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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
2see. It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
3specially designed to be readable as is.
4
5=head1 NAME
6
5aabfad6 7perlwin32 - Perl under Win32
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8
9=head1 SYNOPSIS
10
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11These are instructions for building Perl under Windows (9x, NT and
122000).
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13
14=head1 DESCRIPTION
15
3fe9a6f1 16Before you start, you should glance through the README file
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17found in the top-level directory where the Perl distribution
18was extracted. Make sure you read and understand the terms under
19which this software is being distributed.
20
f7c603cb 21Also make sure you read L<BUGS AND CAVEATS> below for the
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22known limitations of this port.
23
24The INSTALL file in the perl top-level has much information that is
25only relevant to people building Perl on Unix-like systems. In
26particular, you can safely ignore any information that talks about
27"Configure".
28
7bac28a0 29You may also want to look at two other options for building
873b149f 30a perl that will work on Windows NT: the README.cygwin and
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31README.os2 files, which each give a different set of rules to build
32a Perl that will work on Win32 platforms. Those two methods will
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33probably enable you to build a more Unix-compatible perl, but you
34will also need to download and use various other build-time and
35run-time support software described in those files.
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36
37This set of instructions is meant to describe a so-called "native"
38port of Perl to Win32 platforms. The resulting Perl requires no
39additional software to run (other than what came with your operating
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40system). Currently, this port is capable of using one of the
41following compilers:
42
43 Borland C++ version 5.02 or later
44 Microsoft Visual C++ version 4.2 or later
5db10396 45 Mingw32 with GCC version 2.95.2 or better
9036c72f 46
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47The last of these is a high quality freeware compiler. Support
48for it is still experimental. (Older versions of GCC are known
49not to work.)
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50
51This port currently supports MakeMaker (the set of modules that
52is used to build extensions to perl). Therefore, you should be
53able to build and install most extensions found in the CPAN sites.
c90c0ff4 54See L<Usage Hints> below for general hints about this.
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55
56=head2 Setting Up
57
58=over 4
59
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60=item Make
61
62You need a "make" program to build the sources. If you are using
63Visual C++ under Windows NT or 2000, nmake will work. All other
64builds need dmake.
65
66dmake is a freely available make that has very nice macro features
67and parallelability.
68
69A port of dmake for Windows is available from:
70
71 http://www.cpan.org/authors/id/GSAR/dmake-4.1pl1-win32.zip
72
73(This is a fixed version of original dmake sources obtained from
74http://www.wticorp.com/dmake/. As of version 4.1PL1, the original
75sources did not build as shipped, and had various other problems.
76A patch is included in the above fixed version.)
77
78Fetch and install dmake somewhere on your path (follow the instructions
79in the README.NOW file).
80
3e3baf6d 81=item Command Shell
68dc0745 82
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83Use the default "cmd" shell that comes with NT. Some versions of the
84popular 4DOS/NT shell have incompatibilities that may cause you trouble.
85If the build fails under that shell, try building again with the cmd
63f87e49 86shell.
26618a56 87
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88The nmake Makefile also has known incompatibilites with the
89"command.com" shell that comes with Windows 9x. You will need to
90use dmake and makefile.mk to build under Windows 9x.
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91
92The surest way to build it is on Windows NT, using the cmd shell.
68dc0745 93
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94Make sure the path to the build directory does not contain spaces. The
95build usually works in this circumstance, but some tests will fail.
96
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97=item Borland C++
98
63f87e49 99If you are using the Borland compiler, you will need dmake.
3e3baf6d 100(The make that Borland supplies is seriously crippled, and will not
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101work for MakeMaker builds.)
102
63f87e49 103See L/"Make"> above.
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104
105=item Microsoft Visual C++
68dc0745 106
8ec44883 107The nmake that comes with Visual C++ will suffice for building.
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108You will need to run the VCVARS32.BAT file usually found somewhere
109like C:\MSDEV4.2\BIN. This will set your build environment.
68dc0745 110
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111You can also use dmake to build using Visual C++, provided:
112you set OSRELEASE to "microsft" (or whatever the directory name
113under which the Visual C dmake configuration lives) in your environment,
114and edit win32/config.vc to change "make=nmake" into "make=dmake". The
115latter step is only essential if you want to use dmake as your default
116make for building extensions using MakeMaker.
3e3baf6d 117
5db10396 118=item Mingw32 with GCC
9036c72f 119
5db10396 120GCC-2.95.2 binaries can be downloaded from:
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121
122 ftp://ftp.xraylith.wisc.edu/pub/khan/gnu-win32/mingw32/
68dc0745 123
5db10396 124The GCC-2.95.2 bundle comes with Mingw32 libraries and headers.
68dc0745 125
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126Make sure you install the binaries that work with MSVCRT.DLL as indicated
127in the README for the GCC bundle. You may need to set up a few environment
128variables (usually run from a batch file).
68dc0745 129
63f87e49 130You also need dmake. See L</"Make"> above on how to get it.
ee4d903c 131
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132=back
133
137443ea 134=head2 Building
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135
136=over 4
137
138=item *
139
68dc0745 140Make sure you are in the "win32" subdirectory under the perl toplevel.
137443ea 141This directory contains a "Makefile" that will work with
8ec44883 142versions of nmake that come with Visual C++, and a dmake "makefile.mk"
9036c72f 143that will work for all supported compilers. The defaults in the dmake
63f87e49 144makefile are setup to build using the GCC compiler.
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145
146=item *
147
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148Edit the makefile.mk (or Makefile, if using nmake) and change the values
149of INST_DRV and INST_TOP. You can also enable various build
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150flags. These are explained in the makefiles.
151
152You will have to make sure CCTYPE is set correctly, and CCHOME points
153to wherever you installed your compiler.
154
155The default value for CCHOME in the makefiles for Visual C++
156may not be correct for some versions. Make sure the default exists
157and is valid.
9036c72f 158
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159If you have either the source or a library that contains des_fcrypt(),
160enable the appropriate option in the makefile. des_fcrypt() is not
161bundled with the distribution due to US Government restrictions
162on the export of cryptographic software. Nevertheless, this routine
58231d39 163is part of the "libdes" library (written by Eric Young) which is widely
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164available worldwide, usually along with SSLeay (for example:
165"ftp://fractal.mta.ca/pub/crypto/SSLeay/DES/"). Set CRYPT_SRC to the
166name of the file that implements des_fcrypt(). Alternatively, if
167you have built a library that contains des_fcrypt(), you can set
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168CRYPT_LIB to point to the library name. The location above contains
169many versions of the "libdes" library, all with slightly different
170implementations of des_fcrypt(). Older versions have a single,
171self-contained file (fcrypt.c) that implements crypt(), so they may be
172easier to use. A patch against the fcrypt.c found in libdes-3.06 is
173in des_fcrypt.patch.
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174
175Perl will also build without des_fcrypt(), but the crypt() builtin will
176fail at run time.
c90c0ff4 177
63f87e49 178Be sure to read the instructions near the top of the makefiles carefully.
9036c72f 179
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180=item *
181
9036c72f 182Type "dmake" (or "nmake" if you are using that make).
68dc0745 183
137443ea 184This should build everything. Specifically, it will create perl.exe,
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185perl56.dll at the perl toplevel, and various other extension dll's
186under the lib\auto directory. If the build fails for any reason, make
187sure you have done the previous steps correctly.
156a3eb7 188
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189=back
190
191=head2 Testing
192
9036c72f 193Type "dmake test" (or "nmake test"). This will run most of the tests from
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194the testsuite (many tests will be skipped, but no tests should typically
195fail).
68dc0745 196
8b88ae92 197If some tests do fail, it may be because you are using a different command
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198shell than the native "cmd.exe", or because you are building from a path
199that contains spaces. So don't do that.
68dc0745 200
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201If you are running the tests from a emacs shell window, you may see
202failures in op/stat.t. Run "dmake test-notty" in that case.
203
a8deba26 204If you're using the Borland compiler, you may see a failure in op/taint.t
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205arising from the inability to find the Borland Runtime DLLs on the system
206default path. You will need to copy the DLLs reported by the messages
207from where Borland chose to install it, into the Windows system directory
208(usually somewhere like C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32), and rerun the test.
209
210Please report any other failures as described under L<BUGS AND CAVEATS>.
68dc0745 211
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212=head2 Installation
213
9036c72f 214Type "dmake install" (or "nmake install"). This will put the newly
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215built perl and the libraries under whatever C<INST_TOP> points to in the
216Makefile. It will also install the pod documentation under
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217C<$INST_TOP\$VERSION\lib\pod> and HTML versions of the same under
218C<$INST_TOP\$VERSION\lib\pod\html>. To use the Perl you just installed,
219you will need to add two components to your PATH environment variable,
220C<$INST_TOP\$VERSION\bin>, and C<$INST_TOP\$VERSION\bin\$ARCHNAME>.
221For example:
222
63f87e49 223 set PATH c:\perl\5.6.0\bin;c:\perl\5.6.0\bin\MSWin32-x86;%PATH%
9036c72f 224
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225If you opt to comment out INST_VER and INST_ARCH in the makefiles, the
226installation structure is much simpler. In that case, it will be
227sufficient to add a single entry to the path, for instance:
228
229 set PATH c:\perl\bin;%PATH%
137443ea 230
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231=head2 Usage Hints
232
233=over 4
234
235=item Environment Variables
236
237The installation paths that you set during the build get compiled
238into perl, so you don't have to do anything additional to start
239using that perl (except add its location to your PATH variable).
240
241If you put extensions in unusual places, you can set PERL5LIB
242to a list of paths separated by semicolons where you want perl
243to look for libraries. Look for descriptions of other environment
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244variables you can set in L<perlrun>.
245
246You can also control the shell that perl uses to run system() and
247backtick commands via PERL5SHELL. See L<perlrun>.
7bac28a0 248
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249Perl does not depend on the registry, but it can look up certain default
250values if you choose to put them there. Perl attempts to read entries from
251C<HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Perl> and C<HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Perl>.
252Entries in the former override entries in the latter. One or more of the
253following entries (of type REG_SZ or REG_EXPAND_SZ) may be set:
254
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255 lib-$] version-specific standard library path to add to @INC
256 lib standard library path to add to @INC
257 sitelib-$] version-specific site library path to add to @INC
258 sitelib site library path to add to @INC
259 vendorlib-$] version-specific vendor library path to add to @INC
260 vendorlib vendor library path to add to @INC
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261 PERL* fallback for all %ENV lookups that begin with "PERL"
262
263Note the C<$]> in the above is not literal. Substitute whatever version
4ea817c6 264of perl you want to honor that entry, e.g. C<5.6.0>. Paths must be
9a40db4d 265separated with semicolons, as usual on win32.
7bac28a0 266
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267=item File Globbing
268
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269By default, perl handles file globbing using the File::Glob extension,
270which provides portable globbing.
271
272If you want perl to use globbing that emulates the quirks of DOS
273filename conventions, you might want to consider using File::DosGlob
274to override the internal glob() implementation. See L<File::DosGlob> for
dfb634a9 275details.
3e3baf6d 276
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277=item Using perl from the command line
278
279If you are accustomed to using perl from various command-line
280shells found in UNIX environments, you will be less than pleased
63f87e49 281with what Windows offers by way of a command shell.
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282
283The crucial thing to understand about the "cmd" shell (which is
284the default on Windows NT) is that it does not do any wildcard
285expansions of command-line arguments (so wildcards need not be
286quoted). It also provides only rudimentary quoting. The only
287(useful) quote character is the double quote ("). It can be used to
288protect spaces in arguments and other special characters. The
289Windows NT documentation has almost no description of how the
290quoting rules are implemented, but here are some general observations
291based on experiments: The shell breaks arguments at spaces and
292passes them to programs in argc/argv. Doublequotes can be used
293to prevent arguments with spaces in them from being split up.
294You can put a double quote in an argument by escaping it with
295a backslash and enclosing the whole argument within double quotes.
296The backslash and the pair of double quotes surrounding the
297argument will be stripped by the shell.
298
299The file redirection characters "<", ">", and "|" cannot be quoted
300by double quotes (there are probably more such). Single quotes
301will protect those three file redirection characters, but the
302single quotes don't get stripped by the shell (just to make this
303type of quoting completely useless). The caret "^" has also
304been observed to behave as a quoting character (and doesn't get
305stripped by the shell also).
306
307Here are some examples of usage of the "cmd" shell:
308
309This prints two doublequotes:
310
311 perl -e "print '\"\"' "
312
313This does the same:
314
315 perl -e "print \"\\\"\\\"\" "
316
317This prints "bar" and writes "foo" to the file "blurch":
318
319 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" > blurch
320
321This prints "foo" ("bar" disappears into nowhereland):
322
323 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 2> nul
324
325This prints "bar" and writes "foo" into the file "blurch":
326
327 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 1> blurch
328
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329This pipes "foo" to the "less" pager and prints "bar" on the console:
330
331 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" | less
332
333This pipes "foo\nbar\n" to the less pager:
334
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335 perl -le "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 2>&1 | less
336
337This pipes "foo" to the pager and writes "bar" in the file "blurch":
338
339 perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 2> blurch | less
340
341
63f87e49 342Discovering the usefulness of the "command.com" shell on Windows 9x
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343is left as an exercise to the reader :)
344
345=item Building Extensions
346
347The Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN) offers a wealth
348of extensions, some of which require a C compiler to build.
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349Look in http://www.cpan.org/ for more information on CPAN.
350
351Note that not all of the extensions available from CPAN may work
352in the Win32 environment; you should check the information at
353http://testers.cpan.org/ before investing too much effort into
354porting modules that don't readily build.
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355
356Most extensions (whether they require a C compiler or not) can
357be built, tested and installed with the standard mantra:
358
359 perl Makefile.PL
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360 $MAKE
361 $MAKE test
362 $MAKE install
7bac28a0 363
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364where $MAKE is whatever 'make' program you have configured perl to
365use. Use "perl -V:make" to find out what this is. Some extensions
366may not provide a testsuite (so "$MAKE test" may not do anything, or
367fail), but most serious ones do.
368
369It is important that you use a supported 'make' program, and
370ensure Config.pm knows about it. If you don't have nmake, you can
371either get dmake from the location mentioned earlier, or get an
372old version of nmake reportedly available from:
373
374 ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/Softlib/MSLFILES/nmake15.exe
375
376Another option is to use the make written in Perl, available from
377CPAN:
378
63f87e49 379 http://www.cpan.org/authors/id/NI-S/Make-0.03.tar.gz
ee4d903c 380
63f87e49 381You may also use dmake. See L</"Make"> above on how to get it.
4ea817c6 382
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383Note that MakeMaker actually emits makefiles with different syntax
384depending on what 'make' it thinks you are using. Therefore, it is
385important that one of the following values appears in Config.pm:
386
387 make='nmake' # MakeMaker emits nmake syntax
388 make='dmake' # MakeMaker emits dmake syntax
389 any other value # MakeMaker emits generic make syntax
390 (e.g GNU make, or Perl make)
391
392If the value doesn't match the 'make' program you want to use,
393edit Config.pm to fix it.
7bac28a0 394
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395If a module implements XSUBs, you will need one of the supported
396C compilers. You must make sure you have set up the environment for
397the compiler for command-line compilation.
7bac28a0 398
3e3baf6d 399If a module does not build for some reason, look carefully for
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400why it failed, and report problems to the module author. If
401it looks like the extension building support is at fault, report
402that with full details of how the build failed using the perlbug
403utility.
404
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405=item Command-line Wildcard Expansion
406
407The default command shells on DOS descendant operating systems (such
408as they are) usually do not expand wildcard arguments supplied to
409programs. They consider it the application's job to handle that.
410This is commonly achieved by linking the application (in our case,
411perl) with startup code that the C runtime libraries usually provide.
412However, doing that results in incompatible perl versions (since the
413behavior of the argv expansion code differs depending on the
414compiler, and it is even buggy on some compilers). Besides, it may
415be a source of frustration if you use such a perl binary with an
416alternate shell that *does* expand wildcards.
417
418Instead, the following solution works rather well. The nice things
419about it: 1) you can start using it right away 2) it is more powerful,
420because it will do the right thing with a pattern like */*/*.c
4213) you can decide whether you do/don't want to use it 4) you can
422extend the method to add any customizations (or even entirely
423different kinds of wildcard expansion).
424
425 C:\> copy con c:\perl\lib\Wild.pm
426 # Wild.pm - emulate shell @ARGV expansion on shells that don't
427 use File::DosGlob;
428 @ARGV = map {
429 my @g = File::DosGlob::glob($_) if /[*?]/;
430 @g ? @g : $_;
431 } @ARGV;
432 1;
433 ^Z
434 C:\> set PERL5OPT=-MWild
435 C:\> perl -le "for (@ARGV) { print }" */*/perl*.c
436 p4view/perl/perl.c
437 p4view/perl/perlio.c
438 p4view/perl/perly.c
439 perl5.005/win32/perlglob.c
440 perl5.005/win32/perllib.c
441 perl5.005/win32/perlglob.c
442 perl5.005/win32/perllib.c
443 perl5.005/win32/perlglob.c
444 perl5.005/win32/perllib.c
445
446Note there are two distinct steps there: 1) You'll have to create
447Wild.pm and put it in your perl lib directory. 2) You'll need to
448set the PERL5OPT environment variable. If you want argv expansion
449to be the default, just set PERL5OPT in your default startup
450environment.
451
452If you are using the Visual C compiler, you can get the C runtime's
453command line wildcard expansion built into perl binary. The resulting
454binary will always expand unquoted command lines, which may not be
455what you want if you use a shell that does that for you. The expansion
456done is also somewhat less powerful than the approach suggested above.
457
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458=item Win32 Specific Extensions
459
460A number of extensions specific to the Win32 platform are available
461from CPAN. You may find that many of these extensions are meant to
462be used under the Activeware port of Perl, which used to be the only
463native port for the Win32 platform. Since the Activeware port does not
464have adequate support for Perl's extension building tools, these
465extensions typically do not support those tools either, and therefore
466cannot be built using the generic steps shown in the previous section.
467
468To ensure smooth transitioning of existing code that uses the
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469ActiveState port, there is a bundle of Win32 extensions that contains
470all of the ActiveState extensions and most other Win32 extensions from
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471CPAN in source form, along with many added bugfixes, and with MakeMaker
472support. This bundle is available at:
473
63f87e49 474 http://www.cpan.org/authors/id/GSAR/libwin32-0.151.zip
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475
476See the README in that distribution for building and installation
477instructions. Look for later versions that may be available at the
478same location.
479
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480=item Running Perl Scripts
481
482Perl scripts on UNIX use the "#!" (a.k.a "shebang") line to
483indicate to the OS that it should execute the file using perl.
484Win32 has no comparable means to indicate arbitrary files are
485executables.
486
487Instead, all available methods to execute plain text files on
488Win32 rely on the file "extension". There are three methods
489to use this to execute perl scripts:
490
491=over 8
492
493=item 1
494
495There is a facility called "file extension associations" that will
496work in Windows NT 4.0. This can be manipulated via the two
497commands "assoc" and "ftype" that come standard with Windows NT
4984.0. Type "ftype /?" for a complete example of how to set this
499up for perl scripts (Say what? You thought Windows NT wasn't
500perl-ready? :).
501
502=item 2
503
504Since file associations don't work everywhere, and there are
505reportedly bugs with file associations where it does work, the
506old method of wrapping the perl script to make it look like a
507regular batch file to the OS, may be used. The install process
508makes available the "pl2bat.bat" script which can be used to wrap
509perl scripts into batch files. For example:
510
511 pl2bat foo.pl
512
513will create the file "FOO.BAT". Note "pl2bat" strips any
514.pl suffix and adds a .bat suffix to the generated file.
515
516If you use the 4DOS/NT or similar command shell, note that
517"pl2bat" uses the "%*" variable in the generated batch file to
518refer to all the command line arguments, so you may need to make
519sure that construct works in batch files. As of this writing,
5204DOS/NT users will need a "ParameterChar = *" statement in their
5214NT.INI file, or will need to execute "setdos /p*" in the 4DOS/NT
522startup file to enable this to work.
523
524=item 3
525
526Using "pl2bat" has a few problems: the file name gets changed,
527so scripts that rely on C<$0> to find what they must do may not
528run properly; running "pl2bat" replicates the contents of the
529original script, and so this process can be maintenance intensive
530if the originals get updated often. A different approach that
531avoids both problems is possible.
532
533A script called "runperl.bat" is available that can be copied
534to any filename (along with the .bat suffix). For example,
535if you call it "foo.bat", it will run the file "foo" when it is
536executed. Since you can run batch files on Win32 platforms simply
537by typing the name (without the extension), this effectively
538runs the file "foo", when you type either "foo" or "foo.bat".
539With this method, "foo.bat" can even be in a different location
540than the file "foo", as long as "foo" is available somewhere on
541the PATH. If your scripts are on a filesystem that allows symbolic
542links, you can even avoid copying "runperl.bat".
543
544Here's a diversion: copy "runperl.bat" to "runperl", and type
545"runperl". Explain the observed behavior, or lack thereof. :)
546Hint: .gnidnats llits er'uoy fi ,"lrepnur" eteled :tniH
547
548=back
549
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550=item Miscellaneous Things
551
552A full set of HTML documentation is installed, so you should be
553able to use it if you have a web browser installed on your
554system.
555
556C<perldoc> is also a useful tool for browsing information contained
557in the documentation, especially in conjunction with a pager
558like C<less> (recent versions of which have Win32 support). You may
559have to set the PAGER environment variable to use a specific pager.
560"perldoc -f foo" will print information about the perl operator
561"foo".
562
563If you find bugs in perl, you can run C<perlbug> to create a
564bug report (you may have to send it manually if C<perlbug> cannot
565find a mailer on your system).
566
567=back
568
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569=head1 BUGS AND CAVEATS
570
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571Some of the built-in functions do not act exactly as documented in
572L<perlfunc>, and a few are not implemented at all. To avoid
573surprises, particularly if you have had prior exposure to Perl
574in other operating environments or if you intend to write code
575that will be portable to other environments, see L<perlport>
576for a reasonably definitive list of these differences.
6890e559 577
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578Not all extensions available from CPAN may build or work properly
579in the Win32 environment. See L</"Building Extensions">.
68dc0745 580
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581Most C<socket()> related calls are supported, but they may not
582behave as on Unix platforms. See L<perlport> for the full list.
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3e3baf6d 584Signal handling may not behave as on Unix platforms (where it
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585doesn't exactly "behave", either :). For instance, calling C<die()>
586or C<exit()> from signal handlers will cause an exception, since most
587implementations of C<signal()> on Win32 are severely crippled.
588Thus, signals may work only for simple things like setting a flag
589variable in the handler. Using signals under this port should
590currently be considered unsupported.
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592Please send detailed descriptions of any problems and solutions that
593you may find to <F<perlbug@perl.com>>, along with the output produced
594by C<perl -V>.
595
596=head1 AUTHORS
597
598=over 4
599
3e3baf6d 600Gary Ng E<lt>71564.1743@CompuServe.COME<gt>
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6e238990 602Gurusamy Sarathy E<lt>gsar@activestate.comE<gt>
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3e3baf6d 604Nick Ing-Simmons E<lt>nick@ni-s.u-net.comE<gt>
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605
606=back
607
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608This document is maintained by Gurusamy Sarathy.
609
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610=head1 SEE ALSO
611
612L<perl>
613
614=head1 HISTORY
615
616This port was originally contributed by Gary Ng around 5.003_24,
617and borrowed from the Hip Communications port that was available
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618at the time. Various people have made numerous and sundry hacks
619since then.
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621Borland support was added in 5.004_01 (Gurusamy Sarathy).
622
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623GCC/mingw32 support was added in 5.005 (Nick Ing-Simmons).
624
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625Support for PERL_OBJECT was added in 5.005 (ActiveState Tool Corp).
626
5db10396 627Support for fork() emulation was added in 5.6 (ActiveState Tool Corp).
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629Win9x support was added in 5.6 (Benjamin Stuhl).
630
63f87e49 631Last updated: 13 March 2000
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