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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
11 (D) A deprecation (optional).
12 (S) A severe warning (mandatory).
13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
748a9306 18Optional warnings are enabled by using the B<-w> switch. Warnings may
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19be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}> to a reference to a routine that
20will be called on each warning instead of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
4438c4b7 21
748a9306 22Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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23L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
24disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
25See L<warnings>.
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26
27Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are denoted with a %s,
2ba9eb46 28just as in a printf format. Note that some messages start with a %s!
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29Since the messages are listed in alphabetical order, the symbols
30C<"%(-?@> sort before the letters, while C<[> and C<\> sort after.
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31
32=over 4
33
33633739
GS
34=item "%s" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s
35
36(W) A "my" or "our" variable has been redeclared in the current scope or statement,
37effectively eliminating all access to the previous instance. This is almost
38always a typographical error. Note that the earlier variable will still exist
39until the end of the scope or until all closure referents to it are
40destroyed.
41
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42=item "my sub" not yet implemented
43
44(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try that
45yet.
46
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47=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
48
49(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense
50to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use local()
51if you want to localize a package variable.
52
53=item "no" not allowed in expression
54
55(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
56no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
57
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58=item "our" variable %s redeclared
59
60(W) You seem to have already declared the same global once before in the
61current lexical scope.
62
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63=item "use" not allowed in expression
64
65(F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns
66no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
67
f61d411c 68=item '!' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 69
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70(F) The '!' is allowed in pack() and unpack() only after certain types.
71See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 72
17f4a12d 73=item / cannot take a count
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74
75(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string,
76but you have also specified an explicit size for the string.
77See L<perlfunc/pack>.
78
17f4a12d 79=item / must be followed by a, A or Z
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80
81(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string,
82which must be followed by one of the letters a, A or Z
83to indicate what sort of string is to be unpacked.
84See L<perlfunc/pack>.
85
17f4a12d 86=item / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*
43192e07 87
437784d6 88(F) You had a pack template indicating a counted-length string,
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89Currently the only things that can have their length counted are a*, A* or Z*.
90See L<perlfunc/pack>.
91
17f4a12d 92=item / must follow a numeric type
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93
94(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '#',
95but this did not follow some numeric unpack specification.
96See L<perlfunc/pack>.
97
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98=item % may only be used in unpack
99
5f05dabc 100(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
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101checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other
102way. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
103
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104=item Repeat count in pack overflows
105
106(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows
107your signed integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
108
109=item Repeat count in unpack overflows
110
111(F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows
112your signed integers. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
113
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114=item /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
115
116(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
117by Perl. This combination appears in an interpolated variable or a
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118C<'>-delimited regular expression. The character was understood literally.
119
120=item /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c in character class passed through
121
122(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
123by Perl inside character classes. The character was understood literally.
c9f97d15 124
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125=item /%s/ should probably be written as "%s"
126
127(W) You have used a pattern where Perl expected to find a string,
437784d6 128as in the first argument to C<join>. Perl will treat the true
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129or false result of matching the pattern against $_ as the string,
130which is probably not what you had in mind.
131
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132=item %s (...) interpreted as function
133
134(W) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator followed
8b1a09fc 135by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list operators arguments
5f05dabc 136found inside the parentheses. See L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
a0d0e21e 137
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138=item %s() called too early to check prototype
139
140(W) You've called a function that has a prototype before the parser saw a
141definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check that the call
142conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an early prototype
143declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the subroutine
144definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype checking. Alternatively,
145if you are certain that you're calling the function correctly, you may put
146an ampersand before the name to avoid the warning. See L<perlsub>.
147
8ea97a1e 148=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element
a0d0e21e 149
8ea97a1e 150(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element, such as:
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151
152 $foo{$bar}
8ea97a1e 153 $ref->[12]->["susie"]
a0d0e21e 154
8ea97a1e 155=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 156
8ea97a1e 157(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element, such as:
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158
159 $foo{$bar}
8ea97a1e 160 $ref->[12]->["susie"]
5f05dabc 161
8ea97a1e 162or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 163
8ea97a1e 164 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
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165 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
166
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167=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
168
169(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
170name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this error.
171
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172=item %s did not return a true value
173
174(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
175it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
176traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
177do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
178
179=item %s found where operator expected
180
181(S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator. If it
182sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an operator,
183it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an operator or
184delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
185
f86702cc 186=item %s had compilation errors
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187
188(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
189
f86702cc 190=item %s has too many errors
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191
192(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
193Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
194
195=item %s matches null string many times
196
197(W) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
198regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. See L<perlre>.
199
200=item %s never introduced
201
202(S) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of scope
203before it could possibly have been used.
204
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205=item %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
206
207(W) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a package-specific handler.
208That name might have a meaning to Perl itself some day, even though it
209doesn't yet. Perhaps you should use a mixed-case attribute name, instead.
210See L<attributes>.
211
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212=item %s syntax OK
213
214(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> succeeds.
215
f86702cc 216=item %s: Command not found
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217
218(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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219of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
220Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 221
f86702cc 222=item %s: Expression syntax
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223
224(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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225of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
226Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 227
f86702cc 228=item %s: Undefined variable
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229
230(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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231of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
232Perl yourself.
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233
234=item %s: not found
235
8b1a09fc 236(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 237instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
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238into Perl yourself.
239
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240=item (in cleanup) %s
241
242(W) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
243the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by
244the system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast
245number of times, the warning is issued only once for any number
246of failures that would otherwise result in the same message being
247repeated.
248
249Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag
250could also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
251
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252=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
253
254(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
255found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
256the previous line just because you saw this message.
257
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258=item B<-P> not allowed for setuid/setgid script
259
260(F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name,
261which provides a race condition that breaks security.
262
263=item C<-T> and C<-B> not implemented on filehandles
264
265(F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't
266know about your kind of stdio. You'll have to use a filename instead.
267
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268=item C<-p> destination: %s
269
270(F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the C<-p>
271command-line switch. (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've
272redirected it with select().)
273
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274=item 500 Server error
275
276See Server error.
277
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278=item ?+* follows nothing in regexp
279
280(F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it
281if you meant it literally. See L<perlre>.
282
283=item @ outside of string
284
2ba9eb46 285(F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside
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286the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
287
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288=item <> should be quotes
289
290(F) You wrote C<require E<lt>fileE<gt>> when you should have written
291C<require 'file'>.
292
69282e91 293=item accept() on closed socket %s
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294
295(W) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
296the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/accept>.
297
298=item Allocation too large: %lx
299
54310121 300(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
55497cff 301
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302=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
303
2c268ad5 304(W) The pattern match (//), substitution (s///), and transliteration (tr///)
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305operators work on scalar values. If you apply one of them to an array
306or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to a scalar value -- the
307length of an array, or the population info of a hash -- and then work on
308that scalar value. This is probably not what you meant to do. See
309L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for alternatives.
310
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311=item Arg too short for msgsnd
312
313(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
314
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315=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
316
317(W)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
318you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
5f05dabc 319a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
748a9306 320
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321=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
322
323(W) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl keyword,
324and you have used the name without qualification for calling one or the
325other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the subroutine is
326not imported.
327
328To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
329before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
330Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
331imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
332
333To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
334on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or by declaring the subroutine
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335to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes">
336or L<attributes>).
5315574d 337
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338=item Args must match #! line
339
340(F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked
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341with match the arguments specified on the #! line. Since some systems
342impose a one-argument limit on the #! line, try combining switches;
343for example, turn C<-w -U> into C<-wU>.
a0d0e21e 344
f86702cc 345=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
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346
347(W) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator that
348expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
349will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
350
351=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
352
353(D) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some spots. This
354is now heavily deprecated.
355
356=item assertion botched: %s
357
358(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
359
360=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
361
362(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
363
364=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
365
366(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
367must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
368know which context to supply to the right side.
369
370=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
371
372(P) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas that will
373be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be outside any
374of those arenas.
375
54310121 376=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
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377
378(P) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of strings to
379optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other strings. This
380indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count of a string
381that can no longer be found in the table.
382
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383=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
384
385(W) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the free_tmps()
386routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the SV before
387the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the free_tmps()
388routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does try to free
389it.
390
391=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
392
393(P) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
394
395=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
396
397(W) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to see if it
398would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0 earlier,
399and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed. This
400could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or that
401SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was mortalized
402when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been corrupted.
403
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404=item Attempt to join self
405
406(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
407impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may
408need to move the join() to some other thread.
409
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410=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
411
412(W) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
413function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
414means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
415invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
416literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
417avoid this warning.
418
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419=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
420
421(W) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr() used
8b1a09fc 422as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
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423dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
424
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425=item Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %d
426
427(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl() or
2ba9eb46 428shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 429S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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430S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
431
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432=item Bad filehandle: %s
433
434(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the symbol
435has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or
436did it in another package.
437
438=item Bad free() ignored
439
440(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had never been
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441malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
442setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
443
444This message can be quite often seen with DB_File on systems with
445"hard" dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of
446C<Berkeley DB> which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving>
447system malloc().
a0d0e21e 448
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449=item Bad hash
450
451(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
452
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453=item Bad index while coercing array into hash
454
6f54a448
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455(F) The index looked up in the hash found as the 0'th element of a
456pseudo-hash is not legal. Index values must be at 1 or greater.
457See L<perlref>.
57079c46 458
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459=item Bad name after %s::
460
461(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then didn't
462finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes,
463so
464
465 $var = 'myvar';
466 $sym = mypack::$var;
467
468is not the same as
469
470 $var = 'myvar';
471 $sym = "mypack::$var";
472
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473=item Bad realloc() ignored
474
475(S) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had never been
476malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
477setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
478
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479=item Bad symbol for array
480
481(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
482wasn't a symbol table entry.
483
484=item Bad symbol for filehandle
485
486(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something that
487wasn't a symbol table entry.
488
489=item Bad symbol for hash
490
491(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
492wasn't a symbol table entry.
493
8b1a09fc 494=item Badly placed ()'s
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495
496(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
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497of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
498Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 499
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500=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
501
502(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
d98d5fff 503subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>" symbol.
54310121 504Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
3fe9a6f1 505
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GS
506=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
507
508(W) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but
509the compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point.
510Perhaps you need to predeclare a package?
511
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512=item Bareword found in conditional
513
514(W) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a conditional,
515which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part of the
516last argument of the previous construct, for example:
517
518 open FOO || die;
519
520It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted
521as a bareword:
522
523 use constant TYPO => 1;
524 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
525
526The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
527
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528=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
529
530(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN subroutine.
531Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is exited.
532
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533=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
534
535(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
536implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had
537already occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}>
538could not be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code
539likely depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
540
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541=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
542
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JH
543(W) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
544(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
545L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 546
69282e91 547=item bind() on closed socket %s
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548
549(W) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
550the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
551
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552=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
553
554(W) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
555
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556=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
557
558(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not copiable.
559
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560=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
561
562(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to iterate over
563%ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition which was too long,
564so it was truncated to the string shown.
565
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566=item Callback called exit
567
568(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via perl_call_sv()
569exited by calling exit.
570
a651a37d 571=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
0a753a76
PP
572
573(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look
574like a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually
575occurs if you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which
576is a no-no. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
577
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578=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
579
580(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a
581foreach loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
582
a651a37d 583=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
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LW
584
585(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
586except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a
587current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a
a651a37d
GS
588"loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep().
589You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect though,
590because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once.
591See L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e 592
a651a37d 593=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
a0d0e21e
LW
594
595(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
596there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
a651a37d
GS
597count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
598or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
599though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
600loops once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
a0d0e21e 601
f675dbe5
CB
602=item Can't read CRTL environ
603
604(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
605from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
606missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
607or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not searched.
608
a651a37d 609=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
a0d0e21e
LW
610
611(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
612there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
a651a37d
GS
613count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
614or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
615though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
616loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
a0d0e21e
LW
617
618=item Can't bless non-reference value
619
620(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
621encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
622
623=item Can't break at that line
624
54310121 625(S) A warning intended to only be printed while running within the debugger, indicating
a0d0e21e
LW
626the line number specified wasn't the location of a statement that could
627be stopped at.
628
629=item Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
630
631(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
632functioning as a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined
633in it, let alone methods. See L<perlobj>.
634
635=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
636
54310121 637(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
a0d0e21e
LW
638ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but
639you didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't
640an object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
641
642=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
643
644(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
645object reference or package name contains an expression that returns
72b5445b
GS
646a defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
647Something like this will reproduce the error:
648
649 $BADREF = 42;
650 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
651 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
652
653=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
654
655(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
656object reference or package name contains an undefined value.
a0d0e21e
LW
657Something like this will reproduce the error:
658
659 $BADREF = undef;
660 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
661 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
662
663=item Can't chdir to %s
664
665(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
666that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
667
0545a864 668=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 669
e688b231 670(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for nosuid.
104d25b7 671
a0d0e21e
LW
672=item Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
673
674(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 675(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
676say things like:
677
678 *foo += 1;
679
680You CAN say
681
682 $foo = *foo;
683 $foo += 1;
684
685but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
686
687=item Can't coerce %s to number in %s
688
689(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 690(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e
LW
691
692=item Can't coerce %s to string in %s
693
694(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 695(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are.
a0d0e21e 696
57079c46
GA
697=item Can't coerce array into hash
698
699(F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no
700information on how to map from keys to array indices. You can do that
701only with arrays that have a hash reference at index 0.
702
a0d0e21e
LW
703=item Can't create pipe mailbox
704
748a9306
LW
705(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted quotas
706or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 707
eb64745e 708=item Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
a0d0e21e 709
eb64745e
GS
710(S) Currently, only scalar variables can declared with a specific class
711qualifier in a "my" or "our" declaration. The semantics may be extended
712for other types of variables in future.
713
714=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
715
716(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my" or
717"our" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e
LW
718
719=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
720
721(S) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated reason.
722
54310121 723=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 724
54310121 725(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try reading
3fe9a6f1 726from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say C<-i.bak>, or some
a0d0e21e
LW
727such.
728
10f9c03d 729=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 730
10f9c03d
CK
731(S) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
732characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
733inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e
LW
734
735=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
736
737(S) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as a file in
738/dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
739
740=item Can't do setegid!
741
742(P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
743of suidperl.
744
745=item Can't do seteuid!
746
747(P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.
748
749=item Can't do setuid
750
751(F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to
752do setuid emulation, but couldn't exec it. It looks for a name of the
753form sperl5.000 in the same directory that the perl executable resides
754under the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on Unix machines.
755If the file is there, check the execute permissions. If it isn't, ask
756your sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.
757
758=item Can't do waitpid with flags
759
760(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only waitpid()
761without flags is emulated.
762
8b1a09fc 763=item Can't do {n,m} with n E<gt> m
a0d0e21e
LW
764
765(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want
766your regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. See L<perlre>.
767
768=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
769
770(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this point.
771For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #! line.
772
773=item Can't exec "%s": %s
774
5f05dabc 775(W) An system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the named
a0d0e21e
LW
776program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the permissions
777were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in C<$ENV{PATH}>, the
778executable in question was compiled for another architecture, or the
779#! line in a script points to an interpreter that can't be run for
780similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at all.)
781
782=item Can't exec %s
783
784(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because that's
785what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may need to
786mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
787
788=item Can't execute %s
789
2a92aaa0
GS
790(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute found
791in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
792
793=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
794
795(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
796in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The script
797exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
798
799=item Can't find %s on PATH
800
a0d0e21e 801(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be found
2a92aaa0 802in the PATH.
a0d0e21e
LW
803
804=item Can't find label %s
805
806(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's possible
807for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
808
809=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
810
811(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means that
5f05dabc 812the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count nesting
a0d0e21e
LW
813levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
814
fb73857a
PP
815 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
816
817If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
818included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag. A good
819programmer's editor will have a way to help you find these characters.
a0d0e21e
LW
820
821=item Can't fork
822
823(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a pipeline.
824
748a9306
LW
825=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
826
827(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference between
828access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes. Under VMS,
829access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in the stat buffer, so
830that ACLs and other protections can be taken into account. Unfortunately, Perl
831assumes that the stat buffer contains all the necessary information, and passes
832it, instead of the filespec, to the access checking routine. It will try to
833retrieve the filespec using the device name and FID present in the stat buffer,
834but this works only if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat()
5f05dabc 835routine, because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
748a9306
LW
836appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking routine gave up and
837returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access checking routine
838knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you shouldn't ever
839see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises only if some internal
840code takes stat buffers lightly.)
841
a0d0e21e
LW
842=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
843
748a9306
LW
844(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a pipe, Perl
845can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
846
847=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
848
748a9306
LW
849(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
850mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e
LW
851
852=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
853
854(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one subroutine
855call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole cloth. In general
5f05dabc 856you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine anyway. See
a0d0e21e
LW
857L<perlfunc/goto>.
858
b150fb22
RH
859=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
860
861(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval "string".
862(You can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you probably don't want to.)
863
0b5b802d
GS
864=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
865
866(W) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD signal
867(sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this signal
868will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
869processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value.
870This situation typically indicates that the parent program under
871which Perl may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
872
706a304b 873=item Can't localize through a reference
4633a7c4 874
706a304b
SM
875(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
876handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
877pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be
878sure that $ref will still be a reference.
4633a7c4 879
748a9306
LW
880=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
881
2ba9eb46 882(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
748a9306
LW
883lexical variable using "my". This is not allowed. If you want to
884localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
885package name.
886
0ebe0038
SM
887=item Can't localize pseudo-hash element
888
889(F) You said something like C<local $ar-E<gt>{'key'}>, where $ar is
890a reference to a pseudo-hash. That hasn't been implemented yet, but
891you can get a similar effect by localizing the corresponding array
892element directly -- C<local $ar-E<gt>[$ar-E<gt>[0]{'key'}]>.
893
4727527e
IZ
894=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
895
896(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows autoload,
897but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes are a misprint
898in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit> the file, say, by
899doing C<make install>.
900
ec889f3a
GS
901=item Can't locate %s
902
903(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
904found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
905unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you need
906to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where the extra
907library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name to @INC. Or
908maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See L<perlfunc/require>
909and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e
LW
910
911=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
912
913(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
914functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 915method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
916
917=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
918
919(W) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that doesn't seem
920to exist.
921
3e3baf6d
TB
922=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
923
924(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably VMS.
925
a0d0e21e
LW
926=item Can't modify %s in %s
927
928(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try to
5f05dabc 929change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 930
cd06dffe
GS
931=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
932
437784d6
GS
933(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
934such, see L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
cd06dffe 935
54310121 936=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
937
938(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
939a NULL.
940
5f05dabc 941=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 942
5f05dabc 943(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
944buffer.
945
946=item Can't open %s: %s
947
08e9d68e
DD
948(S) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<E<lt>E<gt>>
949filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
950switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
951is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named
952on the command line.
a0d0e21e
LW
953
954=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
955
956(W) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported. You can
957try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such as
7e1af8bc 958IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using "E<gt>",
a0d0e21e
LW
959and then read it in under a different file handle.
960
748a9306
LW
961=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
962
963(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
964couldn't open the file specified after '2E<gt>' or '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the
965command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
966
967=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
968
969(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc 970couldn't open the file specified after 'E<lt>' on the command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
971
972=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
973
974(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
8b1a09fc
PP
975couldn't open the file specified after 'E<gt>' or 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command
976line for writing.
748a9306
LW
977
978=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
979
980(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
981couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined for stdout.
982
a0d0e21e
LW
983=item Can't open perl script "%s": %s
984
985(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
986
7bac28a0
PP
987=item Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
988
989(F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps
990pointers into them. You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when it
991was currently active, which is not allowed. If you really want to do
992this, you should write C<sort { &func } @x> instead of C<sort func @x>.
993
10f9c03d
CK
994=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
995
996(S) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup file. Perl
997was unable to remove the original file to replace it with the modified
998file. The file was left unmodified.
999
a0d0e21e
LW
1000=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1001
10f9c03d
CK
1002(S) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
1003probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1004
748a9306
LW
1005=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1006
1007(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried to
1008reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
1009
a0d0e21e
LW
1010=item Can't reswap uid and euid
1011
1012(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
1013of suidperl.
1014
1015=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1016
1017(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1018there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1019
cd06dffe
GS
1020=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1021
1022(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such
1023as temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue.
1024This is not allowed.
1025
a0d0e21e
LW
1026=item Can't stat script "%s"
1027
1028(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have
1029it open already. Bizarre.
1030
1031=item Can't swap uid and euid
1032
1033(P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator
1034of suidperl.
1035
1036=item Can't take log of %g
1037
fb73857a
PP
1038(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1039negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
1040standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for
1041the negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1042
1043=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1044
1045(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1046negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1047with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1048
1049=item Can't undef active subroutine
1050
1051(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1052however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1053redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1054
1055=item Can't unshift
1056
1057(F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such
1058as the main Perl stack.
1059
1060=item Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
1061
1062(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making
1063it into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are
1064so specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This
1065message indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
1066
1067=item Can't upgrade to undef
1068
1069(P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme
1070of upgradability. Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the
1071code calling sv_upgrade.
1072
1d2dff63
GS
1073=item Can't use %%! because Errno.pm is not available
1074
1075(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1076Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1077provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1078
c07a80fd
PP
1079=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1080
1081(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
8b1a09fc 1082You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the E<lt>=E<gt> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1083and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1084Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1085lexical variable.
1086
e9fa98b2
HS
1087=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
1088
1089(F) You've used the /e switch to evaluate the replacement for a
1090substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
1091most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
1092
a0d0e21e
LW
1093=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1094
1095(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a foreach.
1096
1097=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1098
1099(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1100reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1101test the type of the reference, if need be.
1102
9a7dcd9c 1103=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
748a9306
LW
1104
1105(W) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that creates
1106a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a backreference
5f05dabc 1107to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular expression pattern.
748a9306
LW
1108Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints
1109out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form instead.
1110
9a7dcd9c 1111=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
44a8e56a
PP
1112
1113(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
1114are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
1115
748a9306 1116=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e
LW
1117
1118(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic references
1119are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
1120
1121=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1122
1123(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
54310121 1124be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
a0d0e21e 1125
a0d0e21e
LW
1126=item Can't use global %s in "my"
1127
1128(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This is
5f05dabc 1129not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location (namely
a0d0e21e
LW
1130the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to have
1131variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
1132weren't.
1133
748a9306
LW
1134=item Can't use subscript on %s
1135
1136(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1137subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
1138didn't look like an array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
1139
810b8aa5
GS
1140=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1141
1142(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1143references can be weakened.
1144
5f05dabc 1145=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e
LW
1146
1147(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value) with
1148an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
1149Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1150
3f4520fe 1151=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
b6c543e3
IZ
1152
1153(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but
1154there is no builtin with the name C<word>.
1155
3f4520fe 1156=item Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
e7ea3e70
IZ
1157
1158(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as
1159opposed to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the
1160package. If method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
1161
b8c5462f 1162=item Character class [:%s:] unknown
4599a1de 1163
b8c5462f 1164(F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown.
437784d6 1165See L<perlre>.
4599a1de 1166
b8c5462f
JH
1167=item Character class syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes
1168
1169(W) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .] go
644a2880 1170I<inside> character classes, the [] are part of the construct,
437784d6
GS
1171for example: /[012[:alpha:]345]/. Note that [= =] and [. .]
1172are not currently implemented; they are simply placeholders for
1173future extensions.
b8c5462f 1174
644a2880 1175=item Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions
4599a1de
JH
1176
1177(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning
b8c5462f 1178with "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.
4599a1de
JH
1179If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1180expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
b8c5462f 1181backslash: "\[." and ".\]".
4599a1de
JH
1182
1183=item Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions
1184
1185(W) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax
1186beginning with "[=" and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions.
1187If you need to represent those character sequences inside a regular
1188expression character class, just quote the square brackets with the
1189backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".
1190
5a211162 1191=item chmod() mode argument is missing initial 0
a0d0e21e
LW
1192
1193(W) A novice will sometimes say
1194
1195 chmod 777, $filename
1196
1197not realizing that 777 will be interpreted as a decimal number, equivalent
1198to 01411. Octal constants are introduced with a leading 0 in Perl, as in C.
1199
8b1a09fc 1200=item Close on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
1201
1202(W) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1203
7a2e2cd6
PP
1204=item Compilation failed in require
1205
1206(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
1207Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it encountered
1208were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
1209
c3464db5
DD
1210=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1211
1212(W) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex situations
1213where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited to 32766,
1214or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1215arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1216recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1217under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather
1218than in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular
1219expression so that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlbook>
1220for information on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
1221
69282e91 1222=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1223
1224(W) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1225the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/connect>.
1226
779c5bc9
GS
1227=item Constant is not %s reference
1228
1229(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
1230is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference. The
1231message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This usually
1232indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
1233See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1234
4cee8e80
CS
1235=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1236
9845ecba 1237(S|W) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
4cee8e80
CS
1238inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1239workarounds.
1240
9607fc9c
PP
1241=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1242
9845ecba 1243(W) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for
9607fc9c
PP
1244inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1245workarounds.
1246
423cee85
JH
1247=item constant(%s): %%^H is not localized
1248
1249(F) When setting compile-time-lexicalized hash %^H one should set the
1250corresponding bit of $^H as well.
1251
1252=item constant(%s): %s
1253
1254(F) Compile-time-substitutions (such as overloaded constants and
1255character names) were not correctly set up.
1256
e7ea3e70
IZ
1257=item Copy method did not return a reference
1258
1259(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
1260
a0d0e21e
LW
1261=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
1262
1263(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1264
1265=item corrupted regexp pointers
1266
1267(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1268expression compiler gave it.
1269
1270=item corrupted regexp program
1271
1272(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without
1273a valid magic number.
1274
1275=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1276
1277(W) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly) 100
3e3baf6d 1278times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an infinite
a0d0e21e
LW
1279recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in which
1280case it indicates something else.
1281
f10b0346 1282=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302
MJD
1283
1284(D) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it checks for an
1285undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the array is empty,
1286just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
1287
f10b0346 1288=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302
MJD
1289
1290(D) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it checks for an
1291undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the hash is empty,
1292just use C<if (%hash) { # not empty }> for example.
1293
fc36a67e
PP
1294=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1295
1296(F) In a here document construct like C<E<lt>E<lt>FOO>, the label
1297C<FOO> is too long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously
1298twisted to write code that triggers this error.
1299
3cdd684c
TP
1300=item Did not produce a valid header
1301
1302See Server error.
1303
4633a7c4
LW
1304=item Did you mean &%s instead?
1305
1306(W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some such.
1307
33633739
GS
1308=item Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?
1309
1310(W) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global variable.
1311You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which seems superfluous.
1312
748a9306 1313=item Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?
a0d0e21e 1314
748a9306
LW
1315(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or @hash{@keys}.
1316On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got carried away.
1317
7e1af8bc 1318=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1319
1320(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
1321you called it with no args and both C<$@> and C<$_> were empty.
1322
54310121 1323=item Do you need to predeclare %s?
748a9306
LW
1324
1325(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1326found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
1327name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1328because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
1329"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're
1330referencing something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have
1331to define the subroutine or package before the current location. You
1332can use an empty "sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward"
1333declaration.
a0d0e21e 1334
3cdd684c
TP
1335=item Document contains no data
1336
1337See Server error.
1338
a0d0e21e
LW
1339=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1340
1341(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1342
1343=item do_study: out of memory
1344
1345(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1346
1347=item Duplicate free() ignored
1348
1349(S) An internal routine called free() on something that had already
1350been freed.
1351
4633a7c4
LW
1352=item elseif should be elsif
1353
1354(S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1355ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method
1356named "elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
1357unlikely to be what you want.
1358
4f25aa18 1359=item %s failed--call queue aborted
a0d0e21e 1360
7d30b5c4 1361(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a CHECK, INIT, or
4f25aa18
GS
1362END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the queue of such
1363routines has been prematurely ended.
a0d0e21e 1364
85ab1d1d 1365=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1366
85ab1d1d 1367(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1368effective uids or gids failed.
1369
748a9306
LW
1370=item Error converting file specification %s
1371
5f05dabc 1372(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306
LW
1373specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
1374single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've
1375passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a
1376case the conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
1377
e4d48cc9
GS
1378=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1379
1380(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular expression
1381that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which is unsafe.
1382See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
1383
1384=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1385
1386(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion,
1387but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'> pragma is
1388in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1389
1390=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
1391
1392(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the C<(?{ ... })>
3c247ff3
GS
1393zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the pattern contains
1394interpolated values. Since that is a security risk, it is not allowed.
e4d48cc9
GS
1395If you insist, you may still do this by explicitly building the pattern
1396from an interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval().
1397See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
1398
fc36a67e
PP
1399=item Excessively long <> operator
1400
1401(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1402Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1403filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1404variable and glob that.
1405
f86702cc 1406=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
a0d0e21e
LW
1407
1408(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1409
1410=item Exiting eval via %s
1411
8b1a09fc 1412(W) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1413a goto, or a loop control statement.
1414
0a753a76
PP
1415=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1416
1417(W) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a sort block or
1418subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a loop control
1419statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
1420
a0d0e21e
LW
1421=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1422
8b1a09fc 1423(W) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1424a goto, or a loop control statement.
1425
1426=item Exiting substitution via %s
1427
8b1a09fc 1428(W) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such as
a0d0e21e
LW
1429a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
1430
7b8d334a
GS
1431=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1432
1433(W) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1434the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1435usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target
ae6c4aac 1436package, e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1437
73b437c8
JH
1438=item false [] range "%s" in regexp
1439
1440(W) A character class range must start and end at a literal character, not
1441another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-" in your false
1442range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the "-", "\-".
1443See L<perlre>.
1444
748a9306 1445=item Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1446
748a9306
LW
1447(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS system
1448service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more details. The
1449filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell you which section of
1450the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1451
1452=item fcntl is not implemented
1453
1454(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1455PDP-11 or something?
1456
1457=item Filehandle %s never opened
1458
1459(W) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was never initialized.
1460You need to do an open() or a socket() call, or call a constructor from
1461the FileHandle package.
1462
af8c498a 1463=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e
LW
1464
1465(W) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you
1466intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1467"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
5f05dabc 1468you intended only to write the file, use "E<gt>" or "E<gt>E<gt>". See
8b1a09fc 1469L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1470
af8c498a 1471=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1472
af8c498a 1473(W) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing. If you
437784d6 1474intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it with
8b1a09fc 1475"+E<lt>" or "+E<gt>" or "+E<gt>E<gt>" instead of with "E<lt>" or nothing. If
af8c498a 1476you intended only to read from the file, use "E<lt>". See
8b1a09fc 1477L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1478
1479=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1480
1481(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
1482a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1483that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1484the name.
1485
1486=item Final @ should be \@ or @name
1487
1488(F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be
1489a literal "at" sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name
1490that happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or
1491the name.
1492
56e90b21
GS
1493=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1494
1495(W) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed some
1496time before now. Check your logic flow. flock() operates on filehandles.
1497Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the same name?
1498
a0d0e21e
LW
1499=item Format %s redefined
1500
1501(W) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
1502
1503 {
4438c4b7 1504 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
1505 eval "format NAME =...";
1506 }
1507
1508=item Format not terminated
1509
1510(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1511to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1512
1513=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1514
1515(W) You said
1516
1517 if ($foo = 123)
1518
1519when you meant
1520
1521 if ($foo == 123)
1522
1523(or something like that).
1524
1525=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1526
1527(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1528
1529=item gethostent not implemented
1530
1531(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1532because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1533on the Internet.
1534
69282e91 1535=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1536
1537(W) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed socket.
1538Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
1539
748a9306
LW
1540=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1541
1542(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1543C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1544
a0d0e21e
LW
1545=item Glob not terminated
1546
1547(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
1548a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
1549finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
1550the line, and you really meant a "less than".
1551
1552=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1553
68dc0745 1554(F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables
eb64745e
GS
1555must either be lexically scoped (using "my"), declared beforehand using
1556"our", or explicitly qualified to say which package the global variable
1557is in (using "::").
a0d0e21e
LW
1558
1559=item goto must have label
1560
1561(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1562unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1563
1564=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
1565
1566(S) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought to have
1567existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be created on
1568an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
1569
1570=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
1571
1572(D) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some spots. This
1573is now heavily deprecated.
1574
252aa082
JH
1575=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
1576
9e24b6e2
JH
1577(W) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
1578(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
1579L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 1580
8903cb82
PP
1581=item Identifier too long
1582
1583(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e
PP
1584about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
1585names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future
1586versions of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 1587
f675dbe5
CB
1588=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
1589
1590(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's internal
1591environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=> delimiter
1592used to spearate keys from values. The element is ignored.
1593
1594=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
a0d0e21e 1595
f675dbe5
CB
1596(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical name
1597or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
1598didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the
1599line was ignored.
a0d0e21e 1600
4fdae800
PP
1601=item Illegal character %s (carriage return)
1602
d5898338
GS
1603(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
1604would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this
1605error when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason,
1606your version of Perl appears to have been built without this support.
1607Talk to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 1608
a0d0e21e
LW
1609=item Illegal division by zero
1610
1611(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in your
1612logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against meaningless input.
1613
1614=item Illegal modulus zero
1615
1616(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most numbers
1617don't take to this kindly.
1618
399388f4
GS
1619=item Illegal binary digit %s
1620
437784d6 1621(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
399388f4
GS
1622
1623=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1624
1625(F) You used an 8 or 9 in a octal number.
1626
399388f4
GS
1627=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
1628
1629(W) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
1630Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the offending digit.
1631
1632=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306
LW
1633
1634(W) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in a octal number. Interpretation
1635of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
1636
651978e7 1637=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
6ff81951 1638
252aa082
JH
1639(W) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or A - F, a - f
1640in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal number stopped
6ff81951
GS
1641before the illegal character.
1642
81e118e0
JH
1643=item Illegal number of bits in vec
1644
0a1cd687 1645(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
c5a0f51a 1646two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
09bef843 1647
54310121
PP
1648=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
1649
1650(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
1651following switches: B<-[DIMUdmw]>.
1652
9607fc9c
PP
1653=item In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s
1654
1655(F) It used to be that Perl would try to guess whether you wanted an
1656array interpolated or a literal @. It did this when the string was first
1657used at runtime. Now strings are parsed at compile time, and ambiguous
1658instances of @ must be disambiguated, either by prepending a backslash to
1659indicate a literal, or by declaring (or using) the array within the
1660program before the string (lexically). (Someday it will simply assume
1661that an unbackslashed @ interpolates an array.)
1662
a0d0e21e
LW
1663=item Insecure dependency in %s
1664
8b1a09fc 1665(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
a0d0e21e
LW
1666The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or setgid,
1667or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The tainting mechanism
1668labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly from the user,
1669who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any such data is
1670used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See L<perlsec>
1671for more information.
1672
1673=item Insecure directory in %s
1674
1675(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid
8b1a09fc 1676script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by the world.
a0d0e21e
LW
1677See L<perlsec>.
1678
62f468fc 1679=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1680
1681(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc
G
1682setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
1683C<$ENV{ENV}> or C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> are derived from data supplied (or
a0d0e21e
LW
1684potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set the path to a
1685known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
1686
a7ae9550
GS
1687=item Integer overflow in %s number
1688
9e24b6e2 1689(W) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified either
c6edd1b7 1690as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for your
9e24b6e2
JH
1691architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number. On a
169232-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
1693representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
16940b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
1695transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
1696internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
1697operations.
bbce6d69 1698
748a9306
LW
1699=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
1700
1701(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number
5f05dabc 1702of times you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine
2ba9eb46 1703whether the current call to C<exec> should affect the current
b687b08b 1704script or a subprocess (see L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count
748a9306
LW
1705has become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating
1706this C<exec> as a request to terminate the Perl script
1707and execute the specified command.
1708
a0d0e21e
LW
1709=item internal disaster in regexp
1710
1711(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
1712
4eb79ab5
GS
1713=item glob failed (%s)
1714
1715(W) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for C<glob>
1716and C<E<lt>*.cE<gt>>. Usually, this means that you supplied a C<glob>
1717pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a nonzero
1718status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit resulted in a
1719coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is broken. If so,
1720you should change all of the csh-related variables in config.sh: If you
1721have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it were csh (e.g.
1722C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all empty (except that
1723C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will think csh is missing.
1724In either case, after editing config.sh, run C<./Configure -S> and
1725rebuild Perl.
5cd24f17 1726
a0d0e21e
LW
1727=item internal urp in regexp at /%s/
1728
1729(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser.
1730
09bef843
SB
1731=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
1732
1733The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
1734by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1735
1736=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
1737
1738The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not recognized
1739by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
1740
73b437c8 1741=item invalid [] range "%s" in regexp
a0d0e21e
LW
1742
1743(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
1209ba90 1744greater than the maximum character. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 1745
c635e13b
PP
1746=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
1747
878e08df 1748(W) Perl does not understand the given format conversion.
c635e13b
PP
1749See L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
1750
09bef843
SB
1751=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
1752
0120eecf 1753(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
09bef843
SB
1754elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute
1755had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated
1756too soon. See L<attributes>.
1757
96e4d5b1
PP
1758=item Invalid type in pack: '%s'
1759
8903cb82 1760(F) The given character is not a valid pack type. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
fb73857a
PP
1761(W) The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be silently
1762ignored.
96e4d5b1
PP
1763
1764=item Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
1765
8903cb82 1766(F) The given character is not a valid unpack type. See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
fb73857a
PP
1767(W) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be silently
1768ignored.
96e4d5b1 1769
a0d0e21e
LW
1770=item ioctl is not implemented
1771
1772(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
1773strange for a machine that supports C.
1774
1775=item junk on end of regexp
1776
1777(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
1778
1779=item Label not found for "last %s"
1780
1781(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a
1782loop of that name, not even if you count where you were called from.
1783See L<perlfunc/last>.
1784
1785=item Label not found for "next %s"
1786
1787(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
1788that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1789L<perlfunc/last>.
1790
1791=item Label not found for "redo %s"
1792
1793(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
1794that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
1795L<perlfunc/last>.
1796
85ab1d1d 1797=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1798
85ab1d1d 1799(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1800effective uids or gids failed.
1801
69282e91 1802=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e
LW
1803
1804(W) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget to check
1805the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/listen>.
1806
cd06dffe
GS
1807=item Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
1808
1809(F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash
1810values cannot be returned in subroutines used in lvalue context.
1811See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
1812
a0d0e21e
LW
1813=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
1814
1815(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 1816doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 1817
3cdd684c
TP
1818=item Method %s not permitted
1819
1820See Server error.
1821
a0d0e21e
LW
1822=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
1823
1824(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
1825by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
1826ended earlier on the current line.
1827
1828=item Misplaced _ in number
1829
1830(W) An underline in a decimal constant wasn't on a 3-digit boundary.
1831
1832=item Missing $ on loop variable
1833
8b1a09fc
PP
1834(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables are always
1835mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from
a0d0e21e
LW
1836one line to the next.
1837
4a2d328f 1838=item Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
423cee85 1839
4a2d328f 1840(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
423cee85
JH
1841double-quotish context.
1842
a0d0e21e
LW
1843=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
1844
1845(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
1846"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
1847
06eaf0bc
GS
1848=item Missing command in piped open
1849
1850(W) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or C<open(FH, "command |")>
1851construction, but the command was missing or blank.
1852
748a9306
LW
1853=item Missing operator before %s?
1854
1855(S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s
1856found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
1857
d98d5fff 1858=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 1859
d98d5fff
GS
1860(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than
1861closing ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place
1862you were last editing.
a0d0e21e 1863
a0d0e21e
LW
1864=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
1865
1866(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 1867constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
1868catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
1869
1870 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
1871 mod(2);
1872
1873Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
1874
4fe4fdb3 1875=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, subscript %d
a0d0e21e
LW
1876
1877(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
1878subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
1879backwards.
1880
4fe4fdb3 1881=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, subscript "%s"
a0d0e21e 1882
19a09eb8 1883(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it couldn't
a0d0e21e
LW
1884be created for some peculiar reason.
1885
1886=item Module name must be constant
1887
1888(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
1889
1890=item msg%s not implemented
1891
1892(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
1893
1894=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
1895
8b1a09fc
PP
1896(W) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>. They're written
1897like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
1898
09bef843
SB
1899=item Missing name in "my sub"
1900
1901(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that they
1902have a name with which they can be found.
1903
8b1a09fc
PP
1904=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
1905
68dc0745
PP
1906(W) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
1907If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention
77ca0c92
LW
1908it again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
1909provided for this purpose.
a0d0e21e
LW
1910
1911=item Negative length
1912
1913(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer length
1914that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
1915
1916=item nested *?+ in regexp
1917
5f05dabc 1918(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
a0d0e21e
LW
1919things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal.
1920
5f05dabc 1921Note, however, that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and C<??> appear
a0d0e21e
LW
1922to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
1923
1924=item No #! line
1925
1926(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
1927even on machines that don't support the #! construct.
1928
1929=item No %s allowed while running setuid
1930
1931(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or setgid
1932script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there will be
1933another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least securable.
1934See L<perlsec>.
1935
1936=item No B<-e> allowed in setuid scripts
1937
1938(F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.
1939
a67e862a
GS
1940=item No %s specified for -%c
1941
1942(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
1943you haven't specified one.
1944
a0d0e21e
LW
1945=item No comma allowed after %s
1946
1947(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
1948allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
1949Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
1950
0a753a76
PP
1951One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
1952constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
1953importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
1954does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
1955explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see
1956L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
1957would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
1958remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
1959constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
1960list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
1961this error was triggered?
1962
748a9306
LW
1963=item No command into which to pipe on command line
1964
1965(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
54310121 1966and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know where you
748a9306
LW
1967want to pipe the output from this command.
1968
a0d0e21e
LW
1969=item No DB::DB routine defined
1970
1971(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1972but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1973didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
1974statement. Which is odd, because the file should have been required
1975automatically, and should have blown up the require if it didn't parse
1976right.
1977
1978=item No dbm on this machine
1979
1980(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 1981supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e
LW
1982
1983=item No DBsub routine
1984
1985(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch,
1986but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof)
1987didn't define a DB::sub routine to be called at the beginning of each
1988ordinary subroutine call.
1989
8b1a09fc 1990=item No error file after 2E<gt> or 2E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1991
1992(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1993and found a '2E<gt>' or a '2E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find
1994the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 1995
8b1a09fc 1996=item No input file after E<lt> on command line
748a9306
LW
1997
1998(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
1999and found a 'E<lt>' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file
2000from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2001
8b1a09fc 2002=item No output file after E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
2003
2004(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc 2005and found a lone 'E<gt>' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know
54310121 2006where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2007
8b1a09fc 2008=item No output file after E<gt> or E<gt>E<gt> on command line
748a9306
LW
2009
2010(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line redirection,
8b1a09fc
PP
2011and found a 'E<gt>' or a 'E<gt>E<gt>' on the command line, but can't find the
2012name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2013
1ec3e8de
GS
2014=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2015
2016(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our" declarations,
2017because that doesn't make much sense under existing semantics. Such
2018syntax is reserved for future extensions.
2019
a0d0e21e
LW
2020=item No Perl script found in input
2021
2022(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2023with #! and containing the word "perl".
2024
2025=item No setregid available
2026
2027(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2028your system.
2029
2030=item No setreuid available
2031
2032(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
2033your system.
2034
a67e862a 2035=item No space allowed after -%c
a0d0e21e 2036
a67e862a
GS
2037(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow immediately
2038after the switch, without intervening spaces.
a0d0e21e 2039
88e9b055 2040=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s"
57079c46 2041
88e9b055 2042(F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the field name used is
57079c46
GA
2043not defined. The hash at index 0 should map all valid field names to
2044array indices for that to work.
2045
88e9b055 2046=item No such pseudo-hash field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
f1192cee
GA
2047
2048(F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable where the type
2049does not know about the field name. The field names are looked up in
2050the %FIELDS hash in the type package at compile time. The %FIELDS hash
2051is usually set up with the 'fields' pragma.
2052
748a9306
LW
2053=item No such pipe open
2054
2055(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
2056close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught earlier as
2057an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
2058
a0d0e21e
LW
2059=item No such signal: SIG%s
2060
2061(W) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was not recognized.
2062Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
2063
bd3fa61c
CB
2064=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
2065
db7c17d7 2066(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
f675dbe5
CB
2067timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
2068to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL>
2069to translate to the number of seconds which need to be added to UTC to
2070get local time.
2071
a0d0e21e
LW
2072=item Not a CODE reference
2073
2074(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2075subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
2076use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
2077See also L<perlref>.
2078
2079=item Not a format reference
2080
2081(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
2082format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
2083
2084=item Not a GLOB reference
2085
55497cff 2086(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is,
a0d0e21e
LW
2087a symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
2088something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out
2089what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2090
2091=item Not a HASH reference
2092
2093(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but
2094found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2095function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2096
2097=item Not a perl script
2098
2099(F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line
2100even on machines that don't support the #! construct. The line must
2101mention perl.
2102
2103=item Not a SCALAR reference
2104
2105(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but
2106found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2107function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2108
2109=item Not a subroutine reference
2110
2111(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
2112subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
2113use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
2114See also L<perlref>.
2115
e7ea3e70 2116=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
2117
2118(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 2119doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2120
2121=item Not an ARRAY reference
2122
2123(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but
2124found a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref()
2125function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
2126
2127=item Not enough arguments for %s
2128
2129(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
2130
2131=item Not enough format arguments
2132
2133(W) A format specified more picture fields than the next line supplied.
2134See L<perlform>.
2135
2136=item Null filename used
2137
5f05dabc 2138(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many machines
a0d0e21e
LW
2139that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
2140
55497cff
PP
2141=item Null picture in formline
2142
2143(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
2144specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
2145supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
2146
a0d0e21e
LW
2147=item NULL OP IN RUN
2148
2149(P) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode pointer.
2150
2151=item Null realloc
2152
2153(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
2154
2155=item NULL regexp argument
2156
5f05dabc 2157(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
2158
2159=item NULL regexp parameter
2160
2161(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
2162
fc36a67e
PP
2163=item Number too long
2164
2165(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to about
2166about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future versions of
2167Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In the meantime,
2168try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of "1_000_000").
2169
252aa082
JH
2170=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
2171
9e24b6e2
JH
2172(W) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1 (4294967295)
2173and therefore non-portable between systems. See L<perlport> for more
2174on portability concerns.
252aa082
JH
2175
2176See also L<perlport> for writing portable code.
2177
3cb0bbe5
GS
2178=item Octal number in vector unsupported
2179
2180(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors. The
2181octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a future
2182version.
2183
1930e939 2184=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 2185
9845ecba 2186(W) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash, which
1930e939 2187is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 2188
bbce6d69
PP
2189=item Offset outside string
2190
2191(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset
2192pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to imagine.
2193The sole exception to this is that C<sysread()>ing past the buffer
2194will extend the buffer and zero pad the new area.
2195
a0d0e21e
LW
2196=item oops: oopsAV
2197
2198(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
2199
2200=item oops: oopsHV
2201
2202(S) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
2203
56f7f34b 2204=item Operation `%s': no method found, %s
44a8e56a 2205
e7ea3e70
IZ
2206(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which
2207no handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in
2208terms of other handlers, there is no default handler for any
2209operation, unless C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be
2210true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 2211
748a9306
LW
2212=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
2213
2214(S) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser was
2215expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant
2216to use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect.
2217For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as
2218if you said "*foo * 'foo'".
2219
a80b8354
GS
2220=item Out of memory!
2221
2222(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2223remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl
2224has no option but to exit immediately.
2225
a0d0e21e
LW
2226=item Out of memory for yacc stack
2227
2228(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue parsing,
2229but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or otherwise.
2230
1b979e0a 2231=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 2232
55497cff 2233(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
54310121 2234remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.
eff9c6e2
CS
2235
2236The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
2237depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
2238However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as
2239an emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the
55497cff
PP
2240error is trappable I<once>.
2241
1b979e0a 2242=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
55497cff
PP
2243
2244(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
2245remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
2246the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so
2247a possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
2248
1b979e0a
IZ
2249=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
2250
2251(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
2252is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g., C<$arr[time]>
2253instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
2254
a0d0e21e
LW
2255=item page overflow
2256
2257(W) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a page.
2258See L<perlform>.
2259
2260=item panic: ck_grep
2261
2262(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.
2263
2264=item panic: ck_split
2265
2266(P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.
2267
2268=item panic: corrupt saved stack index
2269
2270(P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than there
2271are in the savestack.
2272
810b8aa5
GS
2273=item panic: del_backref
2274
2275(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak
2276reference.
2277
a0d0e21e
LW
2278=item panic: die %s
2279
2280(P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered
2281it wasn't an eval context.
2282
2283=item panic: do_match
2284
2285(P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2286
2287=item panic: do_split
2288
2289(P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.
2290
2291=item panic: do_subst
2292
2293(P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2294
2295=item panic: do_trans
2296
2297(P) The internal do_trans() routine was called with invalid operational data.
2298
c635e13b
PP
2299=item panic: frexp
2300
2301(P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.
2302
a0d0e21e
LW
2303=item panic: goto
2304
2305(P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label,
2306and then discovered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.
2307
2308=item panic: INTERPCASEMOD
2309
2310(P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.
2311
2312=item panic: INTERPCONCAT
2313
2314(P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.
2315
e446cec8
IZ
2316=item panic: kid popen errno read
2317
2318(F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.
2319
a0d0e21e
LW
2320=item panic: last
2321
2322(P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered
2323it wasn't a block context.
2324
2325=item panic: leave_scope clearsv
2326
5f05dabc 2327(P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the scope.
a0d0e21e
LW
2328
2329=item panic: leave_scope inconsistency
2330
2331(P) The savestack probably got out of sync. At least, there was an
2332invalid enum on the top of it.
2333
2334=item panic: malloc
2335
2336(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.
2337
810b8aa5
GS
2338=item panic: magic_killbackrefs
2339
2340(P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak
2341references to an object.
2342
a0d0e21e
LW
2343=item panic: mapstart
2344
2345(P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.
2346
2347=item panic: null array
2348
2349(P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.
2350
2351=item panic: pad_alloc
2352
2353(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2354and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2355
2356=item panic: pad_free curpad
2357
2358(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2359and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2360
2361=item panic: pad_free po
2362
2363(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2364
2365=item panic: pad_reset curpad
2366
2367(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2368and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2369
2370=item panic: pad_sv po
2371
2372(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2373
2374=item panic: pad_swipe curpad
2375
2376(P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating
2377and freeing temporaries and lexicals from.
2378
2379=item panic: pad_swipe po
2380
2381(P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.
2382
2383=item panic: pp_iter
2384
2385(P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.
2386
2387=item panic: realloc
2388
2389(P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.
2390
2391=item panic: restartop
2392
2393(P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and
2394didn't supply the destination.
2395
2396=item panic: return
2397
2398(P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and
2399then discovered it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.
2400
2401=item panic: scan_num
2402
2403(P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.
2404
2405=item panic: sv_insert
2406
2407(P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there
2408was string.
2409
2410=item panic: top_env
2411
6224f72b 2412(P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.
a0d0e21e
LW
2413
2414=item panic: yylex
2415
2416(P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.
2417
b3c9acc1
IZ
2418=item panic: %s
2419
2420(P) An internal error.
2421
7b8d334a 2422=item Parentheses missing around "%s" list
a0d0e21e
LW
2423
2424(W) You said something like
2425
2426 my $foo, $bar = @_;
2427
2428when you meant
2429
2430 my ($foo, $bar) = @_;
2431
eb64745e 2432Remember that "my", "our" and "local" bind closer than comma.
a0d0e21e
LW
2433
2434=item Perl %3.3f required--this is only version %s, stopped
2435
2436(F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more recent
2437than the currently running version. How long has it been since you upgraded,
2438anyway? See L<perlfunc/require>.
2439
2440=item Permission denied
2441
2442(F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.
2443
bd3fa61c 2444=item pid %x not a child
748a9306
LW
2445
2446(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Waitpid() was asked to wait for a process which
2447isn't a subprocess of the current process. While this is fine from VMS'
2448perspective, it's probably not what you intended.
2449
a0d0e21e
LW
2450=item POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
2451
81777298 2452(F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike
a0d0e21e
LW
2453the BSD version, which takes a pid.
2454
6bc102ca
GS
2455=item Possible Y2K bug: %s
2456
2457(W) You are concatenating the number 19 with another number, which
2458could be a potential Year 2000 problem.
2459
bbce6d69
PP
2460=item Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
2461
774d564b
PP
2462(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal
2463strings, comment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated
2464as literal data. (You may have used different delimiters than the
7b8d334a 2465parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)
bbce6d69 2466
774d564b
PP
2467You probably wrote something like this:
2468
54310121 2469 @list = qw(
774d564b 2470 a # a comment
bbce6d69 2471 b # another comment
774d564b 2472 );
bbce6d69
PP
2473
2474when you should have written this:
2475
774d564b 2476 @list = qw(
54310121
PP
2477 a
2478 b
774d564b
PP
2479 );
2480
2481If you really want comments, build your list the
2482old-fashioned way, with quotes and commas:
2483
2484 @list = (
2485 'a', # a comment
2486 'b', # another comment
2487 );
bbce6d69
PP
2488
2489=item Possible attempt to separate words with commas
2490
774d564b 2491(W) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore commas
68dc0745 2492aren't needed to separate the items. (You may have used different
774d564b
PP
2493delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently
2494used.)
bbce6d69 2495
54310121 2496You probably wrote something like this:
bbce6d69 2497
774d564b
PP
2498 qw! a, b, c !;
2499
2500which puts literal commas into some of the list items. Write it without
2501commas if you don't want them to appear in your data:
bbce6d69 2502
774d564b 2503 qw! a b c !;
bbce6d69 2504
a0d0e21e
LW
2505=item Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
2506
2507(F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.
2508Perl guesses a reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the
2509end of the buffer just in case. This sentinel byte got clobbered, and
2510Perl assumes that memory is now corrupted. See L<perlfunc/ioctl>.
2511
2512=item Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
2513
2514(S) The old irregular construct
cb1a09d0 2515
a0d0e21e
LW
2516 open FOO || die;
2517
2518is now misinterpreted as
2519
2520 open(FOO || die);
2521
68dc0745
PP
2522because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary
2523and list operators. (The old open was a little of both.) You must
2524put parentheses around the filehandle, or use the new "or" operator
2525instead of "||".
a0d0e21e 2526
3cdd684c
TP
2527=item Premature end of script headers
2528
2529See Server error.
2530
9a7dcd9c 2531=item print() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2532
2533(W) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime before now.
2534Check your logic flow.
2535
9a7dcd9c 2536=item printf() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2537
2538(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2539Check your logic flow.
2540
3fe9a6f1 2541=item Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
4633a7c4 2542
3fe9a6f1
PP
2543(S) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been declared
2544or defined with a different function prototype.
4633a7c4 2545
89ea2908
GA
2546=item Range iterator outside integer range
2547
2548(F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."
2549are outside the range which can be represented by integers internally.
2550One possible workaround is to force Perl to use magical string
2551increment by prepending "0" to your numbers.
2552
9a7dcd9c 2553=item readline() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2554
2555(W) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime before now.
2556Check your logic flow.
2557
4ad56ec9
IZ
2558=item realloc() of freed memory ignored
2559
2560(S) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had already
2561been freed.
2562
a0d0e21e
LW
2563=item Reallocation too large: %lx
2564
54310121 2565(F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e
LW
2566
2567=item Recompile perl with B<-D>DEBUGGING to use B<-D> switch
2568
2569(F) You can't use the B<-D> option unless the code to produce the
2570desired output is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead,
2571which is why it's currently left out of your copy.
2572
3e0ccd42 2573=item Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
a0d0e21e
LW
2574
2575(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used. Probably indicates
2576an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2577
3e0ccd42
JP
2578=item Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method '%s' in package '%s'
2579
2580(F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking a
2581method. Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.
2582
1930e939
TP
2583=item Reference found where even-sized list expected
2584
2585(W) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list with
2586an even number of elements (for assignment to a hash). This
2587usually means that you used the anon hash constructor when you meant
2588to use parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value B<pairs>.
7b8d334a
GS
2589
2590 %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, }; # WRONG
2591 %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ]; # WRONG
2592 %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, ); # right
2593 %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 ); # also fine
2594
810b8aa5
GS
2595=item Reference is already weak
2596
2597(W) You have attempted to weaken a reference that is already weak.
2598Doing so has no effect.
2599
a0d0e21e
LW
2600=item Reference miscount in sv_replace()
2601
2602(W) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with a
2603reference count of other than 1.
2604
fb73857a
PP
2605=item regexp *+ operand could be empty
2606
2607(F) The part of the regexp subject to either the * or + quantifier
2608could match an empty string.
2609
a0d0e21e
LW
2610=item regexp memory corruption
2611
2612(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
2613expression compiler gave it.
2614
2615=item regexp out of space
2616
2617(P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it earlier.
2618
a0d0e21e
LW
2619=item Reversed %s= operator
2620
2621(W) You wrote your assignment operator backwards. The = must always
2622comes last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.
2623
2624=item Runaway format
2625
2626(F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it
2627produced 200 lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the
2628199th line. Apparently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
2629themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar variables), or by
2630shifting or popping (for array variables). See L<perlform>.
2631
2632=item Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
2633
a6006777 2634(W) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
a0d0e21e 2635an array. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
8b1a09fc
PP
2636The difference is that C<$foo[&bar]> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2637assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo[&bar]> behaves
a0d0e21e 2638like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
5f05dabc 2639subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
a0d0e21e 2640
748a9306 2641On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array
5f05dabc 2642element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
748a9306
LW
2643Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2644L<perlref>.
2645
a6006777
PP
2646=item Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
2647
2648(W) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
2649a hash. Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
2650The difference is that C<$foo{&bar}> always behaves like a scalar, both when
2651assigning to it and when evaluating its argument, while C<@foo{&bar}> behaves
2652like a list when you assign to it, and provides a list context to its
2653subscript, which can do weird things if you're expecting only one subscript.
2654
2655On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash
2656element as a list, you need to look into how references work, because
2657Perl will not magically convert between scalars and lists for you. See
2658L<perlref>.
2659
a0d0e21e
LW
2660=item Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
2661
54310121
PP
2662(F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid
2663or setgid bit set. This doesn't make much sense.
a0d0e21e
LW
2664
2665=item Search pattern not terminated
2666
2667(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{}
2668construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2669Missing the leading C<$> from a variable C<$m> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 2670
96e4d5b1 2671=item %sseek() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2672
96e4d5b1
PP
2673(W) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a filehandle that
2674was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2675
2676=item select not implemented
2677
2678(F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.
2679
2680=item sem%s not implemented
2681
2682(F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.
2683
2684=item semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
2685
2686(S) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a scalar
2687that had previously been marked as free.
2688
2689=item Semicolon seems to be missing
2690
2691(W) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing semicolon,
2692or possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.
2693
69282e91 2694=item send() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2695
9a7dcd9c 2696(W) The socket you're sending to got itself closed sometime before now.
a0d0e21e
LW
2697Check your logic flow.
2698
1b1626e4 2699=item Sequence (? incomplete
7b8d334a 2700
1b1626e4
G
2701(F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?.
2702See L<perlre>.
2703
a0d0e21e
LW
2704=item Sequence (?#... not terminated
2705
2706(F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing
5f05dabc 2707parenthesis. Embedded parentheses aren't allowed. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2708
2709=item Sequence (?%s...) not implemented
2710
2711(F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved
2712but has not yet been written. See L<perlre>.
2713
2714=item Sequence (?%s...) not recognized
2715
2716(F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.
2717See L<perlre>.
2718
a5f75d66
AD
2719=item Server error
2720
3cdd684c
TP
2721This is the error message generally seen in a browser window when trying
2722to run a CGI program (including SSI) over the web. The actual error
2723text varies widely from server to server. The most frequently-seen
2724variants are "500 Server error", "Method (something) not permitted",
2725"Document contains no data", "Premature end of script headers", and
2726"Did not produce a valid header".
9607fc9c
PP
2727
2728B<This is a CGI error, not a Perl error>.
2729
2730You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the user
2731CGI is running the script under (which is probably not the user account you
2732tested it under), does not rely on any environment variables (like PATH)
2733from the user it isn't running under, and isn't in a location where the CGI
2734server can't find it, basically, more or less. Please see the following
2735for more information:
2736
be94a901
GS
2737 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/idiots-guide.html
2738 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/doc/FAQs/cgi/perl-cgi-faq.html
9607fc9c
PP
2739 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/www/cgi-faq
2740 http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/cgi/interface.html
2741 http://www-genome.wi.mit.edu/WWW/faqs/www-security-faq.html
a5f75d66 2742
be94a901
GS
2743You should also look at L<perlfaq9>.
2744
a0d0e21e
LW
2745=item setegid() not implemented
2746
8b1a09fc 2747(F) You tried to assign to C<$)>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2748the setegid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2749think so.
2750
2751=item seteuid() not implemented
2752
8b1a09fc 2753(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<gt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2754the seteuid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2755think so.
2756
81777298
GS
2757=item setpgrp can't take arguments
2758
2759(F) Your system has the setpgrp() from BSD 4.2, which takes no arguments,
2760unlike POSIX setpgid(), which takes a process ID and process group ID.
2761
a0d0e21e
LW
2762=item setrgid() not implemented
2763
8b1a09fc 2764(F) You tried to assign to C<$(>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2765the setrgid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2766think so.
2767
2768=item setruid() not implemented
2769
1f8d2005 2770(F) You tried to assign to C<$E<lt>>, and your operating system doesn't support
a0d0e21e
LW
2771the setruid() system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't
2772think so.
2773
2774=item Setuid/gid script is writable by world
2775
2776(F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the world,
2777because the world might have written on it already.
2778
2779=item shm%s not implemented
2780
2781(F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.
2782
69282e91 2783=item shutdown() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2784
2785(W) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket. Seems a bit superfluous.
2786
f86702cc 2787=item SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
a0d0e21e
LW
2788
2789(W) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist. Perhaps you
2790put it into the wrong package?
2791
2792=item sort is now a reserved word
2793
2794(F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.
2795But before sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.
2796
2797=item Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
2798
2799(F) A sort comparison routine must return a number. You probably blew
4633a7c4 2800it by not using C<E<lt>=E<gt>> or C<cmp>, or by not using them correctly.
a0d0e21e
LW
2801See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2802
2803=item Sort subroutine didn't return single value
2804
2805(F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more
2806or less than one element. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
2807
2808=item Split loop
2809
2810(P) The split was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a split shouldn't iterate
2811more times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)
2812See L<perlfunc/split>.
2813
8b1a09fc 2814=item Stat on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2815
2816(W) You tried to use the stat() function (or an equivalent file test)
54310121 2817on a filehandle that was either never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e
LW
2818
2819=item Statement unlikely to be reached
2820
2821(W) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a die().
2822This is almost always an error, because exec() never returns unless
2823there was a failure. You probably wanted to use system() instead,
2824which does return. To suppress this warning, put the exec() in a block
2825by itself.
2826
17feb5d5
DD
2827=item Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression
2828
2829(W) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place where it
2830makes no sense, such as on a zero-width assertion.
2831Try putting the quantifier inside the assertion instead. For example,
2832the way to match "abc" provided that it is followed by three
2833repetitions of "xyz" is C</abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/>, not C</abc(?=xyz){3}/>.
2834
e7ea3e70
IZ
2835=item Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
2836
2837(P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation stubs.
2838Stubs should never be implicitely created, but explicit calls to C<can>
2839may break this.
2840
a0d0e21e
LW
2841=item Subroutine %s redefined
2842
2843(W) You redefined a subroutine. To suppress this warning, say
2844
2845 {
4438c4b7 2846 no warnings;
a0d0e21e
LW
2847 eval "sub name { ... }";
2848 }
2849
2850=item Substitution loop
2851
2852(P) The substitution was looping infinitely. (Obviously, a
2853substitution shouldn't iterate more times than there are characters of
68dc0745 2854input, which is what happened.) See the discussion of substitution in
5f05dabc 2855L<perlop/"Quote and Quote-like Operators">.
a0d0e21e
LW
2856
2857=item Substitution pattern not terminated
2858
2859(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2860construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2861Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2862
2863=item Substitution replacement not terminated
2864
2865(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a s/// or s{}{}
2866construct. Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.
fb73857a 2867Missing the leading C<$> from variable C<$s> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e
LW
2868
2869=item substr outside of string
2870
3e3baf6d
TB
2871(S),(W) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of a
2872string. That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the
2873length of the string. See L<perlfunc/substr>. This warning is
2874mandatory if substr is used in an lvalue context (as the left hand side
2875of an assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).
a0d0e21e 2876
f86702cc 2877=item suidperl is no longer needed since %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2878
2879(F) Your Perl was compiled with B<-D>SETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but a
2880version of the setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.
2881
85ab1d1d
JH
2882=item switching effective %s is not implemented
2883
2884(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, we cannot switch the
2885real and effective uids or gids.
2886
a0d0e21e
LW
2887=item syntax error
2888
2889(F) Probably means you had a syntax error. Common reasons include:
2890
2891 A keyword is misspelled.
2892 A semicolon is missing.
2893 A comma is missing.
2894 An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
2895 An opening or closing brace is missing.
2896 A closing quote is missing.
2897
2898Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax
2899error giving more information. (Sometimes it helps to turn on B<-w>.)
2900The error message itself often tells you where it was in the line when
2901it decided to give up. Sometimes the actual error is several tokens
5f05dabc 2902before this, because Perl is good at understanding random input.
a0d0e21e
LW
2903Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon
2904the only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call
2905C<perl -c> repeatedly, chopping away half the program each time to see
2906if the error went away. Sort of the cybernetic version of S<20 questions>.
2907
cb1a09d0
AD
2908=item syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
2909
8b1a09fc 2910(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell
3a52c276 2911instead of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script
cb1a09d0
AD
2912into Perl yourself.
2913
6087ac44 2914=item System V %s is not implemented on this machine
a0d0e21e 2915
6087ac44
JH
2916(F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem",
2917"shm", or "msg" but that System V IPC is not implemented in your
2918machine. In some machines the functionality can exist but be
2919unconfigured. Consult your system support.
a0d0e21e 2920
69282e91 2921=item syswrite() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2922
2923(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
2924Check your logic flow.
2925
fc36a67e
PP
2926=item Target of goto is too deeply nested
2927
2928(F) You tried to use C<goto> to reach a label that was too deeply
2929nested for Perl to reach. Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.
2930
8903cb82 2931=item tell() on unopened file
a0d0e21e 2932
8903cb82
PP
2933(W) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that was either
2934never opened or has since been closed.
a0d0e21e 2935
8b1a09fc 2936=item Test on unopened file E<lt>%sE<gt>
a0d0e21e
LW
2937
2938(W) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle that isn't
2939open. Check your logic. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
2940
2941=item That use of $[ is unsupported
2942
8b1a09fc 2943(F) Assignment to C<$[> is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted as
5f05dabc 2944a compiler directive. You may say only one of
a0d0e21e
LW
2945
2946 $[ = 0;
2947 $[ = 1;
2948 ...
2949 local $[ = 0;
2950 local $[ = 1;
2951 ...
2952
2953This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base
2954out from under another module inadvertently. See L<perlvar/$[>.
2955
2956=item The %s function is unimplemented
2957
2958The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according
2959to the probings of Configure.
2960
f86702cc 2961=item The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
a0d0e21e
LW
2962
2963(F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine,
2964probably because your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they
8b1a09fc 2965think the U.S. Government thinks it's a secret, or at least that they
a0d0e21e
LW
2966will continue to pretend that it is. And if you quote me on that, I
2967will deny it.
2968
2969=item The stat preceding C<-l _> wasn't an lstat
2970
2971(F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic linkhood
2972if the last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went past
2973the symlink to get to the real file. Use an actual filename instead.
2974
437784d6 2975=item This Perl can't reset CRTL environ elements (%s)
f675dbe5
CB
2976
2977=item This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s)
2978
2979(W) Warnings peculiar to VMS. You tried to change or delete an element
2980of the CRTL's internal environ array, but your copy of Perl wasn't
2981built with a CRTL that contained the setenv() function. You'll need to
2982rebuild Perl with a CRTL that does, or redefine F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see
2983L<perlvms>) so that the environ array isn't the target of the change to
2984%ENV which produced the warning.
2985
a0d0e21e
LW
2986=item times not implemented
2987
2988(F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times(). I suspect
2989you're not running on Unix.
2990
2991=item Too few args to syscall
2992
2993(F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the
2994system call to call, silly dilly.
2995
9607fc9c
PP
2996=item Too late for "B<-T>" option
2997
2998(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
8cc95fdb
PP
2999B<-T> option, but Perl was not invoked with B<-T> in its command line.
3000This is an error because, by the time Perl discovers a B<-T> in a
3001script, it's too late to properly taint everything from the environment.
3002So Perl gives up.
f86702cc 3003
9607fc9c
PP
3004If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!
3005mechanism (or its local equivalent), this error can usually be fixed
3006by editing the #! line so that the B<-T> option is a part of Perl's
3007first argument: e.g. change C<perl -n -T> to C<perl -T -n>.
f86702cc 3008
9607fc9c
PP
3009If the Perl script is being executed as C<perl scriptname>, then the
3010B<-T> option must appear on the command line: C<perl -T scriptname>.
f86702cc 3011
8cc95fdb
PP
3012=item Too late for "-%s" option
3013
3014(X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the
3015B<-M> or B<-m> option. This is an error because B<-M> and B<-m> options
3016are not intended for use inside scripts. Use the C<use> pragma instead.
3017
cb1a09d0
AD
3018=item Too many ('s
3019
3020=item Too many )'s
3021
3022(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
3023of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
3024Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 3025
a0d0e21e
LW
3026=item Too many args to syscall
3027
5f05dabc 3028(F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().
a0d0e21e
LW
3029
3030=item Too many arguments for %s
3031
3032(F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.
3033
3034=item trailing \ in regexp
3035
3036(F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash. Backslash
3037it. See L<perlre>.
3038
2c268ad5 3039=item Transliteration pattern not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
3040
3041(F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
fb73857a
PP
3042or y/// or y[][] construct. Missing the leading C<$> from variables
3043C<$tr> or C<$y> may cause this error.
a0d0e21e 3044
2c268ad5 3045=item Transliteration replacement not terminated
a0d0e21e
LW
3046
3047(F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][]
3048construct.
3049
3050=item truncate not implemented
3051
3052(F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that
3053Configure knows about.
3054
3055=item Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
3056
3057(F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a
8b1a09fc
PP
3058certain type. Arrays must be @NAME or C<@{EXPR}>. Hashes must be
3059%NAME or C<%{EXPR}>. No implicit dereferencing is allowed--use the
a0d0e21e
LW
3060{EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference. See L<perlref>.
3061
3062=item umask: argument is missing initial 0
3063
eec2d3df
GS
3064(W) A umask of 222 is incorrect. It should be 0222, because octal
3065literals always start with 0 in Perl, as in C.
3066
3067=item umask not implemented
3068
3069(F) Your machine doesn't implement the umask function and you tried
3070to use it to restrict permissions for yourself (EXPR & 0700).
a0d0e21e 3071
4633a7c4
LW
3072=item Unable to create sub named "%s"
3073
3074(F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.
3075
a0d0e21e
LW
3076=item Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
3077
3078(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many execution
3079contexts were entered and left.
3080
3081=item Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
3082
3083(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many
3084values were temporarily localized.
3085
3086=item Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
3087
3088(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many blocks
3089were entered and left.
3090
3091=item Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
3092
3093(W) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many mortal
3094scalars were allocated and freed.
3095
3096=item Undefined format "%s" called
3097
3098(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
3099another package? See L<perlform>.
3100
3101=item Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
3102
3103(F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps
3104it's in a different package? See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3105
3106=item Undefined subroutine &%s called
3107
3108(F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it
3109has since been undefined.
3110
3111=item Undefined subroutine called
3112
3113(F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined,
3114or if it was, it has since been undefined.
3115
3116=item Undefined subroutine in sort
3117
3118(F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem to
3119have been defined yet. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
3120
4633a7c4
LW
3121=item Undefined top format "%s" called
3122
3123(F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist. Perhaps it's really in
3124another package? See L<perlform>.
3125
20408e3c
GS
3126=item Undefined value assigned to typeglob
3127
3128(W) An undefined value was assigned to a typeglob, a la C<*foo = undef>.
3129This does nothing. It's possible that you really mean C<undef *foo>.
3130
a0d0e21e
LW
3131=item unexec of %s into %s failed!
3132
3133(F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason. See your local FSF
3134representative, who probably put it there in the first place.
3135
3136=item Unknown BYTEORDER
3137
5f05dabc 3138(F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte order.
a0d0e21e 3139
6170680b
IZ
3140=item Unknown open() mode '%s'
3141
437784d6 3142(F) The second argument of 3-argument open() is not among the list
6d0f518e
GS
3143of valid modes: C<E<lt>>, C<E<gt>>, C<E<gt>E<gt>>, C<+E<lt>>,
3144C<+E<gt>>, C<+E<gt>E<gt>>, C<-|>, C<|E<45>>.
6170680b 3145
f675dbe5
CB
3146=item Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s
3147
3148(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl was reading values for %ENV before
3149iterating over it, and someone else stuck a message in the stream of
3150data Perl expected. Someone's very confused, or perhaps trying to
3151subvert Perl's population of %ENV for nefarious purposes.
3152
a0d0e21e
LW
3153=item unmatched () in regexp
3154
3155(F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular
3156expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding
5f05dabc 3157the matching parenthesis. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 3158
d98d5fff 3159=item Unmatched right %s bracket
a0d0e21e 3160
d98d5fff
GS
3161(F) The lexer counted more closing curly or square brackets than
3162opening ones, so you're probably missing a matching opening bracket.
3163As a general rule, you'll find the missing one (so to speak) near the
3164place you were last editing.
a0d0e21e
LW
3165
3166=item unmatched [] in regexp
3167
3168(F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to
3169include a closing bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it first.
3170See L<perlre>.
3171
3172=item Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
3173
54310121 3174(W) You used a bareword that might someday be claimed as a reserved word.
a0d0e21e
LW
3175It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert
3176an underbar into it. You might also declare it as a subroutine.
3177
54310121 3178=item Unrecognized character %s
a0d0e21e 3179
54310121
PP
3180(F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the specified character
3181in your Perl script (or eval). Perhaps you tried to run a compressed
3182script, a binary program, or a directory as a Perl program.
a0d0e21e 3183
c9f97d15
IZ
3184=item Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
3185
3186(W) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized
3187by Perl.
3188
a0d0e21e
LW
3189=item Unrecognized signal name "%s"
3190
3191(F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not recognized.
3192Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.
3193
90248788 3194=item Unrecognized switch: -%s (-h will show valid options)
a0d0e21e
LW
3195
3196(F) You specified an illegal option to Perl. Don't do that.
3197(If you think you didn't do that, check the #! line to see if it's
3198supplying the bad switch on your behalf.)
3199
3200=item Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
3201
3202(W) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that operation
3203failed, PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline, PROBABLY
54310121 3204because you forgot to chop() or chomp() it off. See L<perlfunc/chomp>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3205
3206=item Unsupported directory function "%s" called
3207
3208(F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and readdir().
3209
54310121
PP
3210=item Unsupported function fork
3211
3212(F) Your version of executable does not support forking.
3213
3214Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different flavors of
3215Perl executables, some of which may support fork, some not. Try changing
3216the name you call Perl by to C<perl_>, C<perl__>, and so on.
3217
a0d0e21e
LW
3218=item Unsupported function %s
3219
7b8d334a 3220(F) This machine doesn't implement the indicated function, apparently.
a0d0e21e
LW
3221At least, Configure doesn't think so.
3222
3223=item Unsupported socket function "%s" called
3224
3225(F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or at
3226least that's what Configure thought.
3227
8b1a09fc 3228=item Unterminated E<lt>E<gt> operator
a0d0e21e
LW
3229
3230(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
3231a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not
3232finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in
3233the line, and you really meant a "less than".
3234
09bef843
SB
3235=item Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list
3236
3237(F) The lexer saw an opening (left) parenthesis character while parsing an
3238attribute list, but the matching closing (right) parenthesis
3239character was not found. You may need to add (or remove) a backslash
3240character to get your parentheses to balance. See L<attributes>.
3241
3242=item Unterminated attribute list
3243
3244(F) The lexer found something other than a simple identifier at the start
3245of an attribute, and it wasn't a semicolon or the start of a
3246block. Perhaps you terminated the parameter list of the previous attribute
3247too soon. See L<attributes>.
3248
a0d0e21e
LW
3249=item Use of $# is deprecated
3250
8b1a09fc 3251(D) This was an ill-advised attempt to emulate a poorly defined B<awk> feature.
a0d0e21e
LW
3252Use an explicit printf() or sprintf() instead.
3253
3254=item Use of $* is deprecated
3255
4a6725af 3256(D) This variable magically turned on multi-line pattern matching, both for
a0d0e21e
LW
3257you and for any luckless subroutine that you happen to call. You should
3258use the new C<//m> and C<//s> modifiers now to do that without the dangerous
3259action-at-a-distance effects of C<$*>.
3260
748a9306
LW
3261=item Use of %s in printf format not supported
3262
5f05dabc
PP
3263(F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible from
3264only C. This usually means there's a better way to do it in Perl.
748a9306 3265
8b1a09fc 3266=item Use of bare E<lt>E<lt> to mean E<lt>E<lt>"" is deprecated
4633a7c4
LW
3267
3268(D) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted form if you
3fe9a6f1 3269wish to use an empty line as the terminator of the here-document.
4633a7c4 3270
a0d0e21e
LW
3271=item Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
3272
3273(D) It makes a lot of work for the compiler when you clobber a
3274subroutine's argument list, so it's better if you assign the results of
3275a split() explicitly to an array (or list).
3276
dc848c6f
PP
3277=item Use of inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is deprecated
3278
5cd24f17
PP
3279(D) As an (ahem) accidental feature, C<AUTOLOAD> subroutines are looked
3280up as methods (using the C<@ISA> hierarchy) even when the subroutines to
3281be autoloaded were called as plain functions (e.g. C<Foo::bar()>), not
7b8d334a 3282as methods (e.g. C<Foo-E<gt>bar()> or C<$obj-E<gt>bar()>).
dc848c6f
PP
3283
3284This bug will be rectified in Perl 5.005, which will use method lookup
3285only for methods' C<AUTOLOAD>s. However, there is a significant base
3286of existing code that may be using the old behavior. So, as an
3287interim step, Perl 5.004 issues an optional warning when non-methods
3288use inherited C<AUTOLOAD>s.
3289
3290The simple rule is: Inheritance will not work when autoloading
3291non-methods. The simple fix for old code is: In any module that used to
3292depend on inheriting C<AUTOLOAD> for non-methods from a base class named
3293C<BaseClass>, execute C<*AUTOLOAD = \&BaseClass::AUTOLOAD> during startup.
3294
fb73857a
PP
3295In code that currently says C<use AutoLoader; @ISA = qw(AutoLoader);> you
3296should remove AutoLoader from @ISA and change C<use AutoLoader;> to
7b8d334a 3297C<use AutoLoader 'AUTOLOAD';>.
fb73857a 3298
85b81015
LW
3299=item Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated
3300
3301(D) The indicated bareword is a reserved word. Future versions of perl
3302may use it as a keyword, so you're better off either explicitly quoting
3303the word in a manner appropriate for its context of use, or using a
3304different name altogether. The warning can be suppressed for subroutine
3305names by either adding a C<&> prefix, or using a package qualifier,
3306e.g. C<&our()>, or C<Foo::our()>.
3307
dc848c6f
PP
3308=item Use of %s is deprecated
3309
3310(D) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for use, generally
3311because there's a better way to do it, and also because the old way has
3312bad side effects.
3313
cc95b072 3314=item Use of uninitialized value%s
a0d0e21e
LW
3315
3316(W) An undefined value was used as if it were already defined. It was
3317interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a mistake. To suppress this
5311ebfa 3318warning assign a defined value to your variables.
a0d0e21e 3319
8202fd39
G
3320=item Useless use of "re" pragma
3321
3322(W) You did C<use re;> without any arguments. That isn't very useful.
3323
a0d0e21e
LW
3324=item Useless use of %s in void context
3325
3326(W) You did something without a side effect in a context that does nothing
3327with the return value, such as a statement that doesn't return a value
3328from a block, or the left side of a scalar comma operator. Very often
3329this points not to stupidity on your part, but a failure of Perl to parse
3330your program the way you thought it would. For example, you'd get this
3331if you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence and said
3332
3333 $one, $two = 1, 2;
3334
3335when you meant to say
3336
3337 ($one, $two) = (1, 2);
3338
748a9306
LW
3339Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a list
3340reference when you should be using square or curly brackets, for
3341example, if you say
3342
3343 $array = (1,2);
3344
3345when you should have said
3346
3347 $array = [1,2];
3348
3349The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar value,
3350while parentheses do not. So when a parenthesized list is evaluated in
3351a scalar context, the comma is treated like C's comma operator, which
3352throws away the left argument, which is not what you want. See
3353L<perlref> for more on this.
3354
55497cff
PP
3355=item untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
3356
3357(W) A copy of the object returned from C<tie> (or C<tied>) was still
3358valid when C<untie> was called.
3359
68dc0745 3360=item Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined()
a6006777 3361
68dc0745
PP
3362(W) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*> (glob), C<each()>,
3363or C<readdir()> as a boolean value. Each of these constructs can return a
3364value of "0"; that would make the conditional expression false, which is
3365probably not what you intended. When using these constructs in conditional
3366expressions, test their values with the C<defined> operator.
a6006777 3367
f675dbe5
CB
3368=item Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long
3369
3370(W) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the value of an %ENV
3371element from a CLI symbol table, and found a resultant string longer
3372than 1024 characters. The return value has been truncated to 1024
3373characters.
3374
9607fc9c 3375=item Variable "%s" is not imported%s
4633a7c4
LW
3376
3377(F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable
3378that you apparently thought was imported from another module, because
3379something else of the same name (usually a subroutine) is exported
3380by that module. It usually means you put the wrong funny character
3381on the front of your variable.
3382
44a8e56a
PP
3383=item Variable "%s" may be unavailable
3384
3385(W) An inner (nested) I<anonymous> subroutine is inside a I<named>
3386subroutine, and outside that is another subroutine; and the anonymous
3387(innermost) subroutine is referencing a lexical variable defined in
3388the outermost subroutine. For example:
3389
3390 sub outermost { my $a; sub middle { sub { $a } } }
3391
3392If the anonymous subroutine is called or referenced (directly or
3393indirectly) from the outermost subroutine, it will share the variable
3394as you would expect. But if the anonymous subroutine is called or
3395referenced when the outermost subroutine is not active, it will see
3396the value of the shared variable as it was before and during the
3397*first* call to the outermost subroutine, which is probably not what
3398you want.
3399
3400In these circumstances, it is usually best to make the middle
3401subroutine anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. Perl has specific
3402support for shared variables in nested anonymous subroutines; a named
3403subroutine in between interferes with this feature.
3404
3405=item Variable "%s" will not stay shared
3406
3407(W) An inner (nested) I<named> subroutine is referencing a lexical
3408variable defined in an outer subroutine.
3409
3410When the inner subroutine is called, it will probably see the value of
3411the outer subroutine's variable as it was before and during the
3412*first* call to the outer subroutine; in this case, after the first
3413call to the outer subroutine is complete, the inner and outer
3414subroutines will no longer share a common value for the variable. In
3415other words, the variable will no longer be shared.
3416
3417Furthermore, if the outer subroutine is anonymous and references a
3418lexical variable outside itself, then the outer and inner subroutines
3419will I<never> share the given variable.
3420
3421This problem can usually be solved by making the inner subroutine
3422anonymous, using the C<sub {}> syntax. When inner anonymous subs that
3423reference variables in outer subroutines are called or referenced,
54310121 3424they are automatically rebound to the current values of such
44a8e56a
PP
3425variables.
3426
f86702cc 3427=item Variable syntax
cb1a09d0
AD
3428
3429(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
3a52c276
CS
3430of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
3431Perl yourself.
cb1a09d0 3432
084610c0
GS
3433=item Version number must be a constant number
3434
3435(P) The attempt to translate a C<use Module n.n LIST> statement into
3436its equivalent C<BEGIN> block found an internal inconsistency with
3437the version number.
3438
3e6e419a
JH
3439=item perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3440
3441(S) The whole warning message will look something like:
3442
3443 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
3444 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
3445 LC_ALL = "En_US",
3446 LANG = (unset)
3447 are supported and installed on your system.
3448 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
3449
3450Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies. In the above the
3451settings were that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.
3452This error means that Perl detected that you and/or your system
3453administrator have set up the so-called variable system but Perl could
3454not use those settings. This was not dead serious, fortunately: there
3455is a "default locale" called "C" that Perl can and will use, the
3456script will be run. Before you really fix the problem, however, you
3457will get the same error message each time you run Perl. How to really
3458fix the problem can be found in L<perllocale> section B<LOCALE PROBLEMS>.
3459
7e1af8bc 3460=item Warning: something's wrong
5f05dabc
PP
3461
3462(W) You passed warn() an empty string (the equivalent of C<warn "">) or
3463you called it with no args and C<$_> was empty.
3464
f86702cc 3465=item Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly
a0d0e21e 3466
8b1a09fc 3467(S) The implicit close() done by an open() got an error indication on the
5f05dabc 3468close(). This usually indicates your file system ran out of disk space.
a0d0e21e 3469
5f05dabc 3470=item Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous
a0d0e21e
LW
3471
3472(S) You wrote a unary operator followed by something that looks like a
3473binary operator that could also have been interpreted as a term or
3474unary operator. For instance, if you know that the rand function
3475has a default argument of 1.0, and you write
3476
3477 rand + 5;
3478
3479you may THINK you wrote the same thing as
3480
3481 rand() + 5;
3482
3483but in actual fact, you got
3484
3485 rand(+5);
3486
5f05dabc 3487So put in parentheses to say what you really mean.
a0d0e21e 3488
9a7dcd9c 3489=item write() on closed filehandle %s
a0d0e21e
LW
3490
3491(W) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
3492Check your logic flow.
3493
3494=item X outside of string
3495
3496(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position before
3497the beginning of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3498
3499=item x outside of string
3500
3501(F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position after
3502the end of the string being unpacked. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
3503
3504=item Xsub "%s" called in sort
3505
3506(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
3507
3508=item Xsub called in sort
3509
3510(F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.
3511
3512=item You can't use C<-l> on a filehandle
3513
3514(F) A filehandle represents an opened file, and when you opened the file it
3515already went past any symlink you are presumably trying to look for.
3516Use a filename instead.
3517
3518=item YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
3519
5f05dabc 3520(F) And you probably never will, because you probably don't have the
a0d0e21e
LW
3521sources to your kernel, and your vendor probably doesn't give a rip
3522about what you want. Your best bet is to use the wrapsuid script in
3523the eg directory to put a setuid C wrapper around your script.
3524
3525=item You need to quote "%s"
3526
3527(W) You assigned a bareword as a signal handler name. Unfortunately, you
3528already have a subroutine of that name declared, which means that Perl 5
3529will try to call the subroutine when the assignment is executed, which is
3530probably not what you want. (If it IS what you want, put an & in front.)
3531
69282e91 3532=item %cetsockopt() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e
LW
3533
3534(W) You tried to get or set a socket option on a closed socket.
3535Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
9a7dcd9c 3536See L<perlfunc/getsockopt> and L<perlfunc/setsockopt>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3537
3538=item \1 better written as $1
3539
3540(W) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables. The use
5f05dabc 3541of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
a0d0e21e
LW
3542substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
3543because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better
3544if there are more than 9 backreferences.
3545
8b1a09fc 3546=item '|' and 'E<lt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3547
3548(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3549found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to redirect STDIN using
8b1a09fc 3550'E<lt>'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
748a9306 3551
8b1a09fc 3552=item '|' and 'E<gt>' may not both be specified on command line
748a9306
LW
3553
3554(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line redirection, and
3555thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and into a pipe to another
3556command. You need to choose one or the other, though nothing's stopping you
3557from piping into a program or Perl script which 'splits' output into two
3558streams, such as
3559
3560 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
3561 while (<STDIN>) {
3562 print;
3563 print OUT;
3564 }
3565 close OUT;
3566
774d564b 3567=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
33c8a3fe 3568
774d564b
PP
3569(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
3570version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3571
3572=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
3573
dc848c6f 3574(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
33c8a3fe
IZ
3575
3576 prefix1;prefix2
3577
3578or
3579
3580 prefix1 prefix2
3581
dc848c6f
PP
3582with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix
3583of a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error
3584may appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
3585"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3586
3587=item PERL_SH_DIR too long
3588
54310121 3589(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the
dc848c6f 3590C<sh>-shell in. See "PERL_SH_DIR" in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe
IZ
3591
3592=item Process terminated by SIG%s
3593
3594(W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix
dc848c6f
PP
3595applications die in silence. It is considered a feature of the OS/2
3596port. One can easily disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see
3597L<perlipc/"Signals">. See also "Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT"
3598in F<README.os2>.
33c8a3fe 3599
a0d0e21e
LW
3600=back
3601
56e90b21 3602=cut