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Make _charnames comparison null-safe
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
466416ed 23below. E.g. C<(W closed)> means a warning in the C<closed> category.
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24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
fa816bf3 26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
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27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
04f74579 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s in %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
7c7af292 88(S ambiguous) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
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89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
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92=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
93
7c7af292 94(S ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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95bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
96(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
97like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
98assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
99clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
100really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 101
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102=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
103
104(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
105asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
106named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 107the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
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108function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
109and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
110
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111=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
112
113=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 114
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115(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo represents
116the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for element number
1172 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write C<$foo[2]>, or you
118might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to the function named
119foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it returns. If you meant
120that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
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121
122In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
123to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
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124C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length> followed
125by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what you
126want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/> to the
127unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to something
128that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by simply turning
129off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 130
bdac9d71 131=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
397d0f13 132
7c7af292 133(S ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
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134string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
135the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
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136write C<-foo()>.
137
6df41af2 138=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 139
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140(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
141redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
142redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 143
6df41af2 144=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 145
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146(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
147redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
148into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
149though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
150which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 151
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152 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
153 while (<STDIN>) {
154 print;
155 print OUT;
156 }
157 close OUT;
c9f97d15 158
6df41af2 159=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 160
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161(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
162transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 163one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 164a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
165hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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166you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
167alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 168
6df41af2 169=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 170
6df41af2 171(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 172
f86702cc 173=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 174
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175(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
176that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
177will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 178
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179=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
180
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181(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O
182system you forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers
183take care of transforming data between external and internal
184representations.) Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this
185point and did not attempt to push this layer. If your program
186didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the
187result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
b4581f09 188
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189=item Argument "%s" treated as 0 in increment (++)
190
191(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to the C<++>
192operator which expects either a number or a string matching
193C</^[a-zA-Z]*[0-9]*\z/>. See L<perlop/Auto-increment and
194Auto-decrement> for details.
195
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196=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
197
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198(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
199spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 200
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201=item A sequence of multiple spaces in a charnames alias definition is deprecated
202
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203(D deprecated) You defined a character name which had multiple space
204characters in a row. Change them to single spaces. Usually these
205names are defined in the C<:alias> import argument to C<use charnames>, but
206they could be defined by a translator installed into C<$^H{charnames}>.
207See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
bd299e29 208
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209=item assertion botched: %s
210
21b5e840 211(X) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
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212
213=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
214
21b5e840 215(X) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
a0d0e21e 216
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217=item Assigning non-zero to $[ is no longer possible
218
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219(F) When the "array_base" feature is disabled (e.g., under C<use v5.16;>)
220the special variable C<$[>, which is deprecated, is now a fixed zero value.
82122228 221
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222=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
223
224(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
225must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
226know which context to supply to the right side.
227
2393f1b9 228=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 229
49293501 230(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 231the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 232
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233=item Attempt to bless into a freed package
234
235(F) You wrote C<bless $foo> with one argument after somehow causing
236the current package to be freed. Perl cannot figure out what to
237do, so it throws up in hands in despair.
238
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239=item Attempt to bless into a reference
240
241(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
57dedab9 242the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
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243supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
244
245 bless $self, $proto;
246
247when you intended
248
249 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
250
251If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
252of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
253example by:
254
255 bless $self, "$proto";
256
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257=item Attempt to clear deleted array
258
259(S debugging) An array was assigned to when it was being freed.
260Freed values are not supposed to be visible to Perl code. This
261can also happen if XS code calls C<av_clear> from a custom magic
262callback on the array.
263
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264=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
265
266(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
267which is not in its key set.
268
269=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
270
271(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
272declared readonly from a restricted hash.
273
de42a5a9 274=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 275
f84fe999 276(S internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
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277that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
278outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 279
12578ffb 280=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string '%s'%s
bbce6d69 281
f84fe999 282(S internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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283strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
284strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
285of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 286
7d5b40b4 287=item Attempt to free temp prematurely: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 288
f84fe999 289(S debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
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290free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
291SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
292free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
293try to free it.
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294
295=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
296
f84fe999 297(S internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
a0d0e21e 298
7d5b40b4 299=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar: SV 0x%x
a0d0e21e 300
8f7e4d2c 301(S internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
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302see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
303earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
304This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
305that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
306mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
307corrupted.
a0d0e21e 308
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309=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
310
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311(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
312function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
313means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
314invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
315literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
316avoid this warning.
84902520 317
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318=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
319
320(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
321compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
322unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
323L<perlvar/%INC>.
324
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325=item Attempt to set length of freed array
326
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327(W misc) You tried to set the length of an array which has
328been freed. You can do this by storing a reference to the
329scalar representing the last index of an array and later
330assigning through that reference. For example
1b20cd17
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331
332 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
333 $$r = 503
334
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335=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
336
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337(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
338used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
339dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 340
c32124fe
NC
341=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
342
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343(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the
344"locked" attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is
345obsolete, has had no effect since 5005 threads were removed, and
346will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
c32124fe 347
f1a3ce43
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348=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
349
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FC
350(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify
351the "unique" attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference.
352The :unique attribute has had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and
353will be removed in a future release of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 354
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355=item Attribute prototype(%s) discards earlier prototype attribute in same sub
356
357(W misc) A sub was declared as sub foo : prototype(A) : prototype(B) {}, for
358example. Since each sub can only have one prototype, the earlier
359declaration(s) are discarded while the last one is applied.
360
ccce04a4
FC
361=item av_reify called on tied array
362
363(S debugging) This indicates that something went wrong and Perl got I<very>
364confused about C<@_> or C<@DB::args> being tied.
365
de42a5a9 366=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 367
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368(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
369or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 370S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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371S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
372
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373=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
374
496a33f5 375(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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376substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
377most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
378
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379=item Bad filehandle: %s
380
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381(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
382symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
383open(), or did it in another package.
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384
385=item Bad free() ignored
386
be771a83 387(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
fa816bf3 388been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 389setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 390
9ea8bc6d 391This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
6903afa2 392dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
be771a83 393which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 394
aa689395
PP
395=item Bad hash
396
397(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
398
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399=item Badly placed ()'s
400
401(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
402of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
403Perl yourself.
404
a7cb8dae 405=item Bad name after %s
a0d0e21e 406
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407(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
408didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
409of quotes, so
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410
411 $var = 'myvar';
412 $sym = mypack::$var;
413
414is not the same as
415
416 $var = 'myvar';
417 $sym = "mypack::$var";
418
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JV
419=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
420
421(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
422plugin API.
423
4ad56ec9
IZ
424=item Bad realloc() ignored
425
6903afa2
FC
426(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that
427had never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can
428be disabled by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 429
a0d0e21e
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430=item Bad symbol for array
431
432(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
433wasn't a symbol table entry.
434
4df3f177
SP
435=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
436
437(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
438that wasn't a symbol table entry.
439
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440=item Bad symbol for filehandle
441
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442(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
443that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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444
445=item Bad symbol for hash
446
447(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
448wasn't a symbol table entry.
449
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450=item Bareword found in conditional
451
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452(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
453conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
454of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
GS
455
456 open FOO || die;
457
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458It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
459a bareword:
34d09196
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460
461 use constant TYPO => 1;
462 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
463
464The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
465
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466=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
467
468(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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469subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
470symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
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471
472=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
473
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474(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
475compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
476you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 477
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478=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
479
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480(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
481subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
482exited.
a0d0e21e 483
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484=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
485
486(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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487implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
488occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
489be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
490depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 491
6df41af2
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492=item \1 better written as $1
493
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494(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
495The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
496substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
497because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
498there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 499
252aa082
JH
500=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
501
e476b1b5 502(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
503(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
504L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 505
69282e91 506=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 507
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508(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
509check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 510
c289d2f7
JH
511=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
512
513(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 514Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 515
d7bb0749 516=item "\b{" is deprecated; use "\b\{" or "\b[{]" instead in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
f866a7cd 517
d7bb0749 518=item "\B{" is deprecated; use "\B\{" or "\B[{]" instead in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
f866a7cd 519
3c664d1a 520(D deprecated) Use of an unescaped "{" immediately following
a38411bc
FC
521a C<\b> or C<\B> is now deprecated so as to reserve its use for Perl
522itself in a future release. You can either precede the brace
523with a backslash, or enclose it in square brackets; the latter
524is the way to go if the pattern delimiters are C<{}>.
f866a7cd 525
c5a0f51a
JH
526=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
527
e476b1b5 528(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 529
043c750c 530=item Bizarre copy of %s
4633a7c4 531
be771a83 532(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
ab830aa0 533copiable.
4633a7c4 534
5a25739d
FC
535=item Bizarre SvTYPE [%d]
536
434f489b 537(P) When starting a new thread or returning values from a thread, Perl
5a25739d
FC
538encountered an invalid data type.
539
f675dbe5
CB
540=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
541
be771a83
GS
542(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
543iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
544which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 545
a0d0e21e
LW
546=item Callback called exit
547
4929bf7b 548(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
549exited by calling exit.
550
6df41af2 551=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 552
be771a83
GS
553(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
554parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
555that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
556early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
557subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
558checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
559function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
560the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 561
49704364 562=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
563
564(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
565compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
566attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
567See L<perlfunc/pack>.
568
49704364 569=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
570
571(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
572format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
573
5c1f4d79
NC
574=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
575
6903afa2
FC
576(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference
577in it, then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax.
578The access triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is
579no legal conversion from that type of reference to a typeglob.
5c1f4d79 580
4040665a 581=item Cannot copy to %s
ba2fdce6
NC
582
583(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 584be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 585
b5d97229
RGS
586=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
587
588(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
589either with open() or binmode().
590
7355df7e
FC
591=item Cannot set tied @DB::args
592
593(F) C<caller> tried to set C<@DB::args>, but found it tied. Tying C<@DB::args>
594is not supported. (Before this error was added, it used to crash.)
595
ce65bc73
FC
596=item Cannot tie unreifiable array
597
598(P) You somehow managed to call C<tie> on an array that does not
599keep a reference count on its arguments and cannot be made to
600do so. Such arrays are not even supposed to be accessible to
601Perl code, but are only used internally.
602
96ebfdd7
RK
603=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
604
605(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
606integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
607to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
608
a0d0e21e
LW
609=item Can't bless non-reference value
610
611(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
612encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
613
dc57907a
RGS
614=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
615
0d863452 616(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
6903afa2 617a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
0d863452
RH
618
619=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 620
0d863452
RH
621(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
622
6df41af2
GS
623=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
624
625(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
626object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
627like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
628
629 $BADREF = undef;
630 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
631 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
632
a0d0e21e
LW
633=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
634
54310121 635(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
636ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
637didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
638object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
639
640=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
641
642(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
643object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
644defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
645Something like this will reproduce the error:
646
647 $BADREF = 42;
648 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
649 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
650
dfe378f1
FC
651=item Can't call mro_isa_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
652
653(P) Perl got confused as to whether a hash was a plain hash or a
654symbol table hash when trying to update @ISA caches.
655
2bf7e7b2
FC
656=item Can't call mro_method_changed_in() on anonymous symbol table
657
658(F) An XS module tried to call C<mro_method_changed_in> on a hash that was
659not attached to the symbol table.
660
a0d0e21e
LW
661=item Can't chdir to %s
662
f703fc96 663(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but F</foo/bar> is not a directory
a0d0e21e
LW
664that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
665
0545a864 666=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 667
be771a83
GS
668(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
669nosuid.
104d25b7 670
22e74366 671=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
672
673(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 674(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
675say things like:
676
677 *foo += 1;
678
679You CAN say
680
681 $foo = *foo;
682 $foo += 1;
683
684but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
685
0d863452 686=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 687
0d863452
RH
688(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
689or C<default> block.
690
a0d0e21e
LW
691=item Can't create pipe mailbox
692
be771a83
GS
693(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
694quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 695
eb64745e
GS
696=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
697
30c282f6
NC
698(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
699"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 700
fc7debfb
FC
701=item Can't "default" outside a topicalizer
702
703(F) You have used a C<default> block that is neither inside a
704C<foreach> loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is
705issued on exit from the C<default> block, so you won't get the
706error if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
707
6df41af2
GS
708=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
709
be771a83 710(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
df7075a8 711a file in /dev, a FIFO or an uneditable directory. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 712
a0d0e21e
LW
713=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
714
be771a83
GS
715(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
716reason.
a0d0e21e 717
54310121 718=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 719
be771a83
GS
720(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
721reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
722C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 723
10f9c03d 724=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 725
e476b1b5 726(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
727characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
728inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 729
a0d0e21e
LW
730=item Can't do waitpid with flags
731
be771a83
GS
732(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
733waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 734
a0d0e21e
LW
735=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
736
be771a83
GS
737(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
738point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
739line.
a0d0e21e 740
1109a392
MHM
741=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
742
743(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
744or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
745little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
746See L<perlfunc/pack>.
747
a0d0e21e
LW
748=item Can't exec "%s": %s
749
d1be9408 750(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
751named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
752permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
753C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
754architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
755can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
756#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
757
758=item Can't exec %s
759
be771a83
GS
760(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
761that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
762need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
763
764=item Can't execute %s
765
be771a83
GS
766(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
767found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 768
6df41af2 769=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 770
be771a83
GS
771(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
772is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 773
56ca2fc0
JH
774=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
775
776(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
6903afa2 777could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
e1b711da 778See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
9b73678d 779for a complete list of available official properties.
56ca2fc0 780
6df41af2
GS
781=item Can't find label %s
782
be771a83
GS
783(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
784possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
785
786=item Can't find %s on PATH
787
be771a83
GS
788(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
789found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 790
6df41af2 791=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 792
be771a83
GS
793(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
794found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
795script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
796
797=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
798
be771a83
GS
799(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
800that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
801nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 802
fb73857a
PP
803 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
804
97b3d10f 805If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
806included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
807may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
808a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
809L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 810
660a4616
ST
811=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
812
5f8ad6b6
FC
813(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode
814property (for example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase
fa816bf3 815letters). If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
e1b711da 816L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
6903afa2 817for a complete list of available properties. If you didn't
fa816bf3
FC
818mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either by
819C<\\p> (just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
5f8ad6b6 820until C<\E>).
660a4616 821
b3647a36 822=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 823
be771a83
GS
824(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
825pipeline.
a0d0e21e 826
b3647a36
SR
827=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
828
c973c02e 829(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
830after five seconds.
831
748a9306
LW
832=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
833
be771a83
GS
834(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
835between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
836Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
837the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
838account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
839the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 840the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
841the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
842if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
843because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
844appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
845and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
846routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
847shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
848only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 849
a0d0e21e
LW
850=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
851
be771a83
GS
852(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
853pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
854
855=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
856
748a9306
LW
857(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
858mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 859
6df41af2 860=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 861
be771a83
GS
862(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
863loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
864
865=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
866
be771a83
GS
867(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
868a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
869you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
870See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 871
5a25739d
FC
872=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
873
874(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
875"string" or block.
876
9850bf21 877=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 878
9850bf21
RH
879(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
880comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
881as the reduce() function in List::Util).
882
6df41af2
GS
883=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
884
be771a83
GS
885(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
886subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
887cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
888routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 889
0b5b802d
GS
890=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
891
be771a83
GS
892(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
893signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
894signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
895processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
896situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
897may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 898
e2c0f81f
DG
899=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
900
901(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
902attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
903process identifier.
904
6df41af2 905=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 906
6df41af2 907(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
908except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
909block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
910block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
911usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
912inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
913L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 914
2c7d6b9c
RGS
915=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
916
917(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
918package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
919
b8170e59
JB
920=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
921
6903afa2
FC
922(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension.
923This may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one
924that is incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known
925to happen between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your
926dynamic extension was built against an older version of the library
927that is installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old
928dynamic extensions.
b8170e59 929
748a9306
LW
930=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
931
2ba9eb46 932(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
b7e4ecc1
FC
933lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you
934want to localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with
935the package name.
748a9306 936
6df41af2 937=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 938
6df41af2
GS
939(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
940handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 941pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 942that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 943
ea071790 944=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a 945
fa816bf3
FC
946(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be found.
947Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC, unless
948the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
949to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the
950extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
be771a83
GS
951to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
952L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 953
6df41af2
GS
954=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
955
be771a83
GS
956(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
957autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
958are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
959the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 960
b8170e59
JB
961=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
962
963(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
d70d8e57 964for example, F<foo.so> or F<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
b8170e59
JB
965unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
966
a0d0e21e
LW
967=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
968
969(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
970functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 971method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
972
973=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
974
be771a83
GS
975(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
976doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 977
2f7da168
RK
978=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
979
980(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
981e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
982
f4ad53f4 983=item Can't make list assignment to %ENV on this system
3e3baf6d 984
be771a83
GS
985(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
986VMS.
3e3baf6d 987
cd40cd58
NC
988=item Can't make loaded symbols global on this platform while loading %s
989
ff9c1ae8 990(S) A module passed the flag 0x01 to DynaLoader::dl_load_file() to request
cd40cd58
NC
991that symbols from the stated file are made available globally within the
992process, but that functionality is not available on this platform. Whilst
993the module likely will still work, this may prevent the perl interpreter
994from loading other XS-based extensions which need to link directly to
995functions defined in the C or XS code in the stated file.
996
a0d0e21e
LW
997=item Can't modify %s in %s
998
be771a83
GS
999(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
1000to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 1001
54310121 1002=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
1003
1004(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
1005a NULL.
1006
6df41af2
GS
1007=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
1008
1009(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 1010such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 1011
5f05dabc 1012=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 1013
5f05dabc 1014(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
1015buffer.
1016
6df41af2
GS
1017=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
1018
1019(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
1020there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
1021count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
1022grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1023though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
1024once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 1025
46fa9b26
FC
1026=item Can't open %s
1027
1028(F) You tried to run a perl built with MAD support with
1029the PERL_XMLDUMP environment variable set, but the file
1030named by that variable could not be opened.
1031
a0d0e21e
LW
1032=item Can't open %s: %s
1033
c47ff5f1 1034(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e 1035filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
46fa9b26
FC
1036switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually
1037this is because you don't have read permission for a file which
1038you named on the command line.
1039
1040(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-e> switch, but F</dev/null> (or
1041your operating system's equivalent) could not be opened.
a0d0e21e 1042
9a869a14
RGS
1043=item Can't open a reference
1044
1045(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1046using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1047
1048 open FH, '>', $ref;
1049
1050but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1051open is not supported.
1052
a0d0e21e
LW
1053=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1054
be771a83
GS
1055(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1056You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1057as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1058">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1059
748a9306
LW
1060=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1061
be771a83
GS
1062(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1063redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1064the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1065
1066=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1067
be771a83
GS
1068(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1069redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1070command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1071
1072=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1073
be771a83
GS
1074(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1075redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1076the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1077
1078=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1079
be771a83
GS
1080(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1081redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1082for stdout.
748a9306 1083
3b1cf97d 1084=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1085
1086(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1087
fa3aa65a
JC
1088If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1089shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1090you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1091
6df41af2
GS
1092=item Can't read CRTL environ
1093
1094(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1095from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1096missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1097or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1098searched.
6df41af2 1099
6df41af2
GS
1100=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1101
1102(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1103there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1104count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1105or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1106though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1107loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1108
64977eb6 1109=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1110
be771a83
GS
1111(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1112file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1113the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1114
a0d0e21e
LW
1115=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1116
e476b1b5 1117(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1118probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1119
748a9306
LW
1120=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1121
be771a83
GS
1122(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1123to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1124
4f12ec0e
FC
1125=item Can't reset %ENV on this system
1126
1127(F) You called C<reset('E')> or similar, which tried to reset
1128all variables in the current package beginning with "E". In
1129the main package, that includes %ENV. Resetting %ENV is not
1130supported on some systems, notably VMS.
1131
fe13d51d 1132=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1133
1fa582fa
FC
1134(F)(P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1135opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1136package. If the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1137
cd06dffe
GS
1138=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1139
be771a83
GS
1140(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1141temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1142is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1143
96ebfdd7
RK
1144=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1145
1146(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1147there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1148
78f9721b
SM
1149=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1150
6903afa2
FC
1151(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue
1152subroutine, but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl
1153think you meant to return only one value. You probably meant to
1154write parentheses around the call to the subroutine, which tell
1155Perl that the call should be in list context.
78f9721b 1156
a0d0e21e
LW
1157=item Can't stat script "%s"
1158
be771a83
GS
1159(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1160open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1161
a0d0e21e
LW
1162=item Can't take log of %g
1163
fb73857a 1164(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
6903afa2 1165negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1166standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1167negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1168
1169=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1170
1171(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1172negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1173with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1174
1175=item Can't undef active subroutine
1176
1177(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1178however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1179redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1180
c81225bc 1181=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1182
be771a83
GS
1183(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1184into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1185specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1186indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1187
6651ba0b
FC
1188=item Can't use '%c' after -mname
1189
1190(F) You tried to call perl with the B<-m> switch, but you put something
1191other than "=" after the module name.
1192
1db89ea5
BS
1193=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1194
e27ad1f2 1195(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1196table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1197for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1198
96ebfdd7
RK
1199=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1200
1201(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1202be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1203
6df41af2
GS
1204=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1205
be771a83
GS
1206(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1207references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1208
90b75b61 1209=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63 1210
20561843 1211(F) The first time the C<%!> hash is used, perl automatically loads the
6903afa2 1212Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1d2dff63
GS
1213provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1214
1109a392
MHM
1215=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1216
1217(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1218byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1219allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1220
6df41af2
GS
1221=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1222
be771a83
GS
1223(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1224foreach.
6df41af2 1225
aab6a793 1226=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1227
be771a83
GS
1228(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1229is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1230(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1231have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1232weren't.
1233
6d3b25aa
RGS
1234=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1235
1236(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1237that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1238For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1239is inside a big-endian group.
1240
c07a80fd
PP
1241=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1242
1243(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1244You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1245and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1246Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1247lexical variable.
1248
a0d0e21e
LW
1249=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1250
1251(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1252reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1253test the type of the reference, if need be.
1254
748a9306 1255=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1256
5e634d20
FC
1257=item Can't use string ("%s"...) as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1258
b41bf23f
FC
1259(F) You've told Perl to dereference a string, something which
1260C<use strict> blocks to prevent it happening accidentally. See
1261L<perlref/"Symbolic references">. This can be triggered by an C<@> or C<$>
1262in a double-quoted string immediately before interpolating a variable,
1263for example in C<"user @$twitter_id">, which says to treat the contents
1264of C<$twitter_id> as an array reference; use a C<\> to have a literal C<@>
1265symbol followed by the contents of C<$twitter_id>: C<"user \@$twitter_id">.
a0d0e21e 1266
748a9306
LW
1267=item Can't use subscript on %s
1268
1269(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1270subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1271didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1272
6df41af2
GS
1273=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1274
75b44862
GS
1275(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1276creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1277backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1278expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1279value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1280instead.
6df41af2 1281
810b8aa5
GS
1282=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1283
1284(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1285references can be weakened.
1286
fc7debfb
FC
1287=item Can't "when" outside a topicalizer
1288
1289(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1290loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1291from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1292or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1293
5f05dabc 1294=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1295
be771a83
GS
1296(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1297with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1298Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1299
4a68bf9d 1300=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1301
3c664d1a 1302(F)(D deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
675fa9ff
FC
1303It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl v5.20. In
1304the cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
17a3df4c
KW
1305derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1306
c9faaf04
KW
1307Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well,
1308and using non-printable ones will be deprecated starting in v5.18.
f9d13529 1309
f337b084 1310=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1311
1312(W pack) You said
1313
1314 pack("C", $x)
1315
1316where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1317only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1318and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1319
1320 pack("C", $x & 255)
1321
1322If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1323instead.
1324
f337b084 1325=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1326
1327(W pack) You said
1328
1329 pack("c", $x)
1330
1331where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1332is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1333and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1334
1335 pack("c", $x & 255);
1336
1337If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1338instead.
1339
f337b084
TH
1340=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1341
1342(W unpack) You tried something like
1343
1344 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1345
1a147d38 1346where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
6903afa2
FC
1347below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the
1348value modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
f337b084
TH
1349
1350 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1351
5a25739d
FC
1352=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1353
1354(W pack) You said
1355
1356 pack("U0W", $x)
1357
1358where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode
1359expects all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved
1360as if you meant:
1361
1362 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1363
f337b084
TH
1364=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1365
1366(W pack) You tried something like
1367
1368 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1369
1a147d38 1370where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1371value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1372uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1373
1374 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1375
1376=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1377
1378(W unpack) You tried something like
1379
1380 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1381
1a147d38 1382where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
6903afa2 1383value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1384uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1385
1386 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1387
f866a7cd
FC
1388=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1389
1390(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1391to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1392evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
c9faaf04 1393ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.20. Just use a
f866a7cd
FC
1394semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1395
1396=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1397
1398(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1399non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1400written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1401characters.
1402
6651ba0b
FC
1403=item Cloning substitution context is unimplemented
1404
1405(F) Creating a new thread inside the C<s///> operator is not supported.
1406
abc7ecad
SP
1407=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1408
1409(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1410a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1411
5a25739d
FC
1412=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1413
1414(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1415
541ed3a9
FC
1416=item Closure prototype called
1417
1418(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1419handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1420This subroutine cannot be called.
1421
49704364
LW
1422=item Code missing after '/'
1423
6903afa2
FC
1424(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be
1425another template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 1426
6fbc9859
MH
1427=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, all \p{} matches fail; all \P{} matches
1428succeed
9ae3ac1a 1429
5a25739d
FC
1430=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1431
e2f4a215 1432(S utf8, non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum
1b64326b
FC
1433of U+10FFFF.
1434
1435Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code points, up
1436to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on your system,
1437but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems. At one time,
1438it was legal in some standards to have code points up to 0x7FFF_FFFF,
1439but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require larger than a
144032 bit word.
0876b9a0 1441
9ae3ac1a
KW
1442None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1443code point. For example,
1444
1445 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1446
1447will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1448
1449 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1450
1451will match.
1452
94b42e47
KW
1453This may be counterintuitive at times, as both these fail:
1454
f9d4ccdc
FC
1455 chr(0x110000) =~ /\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True}/ # Fails.
1456 chr(0x110000) =~ /\p{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False}/ # Also fails!
94b42e47
KW
1457
1458and both these succeed:
1459
f9d4ccdc
FC
1460 chr(0x110000) =~ /\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=True}/ # Succeeds.
1461 chr(0x110000) =~ /\P{ASCII_Hex_Digit=False}/ # Also succeeds!
94b42e47 1462
6df41af2
GS
1463=item %s: Command not found
1464
a892b81a
FC
1465(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> or another shell
1466shell instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
1467into Perl yourself. The #! line at the top of your file could look like
8f721816
MM
1468
1469 #!/usr/bin/perl -w
6df41af2 1470
7a2e2cd6
PP
1471=item Compilation failed in require
1472
1473(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1474Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1475encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1476
c3464db5
DD
1477=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1478
be771a83
GS
1479(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1480situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1481to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1482arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1483recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1484under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1485in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1486that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1487on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1488
69282e91 1489=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1490
be771a83
GS
1491(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1492to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1493L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1494
e21e7c6a
FC
1495=item Constant(%s): Call to &{$^H{%s}} did not return a defined value
1496
1497(F) The subroutine registered to handle constant overloading
1498(see L<overload>) or a custom charnames handler (see
1499L<charnames/CUSTOM TRANSLATORS>) returned an undefined value.
1500
1501=item Constant(%s): $^H{%s} is not defined
1502
1503(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to define an
1504overloaded constant. Perhaps you forgot to load the corresponding
1505L<overload> pragma?.
1506
779c5bc9
GS
1507=item Constant is not %s reference
1508
1509(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83 1510is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
6903afa2 1511The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
be771a83 1512usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1513See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1514
4cee8e80
CS
1515=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1516
aeb94125
FC
1517(W redefine)(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously
1518been eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions">
1519for commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1520
9607fc9c
PP
1521=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1522
be771a83
GS
1523(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1524for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1525workarounds.
9607fc9c 1526
5a25739d
FC
1527=item Constant(%s) unknown
1528
1529(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting
1530to define an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the
1531character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1532forgot to load the corresponding L<overload> pragma?.
1533
e7ea3e70
IZ
1534=item Copy method did not return a reference
1535
6903afa2 1536(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1537L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1538
4aaa4757
FC
1539=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1540
1541(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
8d605c0d 1542with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Some subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1543in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1544called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1545
1546 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1547 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1548
6798c92b
GS
1549=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1550
1551(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1552
675fa9ff
FC
1553=item Corrupted regexp opcode %d > %d
1554
1555(P) This is either an error in Perl, or, if you're using
1556one, your L<custom regular expression engine|perlreapi>. If not the
1557latter, report the problem through the L<perlbug> utility.
1558
a0d0e21e
LW
1559=item corrupted regexp pointers
1560
1561(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1562expression compiler gave it.
1563
1564=item corrupted regexp program
1565
be771a83
GS
1566(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1567valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1568
de42a5a9 1569=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1570
1571(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1572
49704364
LW
1573=item Count after length/code in unpack
1574
1575(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1576you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1577L<perlfunc/pack>.
1578
6651ba0b
FC
1579=item Deep recursion on anonymous subroutine
1580
a0d0e21e
LW
1581=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1582
be771a83
GS
1583(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1584100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1585infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1586which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1587
aad1d01f
NC
1588This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1589setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1590
f10b0346 1591=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1592
be771a83
GS
1593(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1594checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1595array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1596
f10b0346 1597=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1598
f0ec9725
KR
1599(D deprecated) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes and has been
1600discouraged since 5.004.
1601
1602Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1603becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1604weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1605These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice.
1606
1607If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1608context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
16546e45
KR
1609
1610 if (%hash) {
1611 # not empty
1612 }
1613
f0ec9725
KR
1614If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1615variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1616a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1617it's loaded, etc.
1618
69794302 1619
6fbc9859
MH
1620=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
1621m/%s/
bcb95744 1622
6903afa2 1623(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
bcb95744
FC
1624most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1625of the C<....> part.
1626
9e3ec65c 1627The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
bcb95744
FC
1628discovered.
1629
62658f4d
PM
1630=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1631
1632(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1633there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1634
36447869
FC
1635=item delete argument is index/value array slice, use array slice
1636
1637(F) You used index/value array slice syntax (C<%array[...]>) as
1638the argument to C<delete>. You probably meant C<@array[...]> with
1639an @ symbol instead.
1640
1641=item delete argument is key/value hash slice, use hash slice
1642
1643(F) You used key/value hash slice syntax (C<%hash{...}>) as the argument to
1644C<delete>. You probably meant C<@hash{...}> with an @ symbol instead.
1645
0ffcbc25
FC
1646=item delete argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
1647
4a0af295 1648(F) The argument to C<delete> must be either a hash or array element,
0ffcbc25
FC
1649such as:
1650
1651 $foo{$bar}
1652 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
1653
1654or a hash or array slice, such as:
1655
1656 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
1657 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
1658
fc36a67e
PP
1659=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1660
be771a83
GS
1661(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1662long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1663that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1664
6d3b25aa
RGS
1665=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1666
fa816bf3
FC
1667(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>. There
1668has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
6d3b25aa 1669not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
6903afa2 1670conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
fa816bf3 1671static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
6903afa2 1672relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
6d3b25aa 1673declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1674
6d3b25aa
RGS
1675 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1676
1677becomes
1678
1679 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1680
fa816bf3
FC
1681Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to have
1682lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
36fb85f3
RGS
1683
1684 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1685
500ab966
RGS
1686=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1687
1688(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
6903afa2
FC
1689just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather
1690than to create a dangling reference.
500ab966 1691
3cdd684c
TP
1692=item Did not produce a valid header
1693
1694See Server error.
1695
6df41af2
GS
1696=item %s did not return a true value
1697
1698(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1699it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1700traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1701do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1702
cc507455 1703=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1704
413ff9f6
FC
1705(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1706some such.
4633a7c4 1707
cc507455 1708=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1709
be771a83
GS
1710(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1711variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1712seems superfluous.
33633739 1713
cc507455 1714=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1715
be771a83
GS
1716(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1717@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1718carried away.
748a9306 1719
7e1af8bc 1720=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1721
1722(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 1723you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 1724
3cdd684c
TP
1725=item Document contains no data
1726
1727See Server error.
1728
62658f4d
PM
1729=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1730
1731(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
943fc58e 1732define a C<$VERSION>.
62658f4d 1733
49704364
LW
1734=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1735
1736(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1737See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1738
4021c788 1739=item Don't know how to handle magic of type \%o
a0d0e21e
LW
1740
1741(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1742
1743=item do_study: out of memory
1744
1745(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1746
6df41af2
GS
1747=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1748
56da5a46
RGS
1749(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1750"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1751name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1752because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1753"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1754something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1755subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1756"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1757
ac206dc8
RGS
1758=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1759
1760(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1761qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1762
84d78eb7
YO
1763=item dump is not supported
1764
1765(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1766
a0d0e21e
LW
1767=item Duplicate free() ignored
1768
be771a83
GS
1769(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1770already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1771
1109a392
MHM
1772=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1773
35f0cd76
FC
1774(W unpack) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a
1775type in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1109a392 1776
4633a7c4
LW
1777=item elseif should be elsif
1778
fa816bf3
FC
1779(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks
1780it's ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1781named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1782unlikely to be what you want.
1783
c608e803 1784=item Empty \%c{} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 1785
af6f566e 1786(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
6903afa2 1787described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
af6f566e 1788a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1789
85ab1d1d 1790=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1791
85ab1d1d 1792(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1793effective uids or gids failed.
1794
c038024b
RGS
1795=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1796
1797(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1798aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
6903afa2 1799program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
c038024b 1800
748a9306
LW
1801=item Error converting file specification %s
1802
5f05dabc 1803(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1804specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1805single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1806an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1807conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1808
ff56e4f1
KW
1809=item Escape literal pattern white space under /x
1810
1811(D deprecated) You compiled a regular expression pattern with C</x> to
1812ignore white space, and you used, as a literal, one of the characters
1813that Perl plans to eventually treat as white space. The character must
1814be escaped somehow, or it will work differently on a future Perl that
1815does treat it as white space. The easiest way is to insert a backslash
1816immediately before it, or to enclose it with square brackets. This
1817change is to bring Perl into conformance with Unicode recommendations.
1818Here are the five characters that generate this warning:
1819U+0085 NEXT LINE,
1820U+200E LEFT-TO-RIGHT MARK,
1821U+200F RIGHT-TO-LEFT MARK,
1822U+2028 LINE SEPARATOR,
1823and
1824U+2029 PARAGRAPH SEPARATOR.
1825
ad19ef22 1826=item Eval-group in insecure regular expression
e4d48cc9 1827
be771a83
GS
1828(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1829expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1830is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1831
ad19ef22 1832=item Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
e4d48cc9 1833
be771a83
GS
1834(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1835C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
1836pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
1837it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
1838C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
1839interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
1840L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1841
ad19ef22 1842=item Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval' in regex m/%s/
6df41af2 1843
be771a83
GS
1844(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1845assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1846pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1847
6fbc9859
MH
1848=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
1849m/%s/
1a147d38
YO
1850
1851(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
6903afa2 1852any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1a147d38 1853
9e3ec65c 1854The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
1a147d38
YO
1855discovered.
1856
fc36a67e
PP
1857=item Excessively long <> operator
1858
1859(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1860Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1861filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1862variable and glob that.
1863
ed9aa3b7
SG
1864=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1865
af8bb25a 1866(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
6903afa2 1867OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 1868
fe13d51d 1869=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1870
1871(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1872
0ffcbc25
FC
1873=item exists argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
1874
4a0af295 1875(F) The argument to C<exists> must be a hash or array element or a
0ffcbc25
FC
1876subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
1877
1878 $foo{$bar}
1879 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
1880 &do_something
1881
1882=item exists argument is not a subroutine name
1883
ccfc2567
FC
1884(F) The argument to C<exists> for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine name,
1885and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this error.
0ffcbc25 1886
a0d0e21e
LW
1887=item Exiting eval via %s
1888
be771a83
GS
1889(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1890goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1891
1892=item Exiting format via %s
1893
9a2ff54b 1894(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1895goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1896
0a753a76
PP
1897=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1898
be771a83
GS
1899(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1900sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1901loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1902
a0d0e21e
LW
1903=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1904
be771a83
GS
1905(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1906as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1907
1908=item Exiting substitution via %s
1909
be771a83
GS
1910(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1911as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1912
c608e803
KW
1913=item Expecting close bracket in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1914
675fa9ff 1915(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
1916
1917 (?13
1918
1919to denote a capturing group of the form
1920L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>,
1921but omitted the C<")">.
1922
27350048
FC
1923=item Expecting '(?flags:(?[...' in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1924
8b6fbf55
FC
1925(F) The C<(?[...])> extended character class regular expression construct
1926only allows character classes (including character class escapes like
1927C<\d>), operators, and parentheses. The one exception is C<(?flags:...)>
1928containing at least one flag and exactly one C<(?[...])> construct.
27350048
FC
1929This allows a regular expression containing just C<(?[...])> to be
1930interpolated. If you see this error message, then you probably
1931have some other C<(?...)> construct inside your character class. See
1932L<perlrecharclass/Extended Bracketed Character Classes>.
1933
e7d0b801
FC
1934=item Experimental "%s" subs not enabled
1935
1936(F) To use lexical subs, you must first enable them:
1937
f1d34ca8 1938 no warnings 'experimental::lexical_subs';
e7d0b801
FC
1939 use feature 'lexical_subs';
1940 my sub foo { ... }
1941
7b8d334a
GS
1942=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1943
be771a83
GS
1944(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1945the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1946usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1947e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1948
6df41af2
GS
1949=item %s: Expression syntax
1950
be771a83
GS
1951(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1952Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1953
1954=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1955
3c10abe3
AG
1956(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1957CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1958queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1959
7253e4e3 1960=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1961
4f2e2aa2 1962(W regexp)(F) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3 1963character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
3c6ca74a
FC
1964in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". In a C<(?[...])>
1965construct, this is an error, rather than a warning. Consider quoting
1966the "-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression
1967the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1968
1b1ee2ef 1969=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1970
be771a83
GS
1971(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1972system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1973details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1974you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1975
1976=item fcntl is not implemented
1977
1978(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1979PDP-11 or something?
1980
22846ab4
AB
1981=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1982
1983(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1984is not possible.
1985
f337b084
TH
1986=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1987
d8b5cc61 1988(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string starts with a length indicator
6903afa2
FC
1989which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1990a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 1991C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 1992
af8c498a 1993=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1994
6c8d78fb
HS
1995(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1996it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1997"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1998write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1999
af8c498a 2000=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 2001
6c8d78fb
HS
2002(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
2003you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
2004with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
2005read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
2006is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
2007output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
2008
2009=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
2010
2011(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
6903afa2 2012as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
2013previously.
2014
2015=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
2016
2017(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
fa816bf3 2018as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
2019
2020=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
2021
2022(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
2023a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
2024happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
2025name.
a0d0e21e 2026
56e90b21
GS
2027=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
2028
be771a83 2029(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 2030some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
2031filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
2032same name?
56e90b21 2033
6df41af2
GS
2034=item Format not terminated
2035
2036(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
2037to the end of your file without finding such a line.
2038
a0d0e21e
LW
2039=item Format %s redefined
2040
e476b1b5 2041(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
2042
2043 {
271595cc 2044 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
2045 eval "format NAME =...";
2046 }
2047
a0d0e21e
LW
2048=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
2049
e476b1b5 2050(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
2051
2052 if ($foo = 123)
2053
2054when you meant
2055
2056 if ($foo == 123)
2057
2058(or something like that).
2059
6df41af2
GS
2060=item %s found where operator expected
2061
56da5a46
RGS
2062(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
2063If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
2064operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
2065operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 2066
a0d0e21e
LW
2067=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
2068
2069(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
2070
2071=item gethostent not implemented
2072
2073(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
2074because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
2075on the Internet.
2076
69282e91 2077=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2078
be771a83
GS
2079(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
2080socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 2081
748a9306
LW
2082=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
2083
2084(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
2085C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
2086
6df41af2
GS
2087=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
2088
be771a83
GS
2089(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
2090forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
2091L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
2092
0f539b13
BF
2093=item given is experimental
2094
675fa9ff
FC
2095(S experimental::smartmatch) C<given> depends on smartmatch, which
2096is experimental, so its behavior may change or even be removed
2097in any future release of perl. See the explanation under
2098L<perlsyn/Experimental Details on given and when>.
0f539b13 2099
6df41af2
GS
2100=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
2101
a4edf47d 2102(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 2103that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
2104declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
2105which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 2106
e476b1b5
GS
2107=item glob failed (%s)
2108
5ead438e 2109(S glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used
73c4e9dc
FC
2110for C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
2111pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
be771a83 2112nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
73c4e9dc
FC
2113resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell)
2114is broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables
2115in config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as
2116if it were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them
2117all empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
be771a83 2118think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 2119C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 2120
a0d0e21e
LW
2121=item Glob not terminated
2122
2123(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
2124a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
2125not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
2126earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 2127
bcd05b94 2128=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2129
e9200be3 2130(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 2131it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
6903afa2 2132date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2133not-a-number value).
2134
bcd05b94 2135=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2136
e9200be3 2137(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
e7a1a147 2138it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2139
6df41af2 2140=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 2141
6df41af2
GS
2142(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
2143version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
2144
2145=item goto must have label
2146
2147(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
2148unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2149
6651ba0b
FC
2150=item Goto undefined subroutine%s
2151
2152(F) You tried to call a subroutine with C<goto &sub> syntax, but
2153the indicated subroutine hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
2154has since been undefined.
2155
6fbc9859
MH
2156=item Group name must start with a non-digit word character in regex; marked by
2157<-- HERE in m/%s/
1f4f6bf1
YO
2158
2159(F) Group names must follow the rules for perl identifiers, meaning
f26c79ba
FC
2160they must start with a non-digit word character. A common cause of
2161this error is using (?&0) instead of (?0). See L<perlre>.
1f4f6bf1 2162
5a25739d
FC
2163=item ()-group starts with a count
2164
2165(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2166something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2167
fe13d51d 2168=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2169
2170(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2171
a0d0e21e
LW
2172=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2173
be771a83
GS
2174(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2175to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2176created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
2177
2178=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
2179
be771a83
GS
2180(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
2181spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 2182
6df41af2
GS
2183=item %s has too many errors
2184
2185(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2186Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2187
252aa082
JH
2188=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2189
e476b1b5 2190(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2191(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2192L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2193
8903cb82
PP
2194=item Identifier too long
2195
2196(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2197about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2198names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2199of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2200
b33c0c71 2201=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
fc8cd66c 2202
b5e3739b
FC
2203(W regexp) Named Unicode character escapes C<(\N{...})> may return a
2204zero-length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
2205its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2206been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2207
6df41af2 2208=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2209
6df41af2 2210(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2211
6df41af2 2212=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2213
be771a83
GS
2214(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2215binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2216offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2217
6597eb22
FC
2218=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2219
e4d150f1
FC
2220(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype
2221declaration. The '_' in a prototype must be followed by a ';',
2222indicating the rest of the parameters are optional, or one of '@'
2223or '%', since those two will accept 0 or more final parameters.
6597eb22 2224
78d0fecf 2225=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2226
d5898338 2227(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2228would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2229when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2230version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2231to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2232
d37a9538
ST
2233=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2234
197afce1 2235(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2236Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
d37a9538 2237
904d85c5
RGS
2238=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2239
2240(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
6903afa2 2241you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
904d85c5 2242
8e742a20
MHM
2243=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2244
6903afa2 2245(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
8e742a20 2246
a0d0e21e
LW
2247=item Illegal division by zero
2248
be771a83
GS
2249(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2250your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2251meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2252
6df41af2
GS
2253=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2254
be771a83
GS
2255(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2256A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2257number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2258
a0d0e21e
LW
2259=item Illegal modulus zero
2260
be771a83
GS
2261(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2262numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2263
6df41af2 2264=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2265
6df41af2
GS
2266(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2267two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2268
2269=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2270
d1be9408 2271(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2272
399388f4 2273=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2274
d1be9408 2275(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2276Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2277
c608e803
KW
2278=item Illegal pattern in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2279
675fa9ff 2280(F) You wrote something like
c608e803
KW
2281
2282 (?+foo)
2283
2284The C<"+"> is valid only when followed by digits, indicating a
2285capturing group. See
2286L<C<(?I<PARNO>)>|perlre/(?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0)>.
2287
fe13d51d 2288=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2289
6df41af2 2290(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2291following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2292
6df41af2 2293=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2294
75b44862 2295(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2296internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2297delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2298
6df41af2 2299=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2300
be771a83
GS
2301(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2302name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2303didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2304ignored.
54310121 2305
6df41af2 2306=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2307
be771a83
GS
2308(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2309the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2310system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2311times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2312would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2313
be771a83
GS
2314Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2315also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2316
0d0b4b3b
KW
2317=item Incomplete expression within '(?[ ])' in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2318
675fa9ff 2319(F) There was a syntax error within the C<(?[ ])>. This can happen if the
0d0b4b3b
KW
2320expression inside the construct was completely empty, or if there are
2321too many or few operands for the number of operators. Perl is not smart
2322enough to give you a more precise indication as to what is wrong.
2323
6fbc9859
MH
2324=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on
2325parent '%s'
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2326
2327(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2328C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2329documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2330
979699d9
JH
2331=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2332
2333(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2334Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2335encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2336
6a2ed79a 2337=item Infinite recursion in regex
1a147d38
YO
2338
2339(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
6903afa2 2340text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
1a147d38
YO
2341either consume text or fail.
2342
6dbe9451
NC
2343=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2344
6903afa2
FC
2345(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the
2346initialization of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write
2347C<state ($a) = 42> as C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar
2348context. Constructions such as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be
2349supported in a future perl release.
6dbe9451 2350
a0d0e21e
LW
2351=item Insecure dependency in %s
2352
8b1a09fc 2353(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2354The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2355setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2356tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2357from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2358such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2359L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2360
2361=item Insecure directory in %s
2362
be771a83
GS
2363(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2364setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2365the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2366See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2367
62f468fc 2368=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2369
2370(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2371setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2372C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2373supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2374the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2375
0e9be77f
DM
2376=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2377
2378(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2379expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2380function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2381See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2382
675fa9ff
FC
2383=item In '(?...)', splitting the initial '(?' is deprecated in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2384
2385(D regexp, deprecated) The two-character sequence C<"(?"> in
2386this context in a regular expression pattern should be an
2387indivisible token, with nothing intervening between the C<"(">
2388and the C<"?">, but you separated them. Due to an accident of
2389implementation, this prohibition was not enforced, but we do
2390plan to forbid it in a future Perl version. This message
2391serves as giving you fair warning of this pending change.
2392
b9ef414d
FC
2393=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2394
2395(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2396or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2397integers for your architecture.
2398
a7ae9550
GS
2399=item Integer overflow in %s number
2400
35928bc5 2401(S overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2402either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2403your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2404On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2405representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
24060b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2407transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2408internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2409operations.
bbce6d69 2410
fc89ca81
FC
2411=item Integer overflow in srand
2412
2413(S overflow) The number you have passed to srand is too big to fit
2414in your architecture's integer representation. The number has been
2415replaced with the largest integer supported (0xFFFFFFFF on 32-bit
2416architectures). This means you may be getting less randomness than
2417you expect, because different random seeds above the maximum will
2418return the same sequence of random numbers.
2419
46314c13
JP
2420=item Integer overflow in version
2421
18da5252
FC
2422=item Integer overflow in version %d
2423
784d71ed
FC
2424(W overflow) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for
2425the size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
f084e84f 2426because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use an
784d71ed
FC
2427element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by trying
2428to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like 100/9.
46314c13 2429
7253e4e3 2430=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2431
2432(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
9e3ec65c 2433The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2434discovered.
2435
748a9306
LW
2436=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2437
be771a83
GS
2438(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2439you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2440to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2441L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2442Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2443terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2444
870978ae
FC
2445=item internal %<num>p might conflict with future printf extensions
2446
2447(S internal) Perl's internal routine that handles C<printf> and C<sprintf>
2448formatting follows a slightly different set of rules when called from
2449C or XS code. Specifically, formats consisting of digits followed
2450by "p" (e.g., "%7p") are reserved for future use. If you see this
2451message, then an XS module tried to call that routine with one such
2452reserved format.
2453
7253e4e3 2454=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2455
fa816bf3 2456(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
9e3ec65c 2457<-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was
7253e4e3 2458discovered.
a0d0e21e 2459
6df41af2
GS
2460=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2461
75b44862 2462(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2463followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2464operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2465L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2466
09bef843
SB
2467=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2468
a4a4c9e2 2469(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2470by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2471
2472=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2473
a4a4c9e2 2474(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2475recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2476
225fb84f
KW
2477=item Invalid character in charnames alias definition; marked by <-- HERE in '%s
2478
2479(F) You tried to create a custom alias for a character name, with
2480the C<:alias> option to C<use charnames> and the specified character in
2481the indicated name isn't valid. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2482
c8028aa6
TC
2483=item Invalid \0 character in %s for %s: %s\0%s
2484
fa3234e3
FC
2485(W syscalls) Embedded \0 characters in pathnames or other system call
2486arguments produce a warning as of 5.20. The parts after the \0 were
2487formerly ignored by system calls.
c8028aa6 2488
a690c7c4
FC
2489=item Invalid character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s}
2490
2491(F) Only certain characters are valid for character names. The
2492indicated one isn't. See L<charnames/CUSTOM ALIASES>.
2493
c635e13b
PP
2494=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2495
be771a83
GS
2496(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2497L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2498
6fbc9859
MH
2499=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
2500m/%s/
9e08bc66
ST
2501
2502(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2503didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2504from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2505The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
9e3ec65c 2506The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
9e08bc66
ST
2507escape was discovered.
2508
8149aa9f
FC
2509=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2510
6fbc9859
MH
2511=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
2512m/%s/
aec0ef10 2513
8149aa9f 2514(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2515number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
25160 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2517
6651ba0b
FC
2518=item Invalid module name %s with -%c option: contains single ':'
2519
2520(F) The module argument to perl's B<-m> and B<-M> command-line options
2521cannot contain single colons in the module name, but only in the
2522arguments after "=". In other words, B<-MFoo::Bar=:baz> is ok, but
2523B<-MFoo:Bar=baz> is not.
2524
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2525=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2526
162a3e34
FC
2527(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2528where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2529the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2530a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2531
40e4140b
FC
2532=item Invalid negative number (%s) in chr
2533
2534(W utf8) You passed a negative number to C<chr>. Negative numbers are
2535not valid characters numbers, so it return the Unicode replacement
2536character (U+FFFD).
2537
6651ba0b
FC
2538=item invalid option -D%c, use -D'' to see choices
2539
8ff21bfe
FC
2540(S debugging) Perl was called with invalid debugger flags. Call perl
2541with the B<-D> option with no flags to see the list of acceptable values.
982c4ecb 2542See also L<perlrun/-Dletters>.
6651ba0b 2543
7253e4e3 2544=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2545
2546(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2547greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2548C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
9e3ec65c 2549up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows whereabouts in the regular expression the
7253e4e3 2550problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2551
d1573ac7 2552=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2553
2554(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2555character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2556
09bef843
SB
2557=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2558
0120eecf 2559(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2560elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2561parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2562See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2563
b4581f09
JH
2564=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2565
2bfc5f71
FC
2566(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2567than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2568If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2569list was terminated too soon.
2570
2c86d456
DG
2571=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2572
fa816bf3 2573(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2574A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2575decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2576v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2577The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2578See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2579
49704364 2580=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2581
49704364
LW
2582(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2583See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6728c851 2584
49704364 2585(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2586silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2587
2c86d456
DG
2588=item Invalid version format (%s)
2589
fa816bf3 2590(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2c86d456
DG
2591A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2592decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
fa816bf3
FC
2593v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it
2594must have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is
2595optional. Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a
2596trailing "alpha" component separated by an underscore character
2597after a fractional or dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized
2598text indicates which criteria were not met. See the L<version> module
2599for more details on allowed version formats.
46314c13 2600
798ae1b7
DG
2601=item Invalid version object
2602
fa816bf3
FC
2603(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid.
2604Perhaps the internals were modified directly in some way or
2605an arbitrary reference was blessed into the "version" class.
798ae1b7 2606
675fa9ff
FC
2607=item In '(*VERB...)', splitting the initial '(*' is deprecated in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2608
2609(D regexp, deprecated) The two-character sequence C<"(*"> in
2610this context in a regular expression pattern should be an
2611indivisible token, with nothing intervening between the C<"(">
f26c79ba 2612and the C<"*">, but you separated them. Due to an accident of
675fa9ff
FC
2613implementation, this prohibition was not enforced, but we do
2614plan to forbid it in a future Perl version. This message
2615serves as giving you fair warning of this pending change.
2616
a0d0e21e
LW
2617=item ioctl is not implemented
2618
2619(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2620strange for a machine that supports C.
2621
c289d2f7
JH
2622=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2623
2624(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2625Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2626
fe13d51d 2627=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2628
2629(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 2630you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
2631with 'useperlio'.
2632
80cbd5ad
JH
2633=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2634
2635(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 2636neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 2637
4f650b80 2638=item $* is no longer supported
b4581f09 2639
4f650b80
NC
2640(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
2641perls, has been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In
2642previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
2643matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
2644
2645Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
6903afa2
FC
2646modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
2647with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
570dedd4 2648then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2649
8ae1fe26
RGS
2650=item $# is no longer supported
2651
a58ac25e 2652(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
6903afa2 2653perls, has been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You
a58ac25e 2654should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 2655
ccf3535a 2656=item '%s' is not a code reference
6ad11d81 2657
6903afa2
FC
2658(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of
2659overload::constant needs to be a code reference. Either
2660an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.
6ad11d81 2661
ccf3535a 2662=item '%s' is not an overloadable type
6ad11d81 2663
04a80ee0
RGS
2664(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2665unaware of.
6ad11d81 2666
5a25739d
FC
2667=item -i used with no filenames on the command line, reading from STDIN
2668
2669(S inplace) The C<-i> option was passed on the command line, indicating
2670that the script is intended to edit files in place, but no files were
2671given. This is usually a mistake, since editing STDIN in place doesn't
2672make sense, and can be confusing because it can make perl look like
2673it is hanging when it is really just trying to read from STDIN. You
2674should either pass a filename to edit, or remove C<-i> from the command
2675line. See L<perlrun> for more details.
2676
aec0ef10 2677=item Junk on end of regexp in regex m/%s/
a0d0e21e
LW
2678
2679(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2680
2681=item Label not found for "last %s"
2682
be771a83
GS
2683(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2684of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2685L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2686
2687=item Label not found for "next %s"
2688
2689(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2690that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2691L<perlfunc/last>.
2692
2693=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2694
2695(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2696that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2697L<perlfunc/last>.
2698
85ab1d1d 2699=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2700
85ab1d1d 2701(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2702effective uids or gids failed.
2703
49704364
LW
2704=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2705
d7f8936a 2706(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
6903afa2
FC
2707length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2708an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 2709
25e26107 2710=item length() used on %s (did you mean "scalar(%s)"?)
e508c8a4 2711
0d46a4e7
FC
2712(W syntax) You used length() on either an array or a hash when you
2713probably wanted a count of the items.
e508c8a4
MH
2714
2715Array size can be obtained by doing:
2716
2717 scalar(@array);
2718
2719The number of items in a hash can be obtained by doing:
2720
2721 scalar(keys %hash);
2722
f0e67a1d
Z
2723=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2724
d4fe7078
RS
2725(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
2726(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character that
2727couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
2728of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where
6903afa2 2729it is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
2730
2731=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2732
2733(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2734detectable way.
2735
69282e91 2736=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2737
be771a83
GS
2738(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2739to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2740L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2741
6651ba0b
FC
2742=item List form of piped open not implemented
2743
2744(F) On some platforms, notably Windows, the three-or-more-arguments
2745form of C<open> does not support pipes, such as C<open($pipe, '|-', @args)>.
2746Use the two-argument C<open($pipe, '|prog arg1 arg2...')> form instead.
2747
bcd05b94 2748=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2749
e9200be3 2750(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
fc003d4b 2751than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
6903afa2 2752wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2753not-a-number value).
2754
bcd05b94 2755=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2756
e9200be3 2757(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
fc003d4b 2758than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
e7a1a147 2759wrong date.
8b56d6ff 2760
58e23c8d 2761=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2762
2763(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
6903afa2 2764handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2765
b88df990
NC
2766=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2767
e63e8a91
FC
2768(W imprecision) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one
2769is too large for the underlying floating point representation to store
2770accurately, hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this
2771warning because it has already switched from integers to floating point
2772when values are too large for integers, and now even floating point is
2773insufficient. You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
b88df990 2774
93fad930 2775=item lstat() on filehandle%s
2f7da168
RK
2776
2777(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2778by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2779instead on the filehandle.)
2780
345d70e3 2781=item lvalue attribute %s already-defined subroutine
bb3abb05 2782
345d70e3
FC
2783(W misc) Although L<attributes.pm|attributes> allows this, turning the lvalue
2784attribute on or off on a Perl subroutine that is already defined
2785does not always work properly. It may or may not do what you
2786want, depending on what code is inside the subroutine, with exact
2787details subject to change between Perl versions. Only do this
2788if you really know what you are doing.
bb3abb05 2789
885ef6f5
GG
2790=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2791
345d70e3
FC
2792(W misc) Using the C<:lvalue> declarative syntax to make a Perl
2793subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been defined is
2794not permitted. To make the subroutine an lvalue subroutine,
2795add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put the C<sub
2796foo :lvalue;> declaration before the definition.
2797
2798See also L<attributes.pm|attributes>.
885ef6f5 2799
6f1b3ab0
FC
2800=item Magical list constants are not supported
2801
2802(F) You assigned a magical array to a stash element, and then tried
2803to use the subroutine from the same slot. You are asking Perl to do
2804something it cannot do, details subject to change between Perl versions.
2805
2db62bbc 2806=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 2807
2db62bbc 2808(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2809are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2810
2811=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2812
2db62bbc 2813(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2814are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2815
6df41af2
GS
2816=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2817
2818(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2819
2820 prefix1;prefix2
2821
2822or
6df41af2
GS
2823 prefix1 prefix2
2824
be771a83
GS
2825with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2826a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2827appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2828"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2829
2f758a16
ST
2830=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2831
d37a9538
ST
2832(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2833syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2834obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2835when the function is called.
2f758a16 2836
ba210ebe
JH
2837=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2838
4d6f11e5 2839(S utf8)(F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2575c402 2840encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2841
2575c402
JW
2842One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2843you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
6903afa2 28448-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2575c402
JW
2845
2846If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2847sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2848set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2849message.
2850
2851See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2852
107160e2
KW
2853=item Malformed UTF-8 character immediately after '%s'
2854
2855(F) You said C<use utf8>, but the program file doesn't comply with UTF-8
2856encoding rules. The message prints out the properly encoded characters
2857just before the first bad one. If C<utf8> warnings are enabled, a
2858warning is generated that gives more details about the type of
2859malformation.
2860
bde9e88d 2861=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N{%s} immediately after '%s'
ff3f963a
KW
2862
2863(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2864
4a5d3a93
FC
2865=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2866
2867(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2868rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2869
f337b084
TH
2870=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2871
2872(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2873rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2874
2875=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2876
2877(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2878rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2879
4a5d3a93 2880=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 2881
4a5d3a93
FC
2882(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2883doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2884
2885=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2886
2887(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
2888regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
9e3ec65c 2889shows whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
4a5d3a93 2890See L<perlre>.
f337b084 2891
de42a5a9 2892=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2893
6903afa2 2894(F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2895usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2896too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2897resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
6903afa2 2898safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2563cec5 2899
25f58aea
PN
2900=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2901
2902(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2903interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2904"use" or "my".
2905
0d2487cd 2906=item '%' may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2907
2908(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2909checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2910See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2911
a0d0e21e
LW
2912=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2913
2914(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2915doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2916
3cdd684c
TP
2917=item Method %s not permitted
2918
2919See Server error.
2920
a0d0e21e
LW
2921=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2922
2923(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2924by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2925ended earlier on the current line.
2926
2927=item Misplaced _ in number
2928
d4ced10d
JH
2929(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2930separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2931
7baa4690
HS
2932=item Missing argument in %s
2933
2934(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2935supplied.
2936
9e81e6a1
RGS
2937=item Missing argument to -%c
2938
2939(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2940immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2941
ff3f963a 2942=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2943
aec0ef10
FC
2944=item Missing braces on \N{} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2945
4a2d328f 2946(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
532cb70d
FC
2947double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space
2948(or comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2949This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately
2950follow the C<\N>.
423cee85 2951
f0a2b745
KW
2952=item Missing braces on \o{}
2953
2954(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2955
a0d0e21e
LW
2956=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2957
2958(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2959"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2960
06eaf0bc
GS
2961=item Missing command in piped open
2962
be771a83
GS
2963(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2964C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2965blank.
06eaf0bc 2966
961ce445
RGS
2967=item Missing control char name in \c
2968
2969(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2970character name.
2971
8767b1ab 2972=item Missing name in "%s sub"
6df41af2 2973
be771a83
GS
2974(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2975they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2976
2977=item Missing $ on loop variable
2978
be771a83
GS
2979(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2980are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2981can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2982
50278ed0
PM
2983=item Missing ']' in prototype for %s : %s
2984
2985(W illegalproto) A grouping was started with C<[> but never closed with
2986C<]>.
2987
cc507455 2988=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2989
56da5a46
RGS
2990(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2991"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2992
aec0ef10 2993=item Missing right brace on \%c{} in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
ab13f0c7 2994
ff3f963a
KW
2995(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2996
4a68bf9d 2997=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2998
d32207c9
FC
2999(F) C<\N> has two meanings.
3000
3001The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed in braces,
3002meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that
fa816bf3 3003name. Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
d32207c9
FC
3004double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns,
3005it doesn't have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
3006
3007Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only)
3008in patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short
3009for C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
3010
3011This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately
3012by a left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if the braces
3013form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes that this
3014means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
30153; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a
3016C<\N{> and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
3017
3018However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was
3019mistakenly omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and raises this error.
3020If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant the latter,
3021escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 3022
d98d5fff 3023=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 3024
be771a83
GS
3025(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
3026ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
3027were last editing.
a0d0e21e 3028
6df41af2
GS
3029=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
3030
56da5a46
RGS
3031(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
3032"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
3033the previous line just because you saw this message.
3034
a0d0e21e
LW
3035=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
3036
3037(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 3038constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
3039catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
3040
3041 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
3042 mod(2);
3043
3044Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
3045
c5674021
PDF
3046Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
3047is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
3048
b7e4ecc1
FC
3049 $x = 1;
3050 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
3051 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to
3052 } # modify the 2
c5674021 3053
7a4340ed 3054=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
3055
3056(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
3057subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
3058backwards.
3059
7a4340ed 3060=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 3061
be771a83
GS
3062(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
3063couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
3064
3065=item Module name must be constant
3066
3067(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
3068
be98fb35 3069=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 3070
be98fb35
GS
3071(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
3072you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
3073about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 3074
fe13d51d 3075=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7 3076
6903afa2 3077(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
ed9aa3b7
SG
3078can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
3079list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
3080See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
3081
92951bce
FC
3082=item mprotect for %p %u failed with %d
3083
3084=item mprotect RW for %p %u failed with %d
3085
3086(S) You compiled perl with B<-D>PERL_DEBUG_READONLY_OPS (see
3087L<perlhacktips>), but an op tree could not be made read-only, or a
3088read-only op tree could not be made mutable before freeing the ops.
3089
a0d0e21e
LW
3090=item msg%s not implemented
3091
3092(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
3093
3094=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
3095
75b44862
GS
3096(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
3097They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 3098
49704364 3099=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 3100
49704364
LW
3101(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
3102follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
3103See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
3104
3105=item "my sub" not yet implemented
3106
be771a83
GS
3107(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
3108that yet.
6df41af2 3109
5a25739d
FC
3110=item "my %s" used in sort comparison
3111
3112(W syntax) The package variables $a and $b are used for sort comparisons.
3113You used $a or $b in as an operand to the C<< <=> >> or C<cmp> operator inside a
3114sort comparison block, and the variable had earlier been declared as a
3115lexical variable. Either qualify the sort variable with the package
3116name, or rename the lexical variable.
3117
fd1b7234 3118=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 3119
be771a83
GS
3120(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
3121sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
3122local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 3123
8149aa9f
FC
3124=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
3125
3126(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
3127If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
db20b640
FC
3128again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is provided
3129for this purpose.
8149aa9f
FC
3130
3131NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
3132%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
3133the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
9ec237a1
RS
3134will not trigger this warning. Symbols beginning with an underscore and
3135symbols using special identifiers (q.v. L<perldata>) are exempt from this
3136warning.
8149aa9f 3137
0d0b4b3b
KW
3138=item Need exactly 3 octal digits in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3139
3140(F) Within S<C<(?[ ])>>, all constants interpreted as octal need to be
3141exactly 3 digits long. This helps catch some ambiguities. If your
3142constant is too short, add leading zeros, like
3143
3144 (?[ [ \078 ] ]) # Syntax error!
3145 (?[ [ \0078 ] ]) # Works
3146 (?[ [ \007 8 ] ]) # Clearer
3147
3148The maximum number this construct can express is C<\777>. If you
675fa9ff
FC
3149need a larger one, you need to use L<\o{}|perlrebackslash/Octal escapes> instead. If you meant
3150two separate things, you need to separate them:
0d0b4b3b
KW
3151
3152 (?[ [ \7776 ] ]) # Syntax error!
3153 (?[ [ \o{7776} ] ]) # One meaning
3154 (?[ [ \777 6 ] ]) # Another meaning
3155 (?[ [ \777 \006 ] ]) # Still another
3156
49704364
LW
3157=item Negative '/' count in unpack
3158
3159(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
3160negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3161
a0d0e21e
LW
3162=item Negative length
3163
be771a83
GS
3164(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
3165length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 3166
ed9aa3b7
SG
3167=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
3168
3169(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
3170greater than or equal to zero.
3171
7253e4e3 3172=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 3173
6903afa2 3174(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses.
9e3ec65c
FC
3175So things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows
3176whereabouts in the regular expression the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 3177
7253e4e3 3178Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 3179C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3180
6df41af2 3181=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 3182
be771a83
GS
3183(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
3184scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 3185
2c7d6b9c
RGS
3186=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
3187
3188(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
3189real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
3190See L<mro>.
3191
5a25739d
FC
3192=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...} in regex;
3193marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3194
3195(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in
3196a bracketed character class, for the same reason that C<.> in
3197a character class loses its specialness: it matches almost
3198everything, which is probably not what you want.
3199
3200=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
3201
3202(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or
3203sequence was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that
3204bypass the lexer, such as using single-quotish context, or an extra
3205backslash in double-quotish:
3206
3207 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
3208 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
3209 /$re/;
3210
3211Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
3212
3213 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
3214 /$re/;
3215
3216The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
3217components:
3218
3219 $re = '\N';
3220 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
3221
3222It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and
3223it doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
3224
3225Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
3226C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
3227
3228 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
3229 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
3230
a0d0e21e
LW
3231=item No %s allowed while running setuid
3232
be771a83
GS
3233(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
3234setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
3235will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
3236securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 3237
6651ba0b
FC
3238=item No code specified for -%c
3239
3240(F) Perl's B<-e> and B<-E> command-line options require an argument. If
3241you want to run an empty program, pass the empty string as a separate
3242argument or run a program consisting of a single 0 or 1:
3243
3244 perl -e ""
3245 perl -e0
3246 perl -e1
3247
a0d0e21e
LW
3248=item No comma allowed after %s
3249
6903afa2
FC
3250(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is
3251not allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
a0d0e21e
LW
3252Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
3253
6903afa2
FC
3254One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported
3255a constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
3256importing took place, it may for example be that your operating
3257system does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did
3258use an explicit import list for the constants you expect to see;
3259please see L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an
3260explicit import list would probably have caught this error earlier
3261it naturally does not remedy the fact that your operating system
3262still does not support that constant. Maybe you have a typo in
3263the constants of the symbol import list of B<use> or B<import> or in the
3264constant name at the line where this error was triggered?
0a753a76 3265
748a9306
LW
3266=item No command into which to pipe on command line
3267
be771a83
GS
3268(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3269redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
3270doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 3271
a0d0e21e
LW
3272=item No DB::DB routine defined
3273
be771a83 3274(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
f7af5ce1 3275for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
ccafdc96
RGS
3276module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
3277statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
3278
3279=item No dbm on this machine
3280
3281(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 3282supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 3283
ccafdc96 3284=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 3285
ccafdc96
RGS
3286(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
3287for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
3288module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
3289of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 3290
6651ba0b
FC
3291=item No directory specified for -I
3292
3293(F) The B<-I> command-line switch requires a directory name as part of the
3294I<same> argument. Use B<-Ilib>, for instance. B<-I lib> won't work.
3295
c47ff5f1 3296=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 3297
be771a83
GS
3298(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3299redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
3300find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 3301
49704364
LW
3302=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
3303
3304(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
6903afa2 3305matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
49704364 3306
c47ff5f1 3307=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 3308
be771a83
GS
3309(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
3310redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
3311name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 3312
2c7d6b9c
RGS
3313=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
3314
3315(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
3316in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
3317it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
fa816bf3 3318or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2c7d6b9c 3319
675fa9ff
FC