK_on(sv); /* Integer is too negative. */
2570 } else {
2571 SvNOKp_on(sv);
2572 SvIOKp_on(sv);
6fa402ec 2573
c2988b20 2574 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) {
45977657 2575 SvIV_set(sv, -(IV)value);
c2988b20 2576 } else if (value <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
45977657 2577 SvIV_set(sv, (IV)value);
c2988b20 2578 } else {
607fa7f2 2579 SvUV_set(sv, value);
c2988b20
NC
2580 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2581 }
2582
2583 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT) {
2584 /* I believe that even if the original PV had decimals,
2585 they are lost beyond the limit of the FP precision.
2586 However, neither is canonical, so both only get p
2587 flags. NWC, 2000/11/25 */
2588 /* Both already have p flags, so do nothing */
2589 } else {
66a1b24b 2590 const NV nv = SvNVX(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2591 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MAX + 0.5) {
2592 if (SvIVX(sv) == I_V(nv)) {
2593 SvNOK_on(sv);
c2988b20 2594 } else {
c2988b20
NC
2595 /* It had no "." so it must be integer. */
2596 }
00b6aa41 2597 SvIOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2598 } else {
2599 /* between IV_MAX and NV(UV_MAX).
2600 Could be slightly > UV_MAX */
6fa402ec 2601
c2988b20
NC
2602 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT) {
2603 /* UV and NV both imprecise. */
2604 } else {
66a1b24b 2605 const UV nv_as_uv = U_V(nv);
c2988b20
NC
2606
2607 if (value == nv_as_uv && SvUVX(sv) != UV_MAX) {
2608 SvNOK_on(sv);
c2988b20 2609 }
00b6aa41 2610 SvIOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2611 }
2612 }
2613 }
2614 }
2615 }
a43d94f2
NC
2616 /* It might be more code efficient to go through the entire logic above
2617 and conditionally set with SvNOKp_on() rather than SvNOK(), but it
2618 gets complex and potentially buggy, so more programmer efficient
2619 to do it this way, by turning off the public flags: */
2620 if (!numtype)
2621 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~(SVf_IOK|SVf_NOK);
28e5dec8 2622#endif /* NV_PRESERVES_UV */
93a17b20 2623 }
79072805 2624 else {
f7877b28 2625 if (isGV_with_GP(sv)) {
159b6efe 2626 glob_2number(MUTABLE_GV(sv));
180488f8
NC
2627 return 0.0;
2628 }
2629
041457d9 2630 if (!PL_localizing && !(SvFLAGS(sv) & SVs_PADTMP) && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2631 report_uninit(sv);
7e25a7e9
NC
2632 assert (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_NV);
2633 /* Typically the caller expects that sv_any is not NULL now. */
2634 /* XXX Ilya implies that this is a bug in callers that assume this
2635 and ideally should be fixed. */
a0d0e21e 2636 return 0.0;
79072805 2637 }
572bbb43 2638#if defined(USE_LONG_DOUBLE)
097ee67d 2639 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2640 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1d7c1841
GS
2641 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2nv(%" PERL_PRIgldbl ")\n",
2642 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
572bbb43
GS
2643 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2644 });
65202027 2645#else
572bbb43 2646 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2647 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1779d84d 2648 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 1nv(%"NVgf")\n",
1d7c1841 2649 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
097ee67d
JH
2650 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2651 });
572bbb43 2652#endif
463ee0b2 2653 return SvNVX(sv);
79072805
LW
2654}
2655
800401ee
JH
2656/*
2657=for apidoc sv_2num
2658
2659Return an SV with the numeric value of the source SV, doing any necessary
a196a5fa
JH
2660reference or overload conversion. You must use the C<SvNUM(sv)> macro to
2661access this function.
800401ee
JH
2662
2663=cut
2664*/
2665
2666SV *
5de3775c 2667Perl_sv_2num(pTHX_ register SV *const sv)
800401ee 2668{
7918f24d
NC
2669 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2NUM;
2670
b9ee0594
RGS
2671 if (!SvROK(sv))
2672 return sv;
800401ee
JH
2673 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
2674 SV * const tmpsv = AMG_CALLun(sv,numer);
2675 if (tmpsv && (!SvROK(tmpsv) || (SvRV(tmpsv) != SvRV(sv))))
2676 return sv_2num(tmpsv);
2677 }
2678 return sv_2mortal(newSVuv(PTR2UV(SvRV(sv))));
2679}
2680
645c22ef
DM
2681/* uiv_2buf(): private routine for use by sv_2pv_flags(): print an IV or
2682 * UV as a string towards the end of buf, and return pointers to start and
2683 * end of it.
2684 *
2685 * We assume that buf is at least TYPE_CHARS(UV) long.
2686 */
2687
864dbfa3 2688static char *
5de3775c 2689S_uiv_2buf(char *const buf, const IV iv, UV uv, const int is_uv, char **const peob)
25da4f38 2690{
25da4f38 2691 char *ptr = buf + TYPE_CHARS(UV);
823a54a3 2692 char * const ebuf = ptr;
25da4f38 2693 int sign;
25da4f38 2694
7918f24d
NC
2695 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UIV_2BUF;
2696
25da4f38
IZ
2697 if (is_uv)
2698 sign = 0;
2699 else if (iv >= 0) {
2700 uv = iv;
2701 sign = 0;
2702 } else {
2703 uv = -iv;
2704 sign = 1;
2705 }
2706 do {
eb160463 2707 *--ptr = '0' + (char)(uv % 10);
25da4f38
IZ
2708 } while (uv /= 10);
2709 if (sign)
2710 *--ptr = '-';
2711 *peob = ebuf;
2712 return ptr;
2713}
2714
645c22ef
DM
2715/*
2716=for apidoc sv_2pv_flags
2717
ff276b08 2718Returns a pointer to the string value of an SV, and sets *lp to its length.
645c22ef
DM
2719If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first. Coerces sv to a string
2720if necessary.
2721Normally invoked via the C<SvPV_flags> macro. C<sv_2pv()> and C<sv_2pv_nomg>
2722usually end up here too.
2723
2724=cut
2725*/
2726
8d6d96c1 2727char *
5de3775c 2728Perl_sv_2pv_flags(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, STRLEN *const lp, const I32 flags)
8d6d96c1 2729{
97aff369 2730 dVAR;
79072805 2731 register char *s;
79072805 2732
463ee0b2 2733 if (!sv) {
cdb061a3
NC
2734 if (lp)
2735 *lp = 0;
73d840c0 2736 return (char *)"";
463ee0b2 2737 }
8990e307 2738 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv)) {
8d6d96c1
HS
2739 if (flags & SV_GMAGIC)
2740 mg_get(sv);
463ee0b2 2741 if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
cdb061a3
NC
2742 if (lp)
2743 *lp = SvCUR(sv);
10516c54
NC
2744 if (flags & SV_MUTABLE_RETURN)
2745 return SvPVX_mutable(sv);
4d84ee25
NC
2746 if (flags & SV_CONST_RETURN)
2747 return (char *)SvPVX_const(sv);
463ee0b2
LW
2748 return SvPVX(sv);
2749 }
75dfc8ec
NC
2750 if (SvIOKp(sv) || SvNOKp(sv)) {
2751 char tbuf[64]; /* Must fit sprintf/Gconvert of longest IV/NV */
75dfc8ec
NC
2752 STRLEN len;
2753
2754 if (SvIOKp(sv)) {
e80fed9d 2755 len = SvIsUV(sv)
d9fad198
JH
2756 ? my_snprintf(tbuf, sizeof(tbuf), "%"UVuf, (UV)SvUVX(sv))
2757 : my_snprintf(tbuf, sizeof(tbuf), "%"IVdf, (IV)SvIVX(sv));
75dfc8ec 2758 } else {
e8ada2d0
NC
2759 Gconvert(SvNVX(sv), NV_DIG, 0, tbuf);
2760 len = strlen(tbuf);
75dfc8ec 2761 }
b5b886f0
NC
2762 assert(!SvROK(sv));
2763 {
75dfc8ec
NC
2764 dVAR;
2765
2766#ifdef FIXNEGATIVEZERO
e8ada2d0
NC
2767 if (len == 2 && tbuf[0] == '-' && tbuf[1] == '0') {
2768 tbuf[0] = '0';
2769 tbuf[1] = 0;
75dfc8ec
NC
2770 len = 1;
2771 }
2772#endif
2773 SvUPGRADE(sv, SVt_PV);
2774 if (lp)
2775 *lp = len;
2776 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, len + 1);
2777 SvCUR_set(sv, len);
2778 SvPOKp_on(sv);
10edeb5d 2779 return (char*)memcpy(s, tbuf, len + 1);
75dfc8ec 2780 }
463ee0b2 2781 }
1c7ff15e
NC
2782 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2783 goto return_rok;
2784 }
2785 assert(SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG);
2786 /* This falls through to the report_uninit near the end of the
2787 function. */
2788 } else if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
ed6116ce 2789 if (SvROK(sv)) {
1c7ff15e 2790 return_rok:
deb46114 2791 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
aee036bb
DM
2792 SV *tmpstr;
2793 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2794 return NULL;
2795 tmpstr = AMG_CALLun(sv,string);
deb46114
NC
2796 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2797 /* Unwrap this: */
2798 /* char *pv = lp ? SvPV(tmpstr, *lp) : SvPV_nolen(tmpstr);
2799 */
2800
2801 char *pv;
2802 if ((SvFLAGS(tmpstr) & (SVf_POK)) == SVf_POK) {
2803 if (flags & SV_CONST_RETURN) {
2804 pv = (char *) SvPVX_const(tmpstr);
2805 } else {
2806 pv = (flags & SV_MUTABLE_RETURN)
2807 ? SvPVX_mutable(tmpstr) : SvPVX(tmpstr);
2808 }
2809 if (lp)
2810 *lp = SvCUR(tmpstr);
50adf7d2 2811 } else {
deb46114 2812 pv = sv_2pv_flags(tmpstr, lp, flags);
50adf7d2 2813 }
deb46114
NC
2814 if (SvUTF8(tmpstr))
2815 SvUTF8_on(sv);
2816 else
2817 SvUTF8_off(sv);
2818 return pv;
50adf7d2 2819 }
deb46114
NC
2820 }
2821 {
fafee734
NC
2822 STRLEN len;
2823 char *retval;
2824 char *buffer;
d2c6dc5e 2825 SV *const referent = SvRV(sv);
d8eae41e
NC
2826
2827 if (!referent) {
fafee734
NC
2828 len = 7;
2829 retval = buffer = savepvn("NULLREF", len);
5c35adbb 2830 } else if (SvTYPE(referent) == SVt_REGEXP) {
d2c6dc5e 2831 REGEXP * const re = (REGEXP *)MUTABLE_PTR(referent);
67d2d14d
AB
2832 I32 seen_evals = 0;
2833
2834 assert(re);
2835
2836 /* If the regex is UTF-8 we want the containing scalar to
2837 have an UTF-8 flag too */
2838 if (RX_UTF8(re))
2839 SvUTF8_on(sv);
2840 else
2841 SvUTF8_off(sv);
2842
2843 if ((seen_evals = RX_SEEN_EVALS(re)))
2844 PL_reginterp_cnt += seen_evals;
2845
2846 if (lp)
2847 *lp = RX_WRAPLEN(re);
2848
2849 return RX_WRAPPED(re);
d8eae41e
NC
2850 } else {
2851 const char *const typestr = sv_reftype(referent, 0);
fafee734
NC
2852 const STRLEN typelen = strlen(typestr);
2853 UV addr = PTR2UV(referent);
2854 const char *stashname = NULL;
2855 STRLEN stashnamelen = 0; /* hush, gcc */
2856 const char *buffer_end;
d8eae41e 2857
d8eae41e 2858 if (SvOBJECT(referent)) {
fafee734
NC
2859 const HEK *const name = HvNAME_HEK(SvSTASH(referent));
2860
2861 if (name) {
2862 stashname = HEK_KEY(name);
2863 stashnamelen = HEK_LEN(name);
2864
2865 if (HEK_UTF8(name)) {
2866 SvUTF8_on(sv);
2867 } else {
2868 SvUTF8_off(sv);
2869 }
2870 } else {
2871 stashname = "__ANON__";
2872 stashnamelen = 8;
2873 }
2874 len = stashnamelen + 1 /* = */ + typelen + 3 /* (0x */
2875 + 2 * sizeof(UV) + 2 /* )\0 */;
2876 } else {
2877 len = typelen + 3 /* (0x */
2878 + 2 * sizeof(UV) + 2 /* )\0 */;
d8eae41e 2879 }
fafee734
NC
2880
2881 Newx(buffer, len, char);
2882 buffer_end = retval = buffer + len;
2883
2884 /* Working backwards */
2885 *--retval = '\0';
2886 *--retval = ')';
2887 do {
2888 *--retval = PL_hexdigit[addr & 15];
2889 } while (addr >>= 4);
2890 *--retval = 'x';
2891 *--retval = '0';
2892 *--retval = '(';
2893
2894 retval -= typelen;
2895 memcpy(retval, typestr, typelen);
2896
2897 if (stashname) {
2898 *--retval = '=';
2899 retval -= stashnamelen;
2900 memcpy(retval, stashname, stashnamelen);
2901 }
2902 /* retval may not neccesarily have reached the start of the
2903 buffer here. */
2904 assert (retval >= buffer);
2905
2906 len = buffer_end - retval - 1; /* -1 for that \0 */
c080367d 2907 }
042dae7a 2908 if (lp)
fafee734
NC
2909 *lp = len;
2910 SAVEFREEPV(buffer);
2911 return retval;
463ee0b2 2912 }
79072805 2913 }
0336b60e 2914 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
cdb061a3
NC
2915 if (lp)
2916 *lp = 0;
9f621bb0
NC
2917 if (flags & SV_UNDEF_RETURNS_NULL)
2918 return NULL;
2919 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
2920 report_uninit(sv);
73d840c0 2921 return (char *)"";
79072805 2922 }
79072805 2923 }
28e5dec8
JH
2924 if (SvIOK(sv) || ((SvIOKp(sv) && !SvNOKp(sv)))) {
2925 /* I'm assuming that if both IV and NV are equally valid then
2926 converting the IV is going to be more efficient */
e1ec3a88 2927 const U32 isUIOK = SvIsUV(sv);
28e5dec8
JH
2928 char buf[TYPE_CHARS(UV)];
2929 char *ebuf, *ptr;
97a130b8 2930 STRLEN len;
28e5dec8
JH
2931
2932 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVIV)
2933 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
4ea1d550 2934 ptr = uiv_2buf(buf, SvIVX(sv), SvUVX(sv), isUIOK, &ebuf);
97a130b8 2935 len = ebuf - ptr;
5902b6a9 2936 /* inlined from sv_setpvn */
97a130b8
NC
2937 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, len + 1);
2938 Move(ptr, s, len, char);
2939 s += len;
28e5dec8 2940 *s = '\0';
28e5dec8
JH
2941 }
2942 else if (SvNOKp(sv)) {
4ee39169 2943 dSAVE_ERRNO;
79072805
LW
2944 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2945 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
1c846c1f 2946 /* The +20 is pure guesswork. Configure test needed. --jhi */
5902b6a9 2947 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, NV_DIG + 20);
c81271c3 2948 /* some Xenix systems wipe out errno here */
79072805 2949#ifdef apollo
463ee0b2 2950 if (SvNVX(sv) == 0.0)
d1307786 2951 my_strlcpy(s, "0", SvLEN(sv));
79072805
LW
2952 else
2953#endif /*apollo*/
bbce6d69 2954 {
2d4389e4 2955 Gconvert(SvNVX(sv), NV_DIG, 0, s);
bbce6d69 2956 }
4ee39169 2957 RESTORE_ERRNO;
a0d0e21e 2958#ifdef FIXNEGATIVEZERO
20773dcd
NC
2959 if (*s == '-' && s[1] == '0' && !s[2]) {
2960 s[0] = '0';
2961 s[1] = 0;
2962 }
a0d0e21e 2963#endif
79072805
LW
2964 while (*s) s++;
2965#ifdef hcx
2966 if (s[-1] == '.')
46fc3d4c 2967 *--s = '\0';
79072805
LW
2968#endif
2969 }
79072805 2970 else {
8d1c3e26
NC
2971 if (isGV_with_GP(sv)) {
2972 GV *const gv = MUTABLE_GV(sv);
2973 const U32 wasfake = SvFLAGS(gv) & SVf_FAKE;
2974 SV *const buffer = sv_newmortal();
2975
2976 /* FAKE globs can get coerced, so need to turn this off temporarily
2977 if it is on. */
2978 SvFAKE_off(gv);
2979 gv_efullname3(buffer, gv, "*");
2980 SvFLAGS(gv) |= wasfake;
2981
1809c940
DM
2982 if (SvPOK(buffer)) {
2983 if (lp) {
2984 *lp = SvCUR(buffer);
2985 }
2986 return SvPVX(buffer);
2987 }
2988 else {
2989 if (lp)
2990 *lp = 0;
2991 return (char *)"";
8d1c3e26 2992 }
8d1c3e26 2993 }
180488f8 2994
cdb061a3 2995 if (lp)
00b6aa41 2996 *lp = 0;
9f621bb0
NC
2997 if (flags & SV_UNDEF_RETURNS_NULL)
2998 return NULL;
2999 if (!PL_localizing && !(SvFLAGS(sv) & SVs_PADTMP) && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
3000 report_uninit(sv);
25da4f38
IZ
3001 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PV)
3002 /* Typically the caller expects that sv_any is not NULL now. */
3003 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PV);
73d840c0 3004 return (char *)"";
79072805 3005 }
cdb061a3 3006 {
823a54a3 3007 const STRLEN len = s - SvPVX_const(sv);
cdb061a3
NC
3008 if (lp)
3009 *lp = len;
3010 SvCUR_set(sv, len);
3011 }
79072805 3012 SvPOK_on(sv);
1d7c1841 3013 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2pv(%s)\n",
3f7c398e 3014 PTR2UV(sv),SvPVX_const(sv)));
4d84ee25
NC
3015 if (flags & SV_CONST_RETURN)
3016 return (char *)SvPVX_const(sv);
10516c54
NC
3017 if (flags & SV_MUTABLE_RETURN)
3018 return SvPVX_mutable(sv);
463ee0b2
LW
3019 return SvPVX(sv);
3020}
3021
645c22ef 3022/*
6050d10e
JP
3023=for apidoc sv_copypv
3024
3025Copies a stringified representation of the source SV into the
3026destination SV. Automatically performs any necessary mg_get and
54f0641b 3027coercion of numeric values into strings. Guaranteed to preserve
2575c402 3028UTF8 flag even from overloaded objects. Similar in nature to
54f0641b
NIS
3029sv_2pv[_flags] but operates directly on an SV instead of just the
3030string. Mostly uses sv_2pv_flags to do its work, except when that
6050d10e
JP
3031would lose the UTF-8'ness of the PV.
3032
3033=cut
3034*/
3035
3036void
5de3775c 3037Perl_sv_copypv(pTHX_ SV *const dsv, register SV *const ssv)
6050d10e 3038{
446eaa42 3039 STRLEN len;
53c1dcc0 3040 const char * const s = SvPV_const(ssv,len);
7918f24d
NC
3041
3042 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_COPYPV;
3043
cb50f42d 3044 sv_setpvn(dsv,s,len);
446eaa42 3045 if (SvUTF8(ssv))
cb50f42d 3046 SvUTF8_on(dsv);
446eaa42 3047 else
cb50f42d 3048 SvUTF8_off(dsv);
6050d10e
JP
3049}
3050
3051/*
645c22ef
DM
3052=for apidoc sv_2pvbyte
3053
3054Return a pointer to the byte-encoded representation of the SV, and set *lp
1e54db1a 3055to its length. May cause the SV to be downgraded from UTF-8 as a
645c22ef
DM
3056side-effect.
3057
3058Usually accessed via the C<SvPVbyte> macro.
3059
3060=cut
3061*/
3062
7340a771 3063char *
5de3775c 3064Perl_sv_2pvbyte(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, STRLEN *const lp)
7340a771 3065{
7918f24d
NC
3066 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2PVBYTE;
3067
0875d2fe 3068 sv_utf8_downgrade(sv,0);
97972285 3069 return lp ? SvPV(sv,*lp) : SvPV_nolen(sv);
7340a771
GS
3070}
3071
645c22ef 3072/*
035cbb0e
RGS
3073=for apidoc sv_2pvutf8
3074
3075Return a pointer to the UTF-8-encoded representation of the SV, and set *lp
3076to its length. May cause the SV to be upgraded to UTF-8 as a side-effect.
3077
3078Usually accessed via the C<SvPVutf8> macro.
3079
3080=cut
3081*/
645c22ef 3082
7340a771 3083char *
7bc54cea 3084Perl_sv_2pvutf8(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, STRLEN *const lp)
7340a771 3085{
7918f24d
NC
3086 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2PVUTF8;
3087
035cbb0e
RGS
3088 sv_utf8_upgrade(sv);
3089 return lp ? SvPV(sv,*lp) : SvPV_nolen(sv);
7340a771 3090}
1c846c1f 3091
7ee2227d 3092
645c22ef
DM
3093/*
3094=for apidoc sv_2bool
3095
3096This function is only called on magical items, and is only used by
8cf8f3d1 3097sv_true() or its macro equivalent.
645c22ef
DM
3098
3099=cut
3100*/
3101
463ee0b2 3102bool
7bc54cea 3103Perl_sv_2bool(pTHX_ register SV *const sv)
463ee0b2 3104{
97aff369 3105 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
3106
3107 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2BOOL;
3108
5b295bef 3109 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
463ee0b2 3110
a0d0e21e
LW
3111 if (!SvOK(sv))
3112 return 0;
3113 if (SvROK(sv)) {
fabdb6c0
AL
3114 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
3115 SV * const tmpsv = AMG_CALLun(sv,bool_);
3116 if (tmpsv && (!SvROK(tmpsv) || (SvRV(tmpsv) != SvRV(sv))))
f2338a2e 3117 return cBOOL(SvTRUE(tmpsv));
fabdb6c0
AL
3118 }
3119 return SvRV(sv) != 0;
a0d0e21e 3120 }
463ee0b2 3121 if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
53c1dcc0
AL
3122 register XPV* const Xpvtmp = (XPV*)SvANY(sv);
3123 if (Xpvtmp &&
339049b0 3124 (*sv->sv_u.svu_pv > '0' ||
11343788 3125 Xpvtmp->xpv_cur > 1 ||
339049b0 3126 (Xpvtmp->xpv_cur && *sv->sv_u.svu_pv != '0')))
463ee0b2
LW
3127 return 1;
3128 else
3129 return 0;
3130 }
3131 else {
3132 if (SvIOKp(sv))
3133 return SvIVX(sv) != 0;
3134 else {
3135 if (SvNOKp(sv))
3136 return SvNVX(sv) != 0.0;
180488f8 3137 else {
f7877b28 3138 if (isGV_with_GP(sv))
180488f8
NC
3139 return TRUE;
3140 else
3141 return FALSE;
3142 }
463ee0b2
LW
3143 }
3144 }
79072805
LW
3145}
3146
c461cf8f
JH
3147/*
3148=for apidoc sv_utf8_upgrade
3149
78ea37eb 3150Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.
645c22ef 3151Forces the SV to string form if it is not already.
2bbc8d55 3152Will C<mg_get> on C<sv> if appropriate.
4411f3b6 3153Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future validity checks even
2bbc8d55
SP
3154if the whole string is the same in UTF-8 as not.
3155Returns the number of bytes in the converted string
c461cf8f 3156
13a6c0e0
JH
3157This is not as a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode interface:
3158use the Encode extension for that.
3159
fe749c9a
KW
3160=for apidoc sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg
3161
3162Like sv_utf8_upgrade, but doesn't do magic on C<sv>
3163
8d6d96c1
HS
3164=for apidoc sv_utf8_upgrade_flags
3165
78ea37eb 3166Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.
645c22ef 3167Forces the SV to string form if it is not already.
8d6d96c1 3168Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future validity checks even
2bbc8d55
SP
3169if all the bytes are invariant in UTF-8. If C<flags> has C<SV_GMAGIC> bit set,
3170will C<mg_get> on C<sv> if appropriate, else not.
3171Returns the number of bytes in the converted string
3172C<sv_utf8_upgrade> and
8d6d96c1
HS
3173C<sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg> are implemented in terms of this function.
3174
13a6c0e0
JH
3175This is not as a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode interface:
3176use the Encode extension for that.
3177
8d6d96c1 3178=cut
b3ab6785
KW
3179
3180The grow version is currently not externally documented. It adds a parameter,
3181extra, which is the number of unused bytes the string of 'sv' is guaranteed to
3182have free after it upon return. This allows the caller to reserve extra space
3183that it intends to fill, to avoid extra grows.
3184
3185Also externally undocumented for the moment is the flag SV_FORCE_UTF8_UPGRADE,
3186which can be used to tell this function to not first check to see if there are
3187any characters that are different in UTF-8 (variant characters) which would
3188force it to allocate a new string to sv, but to assume there are. Typically
3189this flag is used by a routine that has already parsed the string to find that
3190there are such characters, and passes this information on so that the work
3191doesn't have to be repeated.
3192
3193(One might think that the calling routine could pass in the position of the
3194first such variant, so it wouldn't have to be found again. But that is not the
3195case, because typically when the caller is likely to use this flag, it won't be
3196calling this routine unless it finds something that won't fit into a byte.
3197Otherwise it tries to not upgrade and just use bytes. But some things that
3198do fit into a byte are variants in utf8, and the caller may not have been
3199keeping track of these.)
3200
3201If the routine itself changes the string, it adds a trailing NUL. Such a NUL
3202isn't guaranteed due to having other routines do the work in some input cases,
3203or if the input is already flagged as being in utf8.
3204
3205The speed of this could perhaps be improved for many cases if someone wanted to
3206write a fast function that counts the number of variant characters in a string,
3207especially if it could return the position of the first one.
3208
8d6d96c1
HS
3209*/
3210
3211STRLEN
b3ab6785 3212Perl_sv_utf8_upgrade_flags_grow(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const I32 flags, STRLEN extra)
8d6d96c1 3213{
97aff369 3214 dVAR;
7918f24d 3215
b3ab6785 3216 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UTF8_UPGRADE_FLAGS_GROW;
7918f24d 3217
808c356f
RGS
3218 if (sv == &PL_sv_undef)
3219 return 0;
e0e62c2a
NIS
3220 if (!SvPOK(sv)) {
3221 STRLEN len = 0;
d52b7888
NC
3222 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && (SvPOKp(sv) || SvIOKp(sv) || SvNOKp(sv))) {
3223 (void) sv_2pv_flags(sv,&len, flags);
b3ab6785
KW
3224 if (SvUTF8(sv)) {
3225 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, SvCUR(sv) + extra);
d52b7888 3226 return len;
b3ab6785 3227 }
d52b7888
NC
3228 } else {
3229 (void) SvPV_force(sv,len);
3230 }
e0e62c2a 3231 }
4411f3b6 3232
f5cee72b 3233 if (SvUTF8(sv)) {
b3ab6785 3234 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, SvCUR(sv) + extra);
5fec3b1d 3235 return SvCUR(sv);
f5cee72b 3236 }
5fec3b1d 3237
765f542d
NC
3238 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
3239 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
db42d148
NIS
3240 }
3241
b3ab6785 3242 if (PL_encoding && !(flags & SV_UTF8_NO_ENCODING)) {
799ef3cb 3243 sv_recode_to_utf8(sv, PL_encoding);
b3ab6785
KW
3244 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, SvCUR(sv) + extra);
3245 return SvCUR(sv);
3246 }
3247
4e93345f
KW
3248 if (SvCUR(sv) == 0) {
3249 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, extra);
3250 } else { /* Assume Latin-1/EBCDIC */
c4e7c712 3251 /* This function could be much more efficient if we
2bbc8d55 3252 * had a FLAG in SVs to signal if there are any variant
c4e7c712 3253 * chars in the PV. Given that there isn't such a flag
b3ab6785
KW
3254 * make the loop as fast as possible (although there are certainly ways
3255 * to speed this up, eg. through vectorization) */
3256 U8 * s = (U8 *) SvPVX_const(sv);
3257 U8 * e = (U8 *) SvEND(sv);
3258 U8 *t = s;
3259 STRLEN two_byte_count = 0;
c4e7c712 3260
b3ab6785
KW
3261 if (flags & SV_FORCE_UTF8_UPGRADE) goto must_be_utf8;
3262
3263 /* See if really will need to convert to utf8. We mustn't rely on our
3264 * incoming SV being well formed and having a trailing '\0', as certain
3265 * code in pp_formline can send us partially built SVs. */
3266
c4e7c712 3267 while (t < e) {
53c1dcc0 3268 const U8 ch = *t++;
b3ab6785
KW
3269 if (NATIVE_IS_INVARIANT(ch)) continue;
3270
3271 t--; /* t already incremented; re-point to first variant */
3272 two_byte_count = 1;
3273 goto must_be_utf8;
c4e7c712 3274 }
b3ab6785
KW
3275
3276 /* utf8 conversion not needed because all are invariants. Mark as
3277 * UTF-8 even if no variant - saves scanning loop */
c4e7c712 3278 SvUTF8_on(sv);
b3ab6785
KW
3279 return SvCUR(sv);
3280
3281must_be_utf8:
3282
3283 /* Here, the string should be converted to utf8, either because of an
3284 * input flag (two_byte_count = 0), or because a character that
3285 * requires 2 bytes was found (two_byte_count = 1). t points either to
3286 * the beginning of the string (if we didn't examine anything), or to
3287 * the first variant. In either case, everything from s to t - 1 will
3288 * occupy only 1 byte each on output.
3289 *
3290 * There are two main ways to convert. One is to create a new string
3291 * and go through the input starting from the beginning, appending each
3292 * converted value onto the new string as we go along. It's probably
3293 * best to allocate enough space in the string for the worst possible
3294 * case rather than possibly running out of space and having to
3295 * reallocate and then copy what we've done so far. Since everything
3296 * from s to t - 1 is invariant, the destination can be initialized
3297 * with these using a fast memory copy
3298 *
3299 * The other way is to figure out exactly how big the string should be
3300 * by parsing the entire input. Then you don't have to make it big
3301 * enough to handle the worst possible case, and more importantly, if
3302 * the string you already have is large enough, you don't have to
3303 * allocate a new string, you can copy the last character in the input
3304 * string to the final position(s) that will be occupied by the
3305 * converted string and go backwards, stopping at t, since everything
3306 * before that is invariant.
3307 *
3308 * There are advantages and disadvantages to each method.
3309 *
3310 * In the first method, we can allocate a new string, do the memory
3311 * copy from the s to t - 1, and then proceed through the rest of the
3312 * string byte-by-byte.
3313 *
3314 * In the second method, we proceed through the rest of the input
3315 * string just calculating how big the converted string will be. Then
3316 * there are two cases:
3317 * 1) if the string has enough extra space to handle the converted
3318 * value. We go backwards through the string, converting until we
3319 * get to the position we are at now, and then stop. If this
3320 * position is far enough along in the string, this method is
3321 * faster than the other method. If the memory copy were the same
3322 * speed as the byte-by-byte loop, that position would be about
3323 * half-way, as at the half-way mark, parsing to the end and back
3324 * is one complete string's parse, the same amount as starting
3325 * over and going all the way through. Actually, it would be
3326 * somewhat less than half-way, as it's faster to just count bytes
3327 * than to also copy, and we don't have the overhead of allocating
3328 * a new string, changing the scalar to use it, and freeing the
3329 * existing one. But if the memory copy is fast, the break-even
3330 * point is somewhere after half way. The counting loop could be
3331 * sped up by vectorization, etc, to move the break-even point
3332 * further towards the beginning.
3333 * 2) if the string doesn't have enough space to handle the converted
3334 * value. A new string will have to be allocated, and one might
3335 * as well, given that, start from the beginning doing the first
3336 * method. We've spent extra time parsing the string and in
3337 * exchange all we've gotten is that we know precisely how big to
3338 * make the new one. Perl is more optimized for time than space,
3339 * so this case is a loser.
3340 * So what I've decided to do is not use the 2nd method unless it is
3341 * guaranteed that a new string won't have to be allocated, assuming
3342 * the worst case. I also decided not to put any more conditions on it
3343 * than this, for now. It seems likely that, since the worst case is
3344 * twice as big as the unknown portion of the string (plus 1), we won't
3345 * be guaranteed enough space, causing us to go to the first method,
3346 * unless the string is short, or the first variant character is near
3347 * the end of it. In either of these cases, it seems best to use the
3348 * 2nd method. The only circumstance I can think of where this would
3349 * be really slower is if the string had once had much more data in it
3350 * than it does now, but there is still a substantial amount in it */
3351
3352 {
3353 STRLEN invariant_head = t - s;
3354 STRLEN size = invariant_head + (e - t) * 2 + 1 + extra;
3355 if (SvLEN(sv) < size) {
3356
3357 /* Here, have decided to allocate a new string */
3358
3359 U8 *dst;
3360 U8 *d;
3361
3362 Newx(dst, size, U8);
3363
3364 /* If no known invariants at the beginning of the input string,
3365 * set so starts from there. Otherwise, can use memory copy to
3366 * get up to where we are now, and then start from here */
3367
3368 if (invariant_head <= 0) {
3369 d = dst;
3370 } else {
3371 Copy(s, dst, invariant_head, char);
3372 d = dst + invariant_head;
3373 }
3374
3375 while (t < e) {
3376 const UV uv = NATIVE8_TO_UNI(*t++);
3377 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(uv))
3378 *d++ = (U8)UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv);
3379 else {
3380 *d++ = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(uv);
3381 *d++ = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(uv);
3382 }
3383 }
3384 *d = '\0';
3385 SvPV_free(sv); /* No longer using pre-existing string */
3386 SvPV_set(sv, (char*)dst);
3387 SvCUR_set(sv, d - dst);
3388 SvLEN_set(sv, size);
3389 } else {
3390
3391 /* Here, have decided to get the exact size of the string.
3392 * Currently this happens only when we know that there is
3393 * guaranteed enough space to fit the converted string, so
3394 * don't have to worry about growing. If two_byte_count is 0,
3395 * then t points to the first byte of the string which hasn't
3396 * been examined yet. Otherwise two_byte_count is 1, and t
3397 * points to the first byte in the string that will expand to
3398 * two. Depending on this, start examining at t or 1 after t.
3399 * */
3400
3401 U8 *d = t + two_byte_count;
3402
3403
3404 /* Count up the remaining bytes that expand to two */
3405
3406 while (d < e) {
3407 const U8 chr = *d++;
3408 if (! NATIVE_IS_INVARIANT(chr)) two_byte_count++;
3409 }
3410
3411 /* The string will expand by just the number of bytes that
3412 * occupy two positions. But we are one afterwards because of
3413 * the increment just above. This is the place to put the
3414 * trailing NUL, and to set the length before we decrement */
3415
3416 d += two_byte_count;
3417 SvCUR_set(sv, d - s);
3418 *d-- = '\0';
3419
3420
3421 /* Having decremented d, it points to the position to put the
3422 * very last byte of the expanded string. Go backwards through
3423 * the string, copying and expanding as we go, stopping when we
3424 * get to the part that is invariant the rest of the way down */
3425
3426 e--;
3427 while (e >= t) {
3428 const U8 ch = NATIVE8_TO_UNI(*e--);
3429 if (UNI_IS_INVARIANT(ch)) {
3430 *d-- = UNI_TO_NATIVE(ch);
3431 } else {
3432 *d-- = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(ch);
3433 *d-- = (U8)UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(ch);
3434 }
3435 }
3436 }
3437 }
560a288e 3438 }
b3ab6785
KW
3439
3440 /* Mark as UTF-8 even if no variant - saves scanning loop */
3441 SvUTF8_on(sv);
4411f3b6 3442 return SvCUR(sv);
560a288e
GS
3443}
3444
c461cf8f
JH
3445/*
3446=for apidoc sv_utf8_downgrade
3447
78ea37eb 3448Attempts to convert the PV of an SV from characters to bytes.
2bbc8d55
SP
3449If the PV contains a character that cannot fit
3450in a byte, this conversion will fail;
78ea37eb 3451in this case, either returns false or, if C<fail_ok> is not
c461cf8f
JH
3452true, croaks.
3453
13a6c0e0
JH
3454This is not as a general purpose Unicode to byte encoding interface:
3455use the Encode extension for that.
3456
c461cf8f
JH
3457=cut
3458*/
3459
560a288e 3460bool
7bc54cea 3461Perl_sv_utf8_downgrade(pTHX_ register SV *const sv, const bool fail_ok)
560a288e 3462{
97aff369 3463 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
3464
3465 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UTF8_DOWNGRADE;
3466
78ea37eb 3467 if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvUTF8(sv)) {
fa301091 3468 if (SvCUR(sv)) {
03cfe0ae 3469 U8 *s;
652088fc 3470 STRLEN len;
fa301091 3471
765f542d
NC
3472 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
3473 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
3474 }
03cfe0ae
NIS
3475 s = (U8 *) SvPV(sv, len);
3476 if (!utf8_to_bytes(s, &len)) {
fa301091
JH
3477 if (fail_ok)
3478 return FALSE;
3479 else {
3480 if (PL_op)
3481 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Wide character in %s",
53e06cf0 3482 OP_DESC(PL_op));
fa301091
JH
3483 else
3484 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Wide character");
3485 }
4b3603a4 3486 }
b162af07 3487 SvCUR_set(sv, len);
67e989fb 3488 }
560a288e 3489 }
ffebcc3e 3490 SvUTF8_off(sv);
560a288e
GS
3491 return TRUE;
3492}
3493
c461cf8f
JH
3494/*
3495=for apidoc sv_utf8_encode
3496
78ea37eb
TS
3497Converts the PV of an SV to UTF-8, but then turns the C<SvUTF8>
3498flag off so that it looks like octets again.
c461cf8f
JH
3499
3500=cut
3501*/
3502
560a288e 3503void
7bc54cea 3504Perl_sv_utf8_encode(pTHX_ register SV *const sv)
560a288e 3505{
7918f24d
NC
3506 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UTF8_ENCODE;
3507
4c94c214
NC
3508 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
3509 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
3510 }
3511 if (SvREADONLY(sv)) {
f1f66076 3512 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s", PL_no_modify);
4c94c214 3513 }
a5f5288a 3514 (void) sv_utf8_upgrade(sv);
560a288e
GS
3515 SvUTF8_off(sv);
3516}
3517
4411f3b6
NIS
3518/*
3519=for apidoc sv_utf8_decode
3520
78ea37eb
TS
3521If the PV of the SV is an octet sequence in UTF-8
3522and contains a multiple-byte character, the C<SvUTF8> flag is turned on
3523so that it looks like a character. If the PV contains only single-byte
3524characters, the C<SvUTF8> flag stays being off.
3525Scans PV for validity and returns false if the PV is invalid UTF-8.
4411f3b6
NIS
3526
3527=cut
3528*/
3529
560a288e 3530bool
7bc54cea 3531Perl_sv_utf8_decode(pTHX_ register SV *const sv)
560a288e 3532{
7918f24d
NC
3533 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UTF8_DECODE;
3534
78ea37eb 3535 if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
93524f2b
NC
3536 const U8 *c;
3537 const U8 *e;
9cbac4c7 3538
645c22ef
DM
3539 /* The octets may have got themselves encoded - get them back as
3540 * bytes
3541 */
3542 if (!sv_utf8_downgrade(sv, TRUE))
560a288e
GS
3543 return FALSE;
3544
3545 /* it is actually just a matter of turning the utf8 flag on, but
3546 * we want to make sure everything inside is valid utf8 first.
3547 */
93524f2b 3548 c = (const U8 *) SvPVX_const(sv);
63cd0674 3549 if (!is_utf8_string(c, SvCUR(sv)+1))
67e989fb 3550 return FALSE;
93524f2b 3551 e = (const U8 *) SvEND(sv);
511c2ff0 3552 while (c < e) {
b64e5050 3553 const U8 ch = *c++;
c4d5f83a 3554 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(ch)) {
67e989fb
JH
3555 SvUTF8_on(sv);
3556 break;
3557 }
560a288e 3558 }
560a288e
GS
3559 }
3560 return TRUE;
3561}
3562
954c1994
GS
3563/*
3564=for apidoc sv_setsv
3565
645c22ef
DM
3566Copies the contents of the source SV C<ssv> into the destination SV
3567C<dsv>. The source SV may be destroyed if it is mortal, so don't use this
3568function if the source SV needs to be reused. Does not handle 'set' magic.
3569Loosely speaking, it performs a copy-by-value, obliterating any previous
3570content of the destination.
3571
3572You probably want to use one of the assortment of wrappers, such as
3573C<SvSetSV>, C<SvSetSV_nosteal>, C<SvSetMagicSV> and
3574C<SvSetMagicSV_nosteal>.
3575
8d6d96c1
HS
3576=for apidoc sv_setsv_flags
3577
645c22ef
DM
3578Copies the contents of the source SV C<ssv> into the destination SV
3579C<dsv>. The source SV may be destroyed if it is mortal, so don't use this
3580function if the source SV needs to be reused. Does not handle 'set' magic.
3581Loosely speaking, it performs a copy-by-value, obliterating any previous
3582content of the destination.
3583If the C<flags> parameter has the C<SV_GMAGIC> bit set, will C<mg_get> on
5fcdf167
NC
3584C<ssv> if appropriate, else not. If the C<flags> parameter has the
3585C<NOSTEAL> bit set then the buffers of temps will not be stolen. <sv_setsv>
3586and C<sv_setsv_nomg> are implemented in terms of this function.
645c22ef
DM
3587
3588You probably want to use one of the assortment of wrappers, such as
3589C<SvSetSV>, C<SvSetSV_nosteal>, C<SvSetMagicSV> and
3590C<SvSetMagicSV_nosteal>.
3591
3592This is the primary function for copying scalars, and most other
3593copy-ish functions and macros use this underneath.
8d6d96c1
HS
3594
3595=cut
3596*/
3597
5d0301b7 3598static void
7bc54cea 3599S_glob_assign_glob(pTHX_ SV *const dstr, SV *const sstr, const int dtype)
5d0301b7 3600{
70cd14a1 3601 I32 mro_changes = 0; /* 1 = method, 2 = isa */
dd69841b 3602
7918f24d
NC
3603 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_GLOB_ASSIGN_GLOB;
3604
5d0301b7
NC
3605 if (dtype != SVt_PVGV) {
3606 const char * const name = GvNAME(sstr);
3607 const STRLEN len = GvNAMELEN(sstr);
0d092c36 3608 {
f7877b28
NC
3609 if (dtype >= SVt_PV) {
3610 SvPV_free(dstr);
3611 SvPV_set(dstr, 0);
3612 SvLEN_set(dstr, 0);
3613 SvCUR_set(dstr, 0);
3614 }
0d092c36 3615 SvUPGRADE(dstr, SVt_PVGV);
dedf8e73 3616 (void)SvOK_off(dstr);
2e5b91de
NC
3617 /* FIXME - why are we doing this, then turning it off and on again
3618 below? */
3619 isGV_with_GP_on(dstr);
f7877b28 3620 }
5d0301b7
NC
3621 GvSTASH(dstr) = GvSTASH(sstr);
3622 if (GvSTASH(dstr))
daba3364 3623 Perl_sv_add_backref(aTHX_ MUTABLE_SV(GvSTASH(dstr)), dstr);
159b6efe 3624 gv_name_set(MUTABLE_GV(dstr), name, len, GV_ADD);
5d0301b7
NC
3625 SvFAKE_on(dstr); /* can coerce to non-glob */
3626 }
3627
159b6efe 3628 if(GvGP(MUTABLE_GV(sstr))) {
dd69841b
BB
3629 /* If source has method cache entry, clear it */
3630 if(GvCVGEN(sstr)) {
3631 SvREFCNT_dec(GvCV(sstr));
3632 GvCV(sstr) = NULL;
3633 GvCVGEN(sstr) = 0;
3634 }
3635 /* If source has a real method, then a method is
3636 going to change */
159b6efe 3637 else if(GvCV((const GV *)sstr)) {
70cd14a1 3638 mro_changes = 1;
dd69841b
BB
3639 }
3640 }
3641
3642 /* If dest already had a real method, that's a change as well */
159b6efe 3643 if(!mro_changes && GvGP(MUTABLE_GV(dstr)) && GvCVu((const GV *)dstr)) {
70cd14a1 3644 mro_changes = 1;
dd69841b
BB
3645 }
3646
159b6efe 3647 if(strEQ(GvNAME((const GV *)dstr),"ISA"))
70cd14a1
CB
3648 mro_changes = 2;
3649
159b6efe 3650 gp_free(MUTABLE_GV(dstr));
2e5b91de 3651 isGV_with_GP_off(dstr);
5d0301b7 3652 (void)SvOK_off(dstr);
2e5b91de 3653