This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
Pod cleanup for F<> and L<>
[perl5.git] / README.solaris
CommitLineData
d420ca49
AD
1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
2see. It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
3specifically designed to be readable as is.
4
5=head1 NAME
6
7README.solaris - Perl version 5 on Solaris systems
8
9=head1 DESCRIPTION
10
11This document describes various features of Sun's Solaris operating system
12that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just perl) is
13compiled and/or runs. Some issues relating to the older SunOS 4.x are
14also discussed, though they may be out of date.
15
16For the most part, everything should just work.
17
18Starting with Solaris 8, perl5.00503 (or higher) is supplied with the
19operating system, so you might not even need to build a newer version
20of perl at all. The Sun-supplied version is installed in /usr/perl5
635d4d9b 21with F</usr/bin/perl> pointing to F</usr/perl5/bin/perl>. Do not disturb
2a5ccb22 22that installation unless you really know what you are doing. If you
43857681
AB
23remove the perl supplied with the OS, you will render some bits of
24your system inoperable. If you wish to install a newer version of perl,
25install it under a different prefix from /usr/perl5. Common prefixes
26to use are /usr/local and /opt/perl.
2a5ccb22
LC
27
28You may wish to put your version of perl in the PATH of all users by
635d4d9b 29changing the link F</usr/bin/perl>. This is probably OK, as most perl
b9b9bf5a 30scripts shipped with Solaris use an explicit path. (There are a few
635d4d9b 31exceptions, such as F</usr/bin/rpm2cpio> and F</etc/rcm/scripts/README>, but
b9b9bf5a
AD
32these are also sufficiently generic that the actual version of perl
33probably doesn't matter too much.)
34
35Solaris ships with a range of Solaris-specific modules. If you choose
36to install your own version of perl you will find the source of many of
37these modules is available on CPAN under the Sun::Solaris:: namespace.
43857681
AB
38
39Solaris may include two versions of perl, e.g. Solaris 9 includes
40both 5.005_03 and 5.6.1. This is to provide stability across Solaris
41releases, in cases where a later perl version has incompatibilities
f858446f 42with the version included in the preceding Solaris release. The
43857681
AB
43default perl version will always be the most recent, and in general
44the old version will only be retained for one Solaris release. Note
45also that the default perl will NOT be configured to search for modules
46in the older version, again due to compatibility/stability concerns.
47As a consequence if you upgrade Solaris, you will have to
48rebuild/reinstall any additional CPAN modules that you installed for
49the previous Solaris version. See the CPAN manpage under 'autobundle'
50for a quick way of doing this.
51
52As an interim measure, you may either change the #! line of your
53scripts to specifically refer to the old perl version, e.g. on
54Solaris 9 use #!/usr/perl5/5.00503/bin/perl to use the perl version
55that was the default for Solaris 8, or if you have a large number of
56scripts it may be more convenient to make the old version of perl the
57default on your system. You can do this by changing the appropriate
58symlinks under /usr/perl5 as follows (example for Solaris 9):
59
60 # cd /usr/perl5
61 # rm bin man pod
62 # ln -s ./5.00503/bin
63 # ln -s ./5.00503/man
64 # ln -s ./5.00503/lib/pod
65 # rm /usr/bin/perl
66 # ln -s ../perl5/5.00503/bin/perl /usr/bin/perl
67
68In both cases this should only be considered to be a temporary
69measure - you should upgrade to the later version of perl as soon as
70is practicable.
71
72Note also that the perl command-line utilities (e.g. perldoc) and any
73that are added by modules that you install will be under
74/usr/perl5/bin, so that directory should be added to your PATH.
d420ca49
AD
75
76=head2 Solaris Version Numbers.
77
78For consistency with common usage, perl's Configure script performs
79some minor manipulations on the operating system name and version
80number as reported by uname. Here's a partial translation table:
81
43857681
AB
82 Sun: perl's Configure:
83 uname uname -r Name osname osvers
84 SunOS 4.1.3 Solaris 1.1 sunos 4.1.3
85 SunOS 5.6 Solaris 2.6 solaris 2.6
86 SunOS 5.8 Solaris 8 solaris 2.8
87 SunOS 5.9 Solaris 9 solaris 2.9
88 SunOS 5.10 Solaris 10 solaris 2.10
d420ca49 89
2a5ccb22 90The complete table can be found in the Sun Managers' FAQ
37a78d01 91L<ftp://ftp.cs.toronto.edu/pub/jdd/sunmanagers/faq> under
2a5ccb22
LC
92"9.1) Which Sun models run which versions of SunOS?".
93
d420ca49
AD
94=head1 RESOURCES
95
5511f325 96There are many, many sources for Solaris information. A few of the
d420ca49
AD
97important ones for perl:
98
99=over 4
100
101=item Solaris FAQ
102
103The Solaris FAQ is available at
104L<http://www.science.uva.nl/pub/solaris/solaris2.html>.
105
2a5ccb22 106The Sun Managers' FAQ is available at
37a78d01 107L<ftp://ftp.cs.toronto.edu/pub/jdd/sunmanagers/faq>
2a5ccb22 108
d420ca49
AD
109=item Precompiled Binaries
110
43857681
AB
111Precompiled binaries, links to many sites, and much, much more are
112available at L<http://www.sunfreeware.com/> and
113L<http://www.blastwave.org/>.
d420ca49
AD
114
115=item Solaris Documentation
116
5511f325 117All Solaris documentation is available on-line at L<http://docs.sun.com/>.
d420ca49
AD
118
119=back
120
121=head1 SETTING UP
122
a83b6f46 123=head2 File Extraction Problems on Solaris.
d420ca49
AD
124
125Be sure to use a tar program compiled under Solaris (not SunOS 4.x)
126to extract the perl-5.x.x.tar.gz file. Do not use GNU tar compiled
127for SunOS4 on Solaris. (GNU tar compiled for Solaris should be fine.)
128When you run SunOS4 binaries on Solaris, the run-time system magically
129alters pathnames matching m#lib/locale# so that when tar tries to create
130lib/locale.pm, a file named lib/oldlocale.pm gets created instead.
5511f325 131If you found this advice too late and used a SunOS4-compiled tar
2a5ccb22
LC
132anyway, you must find the incorrectly renamed file and move it back
133to lib/locale.pm.
d420ca49 134
a83b6f46 135=head2 Compiler and Related Tools on Solaris.
d420ca49
AD
136
137You must use an ANSI C compiler to build perl. Perl can be compiled
138with either Sun's add-on C compiler or with gcc. The C compiler that
139shipped with SunOS4 will not do.
140
141=head3 Include /usr/ccs/bin/ in your PATH.
142
143Several tools needed to build perl are located in /usr/ccs/bin/: ar,
144as, ld, and make. Make sure that /usr/ccs/bin/ is in your PATH.
145
146You need to make sure the following packages are installed
147(this info is extracted from the Solaris FAQ):
148
149for tools (sccs, lex, yacc, make, nm, truss, ld, as): SUNWbtool,
150SUNWsprot, SUNWtoo
151
152for libraries & headers: SUNWhea, SUNWarc, SUNWlibm, SUNWlibms, SUNWdfbh,
153SUNWcg6h, SUNWxwinc, SUNWolinc
154
155for 64 bit development: SUNWarcx, SUNWbtoox, SUNWdplx, SUNWscpux,
156SUNWsprox, SUNWtoox, SUNWlmsx, SUNWlmx, SUNWlibCx
157
2a5ccb22
LC
158If you are in doubt which package contains a file you are missing,
159try to find an installation that has that file. Then do a
160
43857681 161 $ grep /my/missing/file /var/sadm/install/contents
2a5ccb22
LC
162
163This will display a line like this:
164
165/usr/include/sys/errno.h f none 0644 root bin 7471 37605 956241356 SUNWhea
166
b29a8fb9 167The last item listed (SUNWhea in this example) is the package you need.
2a5ccb22 168
d420ca49
AD
169=head3 Avoid /usr/ucb/cc.
170
171You don't need to have /usr/ucb/ in your PATH to build perl. If you
2a5ccb22
LC
172want /usr/ucb/ in your PATH anyway, make sure that /usr/ucb/ is NOT
173in your PATH before the directory containing the right C compiler.
d420ca49
AD
174
175=head3 Sun's C Compiler
176
177If you use Sun's C compiler, make sure the correct directory
2a5ccb22 178(usually /opt/SUNWspro/bin/) is in your PATH (before /usr/ucb/).
d420ca49
AD
179
180=head3 GCC
181
9a04b58a 182If you use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and complete.
43857681 183perl versions since 5.6.0 build fine with gcc > 2.8.1 on Solaris >=
9a04b58a
RS
1842.6.
185
186You must Configure perl with
d420ca49 187
43857681 188 $ sh Configure -Dcc=gcc
d420ca49 189
9a04b58a
RS
190If you don't, you may experience strange build errors.
191
d420ca49 192If you have updated your Solaris version, you may also have to update
9a04b58a 193your gcc. For example, if you are running Solaris 2.6 and your gcc is
d420ca49 194installed under /usr/local, check in /usr/local/lib/gcc-lib and make
2a5ccb22
LC
195sure you have the appropriate directory, sparc-sun-solaris2.6/ or
196i386-pc-solaris2.6/. If gcc's directory is for a different version of
197Solaris than you are running, then you will need to rebuild gcc for
198your new version of Solaris.
d420ca49
AD
199
200You can get a precompiled version of gcc from
43857681
AB
201L<http://www.sunfreeware.com/> or L<http://www.blastwave.org/>. Make
202sure you pick up the package for your Solaris release.
203
204If you wish to use gcc to build add-on modules for use with the perl
205shipped with Solaris, you should use the Solaris::PerlGcc module
206which is available from CPAN. The perl shipped with Solaris
207is configured and built with the Sun compilers, and the compiler
208configuration information stored in Config.pm is therefore only
209relevant to the Sun compilers. The Solaris:PerlGcc module contains a
210replacement Config.pm that is correct for gcc - see the module for
211details.
d420ca49
AD
212
213=head3 GNU as and GNU ld
214
74144837 215The following information applies to gcc version 2. Volunteers to
f858446f 216update it as appropriately for gcc version 3 would be appreciated.
74144837 217
d420ca49 218The versions of as and ld supplied with Solaris work fine for building
74144837
AD
219perl. There is normally no need to install the GNU versions to
220compile perl.
d420ca49
AD
221
222If you decide to ignore this advice and use the GNU versions anyway,
223then be sure that they are relatively recent. Versions newer than 2.7
224are apparently new enough. Older versions may have trouble with
225dynamic loading.
226
74144837 227If you wish to use GNU ld, then you need to pass it the -Wl,-E flag.
43857681
AB
228The hints/solaris_2.sh file tries to do this automatically by setting
229the following Configure variables:
74144837 230
43857681
AB
231 ccdlflags="$ccdlflags -Wl,-E"
232 lddlflags="$lddlflags -Wl,-E -G"
74144837
AD
233
234However, over the years, changes in gcc, GNU ld, and Solaris ld have made
235it difficult to automatically detect which ld ultimately gets called.
236You may have to manually edit config.sh and add the -Wl,-E flags
237yourself, or else run Configure interactively and add the flags at the
238appropriate prompts.
239
d420ca49
AD
240If your gcc is configured to use GNU as and ld but you want to use the
241Solaris ones instead to build perl, then you'll need to add
242-B/usr/ccs/bin/ to the gcc command line. One convenient way to do
243that is with
244
43857681 245 $ sh Configure -Dcc='gcc -B/usr/ccs/bin/'
d420ca49
AD
246
247Note that the trailing slash is required. This will result in some
2a5ccb22 248harmless warnings as Configure is run:
d420ca49 249
43857681 250 gcc: file path prefix `/usr/ccs/bin/' never used
d420ca49
AD
251
252These messages may safely be ignored.
253(Note that for a SunOS4 system, you must use -B/bin/ instead.)
254
255Alternatively, you can use the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX environment variable to
256ensure that Sun's as and ld are used. Consult your gcc documentation
257for further information on the -B option and the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX variable.
258
43857681 259=head3 Sun and GNU make
d420ca49 260
43857681
AB
261The make under /usr/ccs/bin works fine for building perl. If you
262have the Sun C compilers, you will also have a parallel version of
263make (dmake). This works fine to build perl, but can sometimes cause
264problems when running 'make test' due to underspecified dependencies
265between the different test harness files. The same problem can also
266affect the building of some add-on modules, so in those cases either
267specify '-m serial' on the dmake command line, or use
268/usr/ccs/bin/make instead. If you wish to use GNU make, be sure that
269the set-group-id bit is not set. If it is, then arrange your PATH so
270that /usr/ccs/bin/make is before GNU make or else have the system
271administrator disable the set-group-id bit on GNU make.
d420ca49
AD
272
273=head3 Avoid libucb.
274
275Solaris provides some BSD-compatibility functions in /usr/ucblib/libucb.a.
276Perl will not build and run correctly if linked against -lucb since it
277contains routines that are incompatible with the standard Solaris libc.
278Normally this is not a problem since the solaris hints file prevents
279Configure from even looking in /usr/ucblib for libraries, and also
280explicitly omits -lucb.
281
43857681 282=head2 Environment for Compiling perl on Solaris
d420ca49
AD
283
284=head3 PATH
285
286Make sure your PATH includes the compiler (/opt/SUNWspro/bin/ if you're
287using Sun's compiler) as well as /usr/ccs/bin/ to pick up the other
288development tools (such as make, ar, as, and ld). Make sure your path
289either doesn't include /usr/ucb or that it includes it after the
290compiler and compiler tools and other standard Solaris directories.
291You definitely don't want /usr/ucb/cc.
292
293=head3 LD_LIBRARY_PATH
294
295If you have the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable set, be sure that
296it does NOT include /lib or /usr/lib. If you will be building
297extensions that call third-party shared libraries (e.g. Berkeley DB)
298then make sure that your LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable includes
299the directory with that library (e.g. /usr/local/lib).
300
301If you get an error message
302
43857681 303 dlopen: stub interception failed
d420ca49
AD
304
305it is probably because your LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable
306includes a directory which is a symlink to /usr/lib (such as /lib).
307The reason this causes a problem is quite subtle. The file
308libdl.so.1.0 actually *only* contains functions which generate 'stub
309interception failed' errors! The runtime linker intercepts links to
310"/usr/lib/libdl.so.1.0" and links in internal implementations of those
311functions instead. [Thanks to Tim Bunce for this explanation.]
312
313=head1 RUN CONFIGURE.
314
315See the INSTALL file for general information regarding Configure.
316Only Solaris-specific issues are discussed here. Usually, the
317defaults should be fine.
318
43857681 319=head2 64-bit perl on Solaris.
d420ca49
AD
320
321See the INSTALL file for general information regarding 64-bit compiles.
322In general, the defaults should be fine for most people.
323
324By default, perl-5.6.0 (or later) is compiled as a 32-bit application
325with largefile and long-long support.
326
327=head3 General 32-bit vs. 64-bit issues.
328
2a5ccb22
LC
329Solaris 7 and above will run in either 32 bit or 64 bit mode on SPARC
330CPUs, via a reboot. You can build 64 bit apps whilst running 32 bit
331mode and vice-versa. 32 bit apps will run under Solaris running in
332either 32 or 64 bit mode. 64 bit apps require Solaris to be running
b29a8fb9 33364 bit mode.
d420ca49
AD
334
335Existing 32 bit apps are properly known as LP32, i.e. Longs and
336Pointers are 32 bit. 64-bit apps are more properly known as LP64.
337The discriminating feature of a LP64 bit app is its ability to utilise a
33864-bit address space. It is perfectly possible to have a LP32 bit app
2a5ccb22 339that supports both 64-bit integers (long long) and largefiles (> 2GB),
d420ca49
AD
340and this is the default for perl-5.6.0.
341
43857681
AB
342For a more complete explanation of 64-bit issues, see the
343"Solaris 64-bit Developer's Guide" at L<http://docs.sun.com/>
d420ca49
AD
344
345You can detect the OS mode using "isainfo -v", e.g.
346
43857681
AB
347 $ isainfo -v # Ultra 30 in 64 bit mode
348 64-bit sparcv9 applications
349 32-bit sparc applications
d420ca49 350
43857681
AB
351By default, perl will be compiled as a 32-bit application. Unless
352you want to allocate more than ~ 4GB of memory inside perl, or unless
353you need more than 255 open file descriptors, you probably don't need
354perl to be a 64-bit app.
d420ca49 355
5511f325 356=head3 Large File Support
d420ca49
AD
357
358For Solaris 2.6 and onwards, there are two different ways for 32-bit
2a5ccb22 359applications to manipulate large files (files whose size is > 2GByte).
d420ca49
AD
360(A 64-bit application automatically has largefile support built in
361by default.)
362
363First is the "transitional compilation environment", described in
364lfcompile64(5). According to the man page,
365
43857681
AB
366 The transitional compilation environment exports all the
367 explicit 64-bit functions (xxx64()) and types in addition to
368 all the regular functions (xxx()) and types. Both xxx() and
369 xxx64() functions are available to the program source. A
370 32-bit application must use the xxx64() functions in order
371 to access large files. See the lf64(5) manual page for a
372 complete listing of the 64-bit transitional interfaces.
d420ca49
AD
373
374The transitional compilation environment is obtained with the
375following compiler and linker flags:
376
43857681
AB
377 getconf LFS64_CFLAGS -D_LARGEFILE64_SOURCE
378 getconf LFS64_LDFLAG # nothing special needed
379 getconf LFS64_LIBS # nothing special needed
d420ca49
AD
380
381Second is the "large file compilation environment", described in
382lfcompile(5). According to the man page,
383
43857681
AB
384 Each interface named xxx() that needs to access 64-bit entities
385 to access large files maps to a xxx64() call in the
386 resulting binary. All relevant data types are defined to be
387 of correct size (for example, off_t has a typedef definition
388 for a 64-bit entity).
d420ca49 389
43857681
AB
390 An application compiled in this environment is able to use
391 the xxx() source interfaces to access both large and small
392 files, rather than having to explicitly utilize the transitional
393 xxx64() interface calls to access large files.
d420ca49
AD
394
395Two exceptions are fseek() and ftell(). 32-bit applications should
396use fseeko(3C) and ftello(3C). These will get automatically mapped
397to fseeko64() and ftello64().
398
399The large file compilation environment is obtained with
400
43857681
AB
401 getconf LFS_CFLAGS -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64
402 getconf LFS_LDFLAGS # nothing special needed
403 getconf LFS_LIBS # nothing special needed
d420ca49
AD
404
405By default, perl uses the large file compilation environment and
406relies on Solaris to do the underlying mapping of interfaces.
407
43857681 408=head3 Building an LP64 perl
d420ca49 409
b29a8fb9
JH
410To compile a 64-bit application on an UltraSparc with a recent Sun Compiler,
411you need to use the flag "-xarch=v9". getconf(1) will tell you this, e.g.
d420ca49 412
43857681
AB
413 $ getconf -a | grep v9
414 XBS5_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS: -xarch=v9
415 XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS: -xarch=v9
416 XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LINTFLAGS: -xarch=v9
417 XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_CFLAGS: -xarch=v9
418 XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LDFLAGS: -xarch=v9
419 XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LINTFLAGS: -xarch=v9
420 _XBS5_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS: -xarch=v9
421 _XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS: -xarch=v9
422 _XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LINTFLAGS: -xarch=v9
423 _XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_CFLAGS: -xarch=v9
424 _XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LDFLAGS: -xarch=v9
425 _XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LINTFLAGS: -xarch=v9
d420ca49 426
b29a8fb9
JH
427This flag is supported in Sun WorkShop Compilers 5.0 and onwards
428(now marketed under the name Forte) when used on Solaris 7 or later on
429UltraSparc systems.
2a5ccb22
LC
430
431If you are using gcc, you would need to use -mcpu=v9 -m64 instead. This
432option is not yet supported as of gcc 2.95.2; from install/SPECIFIC
433in that release:
d420ca49 434
43857681
AB
435 GCC version 2.95 is not able to compile code correctly for sparc64
436 targets. Users of the Linux kernel, at least, can use the sparc32
437 program to start up a new shell invocation with an environment that
438 causes configure to recognize (via uname -a) the system as sparc-*-*
439 instead.
d420ca49
AD
440
441All this should be handled automatically by the hints file, if
442requested.
443
d420ca49
AD
444=head3 Long Doubles.
445
43857681
AB
446As of 5.8.1, long doubles are working if you use the Sun compilers
447(needed for additional math routines not included in libm).
d420ca49 448
43857681 449=head2 Threads in perl on Solaris.
d420ca49
AD
450
451It is possible to build a threaded version of perl on Solaris. The entire
452perl thread implementation is still experimental, however, so beware.
d420ca49 453
43857681 454=head2 Malloc Issues with perl on Solaris.
d420ca49 455
43857681 456Starting from perl 5.7.1 perl uses the Solaris malloc, since the perl
83bd2f30
LC
457malloc breaks when dealing with more than 2GB of memory, and the Solaris
458malloc also seems to be faster.
459
460If you for some reason (such as binary backward compatibility) really
43857681 461need to use perl's malloc, you can rebuild perl from the sources
83bd2f30
LC
462and Configure the build with
463
43857681 464 $ sh Configure -Dusemymalloc
210b36aa 465
d420ca49
AD
466You should not use perl's malloc if you are building with gcc. There
467are reports of core dumps, especially in the PDL module. The problem
468appears to go away under -DDEBUGGING, so it has been difficult to
5511f325 469track down. Sun's compiler appears to be okay with or without perl's
d420ca49
AD
470malloc. [XXX further investigation is needed here.]
471
d420ca49
AD
472=head1 MAKE PROBLEMS.
473
474=over 4
475
476=item Dynamic Loading Problems With GNU as and GNU ld
477
478If you have problems with dynamic loading using gcc on SunOS or
479Solaris, and you are using GNU as and GNU ld, see the section
480L<"GNU as and GNU ld"> above.
481
482=item ld.so.1: ./perl: fatal: relocation error:
483
484If you get this message on SunOS or Solaris, and you're using gcc,
485it's probably the GNU as or GNU ld problem in the previous item
486L<"GNU as and GNU ld">.
487
488=item dlopen: stub interception failed
489
490The primary cause of the 'dlopen: stub interception failed' message is
491that the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable includes a directory
492which is a symlink to /usr/lib (such as /lib). See
493L<"LD_LIBRARY_PATH"> above.
494
495=item #error "No DATAMODEL_NATIVE specified"
496
497This is a common error when trying to build perl on Solaris 2.6 with a
498gcc installation from Solaris 2.5 or 2.5.1. The Solaris header files
499changed, so you need to update your gcc installation. You can either
500rerun the fixincludes script from gcc or take the opportunity to
501update your gcc installation.
502
503=item sh: ar: not found
504
505This is a message from your shell telling you that the command 'ar'
506was not found. You need to check your PATH environment variable to
507make sure that it includes the directory with the 'ar' command. This
508is a common problem on Solaris, where 'ar' is in the /usr/ccs/bin/
509directory.
510
511=back
512
513=head1 MAKE TEST
514
a83b6f46 515=head2 op/stat.t test 4 in Solaris
d420ca49 516
635d4d9b 517F<op/stat.t> test 4 may fail if you are on a tmpfs of some sort.
d420ca49
AD
518Building in /tmp sometimes shows this behavior. The
519test suite detects if you are building in /tmp, but it may not be able
520to catch all tmpfs situations.
521
1081c3b9
JH
522=head2 nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent
523
524See L<perlhpux/"nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent">.
525
a83b6f46 526=head1 PREBUILT BINARIES OF PERL FOR SOLARIS.
d420ca49
AD
527
528You can pick up prebuilt binaries for Solaris from
43857681
AB
529L<http://www.sunfreeware.com/>, L<http://www.blastwave.org>,
530ActiveState L<http://www.activestate.com/>, and
531L<http://www.perl.com/> under the Binaries list at the top of the
532page. There are probably other sources as well. Please note that
533these sites are under the control of their respective owners, not the
534perl developers.
d420ca49 535
a83b6f46 536=head1 RUNTIME ISSUES FOR PERL ON SOLARIS.
d420ca49 537
a83b6f46 538=head2 Limits on Numbers of Open Files on Solaris.
d420ca49 539
43857681
AB
540The stdio(3C) manpage notes that for LP32 applications, only 255
541files may be opened using fopen(), and only file descriptors 0
542through 255 can be used in a stream. Since perl calls open() and
543then fdopen(3C) with the resulting file descriptor, perl is limited
544to 255 simultaneous open files, even if sysopen() is used. If this
545proves to be an insurmountable problem, you can compile perl as a
546LP64 application, see L<Building an LP64 perl> for details. Note
547also that the default resource limit for open file descriptors on
548Solaris is 255, so you will have to modify your ulimit or rctl
549(Solaris 9 onwards) appropriately.
d420ca49
AD
550
551=head1 SOLARIS-SPECIFIC MODULES.
552
43857681
AB
553See the modules under the Solaris:: and Sun::Solaris namespaces on CPAN,
554see L<http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/Solaris/> and
555L<http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/Sun/>.
d420ca49
AD
556
557=head1 SOLARIS-SPECIFIC PROBLEMS WITH MODULES.
558
a83b6f46 559=head2 Proc::ProcessTable on Solaris
d420ca49
AD
560
561Proc::ProcessTable does not compile on Solaris with perl5.6.0 and higher
562if you have LARGEFILES defined. Since largefile support is the
563default in 5.6.0 and later, you have to take special steps to use this
564module.
565
566The problem is that various structures visible via procfs use off_t,
567and if you compile with largefile support these change from 32 bits to
56864 bits. Thus what you get back from procfs doesn't match up with
569the structures in perl, resulting in garbage. See proc(4) for further
570discussion.
571
572A fix for Proc::ProcessTable is to edit Makefile to
573explicitly remove the largefile flags from the ones MakeMaker picks up
574from Config.pm. This will result in Proc::ProcessTable being built
2a5ccb22 575under the correct environment. Everything should then be OK as long as
d420ca49
AD
576Proc::ProcessTable doesn't try to share off_t's with the rest of perl,
577or if it does they should be explicitly specified as off64_t.
578
5511f325 579=head2 BSD::Resource on Solaris
d420ca49
AD
580
581BSD::Resource versions earlier than 1.09 do not compile on Solaris
582with perl 5.6.0 and higher, for the same reasons as Proc::ProcessTable.
583BSD::Resource versions starting from 1.09 have a workaround for the problem.
584
5511f325 585=head2 Net::SSLeay on Solaris
2a5ccb22 586
43857681
AB
587Net::SSLeay requires a /dev/urandom to be present. This device is
588available from Solaris 9 onwards. For earlier Solaris versions you
589can either get the package SUNWski (packaged with several Sun
590software products, for example the Sun WebServer, which is part of
591the Solaris Server Intranet Extension, or the Sun Directory Services,
592part of Solaris for ISPs) or download the ANDIrand package from
593L<http://www.cosy.sbg.ac.at/~andi/>. If you use SUNWski, make a
60193da3
AD
594symbolic link /dev/urandom pointing to /dev/random. For more details,
595see Document ID27606 entitled "Differing /dev/random support requirements
596within Solaris[TM] Operating Environments", available at
635d4d9b 597L<http://sunsolve.sun.com> .
2a5ccb22
LC
598
599It may be possible to use the Entropy Gathering Daemon (written in
600Perl!), available from L<http://www.lothar.com/tech/crypto/>.
601
42600de6
JH
602=head1 SunOS 4.x
603
604In SunOS 4.x you most probably want to use the SunOS ld, /usr/bin/ld,
605since the more recent versions of GNU ld (like 2.13) do not seem to
606work for building Perl anymore. When linking the extensions, the
607GNU ld gets very unhappy and spews a lot of errors like this
608
609 ... relocation truncated to fit: BASE13 ...
610
611and dies. Therefore the SunOS 4.1 hints file explicitly sets the
635d4d9b 612ld to be F</usr/bin/ld>.
42600de6
JH
613
614As of Perl 5.8.1 the dynamic loading of libraries (DynaLoader, XSLoader)
615also seems to have become broken in in SunOS 4.x. Therefore the default
616is to build Perl statically.
617
8f212d40
JH
618Running the test suite in SunOS 4.1 is a bit tricky since the
619F<lib/Tie/File/t/09_gen_rs> test hangs (subtest #51, FWIW) for some
620unknown reason. Just stop the test and kill that particular Perl
621process.
622
623There are various other failures, that as of SunOS 4.1.4 and gcc 3.2.2
624look a lot like gcc bugs. Many of the failures happen in the Encode
625tests, where for example when the test expects "0" you get "&#48;"
626which should after a little squinting look very odd indeed.
627Another example is earlier in F<t/run/fresh_perl> where chr(0xff) is
628expected but the test fails because the result is chr(0xff). Exactly.
2597a6d1 629
8f212d40
JH
630This is the "make test" result from the said combination:
631
632 Failed 27 test scripts out of 745, 96.38% okay.
633
2597a6d1
JH
634Running the C<harness> is painful because of the many failing
635Unicode-related tests will output megabytes of failure messages,
636but if one patiently waits, one gets these results:
637
638 Failed Test Stat Wstat Total Fail Failed List of Failed
639 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
640 ...
641 ../ext/Encode/t/at-cn.t 4 1024 29 4 13.79% 14-17
642 ../ext/Encode/t/at-tw.t 10 2560 17 10 58.82% 2 4 6 8 10 12
643 14-17
644 ../ext/Encode/t/enc_data.t 29 7424 ?? ?? % ??
645 ../ext/Encode/t/enc_eucjp.t 29 7424 ?? ?? % ??
646 ../ext/Encode/t/enc_module.t 29 7424 ?? ?? % ??
647 ../ext/Encode/t/encoding.t 29 7424 ?? ?? % ??
648 ../ext/Encode/t/grow.t 12 3072 24 12 50.00% 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
649 16 18 20 22 24
650 Failed Test Stat Wstat Total Fail Failed List of Failed
651 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
652 ../ext/Encode/t/guess.t 255 65280 29 40 137.93% 10-29
653 ../ext/Encode/t/jperl.t 29 7424 15 30 200.00% 1-15
654 ../ext/Encode/t/mime-header.t 2 512 10 2 20.00% 2-3
655 ../ext/Encode/t/perlio.t 22 5632 38 22 57.89% 1-4 9-16 19-20
656 23-24 27-32
657 ../ext/List/Util/t/shuffle.t 0 139 ?? ?? % ??
658 ../ext/PerlIO/t/encoding.t 14 1 7.14% 11
659 ../ext/PerlIO/t/fallback.t 9 2 22.22% 3 5
660 ../ext/Socket/t/socketpair.t 0 2 45 70 155.56% 11-45
661 ../lib/CPAN/t/vcmp.t 30 1 3.33% 25
662 ../lib/Tie/File/t/09_gen_rs.t 0 15 ?? ?? % ??
663 ../lib/Unicode/Collate/t/test.t 199 30 15.08% 7 26-27 71-75
664 81-88 95 101
665 103-104 106 108-
666 109 122 124 161
667 169-172
668 ../lib/sort.t 0 139 119 26 21.85% 107-119
669 op/alarm.t 4 1 25.00% 4
670 op/utfhash.t 97 1 1.03% 31
671 run/fresh_perl.t 91 1 1.10% 32
672 uni/tr_7jis.t ?? ?? % ??
673 uni/tr_eucjp.t 29 7424 6 12 200.00% 1-6
674 uni/tr_sjis.t 29 7424 6 12 200.00% 1-6
675 56 tests and 467 subtests skipped.
676 Failed 27/811 test scripts, 96.67% okay. 1383/75399 subtests failed, 98.17% okay.
677
678The alarm() test failure is caused by system() apparently blocking
679alarm(). That is probably a libc bug, and given that SunOS 4.x
680has been end-of-lifed years ago, don't hold your breath for a fix.
e214c99d
JH
681In addition to that, don't try anything too Unicode-y, especially
682with Encode, and you should be fine in SunOS 4.x.
2597a6d1 683
d420ca49
AD
684=head1 AUTHOR
685
686The original was written by Andy Dougherty F<doughera@lafayette.edu>
687drawing heavily on advice from Alan Burlison, Nick Ing-Simmons, Tim Bunce,
688and many other Solaris users over the years.
689
690Please report any errors, updates, or suggestions to F<perlbug@perl.org>.