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force linkage of the function wrappers for globals in change#4878
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
12 (S) A severe warning (mandatory).
13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
748a9306 18Optional warnings are enabled by using the B<-w> switch. Warnings may
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19be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}> to a reference to a routine that
20will be called on each warning instead of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
4438c4b7 21
748a9306 22Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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23L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
24disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
25See L<warnings>.
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26
27Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are denoted with a %s,
2ba9eb46 28just as in a printf format. Note that some messages start with a %s!
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29Since the messages are listed in alphabetical order, the symbols
30C<"%(-?@> sort before the letters, while C<[> and C<\> sort after.
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31
32=over 4
33
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34=item "my sub" not yet implemented
35
36(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try that
37yet.
38
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39=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
40
41(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense
42to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use local()
43if you want to localize a package variable.
44
eb64745e 45=item "%s" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s
2ba9eb46 46
eb64745e 47(W) A "my" or "our" variable has been redeclared in the current scope or statement,
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48effectively eliminating all access to the previous instance. This is almost
49always a typographical error. Note that the earlier variable will still exist
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50until the end of the scope or until all closure referents to it are
51destroyed.
52
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53=item "no" not allowed in expression
54
55(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
56no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
57
58=item "use" not allowed in expression
59
60(F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
61no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
62
f61d411c 63=item '!' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 64
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65(F) The '!' is allowed in pack() and unpack() only after certain types.
66See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 67
17f4a12d 68=item / cannot take a count
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69
70(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string,
71but you have also specified an explicit size for the string.
72See L<perlfunc/pack>.
73
17f4a12d 74=item / must be followed by a, A or Z
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75
76(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string,
77which must be followed by one of the letters a, A or Z
78to indicate what sort of string is to be unpacked.
79See L<perlfunc/pack>.
80
17f4a12d 81=item / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*
43192e07 82
437784d6 83(F) You had a pack template indicating a counted-length string,
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84Currently the only things that can have their length counted are a*, A* or Z*.
85See L<perlfunc/pack>.
86
17f4a12d 87=item / must follow a numeric type
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88
89(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '#',
90but this did not follow some numeric unpack specification.
91See L<perlfunc/pack>.
92
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93=item % may only be used in unpack
94
5f05dabc 95(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
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96checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other
97way. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
98
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99=item Repeat count in pack overflows
100
101(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows
102your signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
103
104=item Repeat count in unpack overflows
105
106(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows
107your signed integers. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
108
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109=item /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
110
111(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
112by Perl. This combination appears in an interpolated variable or a
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113C<'>-delimited regular expression. The character was understood literally.
114
115=item /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c in character class passed through
116
117(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
118by Perl inside character classes. The character was understood literally.
c9f97d15 119
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120=item /%s/ should probably be written as "%s"
121
122(W) You have used a pattern where Perl expected to find a string,
437784d6 123as in the first argument to C<join>. Perl will treat the true
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124or false result of matching the pattern against $_ as the string,
125which is probably not what you had in mind.
126
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127=item %s (...) interpreted as function
128
129(W) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator followed
8b1a09fc 130by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list operators arguments
5f05dabc 131found inside the parentheses. See L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
a0d0e21e 132
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133=item %s() called too early to check prototype
134
135(W) You've called a function that has a prototype before the parser saw a
136definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check that the call
137conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an early prototype
138declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the subroutine
139definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype checking. Alternatively,
140if you are certain that you're calling the function correctly, you may put
141an ampersand before the name to avoid the warning. See L<perlsub>.
142
8ea97a1e 143=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element
a0d0e21e 144
8ea97a1e 145(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element, such as:
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146
147 $foo{$bar}
8ea97a1e 148 $ref->[12]->["susie"]
a0d0e21e 149
8ea97a1e 150=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 151
8ea97a1e 152(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element, such as:
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153
154 $foo{$bar}
8ea97a1e 155 $ref->[12]->["susie"]
5f05dabc 156
8ea97a1e 157or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 158
8ea97a1e 159 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
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160 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
161
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162=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
163
164(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
165name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this error.
166
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167=item %s did not return a true value
168
169(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
170it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
171traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
172do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
173
174=item %s found where operator expected
175
176(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
177sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an operator,
178it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an operator or
179delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
180
f86702cc 181=item %s had compilation errors
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182
183(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
184
f86702cc 185=item %s has too many errors
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186
187(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
188Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
189
190=item %s matches null string many times
191
192(W) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
193regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See L<perlre>.
194
195=item %s never introduced
196
197(S) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of scope
198before it could possibly have been used.
199
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200=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
201
202(W) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a package-specific handler.
203That name might have a meaning to Perl itself some day, even though it
204doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a mixed-case attribute name, instead.
205See L<attributes>.
206
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207=item %s syntax OK
208
209(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
210
f86702cc 211=item %s: Command not found
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212
213(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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214of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
215Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 216
f86702cc 217=item %s: Expression syntax
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218
219(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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220of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
221Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 222
f86702cc 223=item %s: Undefined variable
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224
225(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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226of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
227Perl yourself.
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228
229=item %s: not found
230
8b1a09fc 231(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 232instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
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233into Perl yourself.
234
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235=item (in cleanup) %s
236
237(W) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
238the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by
239the system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast
240number of times, the warning is issued only once for any number
241of failures that would otherwise result in the same message being
242repeated.
243
244Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag
245could also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
246
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247=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
248
249(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
250found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
251the previous line just because you saw this message.
252
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253=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
254
255(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
256which provides a race condition that breaks security.
257
258=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
259
260(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
261know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
262
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263=item C<-p> destination: %s
264
265(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
266command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
267redirected it with select().)
268
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269=item 500 Server error
270
271See Server error.
272
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273=item ?+* follows nothing in regexp
274
275(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it
276if you meant it literally. See L<perlre>.
277
278=item @ outside of string
279
2ba9eb46 280(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
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281the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
282
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283=item <> should be quotes
284
285(F) You wrote C<require E<lt>fileE<gt>> when you should have written
286C<require 'file'>.
287
69282e91 288=item accept() on closed socket %s
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289
290(W) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
291the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/accept>.
292
293=item Allocation too large: %lx
294
54310121 295(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
55497cff 296
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297=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
298
2c268ad5 299(W) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and transliteration (tr///)
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300operators work on scalar values. If you apply one of them to an array
301or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to a scalar value -- the
302length of an array, or the population info of a hash -- and then work on
303that scalar value. This is probably not what you meant to do. See
304L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for alternatives.
305
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306=item Arg too short for msgsnd
307
308(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
309
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310=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
311
312(W)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
313you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
5f05dabc 314a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
748a9306 315
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316=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
317
318(W) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl keyword,
319and you have used the name without qualification for calling one or the
320other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the subroutine is
321not imported.
322
323To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
324before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
325Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
326imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
327
328To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
329on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or by declaring the subroutine
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330to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes">
331or L<attributes>).
5315574d 332
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333=item Args must match #! line
334
335(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
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336with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
337impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
338for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 339
f86702cc 340=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
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341
342(W) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator that
343expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
344will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
345
346=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
347
348(D) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some spots. This
349is now heavily deprecated.
350
351=item assertion botched: %s
352
353(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
354
355=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
356
357(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
358
359=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
360
361(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
362must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
363know which context to supply to the right side.
364
365=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
366
367(P) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas that will
368be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be outside any
369of those arenas.
370
54310121 371=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
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372
373(P) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of strings to
374optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other strings. This
375indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count of a string
376that can no longer be found in the table.
377
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378=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
379
380(W) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the free_tmps()
381routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the SV before
382the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the free_tmps()
383routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does try to free
384it.
385
386=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
387
388(P) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
389
390=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
391
392(W) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to see if it
393would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0 earlier,
394and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed. This
395could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or that
396SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was mortalized
397when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been corrupted.
398
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399=item Attempt to join self
400
401(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
402impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may
403need to move the join() to some other thread.
404
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405=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
406
407(W) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
408function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
409means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
410invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
411literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
412avoid this warning.
413
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414=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
415
416(W) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr() used
8b1a09fc 417as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
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418dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
419
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420=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
421
422(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl() or
2ba9eb46 423shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 424S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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425S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
426
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427=item Bad filehandle: %s
428
429(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the symbol
430has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or
431did it in another package.
432
433=item Bad free() ignored
434
435(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had never been
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436malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
437setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
438
439This message can be quite often seen with DB_File on systems with
440"hard" dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of
441C<Berkeley DB> which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving>
442system malloc().
a0d0e21e 443
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444=item Bad hash
445
446(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
447
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448=item Bad index while coercing array into hash
449
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450(F) The index looked up in the hash found as the 0'th element of a
451pseudo-hash is not legal. Index values must be at 1 or greater.
452See L<perlref>.
57079c46 453
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454=item Bad name after %s::
455
456(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then didn't
457finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes,
458so
459
460 $var = 'myvar';
461 $sym = mypack::$var;
462
463is not the same as
464
465 $var = 'myvar';
466 $sym = "mypack::$var";
467
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468=item Bad realloc() ignored
469
470(S) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had never been
471malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
472setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
473
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474=item Bad symbol for array
475
476(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
477wasn't a symbol table entry.
478
479=item Bad symbol for filehandle
480
481(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something that
482wasn't a symbol table entry.
483
484=item Bad symbol for hash
485
486(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
487wasn't a symbol table entry.
488
8b1a09fc 489=item Badly placed ()'s
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490
491(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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492of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
493Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 494
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495=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
496
497(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
d98d5fff 498subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>" symbol.
54310121 499Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
3fe9a6f1 500
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501=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
502
503(W) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but
504the compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point.
505Perhaps you need to predeclare a package?
506
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507=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
508
509(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN subroutine.
510Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is exited.
511
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512=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
513
514(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
515implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had
516already occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}>
517could not be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code
518likely depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
519
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520=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
521
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522(W) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
523(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
524L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 525
69282e91 526=item bind() on closed socket %s
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527
528(W) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
529the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
530
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531=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
532
533(W) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
534
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535=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
536
537(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not copiable.
538
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539=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
540
541(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to iterate over
542%ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition which was too long,
543so it was truncated to the string shown.
544
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545=item Callback called exit
546
547(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via perl_call_sv()
548exited by calling exit.
549
a651a37d 550=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
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551
552(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look
553like a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually
554occurs if you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which
555is a no-no. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
556
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557=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
558
559(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a
560foreach loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
561
a651a37d 562=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
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563
564(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
565except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a
566current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a
a651a37d
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567"loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep().
568You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect though,
569because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once.
570See L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e 571
a651a37d 572=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
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LW
573
574(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
575there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
a651a37d
GS
576count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
577or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
578though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
579loops once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
a0d0e21e 580
f675dbe5
CB
581=item Can't read CRTL environ
582
583(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
584from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
585missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
586or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not searched.
587
a651a37d 588=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
a0d0e21e
LW
589
590(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
591there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
a651a37d
GS
592count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
593or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
594though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
595loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
a0d0e21e
LW
596
597=item Can't bless non-reference value
598
599(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
600encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
601
602=item Can't break at that line
603
54310121 604(S) A warning intended to only be printed while running within the debugger, indicating
a0d0e21e
LW
605the line number specified wasn't the location of a statement that could
606be stopped at.
607
608=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
609
610(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
611functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
612in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
613
614=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
615
54310121 616(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
a0d0e21e
LW
617ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but
618you didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't
619an object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
620
621=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
622
623(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
624object reference or package name contains an expression that returns
72b5445b
GS
625a defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
626Something like this will reproduce the error:
627
628 $BADREF = 42;
629 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
630 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
631
632=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
633
634(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
635object reference or package name contains an undefined value.
a0d0e21e
LW
636Something like this will reproduce the error:
637
638 $BADREF = undef;
639 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
640 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
641
642=item Can't chdir to %s
643
644(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
645that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
646
0545a864 647=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 648
e688b231 649(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for nosuid.
104d25b7 650
a0d0e21e
LW
651=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
652
653(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 654(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
655say things like:
656
657 *foo += 1;
658
659You CAN say
660
661 $foo = *foo;
662 $foo += 1;
663
664but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
665
666=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
667
668(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 669(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
670
671=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
672
673(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 674(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 675
57079c46
GA
676=item Can't coerce array into hash
677
678(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
679information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
680only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
681
a0d0e21e
LW
682=item Can't create pipe mailbox
683
748a9306
LW
684(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted quotas
685or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 686
eb64745e 687=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 688
eb64745e
GS
689(S) Currently, only scalar variables can declared with a specific class
690qualifier in a "my" or "our" declaration. The semantics may be extended
691for other types of variables in future.
692
693=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
694
695(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my" or
696"our" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e
LW
697
698=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
699
700(S) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated reason.
701
54310121 702=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 703
54310121 704(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try reading
3fe9a6f1 705from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say C<-i.bak>, or some
a0d0e21e
LW
706such.
707
10f9c03d 708=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 709
10f9c03d
CK
710(S) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
711characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
712inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e
LW
713
714=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
715
716(S) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as a file in
717/dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
718
719=item Can't do setegid!
720
721(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
722of suidperl.
723
724=item Can't do seteuid!
725
726(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
727
728=item Can't do setuid
729
730(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to
731do setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the
732form sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides
733under the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines.
734If the file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask
735your sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
736
737=item Can't do waitpid with flags
738
739(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only waitpid()
740without flags is emulated.
741
8b1a09fc 742=item Can't do {n,m} with n E<gt> m
a0d0e21e
LW
743
744(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
745your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. See L<perlre>.
746
747=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
748
749(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this point.
750For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #! line.
751
752=item Can't exec "%s": %s
753
5f05dabc 754(W) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the named
a0d0e21e
LW
755program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the permissions
756were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in C<$ENV{PATH}>, the
757executable in question was compiled for another architecture, or the
758#! line in a script points to an interpreter that can't be run for
759similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at all.)
760
761=item Can't exec %s
762
763(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because that's
764what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may need to
765mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
766
767=item Can't execute %s
768
2a92aaa0
GS
769(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute found
770in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
771
772=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
773
774(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
775in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The script
776exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
777
778=item Can't find %s on PATH
779
a0d0e21e 780(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
2a92aaa0 781in the PATH.
a0d0e21e
LW
782
783=item Can't find label %s
784
785(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's possible
786for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
787
788=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
789
790(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means that
5f05dabc 791the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count nesting
a0d0e21e
LW
792levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
793
fb73857a
PP
794 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
795
796If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
797included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good
798programmer's editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e
LW
799
800=item Can't fork
801
802(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a pipeline.
803
748a9306
LW
804=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
805
806(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference between
807access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes. Under VMS,
808access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in the stat buffer, so
809that ACLs and other protections can be taken into account. Unfortunately, Perl
810assumes that the stat buffer contains all the necessary information, and passes
811it, instead of the filespec, to the access checking routine. It will try to
812retrieve the filespec using the device name and FID present in the stat buffer,
813but this works only if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat()
5f05dabc 814routine, because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
748a9306
LW
815appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up and
816returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking routine
817knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you shouldn't ever
818see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises only if some internal
819code takes stat buffers lightly.)
820
a0d0e21e
LW
821=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
822
748a9306
LW
823(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a pipe, Perl
824can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
825
826=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
827
748a9306
LW
828(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
829mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e
LW
830
831=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
832
833(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one subroutine
834call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole cloth. In general
5f05dabc 835you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine anyway. See
a0d0e21e
LW
836L<perlfunc/goto>.
837
b150fb22
RH
838=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
839
840(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval "string".
841(You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you probably don't want to.)
842
0b5b802d
GS
843=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
844
845(W) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD signal
846(sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this signal
847will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
848processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value.
849This situation typically indicates that the parent program under
850which Perl may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
851
706a304b 852=item Can't localize through a reference
4633a7c4 853
706a304b
SM
854(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
855handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
856pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be
857sure that $ref will still be a reference.
4633a7c4 858
748a9306
LW
859=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
860
2ba9eb46 861(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
862lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
863localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
864package name.
865
0ebe0038
SM
866=item Can't localize pseudo-hash element
867
868(F) You said something like C<local $ar-E<gt>{'key'}>, where $ar is
869a reference to a pseudo-hash. That hasn't been implemented yet, but
870you can get a similar effect by localizing the corresponding array
871element directly -- C<local $ar-E<gt>[$ar-E<gt>[0]{'key'}]>.
872
4727527e
IZ
873=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
874
875(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows autoload,
876but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes are a misprint
877in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit> the file, say, by
878doing C<make install>.
879
ec889f3a
GS
880=item Can't locate %s
881
882(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
883found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
884unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
885to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the extra
886library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name to @INC. Or
887maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See L<perlfunc/require>
888and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e
LW
889
890=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
891
892(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
893functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 894method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
895
896=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
897
898(W) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that doesn't seem
899to exist.
900
3e3baf6d
TB
901=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
902
903(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably VMS.
904
a0d0e21e
LW
905=item Can't modify %s in %s
906
907(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try to
5f05dabc 908change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 909
cd06dffe
GS
910=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
911
437784d6
GS
912(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
913such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
cd06dffe 914
54310121 915=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
916
917(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
918a NULL.
919
5f05dabc 920=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 921
5f05dabc 922(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
923buffer.
924
925=item Can't open %s: %s
926
08e9d68e
DD
927(S) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<E<lt>E<gt>>
928filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
929switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
930is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named
931on the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
932
933=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
934
935(W) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported. You can
936try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such as
7e1af8bc 937IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using "E<gt>",
a0d0e21e
LW
938and then read it in under a different file handle.
939
748a9306
LW
940=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
941
942(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
943couldn't open the file specified after '2E<gt>' or '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the
944command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
945
946=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
947
948(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc 949couldn't open the file specified after 'E<lt>' on the command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
950
951=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
952
953(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
954couldn't open the file specified after 'E<gt>' or 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command
955line for writing.
748a9306
LW
956
957=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
958
959(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
960couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined for stdout.
961
a0d0e21e
LW
962=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
963
964(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
965
7bac28a0
PP
966=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
967
968(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
969pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when it
970was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
971this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
972
10f9c03d
CK
973=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
974
975(S) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup file. Perl
976was unable to remove the original file to replace it with the modified
977file. The file was left unmodified.
978
a0d0e21e
LW
979=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
980
10f9c03d
CK
981(S) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
982probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 983
748a9306
LW
984=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
985
986(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried to
987reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
988
a0d0e21e
LW
989=item Can't reswap uid and euid
990
991(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
992of suidperl.
993
994=item Can't return outside a subroutine
995
996(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
997there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
998
cd06dffe
GS
999=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1000
1001(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such
1002as temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue.
1003This is not allowed.
1004
a0d0e21e
LW
1005=item Can't stat script "%s"
1006
1007(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have
1008it open already. Bizarre.
1009
1010=item Can't swap uid and euid
1011
1012(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
1013of suidperl.
1014
1015=item Can't take log of %g
1016
fb73857a
PP
1017(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1018negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
1019standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for
1020the negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1021
1022=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1023
1024(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1025negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1026with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1027
1028=item Can't undef active subroutine
1029
1030(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1031however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1032redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1033
1034=item Can't unshift
1035
1036(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1037as the main Perl stack.
1038
1039=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
1040
1041(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making
1042it into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are
1043so specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This
1044message indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
1045
1046=item Can't upgrade to undef
1047
1048(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme
1049of upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the
1050code calling sv_upgrade.
1051
1d2dff63
GS
1052=item Can't use %%! because Errno.pm is not available
1053
1054(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1055Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1056provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1057
c07a80fd
PP
1058=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1059
1060(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
8b1a09fc 1061You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the E<lt>=E<gt> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1062and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1063Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1064lexical variable.
1065
e9fa98b2
HS
1066=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
1067
1068(F) You've used the /e switch to evaluate the replacement for a
1069substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
1070most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
1071
a0d0e21e
LW
1072=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1073
1074(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a foreach.
1075
1076=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1077
1078(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1079reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1080test the type of the reference, if need be.
1081
9a7dcd9c 1082=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
748a9306
LW
1083
1084(W) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that creates
1085a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a backreference
5f05dabc 1086to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular expression pattern.
748a9306
LW
1087Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints
1088out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form instead.
1089
9a7dcd9c 1090=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
44a8e56a
PP
1091
1092(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
1093are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
1094
748a9306 1095=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e
LW
1096
1097(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
1098are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
1099
1100=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1101
1102(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
54310121 1103be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
a0d0e21e 1104
a0d0e21e
LW
1105=item Can't use global %s in "my"
1106
1107(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This is
5f05dabc 1108not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location (namely
a0d0e21e
LW
1109the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to have
1110variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
1111weren't.
1112
748a9306
LW
1113=item Can't use subscript on %s
1114
1115(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1116subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
1117didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
1118
810b8aa5
GS
1119=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1120
1121(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1122references can be weakened.
1123
5f05dabc 1124=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e
LW
1125
1126(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value) with
1127an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
1128Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1129
3f4520fe 1130=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
b6c543e3
IZ
1131
1132(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but
1133there is no builtin with the name C<word>.
1134
3f4520fe 1135=item Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
e7ea3e70
IZ
1136
1137(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1138opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1139package. If method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
1140
b8c5462f 1141=item Character class [:%s:] unknown
4599a1de 1142
b8c5462f 1143(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown.
437784d6 1144See L<perlre>.
4599a1de 1145
b8c5462f
JH
1146=item Character class syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes
1147
1148(W) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
644a2880 1149I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct,
437784d6
GS
1150for example: /[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that [= =] and [. .]
1151are not currently implemented; they are simply placeholders for
1152future extensions.
b8c5462f 1153
644a2880 1154=item Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions
4599a1de
JH
1155
1156(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
b8c5462f 1157with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
4599a1de
JH
1158If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1159expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
b8c5462f 1160backslash: "\[." and ".\]".
4599a1de
JH
1161
1162=item Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions
1163
1164(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
1165beginning with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions.
1166If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1167expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
1168backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".
1169
a0d0e21e
LW
1170=item chmod: mode argument is missing initial 0
1171
1172(W) A novice will sometimes say
1173
1174 chmod 777, $filename
1175
1176not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number, equivalent
1177to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in Perl, as in C.
1178
8b1a09fc 1179=item Close on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
1180
1181(W) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1182
7a2e2cd6
PP
1183=item Compilation failed in require
1184
1185(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
1186Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it encountered
1187were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
1188
c3464db5
DD
1189=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1190
1191(W) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex situations
1192where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited to 32766,
1193or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1194arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1195recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1196under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather
1197than in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular
1198expression so that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlbook>
1199for information on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
1200
69282e91 1201=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1202
1203(W) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1204the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/connect>.
1205
779c5bc9
GS
1206=item Constant is not %s reference
1207
1208(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
1209is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference. The
1210message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This usually
1211indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
1212See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1213
4cee8e80
CS
1214=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1215
9845ecba 1216(S|W) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
4cee8e80
CS
1217inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1218workarounds.
1219
9607fc9c
PP
1220=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1221
9845ecba 1222(W) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
9607fc9c
PP
1223inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1224workarounds.
1225
423cee85
JH
1226=item constant(%s): %%^H is not localized
1227
1228(F) When setting compile-time-lexicalized hash %^H one should set the
1229corresponding bit of $^H as well.
1230
1231=item constant(%s): %s
1232
1233(F) Compile-time-substitutions (such as overloaded constants and
1234character names) were not correctly set up.
1235
e7ea3e70
IZ
1236=item Copy method did not return a reference
1237
1238(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
1239
a0d0e21e
LW
1240=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1241
1242(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1243
1244=item corrupted regexp pointers
1245
1246(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1247expression compiler gave it.
1248
1249=item corrupted regexp program
1250
1251(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without
1252a valid magic number.
1253
1254=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1255
1256(W) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly) 100
3e3baf6d 1257times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an infinite
a0d0e21e
LW
1258recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in which
1259case it indicates something else.
1260
f10b0346 1261=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302
MJD
1262
1263(D) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it checks for an
1264undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the array is empty,
1265just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
1266
f10b0346 1267=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302
MJD
1268
1269(D) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it checks for an
1270undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash is empty,
1271just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
1272
fc36a67e
PP
1273=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1274
1275(F) In a here document construct like C<E<lt>E<lt>FOO>, the label
1276C<FOO> is too long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously
1277twisted to write code that triggers this error.
1278
3cdd684c
TP
1279=item Did not produce a valid header
1280
1281See Server error.
1282
4633a7c4
LW
1283=item Did you mean &%s instead?
1284
1285(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some such.
1286
748a9306 1287=item Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?
a0d0e21e 1288
748a9306
LW
1289(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or @hash{@keys}.
1290On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got carried away.
1291
7e1af8bc 1292=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1293
1294(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1295you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1296
54310121 1297=item Do you need to predeclare %s?
748a9306
LW
1298
1299(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1300found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1301name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1302because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
1303"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're
1304referencing something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have
1305to define the subroutine or package before the current location. You
1306can use an empty "sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward"
1307declaration.
a0d0e21e 1308
3cdd684c
TP
1309=item Document contains no data
1310
1311See Server error.
1312
a0d0e21e
LW
1313=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1314
1315(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1316
1317=item do_study: out of memory
1318
1319(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1320
1321=item Duplicate free() ignored
1322
1323(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had already
1324been freed.
1325
4633a7c4
LW
1326=item elseif should be elsif
1327
1328(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1329ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1330named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
1331unlikely to be what you want.
1332
4f25aa18 1333=item %s failed--call queue aborted
a0d0e21e 1334
4f25aa18
GS
1335(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a STOP, INIT, or
1336END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the queue of such
1337routines has been prematurely ended.
a0d0e21e 1338
85ab1d1d 1339=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1340
85ab1d1d 1341(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1342effective uids or gids failed.
1343
748a9306
LW
1344=item Error converting file specification %s
1345
5f05dabc 1346(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306
LW
1347specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
1348single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've
1349passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a
1350case the conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
1351
e4d48cc9
GS
1352=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1353
1354(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular expression
1355that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which is unsafe.
1356See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
1357
1358=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1359
1360(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion,
1361but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'> pragma is
1362in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1363
1364=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1365
1366(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the C<(?{ ... })>
3c247ff3
GS
1367zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the pattern contains
1368interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it is not allowed.
e4d48cc9
GS
1369If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly building the pattern
1370from an interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval().
1371See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1372
fc36a67e
PP
1373=item Excessively long <> operator
1374
1375(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1376Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1377filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1378variable and glob that.
1379
f86702cc 1380=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1381
1382(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1383
1384=item Exiting eval via %s
1385
8b1a09fc 1386(W) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1387a goto, or a loop control statement.
1388
0a753a76
PP
1389=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1390
1391(W) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a sort block or
1392subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a loop control
1393statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1394
a0d0e21e
LW
1395=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1396
8b1a09fc 1397(W) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1398a goto, or a loop control statement.
1399
1400=item Exiting substitution via %s
1401
8b1a09fc 1402(W) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1403a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
1404
7b8d334a
GS
1405=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1406
1407(W) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1408the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1409usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target
ae6c4aac 1410package, e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1411
73b437c8
JH
1412=item false [] range "%s" in regexp
1413
1414(W) A character class range must start and end at a literal character, not
1415another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-" in your false
1416range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the "-", "\-".
1417See L<perlre>.
1418
748a9306 1419=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1420
748a9306
LW
1421(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS system
1422service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more details. The
1423filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell you which section of
1424the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1425
1426=item fcntl is not implemented
1427
1428(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1429PDP-11 or something?
1430
1431=item Filehandle %s never opened
1432
1433(W) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was never initialized.
1434You need to do an open() or a socket() call, or call a constructor from
1435the FileHandle package.
1436
af8c498a 1437=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e
LW
1438
1439(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
1440intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1441"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 1442you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 1443L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1444
af8c498a 1445=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1446
af8c498a 1447(W) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing. If you
437784d6 1448intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1449"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
af8c498a 1450you intended only to read from the file, use "E<lt>". See
8b1a09fc 1451L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1452
1453=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1454
1455(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
1456a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1457that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1458the name.
1459
1460=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1461
1462(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
1463a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1464that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1465the name.
1466
1467=item Format %s redefined
1468
1469(W) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
1470
1471 {
4438c4b7 1472 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
1473 eval "format NAME =...";
1474 }
1475
1476=item Format not terminated
1477
1478(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1479to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1480
1481=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1482
1483(W) You said
1484
1485 if ($foo = 123)
1486
1487when you meant
1488
1489 if ($foo == 123)
1490
1491(or something like that).
1492
1493=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1494
1495(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1496
1497=item gethostent not implemented
1498
1499(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1500because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1501on the Internet.
1502
69282e91 1503=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1504
1505(W) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed socket.
1506Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
1507
748a9306
LW
1508=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1509
1510(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1511C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1512
a0d0e21e
LW
1513=item Glob not terminated
1514
1515(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
1516a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
1517finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
1518the line, and you really meant a "less than".
1519
1520=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1521
68dc0745 1522(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
eb64745e
GS
1523must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), declared beforehand using
1524"our", or explicitly qualified to say which package the global variable
1525is in (using "::").
a0d0e21e
LW
1526
1527=item goto must have label
1528
1529(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1530unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1531
1532=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1533
1534(S) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought to have
1535existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be created on
1536an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
1537
1538=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1539
1540(D) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some spots. This
1541is now heavily deprecated.
1542
252aa082
JH
1543=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1544
9e24b6e2
JH
1545(W) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
1546(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1547L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1548
8903cb82
PP
1549=item Identifier too long
1550
1551(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e
PP
1552about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
1553names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future
1554versions of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1555
f675dbe5
CB
1556=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
1557
1558(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's internal
1559environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=> delimiter
1560used to spearate keys from values. The element is ignored.
1561
1562=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
a0d0e21e 1563
f675dbe5
CB
1564(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical name
1565or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1566didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the
1567line was ignored.
a0d0e21e 1568
4fdae800
PP
1569=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1570
1571(F) A carriage return character was found in the input. This is an
1572error, and not a warning, because carriage return characters can break
54310121
PP
1573multi-line strings, including here documents (e.g., C<print E<lt>E<lt>EOF;>).
1574
1575Under Unix, this error is usually caused by executing Perl code --
68dc0745 1576either the main program, a module, or an eval'd string -- that was
54310121 1577transferred over a network connection from a non-Unix system without
68dc0745
PP
1578properly converting the text file format.
1579
1580Under systems that use something other than '\n' to delimit lines of
1581text, this error can also be caused by reading Perl code from a file
1582handle that is in binary mode (as set by the C<binmode> operator).
1583
1584In either case, the Perl code in question will probably need to be
1585converted with something like C<s/\x0D\x0A?/\n/g> before it can be
1586executed.
4fdae800 1587
a0d0e21e
LW
1588=item Illegal division by zero
1589
1590(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in your
1591logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against meaningless input.
1592
1593=item Illegal modulus zero
1594
1595(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most numbers
1596don't take to this kindly.
1597
399388f4
GS
1598=item Illegal binary digit %s
1599
437784d6 1600(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
399388f4
GS
1601
1602=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1603
1604(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1605
399388f4
GS
1606=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
1607
1608(W) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
1609Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the offending digit.
1610
1611=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306
LW
1612
1613(W) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number. Interpretation
1614of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
1615
651978e7 1616=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
6ff81951 1617
252aa082
JH
1618(W) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or A - F, a - f
1619in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal number stopped
6ff81951
GS
1620before the illegal character.
1621
81e118e0
JH
1622=item Illegal number of bits in vec
1623
0a1cd687 1624(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
c5a0f51a 1625two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
09bef843 1626
54310121
PP
1627=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
1628
1629(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1630following switches: B<-[DIMUdmw]>.
1631
9607fc9c
PP
1632=item In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s
1633
1634(F) It used to be that Perl would try to guess whether you wanted an
1635array interpolated or a literal @. It did this when the string was first
1636used at runtime. Now strings are parsed at compile time, and ambiguous
1637instances of @ must be disambiguated, either by prepending a backslash to
1638indicate a literal, or by declaring (or using) the array within the
1639program before the string (lexically). (Someday it will simply assume
1640that an unbackslashed @ interpolates an array.)
1641
a0d0e21e
LW
1642=item Insecure dependency in %s
1643
8b1a09fc 1644(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
a0d0e21e
LW
1645The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or setgid,
1646or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The tainting mechanism
1647labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly from the user,
1648who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any such data is
1649used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See L<perlsec>
1650for more information.
1651
1652=item Insecure directory in %s
1653
1654(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid
8b1a09fc 1655script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by the world.
a0d0e21e
LW
1656See L<perlsec>.
1657
62f468fc 1658=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1659
1660(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc
G
1661setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
1662C<$ENV{ENV}> or C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> are derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1663potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1664known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1665
a7ae9550
GS
1666=item Integer overflow in %s number
1667
9e24b6e2 1668(W) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified either
c6edd1b7 1669as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for your
9e24b6e2
JH
1670architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number. On a
167132-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
1672representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
16730b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
1674transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
1675internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
1676operations.
bbce6d69 1677
748a9306
LW
1678=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1679
1680(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number
5f05dabc 1681of times you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine
2ba9eb46 1682whether the current call to C<exec> should affect the current
b687b08b 1683script or a subprocess (see L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count
748a9306
LW
1684has become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating
1685this C<exec> as a request to terminate the Perl script
1686and execute the specified command.
1687
a0d0e21e
LW
1688=item internal disaster in regexp
1689
1690(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
1691
4eb79ab5
GS
1692=item glob failed (%s)
1693
1694(W) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for C<glob>
1695and C<E<lt>*.cE<gt>>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
1696pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a nonzero
1697status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit resulted in a
1698coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is broken. If so,
1699you should change all of the csh-related variables in config.sh: If you
1700have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it were csh (e.g.
1701C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all empty (except that
1702C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will think csh is missing.
1703In either case, after editing config.sh, run C<./Configure -S> and
1704rebuild Perl.
5cd24f17 1705
a0d0e21e
LW
1706=item internal urp in regexp at /%s/
1707
1708(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.
1709
09bef843
SB
1710=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
1711
1712The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
1713by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1714
1715=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
1716
1717The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not recognized
1718by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1719
73b437c8 1720=item invalid [] range "%s" in regexp
a0d0e21e
LW
1721
1722(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
1209ba90 1723greater than the maximum character. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 1724
c635e13b
PP
1725=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1726
878e08df 1727(W) Perl does not understand the given format conversion.
c635e13b
PP
1728See L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
1729
09bef843
SB
1730=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
1731
1732(F) Something other than a comma or whitespace was seen between the
1733elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute
1734had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated
1735too soon. See L<attributes>.
1736
96e4d5b1
PP
1737=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1738
8903cb82 1739(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
fb73857a
PP
1740(W) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be silently
1741ignored.
96e4d5b1
PP
1742
1743=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1744
8903cb82 1745(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
fb73857a
PP
1746(W) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be silently
1747ignored.
96e4d5b1 1748
a0d0e21e
LW
1749=item ioctl is not implemented
1750
1751(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1752strange for a machine that supports C.
1753
1754=item junk on end of regexp
1755
1756(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1757
1758=item Label not found for "last %s"
1759
1760(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a
1761loop of that name, not even if you count where you were called from.
1762See L<perlfunc/last>.
1763
1764=item Label not found for "next %s"
1765
1766(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1767that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1768L<perlfunc/last>.
1769
1770=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1771
1772(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1773that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1774L<perlfunc/last>.
1775
85ab1d1d 1776=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1777
85ab1d1d 1778(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1779effective uids or gids failed.
1780
69282e91 1781=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1782
1783(W) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1784the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/listen>.
1785
cd06dffe
GS
1786=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
1787
1788(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
1789values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context.
1790See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
1791
a0d0e21e
LW
1792=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1793
1794(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1795doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 1796
3cdd684c
TP
1797=item Method %s not permitted
1798
1799See Server error.
1800
a0d0e21e
LW
1801=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1802
1803(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1804by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1805ended earlier on the current line.
1806
1807=item Misplaced _ in number
1808
1809(W) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
1810
1811=item Missing $ on loop variable
1812
8b1a09fc
PP
1813(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables are always
1814mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from
a0d0e21e
LW
1815one line to the next.
1816
4a2d328f 1817=item Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
423cee85 1818
4a2d328f 1819(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
423cee85
JH
1820double-quotish context.
1821
a0d0e21e
LW
1822=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1823
1824(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1825"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1826
06eaf0bc
GS
1827=item Missing command in piped open
1828
1829(W) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or C<open(FH, "command |")>
1830construction, but the command was missing or blank.
1831
748a9306
LW
1832=item Missing operator before %s?
1833
1834(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1835found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1836
d98d5fff 1837=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 1838
d98d5fff
GS
1839(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than
1840closing ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place
1841you were last editing.
a0d0e21e 1842
a0d0e21e
LW
1843=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1844
1845(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1846constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1847catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1848
1849 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1850 mod(2);
1851
1852Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1853
4fe4fdb3 1854=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, subscript %d
a0d0e21e
LW
1855
1856(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1857subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1858backwards.
1859
4fe4fdb3 1860=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, subscript "%s"
a0d0e21e 1861
19a09eb8 1862(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it couldn't
a0d0e21e
LW
1863be created for some peculiar reason.
1864
1865=item Module name must be constant
1866
1867(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1868
1869=item msg%s not implemented
1870
1871(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1872
1873=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1874
8b1a09fc
PP
1875(W) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>. They're written
1876like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
1877
09bef843
SB
1878=item Missing name in "my sub"
1879
1880(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that they
1881have a name with which they can be found.
1882
8b1a09fc
PP
1883=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1884
68dc0745
PP
1885(W) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
1886If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention
77ca0c92
LW
1887it again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
1888provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
1889
1890=item Negative length
1891
1892(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer length
1893that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
1894
1895=item nested *?+ in regexp
1896
5f05dabc 1897(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
a0d0e21e
LW
1898things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal.
1899
5f05dabc 1900Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and C<??> appear
a0d0e21e
LW
1901to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
1902
1903=item No #! line
1904
1905(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1906even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
1907
1908=item No %s allowed while running setuid
1909
1910(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or setgid
1911script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there will be
1912another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least securable.
1913See L<perlsec>.
1914
1915=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
1916
1917(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
1918
a67e862a
GS
1919=item No %s specified for -%c
1920
1921(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
1922you haven't specified one.
1923
a0d0e21e
LW
1924=item No comma allowed after %s
1925
1926(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
1927allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
1928Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
1929
0a753a76
PP
1930One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
1931constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
1932importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
1933does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
1934explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
1935L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
1936would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
1937remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
1938constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
1939list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
1940this error was triggered?
1941
748a9306
LW
1942=item No command into which to pipe on command line
1943
1944(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
54310121 1945and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know where you
748a9306
LW
1946want to pipe the output from this command.
1947
a0d0e21e
LW
1948=item No DB::DB routine defined
1949
1950(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1951but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1952didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
1953statement. Which is odd, because the file should have been required
1954automatically, and should have blown up the require if it didn't parse
1955right.
1956
1957=item No dbm on this machine
1958
1959(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 1960supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1961
1962=item No DBsub routine
1963
1964(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1965but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1966didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
1967ordinary subroutine call.
1968
8b1a09fc 1969=item No error file after 2E<gt> or 2E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1970
1971(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1972and found a '2E<gt>' or a '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find
1973the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 1974
8b1a09fc 1975=item No input file after E<lt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1976
1977(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1978and found a 'E<lt>' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file
1979from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 1980
8b1a09fc 1981=item No output file after E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1982
1983(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc 1984and found a lone 'E<gt>' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know
54310121 1985where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 1986
8b1a09fc 1987=item No output file after E<gt> or E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1988
1989(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1990and found a 'E<gt>' or a 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find the
1991name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 1992
1ec3e8de
GS
1993=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
1994
1995(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our" declarations,
1996because that doesn't make much sense under existing semantics. Such
1997syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1998
a0d0e21e
LW
1999=item No Perl script found in input
2000
2001(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2002with #! and containing the word "perl".
2003
2004=item No setregid available
2005
2006(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2007your system.
2008
2009=item No setreuid available
2010
2011(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2012your system.
2013
a67e862a 2014=item No space allowed after -%c
a0d0e21e 2015
a67e862a
GS
2016(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow immediately
2017after the switch, without intervening spaces.
a0d0e21e 2018
88e9b055 2019=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s"
57079c46 2020
88e9b055 2021(F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the field name used is
57079c46
GA
2022not defined. The hash at index 0 should map all valid field names to
2023array indices for that to work.
2024
88e9b055 2025=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
f1192cee
GA
2026
2027(F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable where the type
2028does not know about the field name. The field names are looked up in
2029the %FIELDS hash in the type package at compile time. The %FIELDS hash
2030is usually set up with the 'fields' pragma.
2031
748a9306
LW
2032=item No such pipe open
2033
2034(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
2035close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught earlier as
2036an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
2037
a0d0e21e
LW
2038=item No such signal: SIG%s
2039
2040(W) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was not recognized.
2041Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
2042
bd3fa61c
CB
2043=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
2044
db7c17d7 2045(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
f675dbe5
CB
2046timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
2047to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL>
2048to translate to the number of seconds which need to be added to UTC to
2049get local time.
2050
a0d0e21e
LW
2051=item Not a CODE reference
2052
2053(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2054subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
2055use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
2056See also L<perlref>.
2057
2058=item Not a format reference
2059
2060(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2061format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2062
2063=item Not a GLOB reference
2064
55497cff 2065(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is,
a0d0e21e
LW
2066a symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2067something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out
2068what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2069
2070=item Not a HASH reference
2071
2072(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but
2073found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2074function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2075
2076=item Not a perl script
2077
2078(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2079even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
2080mention perl.
2081
2082=item Not a SCALAR reference
2083
2084(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but
2085found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2086function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2087
2088=item Not a subroutine reference
2089
2090(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2091subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
2092use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
2093See also L<perlref>.
2094
e7ea3e70 2095=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
2096
2097(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 2098doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2099
2100=item Not an ARRAY reference
2101
2102(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but
2103found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2104function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2105
2106=item Not enough arguments for %s
2107
2108(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2109
2110=item Not enough format arguments
2111
2112(W) A format specified more picture fields than the next line supplied.
2113See L<perlform>.
2114
2115=item Null filename used
2116
5f05dabc 2117(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many machines
a0d0e21e
LW
2118that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
2119
55497cff
PP
2120=item Null picture in formline
2121
2122(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
2123specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
2124supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
2125
a0d0e21e
LW
2126=item NULL OP IN RUN
2127
2128(P) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode pointer.
2129
2130=item Null realloc
2131
2132(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
2133
2134=item NULL regexp argument
2135
5f05dabc 2136(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2137
2138=item NULL regexp parameter
2139
2140(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2141
fc36a67e
PP
2142=item Number too long
2143
2144(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to about
2145about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future versions of
2146Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In the meantime,
2147try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of "1_000_000").
2148
252aa082
JH
2149=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
2150
9e24b6e2
JH
2151(W) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1 (4294967295)
2152and therefore non-portable between systems. See L<perlport> for more
2153on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
2154
2155See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
2156
1930e939 2157=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 2158
9845ecba 2159(W) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash, which
1930e939 2160is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 2161
bbce6d69
PP
2162=item Offset outside string
2163
2164(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
2165pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine.
2166The sole exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer
2167will extend the buffer and zero pad the new area.
2168
a0d0e21e
LW
2169=item oops: oopsAV
2170
2171(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
2172
2173=item oops: oopsHV
2174
2175(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
2176
56f7f34b 2177=item Operation `%s': no method found, %s
44a8e56a 2178
e7ea3e70
IZ
2179(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which
2180no handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in
2181terms of other handlers, there is no default handler for any
2182operation, unless C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be
2183true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 2184
748a9306
LW
2185=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
2186
2187(S) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser was
2188expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant
2189to use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect.
2190For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as
2191if you said "*foo * 'foo'".
2192
a80b8354
GS
2193=item Out of memory!
2194
2195(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2196remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl
2197has no option but to exit immediately.
2198
a0d0e21e
LW
2199=item Out of memory for yacc stack
2200
2201(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue parsing,
2202but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or otherwise.
2203
1b979e0a 2204=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 2205
55497cff 2206(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
54310121 2207remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.
eff9c6e2
CS
2208
2209The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
2210depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
2211However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as
2212an emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the
55497cff
PP
2213error is trappable I<once>.
2214
1b979e0a 2215=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
55497cff
PP
2216
2217(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2218remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
2219the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so
2220a possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
2221
1b979e0a
IZ
2222=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
2223
2224(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
2225is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g., C<$arr[time]>
2226instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
2227
a0d0e21e
LW
2228=item page overflow
2229
2230(W) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a page.
2231See L<perlform>.
2232
2233=item panic: ck_grep
2234
2235(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
2236
2237=item panic: ck_split
2238
2239(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
2240
2241=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
2242
2243(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than there
2244are in the savestack.
2245
810b8aa5
GS
2246=item panic: del_backref
2247
2248(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
2249reference.
2250
a0d0e21e
LW
2251=item panic: die %s
2252
2253(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
2254it wasn't an eval context.
2255
2256=item panic: do_match
2257
2258(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2259
2260=item panic: do_split
2261
2262(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
2263
2264=item panic: do_subst
2265
2266(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2267
2268=item panic: do_trans
2269
2270(P) The internal do_trans() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2271
c635e13b
PP
2272=item panic: frexp
2273
2274(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
2275
a0d0e21e
LW
2276=item panic: goto
2277
2278(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
2279and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
2280
2281=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
2282
2283(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
2284
2285=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
2286
2287(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
2288
e446cec8
IZ
2289=item panic: kid popen errno read
2290
2291(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
2292
a0d0e21e
LW
2293=item panic: last
2294
2295(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
2296it wasn't a block context.
2297
2298=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
2299
5f05dabc 2300(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
2301
2302=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
2303
2304(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
2305invalid enum on the top of it.
2306
2307=item panic: malloc
2308
2309(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
2310
810b8aa5
GS
2311=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
2312
2313(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
2314references to an object.
2315
a0d0e21e
LW
2316=item panic: mapstart
2317
2318(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
2319
2320=item panic: null array
2321
2322(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
2323
2324=item panic: pad_alloc
2325
2326(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2327and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2328
2329=item panic: pad_free curpad
2330
2331(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2332and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2333
2334=item panic: pad_free po
2335
2336(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2337
2338=item panic: pad_reset curpad
2339
2340(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2341and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2342
2343=item panic: pad_sv po
2344
2345(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2346
2347=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
2348
2349(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2350and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2351
2352=item panic: pad_swipe po
2353
2354(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2355
2356=item panic: pp_iter
2357
2358(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
2359
2360=item panic: realloc
2361
2362(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
2363
2364=item panic: restartop
2365
2366(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
2367didn't supply the destination.
2368
2369=item panic: return
2370
2371(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
2372then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
2373
2374=item panic: scan_num
2375
2376(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
2377
2378=item panic: sv_insert
2379
2380(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
2381was string.
2382
2383=item panic: top_env
2384
6224f72b 2385(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e
LW
2386
2387=item panic: yylex
2388
2389(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
2390
b3c9acc1
IZ
2391=item panic: %s
2392
2393(P) An internal error.
2394
7b8d334a 2395=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e
LW
2396
2397(W) You said something like
2398
2399 my $foo, $bar = @_;
2400
2401when you meant
2402
2403 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
2404
eb64745e 2405Remember that "my", "our" and "local" bind closer than comma.
a0d0e21e
LW
2406
2407=item Perl %3.3f required--this is only version %s, stopped
2408
2409(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more recent
2410than the currently running version. How long has it been since you upgraded,
2411anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
2412
2413=item Permission denied
2414
2415(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
2416
bd3fa61c 2417=item pid %x not a child
748a9306
LW
2418
2419(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a process which
2420isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is fine from VMS'
2421perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
2422
a0d0e21e
LW
2423=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
2424
81777298 2425(F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
a0d0e21e
LW
2426the BSD version, which takes a pid.
2427
6bc102ca
GS
2428=item Possible Y2K bug: %s
2429
2430(W) You are concatenating the number 19 with another number, which
2431could be a potential Year 2000 problem.
2432
bbce6d69
PP
2433=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
2434
774d564b
PP
2435(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
2436strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated
2437as literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
7b8d334a 2438parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2439
774d564b
PP
2440You probably wrote something like this:
2441
54310121 2442 @list = qw(
774d564b 2443 a # a comment
bbce6d69 2444 b # another comment
774d564b 2445 );
bbce6d69
PP
2446
2447when you should have written this:
2448
774d564b 2449 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
2450 a
2451 b
774d564b
PP
2452 );
2453
2454If you really want comments, build your list the
2455old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
2456
2457 @list = (
2458 'a', # a comment
2459 'b', # another comment
2460 );
bbce6d69
PP
2461
2462=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
2463
774d564b 2464(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore commas
68dc0745 2465aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used different
774d564b
PP
2466delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently
2467used.)
bbce6d69 2468
54310121 2469You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 2470
774d564b
PP
2471 qw! a, b, c !;
2472
2473which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
2474commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 2475
774d564b 2476 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2477
a0d0e21e
LW
2478=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2479
2480(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2481Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2482end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2483Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2484
2485=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
2486
2487(S) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 2488
a0d0e21e
LW
2489 open FOO || die;
2490
2491is now misinterpreted as
2492
2493 open(FOO || die);
2494
68dc0745
PP
2495because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary
2496and list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must
2497put parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator
2498instead of "||".
a0d0e21e 2499
3cdd684c
TP
2500=item Premature end of script headers
2501
2502See Server error.
2503
9a7dcd9c 2504=item print() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2505
2506(W) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime before now.
2507Check your logic flow.
2508
9a7dcd9c 2509=item printf() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2510
2511(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2512Check your logic flow.
2513
2514=item Probable precedence problem on %s
2515
54310121 2516(W) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a conditional,
a0d0e21e
LW
2517which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part of the
2518last argument of the previous construct, for example:
2519
2520 open FOO || die;
2521
3fe9a6f1 2522=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2523
3fe9a6f1
PP
2524(S) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been declared
2525or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2526
89ea2908
GA
2527=item Range iterator outside integer range
2528
2529(F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."
2530are outside the range which can be represented by integers internally.
2531One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magical string
2532increment by prepending "0" to your numbers.
2533
9a7dcd9c 2534=item readline() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2535
2536(W) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime before now.
2537Check your logic flow.
2538
4ad56ec9
IZ
2539=item realloc() of freed memory ignored
2540
2541(S) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had already
2542been freed.
2543
a0d0e21e
LW
2544=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2545
54310121 2546(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e
LW
2547
2548=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2549
2550(F) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce the
2551desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
2552which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2553
3e0ccd42 2554=item Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
a0d0e21e
LW
2555
2556(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2557an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2558
3e0ccd42
JP
2559=item Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method '%s' in package '%s'
2560
2561(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking a
2562method. Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2563
1930e939
TP
2564=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
2565
2566(W) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list with
2567an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This
2568usually means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant
2569to use parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
7b8d334a
GS
2570
2571 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
2572 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
2573 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
2574 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
2575
810b8aa5
GS
2576=item Reference is already weak
2577
2578(W) You have attempted to weaken a reference that is already weak.
2579Doing so has no effect.
2580
a0d0e21e
LW
2581=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2582
2583(W) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with a
2584reference count of other than 1.
2585
fb73857a
PP
2586=item regexp *+ operand could be empty
2587
2588(F) The part of the regexp subject to either the * or + quantifier
2589could match an empty string.
2590
a0d0e21e
LW
2591=item regexp memory corruption
2592
2593(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
2594expression compiler gave it.
2595
2596=item regexp out of space
2597
2598(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it earlier.
2599
a0d0e21e
LW
2600=item Reversed %s= operator
2601
2602(W) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must always
2603comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
2604
2605=item Runaway format
2606
2607(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
2608produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
2609199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
2610themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
2611shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
2612
2613=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
2614
a6006777 2615(W) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
a0d0e21e 2616an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
8b1a09fc
PP
2617The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2618assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves
a0d0e21e 2619like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
5f05dabc 2620subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 2621
748a9306 2622On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 2623element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
2624Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2625L<perlref>.
2626
a6006777
PP
2627=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
2628
2629(W) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
2630a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
2631The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2632assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves
2633like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
2634subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
2635
2636On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash
2637element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
2638Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2639L<perlref>.
2640
a0d0e21e
LW
2641=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
2642
54310121
PP
2643(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
2644or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
2645
2646=item Search pattern not terminated
2647
2648(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
2649construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2650Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2651
96e4d5b1 2652=item %sseek() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2653
96e4d5b1
PP
2654(W) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a filehandle that
2655was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2656
2657=item select not implemented
2658
2659(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
2660
2661=item sem%s not implemented
2662
2663(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
2664
2665=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
2666
2667(S) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a scalar
2668that had previously been marked as free.
2669
2670=item Semicolon seems to be missing
2671
2672(W) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing semicolon,
2673or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
2674
69282e91 2675=item send() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2676
9a7dcd9c 2677(W) The socket you're sending to got itself closed sometime before now.
a0d0e21e
LW
2678Check your logic flow.
2679
1b1626e4 2680=item Sequence (? incomplete
7b8d334a 2681
1b1626e4
G
2682(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?.
2683See L<perlre>.
2684
a0d0e21e
LW
2685=item Sequence (?#... not terminated
2686
2687(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
5f05dabc 2688parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2689
2690=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented
2691
2692(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved
2693but has not yet been written. See L<perlre>.
2694
2695=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized
2696
2697(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
2698See L<perlre>.
2699
a5f75d66
AD
2700=item Server error
2701
3cdd684c
TP
2702This is the error message generally seen in a browser window when trying
2703to run a CGI program (including SSI) over the web. The actual error
2704text varies widely from server to server. The most frequently-seen
2705variants are "500 Server error", "Method (something) not permitted",
2706"Document contains no data", "Premature end of script headers", and
2707"Did not produce a valid header".
9607fc9c
PP
2708
2709B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
2710
2711You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the user
2712CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user account you
2713tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables (like PATH)
2714from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a location where the CGI
2715server can't find it, basically, more or less. Please see the following
2716for more information:
2717
be94a901
GS
2718 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/idiots-guide.html
2719 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/perl-cgi-faq.html
9607fc9c
PP
2720 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/www/cgi-faq
2721 http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/interface.html
2722 http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/WWW/faqs/www-security-faq.html
a5f75d66 2723
be94a901
GS
2724You should also look at L<perlfaq9>.
2725
a0d0e21e
LW
2726=item setegid() not implemented
2727
8b1a09fc 2728(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2729the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2730think so.
2731
2732=item seteuid() not implemented
2733
8b1a09fc 2734(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<gt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2735the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2736think so.
2737
81777298
GS
2738=item setpgrp can't take arguments
2739
2740(F) Your system has the setpgrp() from BSD 4.2, which takes no arguments,
2741unlike POSIX setpgid(), which takes a process ID and process group ID.
2742
a0d0e21e
LW
2743=item setrgid() not implemented
2744
8b1a09fc 2745(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2746the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2747think so.
2748
2749=item setruid() not implemented
2750
1f8d2005 2751(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<lt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2752the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2753think so.
2754
2755=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
2756
2757(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the world,
2758because the world might have written on it already.
2759
2760=item shm%s not implemented
2761
2762(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
2763
69282e91 2764=item shutdown() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2765
2766(W) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit superfluous.
2767
f86702cc 2768=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e
LW
2769
2770(W) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist. Perhaps you
2771put it into the wrong package?
2772
2773=item sort is now a reserved word
2774
2775(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
2776But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
2777
2778=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
2779
2780(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
4633a7c4 2781it by not using C<E<lt>=E<gt>> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
2782See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2783
2784=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
2785
2786(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
2787or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2788
2789=item Split loop
2790
2791(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't iterate
2792more times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)
2793See L<perlfunc/split>.
2794
8b1a09fc 2795=item Stat on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2796
2797(W) You tried to use the stat() function (or an equivalent file test)
54310121 2798on a filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2799
2800=item Statement unlikely to be reached
2801
2802(W) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a die().
2803This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns unless
2804there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system() instead,
2805which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in a block
2806by itself.
2807
17feb5d5
DD
2808=item Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression
2809
2810(W) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place where it
2811makes no sense, such as on a zero-width assertion.
2812Try putting the quantifier inside the assertion instead. For example,
2813the way to match "abc" provided that it is followed by three
2814repetitions of "xyz" is C</abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/>, not C</abc(?=xyz){3}/>.
2815
e7ea3e70
IZ
2816=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
2817
2818(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation stubs.
2819Stubs should never be implicitely created, but explicit calls to C<can>
2820may break this.
2821
a0d0e21e
LW
2822=item Subroutine %s redefined
2823
2824(W) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
2825
2826 {
4438c4b7 2827 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
2828 eval "sub name { ... }";
2829 }
2830
2831=item Substitution loop
2832
2833(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a
2834substitution shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of
68dc0745 2835input, which is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 2836L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2837
2838=item Substitution pattern not terminated
2839
2840(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2841construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2842Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2843
2844=item Substitution replacement not terminated
2845
2846(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2847construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2848Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2849
2850=item substr outside of string
2851
3e3baf6d
TB
2852(S),(W) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of a
2853string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
2854length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is
2855mandatory if substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side
2856of an assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 2857
f86702cc 2858=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2859
2860(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but a
2861version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
2862
85ab1d1d
JH
2863=item switching effective %s is not implemented
2864
2865(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, we cannot switch the
2866real and effective uids or gids.
2867
a0d0e21e
LW
2868=item syntax error
2869
2870(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
2871
2872 A keyword is misspelled.
2873 A semicolon is missing.
2874 A comma is missing.
2875 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
2876 An opening or closing brace is missing.
2877 A closing quote is missing.
2878
2879Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
2880error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
2881The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
2882it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 2883before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
2884Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
2885the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
2886C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
2887if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20 questions>.
2888
cb1a09d0
AD
2889=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
2890
8b1a09fc 2891(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 2892instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2893into Perl yourself.
2894
6087ac44 2895=item System V %s is not implemented on this machine
a0d0e21e 2896
6087ac44
JH
2897(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem",
2898"shm", or "msg" but that System V IPC is not implemented in your
2899machine. In some machines the functionality can exist but be
2900unconfigured. Consult your system support.
a0d0e21e 2901
69282e91 2902=item syswrite() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2903
2904(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2905Check your logic flow.
2906
fc36a67e
PP
2907=item Target of goto is too deeply nested
2908
2909(F) You tried to use C<goto> to reach a label that was too deeply
2910nested for Perl to reach. Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.
2911
8903cb82 2912=item tell() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2913
8903cb82
PP
2914(W) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that was either
2915never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e 2916
8b1a09fc 2917=item Test on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2918
2919(W) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle that isn't
2920open. Check your logic. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2921
2922=item That use of $[ is unsupported
2923
8b1a09fc 2924(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted as
5f05dabc 2925a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
2926
2927 $[ = 0;
2928 $[ = 1;
2929 ...
2930 local $[ = 0;
2931 local $[ = 1;
2932 ...
2933
2934This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base
2935out from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
2936
2937=item The %s function is unimplemented
2938
2939The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
2940to the probings of Configure.
2941
f86702cc 2942=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
a0d0e21e
LW
2943
2944(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
2945probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 2946think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
2947will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
2948will deny it.
2949
2950=item The stat preceding C<-l _> wasn't an lstat
2951
2952(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic linkhood
2953if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went past
2954the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename instead.
2955
437784d6 2956=item This Perl can't reset CRTL environ elements (%s)
f675dbe5
CB
2957
2958=item This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s)
2959
2960(W) Warnings peculiar to VMS. You tried to change or delete an element
2961of the CRTL's internal environ array, but your copy of Perl wasn't
2962built with a CRTL that contained the setenv() function. You'll need to
2963rebuild Perl with a CRTL that does, or redefine F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see
2964L<perlvms>) so that the environ array isn't the target of the change to
2965%ENV which produced the warning.
2966
a0d0e21e
LW
2967=item times not implemented
2968
2969(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I suspect
2970you're not running on Unix.
2971
2972=item Too few args to syscall
2973
2974(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
2975system call to call, silly dilly.
2976
9607fc9c
PP
2977=item Too late for "B<-T>" option
2978
2979(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
8cc95fdb
PP
2980B<-T> option, but Perl was not invoked with B<-T> in its command line.
2981This is an error because, by the time Perl discovers a B<-T> in a
2982script, it's too late to properly taint everything from the environment.
2983So Perl gives up.
f86702cc 2984
9607fc9c
PP
2985If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!
2986mechanism (or its local equivalent), this error can usually be fixed
2987by editing the #! line so that the B<-T> option is a part of Perl's
2988first argument: e.g. change C<perl -n -T> to C<perl -T -n>.
f86702cc 2989
9607fc9c
PP
2990If the Perl script is being executed as C<perl scriptname>, then the
2991B<-T> option must appear on the command line: C<perl -T scriptname>.
f86702cc 2992
8cc95fdb
PP
2993=item Too late for "-%s" option
2994
2995(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
2996B<-M> or B<-m> option. This is an error because B<-M> and B<-m> options
2997are not intended for use inside scripts. Use the C<use> pragma instead.
2998
cb1a09d0
AD
2999=item Too many ('s
3000
3001=item Too many )'s
3002
3003(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
3004of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
3005Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 3006
a0d0e21e
LW
3007=item Too many args to syscall
3008
5f05dabc 3009(F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().
a0d0e21e
LW
3010
3011=item Too many arguments for %s
3012
3013(F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.
3014
3015=item trailing \ in regexp
3016
3017(F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash. Backslash
3018it. See L<perlre>.
3019
2c268ad5 3020=item Transliteration pattern not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
3021
3022(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
fb73857a
PP
3023or y/// or y[][] construct. Missing the leading C<$> from variables
3024C<$tr> or C<$y> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 3025
2c268ad5 3026=item Transliteration replacement not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
3027
3028(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
3029construct.
3030
3031=item truncate not implemented
3032
3033(F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that
3034Configure knows about.
3035
3036=item Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
3037
3038(F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
8b1a09fc
PP
3039certain type. Arrays must be @NAME or C<@{EXPR}>. Hashes must be
3040%NAME or C<%{EXPR}>. No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
a0d0e21e
LW
3041{EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference. See L<perlref>.
3042
3043=item umask: argument is missing initial 0
3044
eec2d3df
GS
3045(W) A umask of 222 is incorrect. It should be 0222, because octal
3046literals always start with 0 in Perl, as in C.
3047
3048=item umask not implemented
3049
3050(F) Your machine doesn't implement the umask function and you tried
3051to use it to restrict permissions for yourself (EXPR & 0700).
a0d0e21e 3052
4633a7c4
LW
3053=item Unable to create sub named "%s"
3054
3055(F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.
3056
a0d0e21e
LW
3057=item Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
3058
3059(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many execution
3060contexts were entered and left.
3061
3062=item Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
3063
3064(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many
3065values were temporarily localized.
3066
3067=item Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
3068
3069(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many blocks
3070were entered and left.
3071
3072=item Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
3073
3074(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many mortal
3075scalars were allocated and freed.
3076
3077=item Undefined format "%s" called
3078
3079(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
3080another package? See L<perlform>.
3081
3082=item Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
3083
3084(F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps
3085it's in a different package? See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3086
3087=item Undefined subroutine &%s called
3088
3089(F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
3090has since been undefined.
3091
3092=item Undefined subroutine called
3093
3094(F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined,
3095or if it was, it has since been undefined.
3096
3097=item Undefined subroutine in sort
3098
3099(F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem to
3100have been defined yet. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3101
4633a7c4
LW
3102=item Undefined top format "%s" called
3103
3104(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
3105another package? See L<perlform>.
3106
20408e3c
GS
3107=item Undefined value assigned to typeglob
3108
3109(W) An undefined value was assigned to a typeglob, a la C<*foo = undef>.
3110This does nothing. It's possible that you really mean C<undef *foo>.
3111
a0d0e21e
LW
3112=item unexec of %s into %s failed!
3113
3114(F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason. See your local FSF
3115representative, who probably put it there in the first place.
3116
3117=item Unknown BYTEORDER
3118
5f05dabc 3119(F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte order.
a0d0e21e 3120
6170680b
IZ
3121=item Unknown open() mode '%s'
3122
437784d6
GS
3123(F) The second argument of 3-argument open() is not among the list
3124of valid modes: C<L<lt>>, C<L<gt>>, C<E<gt>E<gt>>, C<+L<lt>>,
3125C<+L<gt>>, C<+E<gt>E<gt>>, C<-|>, C<|->.
6170680b 3126
f675dbe5
CB
3127=item Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s
3128
3129(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl was reading values for %ENV before
3130iterating over it, and someone else stuck a message in the stream of
3131data Perl expected. Someone's very confused, or perhaps trying to
3132subvert Perl's population of %ENV for nefarious purposes.
3133
a0d0e21e
LW
3134=item unmatched () in regexp
3135
3136(F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
3137expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding
5f05dabc 3138the matching parenthesis. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3139
d98d5fff 3140=item Unmatched right %s bracket
a0d0e21e 3141
d98d5fff
GS
3142(F) The lexer counted more closing curly or square brackets than
3143opening ones, so you're probably missing a matching opening bracket.
3144As a general rule, you'll find the missing one (so to speak) near the
3145place you were last editing.
a0d0e21e
LW
3146
3147=item unmatched [] in regexp
3148
3149(F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to
3150include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it first.
3151See L<perlre>.
3152
3153=item Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
3154
54310121 3155(W) You used a bareword that might someday be claimed as a reserved word.
a0d0e21e
LW
3156It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert
3157an underbar into it. You might also declare it as a subroutine.
3158
54310121 3159=item Unrecognized character %s
a0d0e21e 3160
54310121
PP
3161(F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the specified character
3162in your Perl script (or eval). Perhaps you tried to run a compressed
3163script, a binary program, or a directory as a Perl program.
a0d0e21e 3164
c9f97d15
IZ
3165=item Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
3166
3167(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
3168by Perl.
3169
a0d0e21e
LW
3170=item Unrecognized signal name "%s"
3171
3172(F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not recognized.
3173Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
3174
90248788 3175=item Unrecognized switch: -%s (-h will show valid options)
a0d0e21e
LW
3176
3177(F) You specified an illegal option to Perl. Don't do that.
3178(If you think you didn't do that, check the #! line to see if it's
3179supplying the bad switch on your behalf.)
3180
3181=item Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
3182
3183(W) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that operation
3184failed, PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline, PROBABLY
54310121 3185because you forgot to chop() or chomp() it off. See L<perlfunc/chomp>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3186
3187=item Unsupported directory function "%s" called
3188
3189(F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and readdir().
3190
54310121
PP
3191=item Unsupported function fork
3192
3193(F) Your version of executable does not support forking.
3194
3195Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different flavors of
3196Perl executables, some of which may support fork, some not. Try changing
3197the name you call Perl by to C<perl_>, C<perl__>, and so on.
3198
a0d0e21e
LW
3199=item Unsupported function %s
3200
7b8d334a 3201(F) This machine doesn't implement the indicated function, apparently.
a0d0e21e
LW
3202At least, Configure doesn't think so.
3203
3204=item Unsupported socket function "%s" called
3205
3206(F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or at
3207least that's what Configure thought.
3208
8b1a09fc 3209=item Unterminated E<lt>E<gt> operator
a0d0e21e
LW
3210
3211(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
3212a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
3213finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
3214the line, and you really meant a "less than".
3215
09bef843
SB
3216=item Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list
3217
3218(F) The lexer saw an opening (left) parenthesis character while parsing an
3219attribute list, but the matching closing (right) parenthesis
3220character was not found. You may need to add (or remove) a backslash
3221character to get your parentheses to balance. See L<attributes>.
3222
3223=item Unterminated attribute list
3224
3225(F) The lexer found something other than a simple identifier at the start
3226of an attribute, and it wasn't a semicolon or the start of a
3227block. Perhaps you terminated the parameter list of the previous attribute
3228too soon. See L<attributes>.
3229
a0d0e21e
LW
3230=item Use of $# is deprecated
3231
8b1a09fc 3232(D) This was an ill-advised attempt to emulate a poorly defined B<awk> feature.
a0d0e21e
LW
3233Use an explicit printf() or sprintf() instead.
3234
3235=item Use of $* is deprecated
3236
4a6725af 3237(D) This variable magically turned on multi-line pattern matching, both for
a0d0e21e
LW
3238you and for any luckless subroutine that you happen to call. You should
3239use the new C<//m> and C<//s> modifiers now to do that without the dangerous
3240action-at-a-distance effects of C<$*>.
3241
748a9306
LW
3242=item Use of %s in printf format not supported
3243
5f05dabc
PP
3244(F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible from
3245only C. This usually means there's a better way to do it in Perl.
748a9306 3246
8b1a09fc 3247=item Use of bare E<lt>E<lt> to mean E<lt>E<lt>"" is deprecated
4633a7c4
LW
3248
3249(D) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted form if you
3fe9a6f1 3250wish to use an empty line as the terminator of the here-document.
4633a7c4 3251
a0d0e21e
LW
3252=item Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
3253
3254(D) It makes a lot of work for the compiler when you clobber a
3255subroutine's argument list, so it's better if you assign the results of
3256a split() explicitly to an array (or list).
3257
dc848c6f
PP
3258=item Use of inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is deprecated
3259
5cd24f17
PP
3260(D) As an (ahem) accidental feature, C<AUTOLOAD> subroutines are looked
3261up as methods (using the C<@ISA> hierarchy) even when the subroutines to
3262be autoloaded were called as plain functions (e.g. C<Foo::bar()>), not
7b8d334a 3263as methods (e.g. C<Foo-E<gt>bar()> or C<$obj-E<gt>bar()>).
dc848c6f
PP
3264
3265This bug will be rectified in Perl 5.005, which will use method lookup
3266only for methods' C<AUTOLOAD>s. However, there is a significant base
3267of existing code that may be using the old behavior. So, as an
3268interim step, Perl 5.004 issues an optional warning when non-methods
3269use inherited C<AUTOLOAD>s.
3270
3271The simple rule is: Inheritance will not work when autoloading
3272non-methods. The simple fix for old code is: In any module that used to
3273depend on inheriting C<AUTOLOAD> for non-methods from a base class named
3274C<BaseClass>, execute C<*AUTOLOAD = \&BaseClass::AUTOLOAD> during startup.
3275
fb73857a
PP
3276In code that currently says C<use AutoLoader; @ISA = qw(AutoLoader);> you
3277should remove AutoLoader from @ISA and change C<use AutoLoader;> to
7b8d334a 3278C<use AutoLoader 'AUTOLOAD';>.
fb73857a 3279
85b81015
LW
3280=item Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated
3281
3282(D) The indicated bareword is a reserved word. Future versions of perl
3283may use it as a keyword, so you're better off either explicitly quoting
3284the word in a manner appropriate for its context of use, or using a
3285different name altogether. The warning can be suppressed for subroutine
3286names by either adding a C<&> prefix, or using a package qualifier,
3287e.g. C<&our()>, or C<Foo::our()>.
3288
dc848c6f
PP
3289=item Use of %s is deprecated
3290
3291(D) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for use, generally
3292because there's a better way to do it, and also because the old way has
3293bad side effects.
3294
cc95b072 3295=item Use of uninitialized value%s
a0d0e21e
LW
3296
3297(W) An undefined value was used as if it were already defined. It was
3298interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a mistake. To suppress this
5311ebfa 3299warning assign a defined value to your variables.
a0d0e21e 3300
8202fd39
G
3301=item Useless use of "re" pragma
3302
3303(W) You did C<use re;> without any arguments. That isn't very useful.
3304
a0d0e21e
LW
3305=item Useless use of %s in void context
3306
3307(W) You did something without a side effect in a context that does nothing
3308with the return value, such as a statement that doesn't return a value
3309from a block, or the left side of a scalar comma operator. Very often
3310this points not to stupidity on your part, but a failure of Perl to parse
3311your program the way you thought it would. For example, you'd get this
3312if you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence and said
3313
3314 $one, $two = 1, 2;
3315
3316when you meant to say
3317
3318 ($one, $two) = (1, 2);
3319
748a9306
LW
3320Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a list
3321reference when you should be using square or curly brackets, for
3322example, if you say
3323
3324 $array = (1,2);
3325
3326when you should have said
3327
3328 $array = [1,2];
3329
3330The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar value,
3331while parentheses do not. So when a parenthesized list is evaluated in
3332a scalar context, the comma is treated like C's comma operator, which
3333throws away the left argument, which is not what you want. See
3334L<perlref> for more on this.
3335
55497cff
PP
3336=item untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
3337
3338(W) A copy of the object returned from C<tie> (or C<tied>) was still
3339valid when C<untie> was called.
3340
68dc0745 3341=item Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined()
a6006777 3342
68dc0745
PP
3343(W) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*> (glob), C<each()>,
3344or C<readdir()> as a boolean value. Each of these constructs can return a
3345value of "0"; that would make the conditional expression false, which is
3346probably not what you intended. When using these constructs in conditional
3347expressions, test their values with the C<defined> operator.
a6006777 3348
f675dbe5
CB
3349=item Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long
3350
3351(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the value of an %ENV
3352element from a CLI symbol table, and found a resultant string longer
3353than 1024 characters. The return value has been truncated to 1024
3354characters.
3355
9607fc9c 3356=item Variable "%s" is not imported%s
4633a7c4
LW
3357
3358(F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable
3359that you apparently thought was imported from another module, because
3360something else of the same name (usually a subroutine) is exported
3361by that module. It usually means you put the wrong funny character
3362on the front of your variable.
3363
44a8e56a
PP
3364=item Variable "%s" may be unavailable
3365
3366(W) An inner (nested) I<anonymous> subroutine is inside a I<named>
3367subroutine, and outside that is another subroutine; and the anonymous
3368(innermost) subroutine is referencing a lexical variable defined in
3369the outermost subroutine. For example:
3370
3371 sub outermost { my $a; sub middle { sub { $a } } }
3372
3373If the anonymous subroutine is called or referenced (directly or
3374indirectly) from the outermost subroutine, it will share the variable
3375as you would expect. But if the anonymous subroutine is called or
3376referenced when the outermost subroutine is not active, it will see
3377the value of the shared variable as it was before and during the
3378*first* call to the outermost subroutine, which is probably not what
3379you want.
3380
3381In these circumstances, it is usually best to make the middle
3382subroutine anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. Perl has specific
3383support for shared variables in nested anonymous subroutines; a named
3384subroutine in between interferes with this feature.
3385
3386=item Variable "%s" will not stay shared
3387
3388(W) An inner (nested) I<named> subroutine is referencing a lexical
3389variable defined in an outer subroutine.
3390
3391When the inner subroutine is called, it will probably see the value of
3392the outer subroutine's variable as it was before and during the
3393*first* call to the outer subroutine; in this case, after the first
3394call to the outer subroutine is complete, the inner and outer
3395subroutines will no longer share a common value for the variable. In
3396other words, the variable will no longer be shared.
3397
3398Furthermore, if the outer subroutine is anonymous and references a
3399lexical variable outside itself, then the outer and inner subroutines
3400will I<never> share the given variable.
3401
3402This problem can usually be solved by making the inner subroutine
3403anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. When inner anonymous subs that
3404reference variables in outer subroutines are called or referenced,
54310121 3405they are automatically rebound to the current values of such
44a8e56a
PP
3406variables.
3407
f86702cc 3408=item Variable syntax
cb1a09d0
AD
3409
3410(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
3411of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
3412Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 3413
084610c0
GS
3414=item Version number must be a constant number
3415
3416(P) The attempt to translate a C<use Module n.n LIST> statement into
3417its equivalent C<BEGIN> block found an internal inconsistency with
3418the version number.
3419
3e6e419a
JH
3420=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3421
3422(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
3423
3424 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3425 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
3426 LC_ALL = "En_US",
3427 LANG = (unset)
3428 are supported and installed on your system.
3429 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
3430
3431Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
3432settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
3433This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your system
3434administrator have set up the so-called variable system but Perl could
3435not use those settings. This was not dead serious, fortunately: there
3436is a "default locale" called "C" that Perl can and will use, the
3437script will be run. Before you really fix the problem, however, you
3438will get the same error message each time you run Perl. How to really
3439fix the problem can be found in L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
3440
7e1af8bc 3441=item Warning: something's wrong
5f05dabc
PP
3442
3443(W) You passed warn() an empty string (the equivalent of C<warn "">) or
3444you called it with no args and C<$_> was empty.
3445
f86702cc 3446=item Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly
a0d0e21e 3447
8b1a09fc 3448(S) The implicit close() done by an open() got an error indication on the
5f05dabc 3449close(). This usually indicates your file system ran out of disk space.
a0d0e21e 3450
5f05dabc 3451=item Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous
a0d0e21e
LW
3452
3453(S) You wrote a unary operator followed by something that looks like a
3454binary operator that could also have been interpreted as a term or
3455unary operator. For instance, if you know that the rand function
3456has a default argument of 1.0, and you write
3457
3458 rand + 5;
3459
3460you may THINK you wrote the same thing as
3461
3462 rand() + 5;
3463
3464but in actual fact, you got
3465
3466 rand(+5);
3467
5f05dabc 3468So put in parentheses to say what you really mean.
a0d0e21e 3469
9a7dcd9c 3470=item write() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
3471
3472(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
3473Check your logic flow.
3474
3475=item X outside of string
3476
3477(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position before
3478the beginning of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3479
3480=item x outside of string
3481
3482(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position after
3483the end of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3484
3485=item Xsub "%s" called in sort
3486
3487(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
3488
3489=item Xsub called in sort
3490
3491(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
3492
3493=item You can't use C<-l> on a filehandle
3494
3495(F) A filehandle represents an opened file, and when you opened the file it
3496already went past any symlink you are presumably trying to look for.
3497Use a filename instead.
3498
3499=item YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
3500
5f05dabc 3501(F) And you probably never will, because you probably don't have the
a0d0e21e
LW
3502sources to your kernel, and your vendor probably doesn't give a rip
3503about what you want. Your best bet is to use the wrapsuid script in
3504the eg directory to put a setuid C wrapper around your script.
3505
3506=item You need to quote "%s"
3507
3508(W) You assigned a bareword as a signal handler name. Unfortunately, you
3509already have a subroutine of that name declared, which means that Perl 5
3510will try to call the subroutine when the assignment is executed, which is
3511probably not what you want. (If it IS what you want, put an & in front.)
3512
69282e91 3513=item %cetsockopt() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e
LW
3514
3515(W) You tried to get or set a socket option on a closed socket.
3516Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
9a7dcd9c 3517See L<perlfunc/getsockopt> and L<perlfunc/setsockopt>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3518
3519=item \1 better written as $1
3520
3521(W) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables. The use
5f05dabc 3522of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
a0d0e21e
LW
3523substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
3524because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better
3525if there are more than 9 backreferences.
3526
8b1a09fc 3527=item '|' and 'E<lt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3528
3529(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3530found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to redirect STDIN using
8b1a09fc 3531'E<lt>'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
748a9306 3532
8b1a09fc 3533=item '|' and 'E<gt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3534
3535(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3536thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and into a pipe to another
3537command. You need to choose one or the other, though nothing's stopping you
3538from piping into a program or Perl script which 'splits' output into two
3539streams, such as
3540
3541 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
3542 while (<STDIN>) {
3543 print;
3544 print OUT;
3545 }
3546 close OUT;
3547
774d564b 3548=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
33c8a3fe 3549
774d564b
PP
3550(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
3551version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3552
3553=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
3554
dc848c6f 3555(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
33c8a3fe
IZ
3556
3557 prefix1;prefix2
3558
3559or
3560
3561 prefix1 prefix2
3562
dc848c6f
PP
3563with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix
3564of a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error
3565may appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
3566"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3567
3568=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
3569
54310121 3570(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
dc848c6f 3571C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3572
3573=item Process terminated by SIG%s
3574
3575(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
dc848c6f
PP
3576applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
3577port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
3578L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
3579in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe 3580
a0d0e21e
LW
3581=back
3582
69282e91
GS
3583=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
3584
3585(W) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed some
3586time before now. Check your logic flow. flock() operates on filehandles.
3587Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the same name?
3588
3589=back