This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
AIX patches for Perl 5.8.9 RC2 and gcc on AIX + suidperl on AIX README.aix
[perl5.git] / README.aix
CommitLineData
20d11268
MB
1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
4
5=head1 NAME
6
7README.aix - Perl version 5 on IBM Unix (AIX) systems
8
9=head1 DESCRIPTION
10
a318903f
MB
11This document describes various features of IBM's Unix operating
12system (AIX) that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl)
13is compiled and/or runs.
20d11268
MB
14
15=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on AIX
16
7fabfece
RT
17For information on compilers on older versions of AIX, see L<Compiling
18Perl 5 on older AIX>.
19
20When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship
21an ANSI compliant C-compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of
22gcc for AIX are widely available.
23
24=head2 Supported Compilers
25
26Currently all versions of IBM's "xlc", "xlc_r", "cc", "cc_r" or
27"vac" ANSI/C compiler will work for building perl if that compiler
28works on your system.
29
e1051f11
RT
30If you plan to link perl to any module that requires thread-support,
31like DBD::Oracle, it is better to use the _r version of the compiler.
32This will not build a threaded perl, but a thread-enabled perl. See
33also L<Threaded perl> later on.
34
7fabfece
RT
35As of writing (2008-11) only the IBM XL C for AIX or XL C/C++ for AIX
36compiler is supported by IBM on AIX 5L/6.1.
37
38The following compiler versions are supported by IBM:
39
40XL C and XL C/C++ V7, V8, V9, V10
41
42The XL C for AIX is integrated in the XL C/C++ for AIX compiler.
43
44If you choose XL C/C++ V9 you need APAR IZ35785 installed
45otherwise the integrated SDBM_File do not compile correctly due
46to an optimization bug. You can circumvent this problem by
47adding -qipa to the optimization flags (-Doptimize='-O -qipa').
48The PTF for APAR IZ35785 which solves this problem will be available
49in 1Q 2009. IBM does provide an emergency fix for this problem.
50
51Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.
52The former is recommended, as not only it can compile Perl with no
53difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later
54that require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
55
56If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
57complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
58details. Please report any hoops you had to jump through to the
59development team.
60
61=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX
62
63Starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.x / 5.10.x) and AIX 4.3
64or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface in the so
65called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface that was
66used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases 4.2 and
67earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with compiled
68modules from earlier Perl releases. The change was made to make Perl
69more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are
70using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of
71C++ code with static constructors and destructors in Perl extensions,
72which was not possible using the emulated interface.
73
74It is highly recommended to use the new interface.
75
76=head2 Using Large Files with Perl
77
78Should yield no problems.
79
80=head2 Threaded Perl
81
82Should yield no problems with AIX 5.2 / 5.3 and 6.1.
83
84IBM uses the AIX system Perl (V5.8.2 as of writing) for some AIX
85system scripts. If you switches the links in /usr/bin from the
86AIX system Perl (/usr/opt/perl5) to the newly build Perl then you
87get the same features as with the IBM AIX system Perl if the
88threaded options are used.
89
90=head2 64-bit Perl
91
92If your AIX system is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit
93configurations to work. If you want to use 64-bit Perl on AIX 6.1
94you need a APAR for a libc.a bug which affects (n)dbm_XXX functions.
95The APAR number for this problem is currently not yet available. If
96the fileset bos.rte.libc is at level 6.1.1.2 or lower then the problem
97is no fixed on your system.
98
99If you need more memory (larger data segment) for your Perl programs you
100can set:
101
102 /etc/security/limits
103 default: (or your user)
104 data = -1 (default is 262144 * 512 byte)
105
106With the default setting the size is limited to 128MB.
107The -1 removes this limit.
108
e1051f11 109=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1 (threaded/32-bit)
7fabfece
RT
110
111With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which
112passes all make tests in threaded 32-bit mode, which is the default
113configuration for the perl builds that AIX ships with.
114
115 rm config.sh
116 ./Configure \
117 -d \
118 -Dcc=cc_r \
119 -Duseshrplib \
120 -Dusethreads \
121 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
122
123The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
124IBM AIX system Perl installation.
125
126=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1 (32-bit)
127
128With the following options you get a Perl version which passes
129all make tests in 32-bit mode.
130
131 rm config.sh
132 ./Configure \
133 -d \
134 -Dcc=cc_r \
135 -Duseshrplib \
136 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
137
138The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
139IBM AIX system Perl installation.
140
e1051f11 141=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1 (threaded/64-bit)
7fabfece
RT
142
143With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which
144passes all make tests in 64-bit mode.
145
146 export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell)
147
148 rm config.sh
149 ./Configure \
150 -d \
151 -Dcc=cc_r \
152 -Duseshrplib \
153 -Dusethreads \
154 -Duse64bitall \
155 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
156
157=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1(64-bit)
158
159With the following options you get a Perl version which passes all
160make tests in 64-bit mode.
161
162 export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell)
163
164 rm config.sh
165 ./Configure \
166 -d \
167 -Dcc=cc_r \
168 -Duseshrplib \
169 -Duse64bitall \
170 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
171
172The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
173IBM AIX system Perl installation.
174
175=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on older AIX
176
d5d9880c 177When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship
20d11268
MB
178an ANSI compliant C-compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of
179gcc for AIX are widely available.
180
181At the moment of writing, AIX supports two different native C compilers,
4951a6f9 182for which you have to pay: B<xlC> and B<vac>. If you decide to use either
20d11268
MB
183of these two (which is quite a lot easier than using gcc), be sure to
184upgrade to the latest available patch level. Currently:
185
c67773d0
MB
186 xlC.C 3.1.4.10 or 3.6.6.0 or 4.0.2.2 or 5.0.2.9 or 6.0.0.3
187 vac.C 4.4.0.3 or 5.0.2.6 or 6.0.0.1
188
189note that xlC has the OS version in the name as of version 4.0.2.0, so
190you will find xlC.C for AIX-5.0 as package
191
192 xlC.aix50.rte 5.0.2.0 or 6.0.0.3
193
66a1b24b 194subversions are not the same "latest" on all OS versions. For example,
c67773d0 195the latest xlC-5 on aix41 is 5.0.2.9, while on aix43, it is 5.0.2.7.
20d11268 196
a318903f
MB
197Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.
198The former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no
20d11268
MB
199difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
200require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
201
12f54d27
JH
202The IBM's compiler patch levels 5.0.0.0 and 5.0.1.0 have compiler
203optimization bugs that affect compiling perl.c and regcomp.c,
204respectively. If Perl's configuration detects those compiler patch
205levels, optimization is turned off for the said source code files.
206Upgrading to at least 5.0.2.0 is recommended.
207
20d11268 208If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
eed1f4d3 209complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
60ecc970
MB
210details. Please report any hoops you had to jump through to the development
211team.
20d11268
MB
212
213=head2 OS level
214
215Before installing the patches to the IBM C-compiler you need to know the
216level of patching for the Operating System. IBM's command 'oslevel' will
64cb7701
MB
217show the base, but is not always complete (in this example oslevel shows
2184.3.NULL, whereas the system might run most of 4.3.THREE):
1a3e4d88 219
20d11268
MB
220 # oslevel
221 4.3.0.0
222 # lslpp -l | grep 'bos.rte '
e41d30bc
MB
223 bos.rte 4.3.3.75 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime
224 bos.rte 4.3.2.0 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime
225 #
226
64cb7701
MB
227The same might happen to AIX 5.1 or other OS levels. As a side note, perl
228cannot be built without bos.adt.syscalls and bos.adt.libm installed
1a3e4d88
JP
229
230 # lslpp -l | egrep "syscalls|libm"
231 bos.adt.libm 5.1.0.25 COMMITTED Base Application Development
c67773d0 232 bos.adt.syscalls 5.1.0.36 COMMITTED System Calls Application
64cb7701 233 #
20d11268
MB
234
235=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX
236
8218ea5d
JH
237AIX supports dynamically loadable objects as well as shared libraries.
238Shared libraries by convention end with the suffix .a, which is a bit
239misleading, as an archive can contain static as well as dynamic members.
240For perl dynamically loaded objects we use the .so suffix also used on
241many other platforms.
242
243Note that starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.0) and AIX 4.3
244or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface in the so
245called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface that was
246used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases 4.2 and
247earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with compiled
248modules from earlier perl releases. The change was made to make Perl
efc3b6b5 249more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are
8218ea5d
JH
250using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of C++
251code with static constructors and destructors in perl extensions, which
252was not possible using the emulated interface.
12f54d27 253
20d11268
MB
254=head2 The IBM ANSI C Compiler
255
256All defaults for Configure can be used.
257
258If you've chosen to use vac 4, be sure to run 4.4.0.3. Older versions
4951a6f9 259will turn up nasty later on. For vac 5 be sure to run at least 5.0.1.0,
c67773d0
MB
260but vac 5.0.2.6 or up is highly recommended. Note that since IBM has
261removed vac 5.0.2.1 through 5.0.2.5 from the software depot, these
262versions should be considered obsolete.
20d11268 263
a318903f
MB
264Here's a brief lead of how to upgrade the compiler to the latest
265level. Of course this is subject to changes. You can only upgrade
266versions from ftp-available updates if the first three digit groups
267are the same (in where you can skip intermediate unlike the patches
268in the developer snapshots of perl), or to one version up where the
66a1b24b 269"base" is available. In other words, the AIX compiler patches are
a318903f
MB
270cumulative.
271
272 vac.C.4.4.0.1 => vac.C.4.4.0.3 is OK (vac.C.4.4.0.2 not needed)
273 xlC.C.3.1.3.3 => xlC.C.3.1.4.10 is NOT OK (xlC.C.3.1.4.0 is not available)
274
275 # ftp ftp.software.ibm.com
276 Connected to service.boulder.ibm.com.
277 : welcome message ...
278 Name (ftp.software.ibm.com:merijn): anonymous
279 331 Guest login ok, send your complete e-mail address as password.
280 Password:
281 ... accepted login stuff
282 ftp> cd /aix/fixes/v4/
283 ftp> dir other other.ll
284 output to local-file: other.ll? y
285 200 PORT command successful.
286 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
287 226 Transfer complete.
288 ftp> dir xlc xlc.ll
289 output to local-file: xlc.ll? y
290 200 PORT command successful.
291 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
292 226 Transfer complete.
293 ftp> bye
294 ... goodbye messages
295 # ls -l *.ll
296 -rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 1169432 Nov 2 17:29 other.ll
297 -rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 29170 Nov 2 17:29 xlc.ll
298
299On AIX 4.2 using xlC, we continue:
300
301 # lslpp -l | fgrep 'xlC.C '
302 xlC.C 3.1.4.9 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
303 xlC.C 3.1.4.0 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
304 # grep 'xlC.C.3.1.4.*.bff' xlc.ll
305 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6286336 Jul 22 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.1.bff
306 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6173696 Aug 24 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.10.bff
307 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6319104 Aug 14 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.2.bff
308 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6316032 Oct 21 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.3.bff
309 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6315008 Dec 20 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.4.bff
310 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6178816 Mar 28 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.5.bff
311 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6188032 May 22 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.6.bff
312 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6191104 Sep 5 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.7.bff
313 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6185984 Jan 13 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.8.bff
314 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6169600 May 27 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.9.bff
315 # wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/xlc/xlC.C.3.1.4.10.bff
316 #
317
318On AIX 4.3 using vac, we continue:
319
64cb7701
MB
320 # lslpp -l | grep 'vac.C '
321 vac.C 5.0.2.2 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
322 vac.C 5.0.2.0 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
323 # grep 'vac.C.5.0.2.*.bff' other.ll
324 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 13592576 Apr 16 2001 vac.C.5.0.2.0.bff
325 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14133248 Apr 9 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.3.bff
326 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14173184 May 20 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.4.bff
c67773d0
MB
327 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14192640 Nov 22 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff
328 # wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/other/vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff
a318903f
MB
329 #
330
64cb7701
MB
331Likewise on all other OS levels. Then execute the following command, and
332fill in its choices
a318903f
MB
333
334 # smit install_update
335 -> Install and Update from LATEST Available Software
c67773d0 336 * INPUT device / directory for software [ vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff ]
a318903f
MB
337 [ OK ]
338 [ OK ]
339
340Follow the messages ... and you're done.
341
8381f7b7
MB
342If you like a more web-like approach, a good start point can be
343http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/download/downloadaz.jsp and click
344"C for AIX", and follow the instructions.
345
e083a1cd
JAE
346=head2 The usenm option
347
348If linking miniperl
349
350 cc -o miniperl ... miniperlmain.o opmini.o perl.o ... -lm -lc ...
351
352causes error like this
353
354 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .aintl
355 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .copysignl
356 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .syscall
357 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .eaccess
358 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresuid
359 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresgid
360 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setproctitle
361 ld: 0711-345 Use the -bloadmap or -bnoquiet option to obtain more information.
362
363you could retry with
364
365 make realclean
366 rm config.sh
367 ./Configure -Dusenm ...
368
369which makes Configure to use the C<nm> tool when scanning for library
370symbols, which usually is not done in AIX.
371
dd993642
JH
372Related to this, you probably should not use the C<-r> option of
373Configure in AIX, because that affects of how the C<nm> tool is used.
374
20d11268
MB
375=head2 Using GNU's gcc for building perl
376
c67773d0
MB
377Using gcc-3.x (tested with 3.0.4, 3.1, and 3.2) now works out of the box,
378as do recent gcc-2.9 builds available directly from IBM as part of their
379Linux compatibility packages, available here:
818c4caa 380
4238f5a6 381 http://www.ibm.com/servers/aix/products/aixos/linux/
20d11268 382
20d11268
MB
383=head2 Using Large Files with Perl
384
60ecc970 385Should yield no problems.
20d11268
MB
386
387=head2 Threaded Perl
388
60ecc970 389Threads seem to work OK, though at the moment not all tests pass when
1d69df2b 390threads are used in combination with 64-bit configurations.
20d11268 391
bef58541
JH
392You may get a warning when doing a threaded build:
393
394 "pp_sys.c", line 4640.39: 1506-280 (W) Function argument assignment between types "unsigned char*" and "const void*" is not allowed.
395
396The exact line number may vary, but if the warning (W) comes from a line
397line this
398
399 hent = PerlSock_gethostbyaddr(addr, (Netdb_hlen_t) addrlen, addrtype);
400
401in the "pp_ghostent" function, you may ignore it safely. The warning
402is caused by the reentrant variant of gethostbyaddr() having a slightly
403different prototype than its non-reentrant variant, but the difference
404is not really significant here.
405
20d11268
MB
406=head2 64-bit Perl
407
1d69df2b 408If your AIX is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit
12f54d27
JH
409configurations to work. In combination with threads some tests might
410still fail.
20d11268 411
12f54d27 412=head2 AIX 4.2 and extensions using C++ with statics
20d11268 413
12f54d27
JH
414In AIX 4.2 Perl extensions that use C++ functions that use statics
415may have problems in that the statics are not getting initialized.
416In newer AIX releases this has been solved by linking Perl with
417the libC_r library, but unfortunately in AIX 4.2 the said library
418has an obscure bug where the various functions related to time
419(such as time() and gettimeofday()) return broken values, and
420therefore in AIX 4.2 Perl is not linked against the libC_r.
20d11268 421
7fabfece 422=head1 AUTHORS
20d11268 423
3bd76f0a 424H.Merijn Brand <h.m.brand@xs4all.nl>
7fabfece 425Rainer Tammer <tammer@tammer.net>
20d11268 426
20d11268
MB
427=head1 DATE
428
e1051f11 429Version 0.0.8: 01 Dec 2008
20d11268
MB
430
431=cut