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Fix for README.aix and XL C/C++ V11
[perl5.git] / README.aix
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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
4
5=head1 NAME
6
f19b8045 7README.aix - Perl version 5 on IBM AIX (UNIX) systems
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8
9=head1 DESCRIPTION
10
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11This document describes various features of IBM's UNIX operating
12system AIX that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl)
a318903f 13is compiled and/or runs.
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14
15=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on AIX
16
f19b8045 17For information on compilers on older versions of AIX, see L<Compiling
c5252117 18Perl 5 on older AIX versions up to 4.3.3>.
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19
20When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship
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21an ANSI compliant C compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of
22gcc for AIX are widely available. A version of gcc is also included in
23the AIX Toolbox which is shipped with AIX.
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24
25=head2 Supported Compilers
26
27Currently all versions of IBM's "xlc", "xlc_r", "cc", "cc_r" or
c5252117 28"vac" ANSI/C compiler will work for building Perl if that compiler
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29works on your system.
30
c5252117 31If you plan to link Perl to any module that requires thread-support,
e1051f11 32like DBD::Oracle, it is better to use the _r version of the compiler.
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33This will not build a threaded Perl, but a thread-enabled Perl. See
34also L<Threaded Perl> later on.
e1051f11 35
618c9ef5 36As of writing (2010-05) only the I<IBM XL C for AIX> or I<IBM XL C/C++
f19b8045 37for AIX> compiler is supported by IBM on AIX 5L/6.1.
7fabfece 38
f19b8045 39The following compiler versions are currently supported by IBM:
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f19b8045 41 IBM XL C and IBM XL C/C++ V8, V9, V10
7fabfece 42
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43The XL C for AIX is integrated in the XL C/C++ for AIX compiler and
44therefore also supported.
7fabfece 45
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46If you choose XL C/C++ V9 you need APAR IZ35785 installed
47otherwise the integrated SDBM_File do not compile correctly due
48to an optimization bug. You can circumvent this problem by
49adding -qipa to the optimization flags (-Doptimize='-O -qipa').
50The PTF for APAR IZ35785 which solves this problem is available
e3c125ff 51from IBM (April 2009 PTF for XL C/C++ Enterprise Edition for AIX, V9.0).
7fabfece 52
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53If you choose XL C/C++ V11 you need the April 2010 PTF installed
54otherwise you will not get a working Perl version.
55
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56Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.
57The former is recommended, as not only it can compile Perl with no
58difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later
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59that require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
60
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61If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
62complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
63details. Please report any hoops you had to jump through to the
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64development team.
65
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66=head2 Incompatibility with AIX Toolbox lib gdbm
67
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68If the AIX Toolbox version of lib gdbm < 1.8.3-5 is installed on your
69system then Perl will not work. This library contains the header files
70/opt/freeware/include/gdbm/dbm.h|ndbm.h which conflict with the AIX
71system versions. The lib gdbm will be automatically removed from the
72wanted libraries if the presence of one of these two header files is
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73detected. If you want to build Perl with GDBM support then please install
74at least gdbm-devel-1.8.3-5 (or higher).
75
76=head2 Perl 5.12 was successfully compiled and tested on:
77
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78 AIX Level | Compiler Level | w th | w/o th
79 ---------------------+---------------------------+------+-------
80 5.1 TL9 32 bit | XL C/C++ V7 | OK | OK
81 5.1 TL9 64 bit | XL C/C++ V7 | OK | OK
82 5.2 TL10 SP8 32 bit | XL C/C++ V8 | OK | OK
83 5.2 TL10 SP8 32 bit | gcc 3.2.2 | OK | OK
84 5.2 TL10 SP8 64 bit | XL C/C++ V8 | OK | OK
85 5.3 TL8 SP8 32 bit | XL C/C++ V9 + IZ35785 | OK | OK
86 5.3 TL8 SP8 32 bit | gcc 4.2.4 | OK | OK
87 5.3 TL8 SP8 64 bit | XL C/C++ V9 + IZ35785 | OK | OK
88 5.3 TL10 SP3 32 bit | XL C/C++ V11 + April 2010 | OK | OK
89 5.3 TL10 SP3 64 bit | XL C/C++ V11 + April 2010 | OK | OK
90 6.1 TL1 SP7 32 bit | XL C/C++ V10 | OK | OK
91 6.1 TL1 SP7 64 bit | XL C/C++ V10 | OK | OK
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92
93 w th = with thread support
94 w/o th = without thread support
e3c125ff 95 OK = tested
fe5460cc 96
f19b8045 97Successfully tested means that all "make test" runs finish with a
e37e7c83 98result of 100% OK. All tests were conducted with -Duseshrplib set.
fe5460cc 99
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100All tests were conducted on the oldest supported AIX technology level
101with the latest support package applied. If the tested AIX version is
102out of support (AIX 4.3.3, 5.1, 5.2) then the last available support
103level was used.
104
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105=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX
106
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107Starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.x / 5.10.x / 5.12.x)
108and AIX 4.3 or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface
109in the so called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface
110that was used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases
1114.2 and earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with
112compiled modules from earlier Perl releases. The change was made to make
113Perl more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are
114using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of
115C++ code with static constructors and destructors in Perl extensions,
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116which was not possible using the emulated interface.
117
118It is highly recommended to use the new interface.
119
120=head2 Using Large Files with Perl
121
122Should yield no problems.
123
124=head2 Threaded Perl
125
81189653 126Should yield no problems with AIX 5.1 / 5.2 / 5.3 and 6.1.
7fabfece 127
81189653 128IBM uses the AIX system Perl (V5.6.0 on AIX 5.1 and V5.8.2 on
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129AIX 5.2 / 5.3 and 6.1; V5.8.8 on AIX 5.3 TL11 and AIX 6.1 TL4) for
130some AIX system scripts. If you switch the links in /usr/bin from the
7fabfece 131AIX system Perl (/usr/opt/perl5) to the newly build Perl then you
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132get the same features as with the IBM AIX system Perl if the threaded
133options are used.
7fabfece 134
c5252117 135The threaded Perl build works also on AIX 5.1 but the IBM Perl
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136build (Perl v5.6.0) is not threaded on AIX 5.1.
137
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138Perl 5.12 is not compatible with the IBM fileset perl.libext.
139
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140=head2 64-bit Perl
141
142If your AIX system is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit
143configurations to work. If you want to use 64-bit Perl on AIX 6.1
f19b8045 144you need an APAR for a libc.a bug which affects (n)dbm_XXX functions.
81189653 145The APAR number for this problem is IZ39077.
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146
147If you need more memory (larger data segment) for your Perl programs you
148can set:
149
150 /etc/security/limits
151 default: (or your user)
e3c125ff 152 data = -1 (default is 262144 * 512 byte)
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153
154With the default setting the size is limited to 128MB.
f19b8045 155The -1 removes this limit. If the "make test" fails please change
e37e7c83 156your /etc/security/limits as stated above.
7fabfece 157
e1051f11 158=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1 (threaded/32-bit)
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159
160With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which
161passes all make tests in threaded 32-bit mode, which is the default
c5252117 162configuration for the Perl builds that AIX ships with.
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163
164 rm config.sh
165 ./Configure \
166 -d \
167 -Dcc=cc_r \
168 -Duseshrplib \
169 -Dusethreads \
170 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
171
fe5460cc 172The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
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173IBM AIX system Perl installation.
174
175=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1 (32-bit)
176
fe5460cc 177With the following options you get a Perl version which passes
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178all make tests in 32-bit mode.
179
180 rm config.sh
181 ./Configure \
182 -d \
183 -Dcc=cc_r \
184 -Duseshrplib \
185 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
186
187The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
188IBM AIX system Perl installation.
189
e1051f11 190=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1 (threaded/64-bit)
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191
192With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which
193passes all make tests in 64-bit mode.
194
195 export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell)
196
197 rm config.sh
198 ./Configure \
199 -d \
200 -Dcc=cc_r \
201 -Duseshrplib \
202 -Dusethreads \
203 -Duse64bitall \
204 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
205
206=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1(64-bit)
207
f19b8045 208With the following options you get a Perl version which passes all
fe5460cc 209make tests in 64-bit mode.
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210
211 export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell)
e3c125ff 212
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213 rm config.sh
214 ./Configure \
215 -d \
216 -Dcc=cc_r \
217 -Duseshrplib \
218 -Duse64bitall \
219 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
220
f19b8045 221The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
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222IBM AIX system Perl installation.
223
f19b8045 224If you choose gcc to compile 64-bit Perl then you need to add the
e37e7c83 225following option:
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226
227 -Dcc='gcc -maix64'
228
229
230=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on older AIX versions up to 4.3.3
231
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232Due to the fact that AIX 4.3.3 reached end-of-service in December 31,
2332003 this information is provided as is. The Perl versions prior to
234Perl 5.8.9 could be compiled on AIX up to 4.3.3 with the following
fe5460cc 235settings (your mileage may vary):
7fabfece 236
d5d9880c 237When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship
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238an ANSI compliant C-compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of
239gcc for AIX are widely available.
240
241At the moment of writing, AIX supports two different native C compilers,
4951a6f9 242for which you have to pay: B<xlC> and B<vac>. If you decide to use either
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243of these two (which is quite a lot easier than using gcc), be sure to
244upgrade to the latest available patch level. Currently:
245
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246 xlC.C 3.1.4.10 or 3.6.6.0 or 4.0.2.2 or 5.0.2.9 or 6.0.0.3
247 vac.C 4.4.0.3 or 5.0.2.6 or 6.0.0.1
248
249note that xlC has the OS version in the name as of version 4.0.2.0, so
250you will find xlC.C for AIX-5.0 as package
251
252 xlC.aix50.rte 5.0.2.0 or 6.0.0.3
253
66a1b24b 254subversions are not the same "latest" on all OS versions. For example,
c67773d0 255the latest xlC-5 on aix41 is 5.0.2.9, while on aix43, it is 5.0.2.7.
20d11268 256
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257Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.
258The former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no
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259difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
260require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
261
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262The IBM's compiler patch levels 5.0.0.0 and 5.0.1.0 have compiler
263optimization bugs that affect compiling perl.c and regcomp.c,
264respectively. If Perl's configuration detects those compiler patch
265levels, optimization is turned off for the said source code files.
266Upgrading to at least 5.0.2.0 is recommended.
267
20d11268 268If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
eed1f4d3 269complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
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270details. Please report any hoops you had to jump through to the development
271team.
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272
273=head2 OS level
274
275Before installing the patches to the IBM C-compiler you need to know the
276level of patching for the Operating System. IBM's command 'oslevel' will
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277show the base, but is not always complete (in this example oslevel shows
2784.3.NULL, whereas the system might run most of 4.3.THREE):
1a3e4d88 279
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280 # oslevel
281 4.3.0.0
282 # lslpp -l | grep 'bos.rte '
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283 bos.rte 4.3.3.75 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime
284 bos.rte 4.3.2.0 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime
285 #
286
c5252117 287The same might happen to AIX 5.1 or other OS levels. As a side note, Perl
64cb7701 288cannot be built without bos.adt.syscalls and bos.adt.libm installed
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289
290 # lslpp -l | egrep "syscalls|libm"
291 bos.adt.libm 5.1.0.25 COMMITTED Base Application Development
c67773d0 292 bos.adt.syscalls 5.1.0.36 COMMITTED System Calls Application
64cb7701 293 #
20d11268 294
f19b8045 295=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX E<lt> 5L
20d11268 296
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297AIX supports dynamically loadable objects as well as shared libraries.
298Shared libraries by convention end with the suffix .a, which is a bit
299misleading, as an archive can contain static as well as dynamic members.
c5252117 300For Perl dynamically loaded objects we use the .so suffix also used on
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301many other platforms.
302
303Note that starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.0) and AIX 4.3
304or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface in the so
305called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface that was
306used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases 4.2 and
307earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with compiled
c5252117 308modules from earlier Perl releases. The change was made to make Perl
efc3b6b5 309more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are
8218ea5d 310using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of C++
c5252117 311code with static constructors and destructors in Perl extensions, which
8218ea5d 312was not possible using the emulated interface.
12f54d27 313
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314=head2 The IBM ANSI C Compiler
315
316All defaults for Configure can be used.
317
318If you've chosen to use vac 4, be sure to run 4.4.0.3. Older versions
4951a6f9 319will turn up nasty later on. For vac 5 be sure to run at least 5.0.1.0,
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320but vac 5.0.2.6 or up is highly recommended. Note that since IBM has
321removed vac 5.0.2.1 through 5.0.2.5 from the software depot, these
322versions should be considered obsolete.
20d11268 323
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324Here's a brief lead of how to upgrade the compiler to the latest
325level. Of course this is subject to changes. You can only upgrade
326versions from ftp-available updates if the first three digit groups
327are the same (in where you can skip intermediate unlike the patches
c5252117 328in the developer snapshots of Perl), or to one version up where the
66a1b24b 329"base" is available. In other words, the AIX compiler patches are
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330cumulative.
331
332 vac.C.4.4.0.1 => vac.C.4.4.0.3 is OK (vac.C.4.4.0.2 not needed)
333 xlC.C.3.1.3.3 => xlC.C.3.1.4.10 is NOT OK (xlC.C.3.1.4.0 is not available)
334
335 # ftp ftp.software.ibm.com
336 Connected to service.boulder.ibm.com.
337 : welcome message ...
338 Name (ftp.software.ibm.com:merijn): anonymous
339 331 Guest login ok, send your complete e-mail address as password.
340 Password:
341 ... accepted login stuff
342 ftp> cd /aix/fixes/v4/
343 ftp> dir other other.ll
344 output to local-file: other.ll? y
345 200 PORT command successful.
346 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
347 226 Transfer complete.
348 ftp> dir xlc xlc.ll
349 output to local-file: xlc.ll? y
350 200 PORT command successful.
351 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
352 226 Transfer complete.
353 ftp> bye
354 ... goodbye messages
355 # ls -l *.ll
356 -rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 1169432 Nov 2 17:29 other.ll
357 -rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 29170 Nov 2 17:29 xlc.ll
358
359On AIX 4.2 using xlC, we continue:
360
361 # lslpp -l | fgrep 'xlC.C '
362 xlC.C 3.1.4.9 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
363 xlC.C 3.1.4.0 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
364 # grep 'xlC.C.3.1.4.*.bff' xlc.ll
365 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6286336 Jul 22 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.1.bff
366 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6173696 Aug 24 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.10.bff
367 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6319104 Aug 14 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.2.bff
368 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6316032 Oct 21 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.3.bff
369 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6315008 Dec 20 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.4.bff
370 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6178816 Mar 28 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.5.bff
371 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6188032 May 22 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.6.bff
372 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6191104 Sep 5 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.7.bff
373 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6185984 Jan 13 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.8.bff
374 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6169600 May 27 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.9.bff
375 # wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/xlc/xlC.C.3.1.4.10.bff
376 #
377
378On AIX 4.3 using vac, we continue:
379
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380 # lslpp -l | grep 'vac.C '
381 vac.C 5.0.2.2 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
382 vac.C 5.0.2.0 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
383 # grep 'vac.C.5.0.2.*.bff' other.ll
384 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 13592576 Apr 16 2001 vac.C.5.0.2.0.bff
385 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14133248 Apr 9 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.3.bff
386 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14173184 May 20 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.4.bff
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387 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14192640 Nov 22 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff
388 # wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/other/vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff
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389 #
390
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391Likewise on all other OS levels. Then execute the following command, and
392fill in its choices
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393
394 # smit install_update
395 -> Install and Update from LATEST Available Software
c67773d0 396 * INPUT device / directory for software [ vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff ]
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397 [ OK ]
398 [ OK ]
399
400Follow the messages ... and you're done.
401
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402If you like a more web-like approach, a good start point can be
403http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/download/downloadaz.jsp and click
404"C for AIX", and follow the instructions.
405
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406=head2 The usenm option
407
408If linking miniperl
409
410 cc -o miniperl ... miniperlmain.o opmini.o perl.o ... -lm -lc ...
411
412causes error like this
413
414 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .aintl
415 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .copysignl
416 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .syscall
417 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .eaccess
418 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresuid
419 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresgid
420 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setproctitle
421 ld: 0711-345 Use the -bloadmap or -bnoquiet option to obtain more information.
422
423you could retry with
424
425 make realclean
426 rm config.sh
427 ./Configure -Dusenm ...
428
429which makes Configure to use the C<nm> tool when scanning for library
430symbols, which usually is not done in AIX.
431
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432Related to this, you probably should not use the C<-r> option of
433Configure in AIX, because that affects of how the C<nm> tool is used.
434
c5252117 435=head2 Using GNU's gcc for building Perl
20d11268 436
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437Using gcc-3.x (tested with 3.0.4, 3.1, and 3.2) now works out of the box,
438as do recent gcc-2.9 builds available directly from IBM as part of their
439Linux compatibility packages, available here:
818c4caa 440
4238f5a6 441 http://www.ibm.com/servers/aix/products/aixos/linux/
20d11268 442
f19b8045 443=head2 Using Large Files with Perl E<lt> 5L
20d11268 444
60ecc970 445Should yield no problems.
20d11268 446
f19b8045 447=head2 Threaded Perl E<lt> 5L
20d11268 448
60ecc970 449Threads seem to work OK, though at the moment not all tests pass when
1d69df2b 450threads are used in combination with 64-bit configurations.
20d11268 451
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452You may get a warning when doing a threaded build:
453
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454 "pp_sys.c", line 4640.39: 1506-280 (W) Function argument assignment
455 between types "unsigned char*" and "const void*" is not allowed.
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456
457The exact line number may vary, but if the warning (W) comes from a line
458line this
459
460 hent = PerlSock_gethostbyaddr(addr, (Netdb_hlen_t) addrlen, addrtype);
461
462in the "pp_ghostent" function, you may ignore it safely. The warning
463is caused by the reentrant variant of gethostbyaddr() having a slightly
464different prototype than its non-reentrant variant, but the difference
465is not really significant here.
466
f19b8045 467=head2 64-bit Perl E<lt> 5L
20d11268 468
1d69df2b 469If your AIX is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit
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470configurations to work. In combination with threads some tests might
471still fail.
20d11268 472
12f54d27 473=head2 AIX 4.2 and extensions using C++ with statics
20d11268 474
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475In AIX 4.2 Perl extensions that use C++ functions that use statics
476may have problems in that the statics are not getting initialized.
477In newer AIX releases this has been solved by linking Perl with
478the libC_r library, but unfortunately in AIX 4.2 the said library
479has an obscure bug where the various functions related to time
480(such as time() and gettimeofday()) return broken values, and
481therefore in AIX 4.2 Perl is not linked against the libC_r.
20d11268 482
7fabfece 483=head1 AUTHORS
20d11268 484
3bd76f0a 485H.Merijn Brand <h.m.brand@xs4all.nl>
7fabfece 486Rainer Tammer <tammer@tammer.net>
20d11268 487
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618c9ef5 490Version 5.13.0 / 2010-05-14
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