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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
2see. It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
3specially designed to be readable as is.
5aabfad6 4
8736538c 5=head1 NAME
5aabfad6 6
f8dbba82 7README.cygwin - Perl for Cygwin
5aabfad6 8
8736538c 9=head1 SYNOPSIS
5aabfad6 10
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11This document will help you configure, make, test and install Perl
12on Cygwin. This document also describes features of Cygwin that will
13affect how Perl behaves at runtime.
5aabfad6 14
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15B<NOTE:> There are pre-built Perl packages available for Cygwin and a
16version of Perl is provided on the Cygwin CD. If you have no need to
17customize the configuration, consider using one of these packages:
5aabfad6 18
f8dbba82 19 http://cygutils.netpedia.net/
5aabfad6 20
f8dbba82 21=head1 PREREQUISITES
8736538c 22
f8dbba82 23=head2 Cygwin = GNU+Cygnus+Windows (Don't leave UNIX without it)
8736538c 24
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25The Cygwin tools are ports of the popular GNU development tools for Win32
26platforms. They run thanks to the Cygwin library which provides the UNIX
27system calls and environment these programs expect. More information
28about this project can be found at:
8736538c 29
f8dbba82 30 http://sourceware.cygnus.com/cygwin/
1cab015a 31
f8dbba82 32A recent net or commercial release of Cygwin is required.
8736538c 33
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34At the time this document was written, the port required recent
35development snapshots that were expected to stabilize early in 2000 and
36be released to the net as B21 and commercially as v1.1.
8736538c 37
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38B<NOTE:> At this point, minimal effort has been made to provide
39compatibility with old (beta) Cygwin releases. The focus has been to
40provide a high quality release and not worry about working around old
41Cygwin bugs. If you wish to use Perl with Cygwin B20.1 or earlier,
42consider using either perl5.005_03 or perl5.005_62, which are available
43in source and binary form at C<http://cygutils.netpedia.net/> or on the
44Cygwin CD. If there is significant demand, a patch kit can be developed
45to port back to earlier Cygwin versions.
8736538c 46
f8dbba82 47=head2 Compiler
1cab015a 48
f8dbba82 49A recent net or commercial release of I<gcc> is required.
1cab015a 50
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51At the time this document was written, I<gcc-2.95.2> was current and
52could be downloaded from:
1cab015a 53
f8dbba82 54 ftp://ftp.xraylith.wisc.edu/pub/khan/gnu-win32/cygwin/gcc-2.95.2/
1cab015a 55
f8dbba82 56=head2 Cygwin Configuration
1cab015a 57
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58While building Perl some changes may be necessary to your Cygwin setup so
59that Perl builds cleanly. These changes are B<not> required for normal
60Perl usage.
1cab015a 61
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62B<NOTE:> The binaries that are built will run on all Win32 versions.
63They do not depend on your host system (Win9x, WinNT) or your Cygwin
64configuration (I<ntea>, I<ntsec>, binary/text mounts). The only
65dependencies come from hardcoded pathnames like C</usr/local>. However,
66your host system and Cygwin configuration will affect Perl's runtime
67behavior (see L</"TEST">). Some regression tests may fail in different
68ways depending on your setup. For now, the test suite does not skip
69tests that do not make sense given a particular setup. If a test can
70pass in some Cygwin setup, it is left in and explainable test failures
71are documented.
1cab015a 72
f8dbba82 73=over 4
1cab015a 74
f8dbba82 75=item * C<PATH>
1cab015a 76
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77Set the C<PATH> environment variable so that Configure finds the Cygwin
78versions of programs. Any Windows directories should be removed or
79moved to the end of your C<PATH>.
1cab015a 80
f8dbba82 81=item * F</bin/cat.exe>
1cab015a 82
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83There should be an instance of I<cat> in F</bin> (or F</usr/bin>).
84Configure tests C<#!/bin/cat> and if it is not found, you will see
85the error:
1cab015a 86
f8dbba82 87 Configure: ./try: No such file or directory
1cab015a 88
f8dbba82 89=item * F</usr/bin>
1cab015a 90
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91If you do not have a F</usr/bin> directory, Configure will B<not> prompt
92you to install I<perl> into F</usr/bin>.
1cab015a 93
f8dbba82 94=item * I<nroff>
1cab015a 95
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96If you do not have I<nroff> (which is part of the I<groff> package),
97Configure will B<not> prompt you to install man pages.
98
99=item * Permissions
100
101On WinNT with either the I<ntea> or I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> settings, directory
102and file permissions may not be set correctly. Since the build process
103creates files and directories, to be safe you may want to run a `C<chmod
104-R +w *>' on the entire Perl source tree.
105
106Also, it is a well known WinNT "feature" that files created by a login
107that is a member of the I<Administrators> group will be owned by the
108I<Administrators> group. Depending on your umask, you may find that you
109can not write to files that you just created (because you are no longer
110the owner). When using the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, this is not an
111issue because it "corrects" the ownership to what you would expect on
112a UNIX system.
1cab015a 113
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114=back
115
f8dbba82 116=head1 CONFIGURE
8736538c 117
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118The default options gathered by Configure with the assistance of
119F<hints/cygwin.sh> will build a Perl that supports dynamic loading
120(which requires a shared F<libperl.dll>).
f89d6eaa 121
f8dbba82 122This will run Configure and keep a record:
8736538c 123
f8dbba82 124 ./Configure 2>&1 | tee log.configure
8736538c 125
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126If you are willing to accept all the defaults add a B<-d> option.
127However, several useful customizations are available.
5aabfad6 128
f8dbba82 129=head2 Strip Binaries
5aabfad6 130
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131It is possible to strip the EXEs and DLLs created by the build process.
132The resulting binaries will be significantly smaller. If you want the
133binaries to be stripped, you can either add a B<-s> option when Configure
134prompts you,
8736538c 135
f8dbba82 136 Any additional ld flags (NOT including libraries)? [none] -s
5db16f6a 137 Any special flags to pass to gcc to use dynamic linking? [none] -s
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138 Any special flags to pass to ld2 to create a dynamically loaded library?
139 [none] -s
8736538c 140
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141or you can edit F<hints/cygwin.sh> and uncomment the relevant variables
142near the end of the file.
8736538c 143
f8dbba82 144=head2 Optional Libraries
8736538c 145
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146Several Perl functions and modules depend on the existence of
147some optional libraries. Configure will find them if they are
148installed in one of the directories listed as being used for library
149searches. Pre-built packages for most of these are available at
150C<http://cygutils.netpedia.net/>.
8736538c 151
f8dbba82 152=over 4
8736538c 153
f8dbba82 154=item * C<-lcrypt>
8736538c 155
f8dbba82 156The crypt libraries in GNU libc have been ported to Cygwin.
1cab015a 157
5db16f6a 158The DES based Ultra Fast Crypt port was done by Alexey Truhan:
1cab015a 159
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160 http://dome.weeg.uiowa.edu/pub/domestic/sos/cw32crypt-dist-0.tgz
161
162NOTE: There are various export restrictions on DES implementations,
163see the glibc README for more details.
1cab015a 164
f8dbba82 165The MD5 port was done by Andy Piper:
1cab015a 166
f8dbba82 167 http://dome.weeg.uiowa.edu/pub/domestic/sos/libcrypt.tgz
1cab015a 168
f8dbba82 169More information can also be found at:
1cab015a 170
f8dbba82 171 http://miracle.geol.msu.ru/sos/
1cab015a 172
f8dbba82 173=item * C<-lgdbm> (C<use GDBM_File>)
1cab015a 174
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175GDBM is available for Cygwin. GDBM's ndbm/dbm compatibility feature
176also makes C<NDBM_File> and C<ODBM_File> possible (although they add
177little extra value).
1cab015a 178
f8dbba82 179=item * C<-ldb> (C<use DB_File>)
1cab015a 180
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181BerkeleyDB is available for Cygwin. Some details can be found in
182F<ext/DB_File/DB_File.pm>.
1cab015a 183
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184=item * C<-lcygipc> (C<use IPC::SysV>)
185
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186A port of SysV IPC is available for Cygwin.
187
188NOTE: This has B<not> been extensively tested. In particular,
189C<d_semctl_semun> is undefined because it fails a configure test and on
190Win9x the shm*() functions seem to hang.
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191
192=back
193
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194=head2 Configure-time Options
195
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196The F<INSTALL> document describes several Configure-time options. Some of
197these will work with Cygwin, others are not yet possible. Also, some of
198these are experimental. You can either select an option when Configure
199prompts you or you can define (undefine) symbols on the command line.
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200
201=over 4
202
203=item * C<-Uusedl>
204
0a110db2 205Undefining this symbol forces Perl to be compiled statically.
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206
207=item * C<-Uusemymalloc>
1cab015a 208
f8dbba82 209By default Perl uses the malloc() included with the Perl source. If you
0a110db2 210want to force Perl to build with the system malloc() undefine this symbol.
1cab015a 211
6b49d266 212=item * C<-Dusemultiplicity>
1cab015a 213
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214Multiplicity is required when embedding Perl in a C program and using
215more than one interpreter instance. This works with the Cygwin port.
1cab015a 216
f8dbba82 217=item * C<-Duseperlio>
1cab015a 218
f8dbba82 219The PerlIO abstraction works with the Cygwin port.
1cab015a 220
0a110db2 221=item * C<-Duse64bitint>
1cab015a 222
f8dbba82 223I<gcc> supports 64-bit integers. However, several additional long long
5db16f6a 224functions are necessary to use them within Perl (I<{strtol,strtoul}l>).
f8dbba82 225These are B<not> yet available with Cygwin.
1cab015a 226
f8dbba82 227=item * C<-Duselongdouble>
1cab015a 228
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229I<gcc> supports long doubles (12 bytes). However, several additional
230long double math functions are necessary to use them within Perl
5db16f6a 231(I<{atan2,cos,exp,floor,fmod,frexp,log,modf,pow,sin,sqrt}l,strtold>).
f8dbba82 232These are B<not> yet available with Cygwin.
1cab015a 233
f8dbba82 234=item * C<-Dusethreads>
1cab015a 235
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236POSIX threads are B<not> yet implemented in Cygwin.
237
238=item * C<-Duselargefiles>
239
0a110db2 240Although Win32 supports large files, Cygwin currently uses 32-bit integers
5db16f6a 241for internal size and position calculations.
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242
243=back
244
f8dbba82 245=head2 Suspicious Warnings
1cab015a 246
f8dbba82 247You may see some messages during Configure that seem suspicious.
8736538c 248
f8dbba82 249=over 4
8736538c 250
f8dbba82 251=item * Whoa There
8736538c 252
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253Cygwin does not yet implement chroot(), setegid() or seteuid()
254functionality, but has stub functions that return C<ENOSYS>. You will
255see a message when Configure detects that its guess conflicts with the
256hint file.
8736538c 257
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258 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
259 The recommended value for $d_chroot on this machine was "undef"!
260 Keep the recommended value? [y]
8736538c 261
f8dbba82 262You should keep the recommended value.
8736538c 263
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264=item * dlsym
265
266I<ld2> is needed to build dynamic libraries, but it does not exist
267when dlsym() checking occurs (it is not created until `C<make>' runs).
268You will see the following message:
269
270 Checking whether your dlsym() needs a leading underscore ...
271 I can't compile and run the test program.
272 I'm guessing that dlsym doesn't need a leading underscore.
273
274Since the guess is correct, this is not a problem.
275
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276=item * Win9x and d_eofnblk
277
278Win9x does not correctly report C<EOF> with a non-blocking read on a
279closed pipe. You will see the following messages:
280
281 But it also returns -1 to signal EOF, so be careful!
282 WARNING: you can't distinguish between EOF and no data!
283
284 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
285 The recommended value for $d_eofnblk on this machine was "define"!
286 Keep the recommended value? [y]
287
288At least for consistency with WinNT, you should keep the recommended
289value.
290
f8dbba82 291=item * Checking how std your stdio is...
5aabfad6 292
f8dbba82 293Configure reports:
5aabfad6 294
f8dbba82 295 Your stdio doesn't appear very std.
5aabfad6 296
f8dbba82 297This is correct.
5aabfad6 298
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299=item * Compiler/Preprocessor defines
300
301The following error occurs because of the Cygwin C<#define> of
302C<_LONG_DOUBLE>:
303
304 Guessing which symbols your C compiler and preprocessor define...
305 try.c:3847: parse error
306
307This failure does not seem to cause any problems.
308
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309=back
310
f8dbba82 311=head1 MAKE
5aabfad6 312
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313Simply run make and wait:
314
315 make 2>&1 | tee log.make
316
317=head2 Warnings
318
319Warnings like these are normal:
320
321 warning: overriding commands for target <file>
322 warning: ignoring old commands for target <file>
323
324 Warning: no export definition file provided
325 dllwrap will create one, but may not be what you want
326
327=head2 ld2
328
329During `C<make>', I<ld2> will be created and installed in your $installbin
330directory (where you said to put public executables). It does not
331wait until the `C<make install>' process to install the I<ld2> script,
332this is because the remainder of the `C<make>' refers to I<ld2> without
333fully specifying its path and does this from multiple subdirectories.
334The assumption is that $installbin is in your current C<PATH>. If this
335is not the case or if you do not have an I<install> program, `C<make>'
336will fail at some point. If this happens, just manually copy I<ld2>
337from the source directory to someplace in your C<PATH>.
338
339=head1 TEST
340
341There are two steps to running the test suite:
342
343 make test 2>&1 | tee log.make-test
344
345 cd t;./perl harness 2>&1 | tee ../log.harness
346
347The same tests are run both times, but more information is provided when
348running as `C<./perl harness>'.
5aabfad6 349
f8dbba82 350Test results vary depending on your host system and your Cygwin
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351configuration. It is possible that Cygwin will pass all the tests,
352but it is more likely that some tests will fail for one of these reasons.
1cab015a 353
f8dbba82 354=head2 File Permissions
1cab015a 355
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356UNIX file permissions are based on sets of mode bits for
357{read,write,execute} for each {user,group,other}. By default Cygwin only
358tracks the Win32 readonly attribute represented as the UNIX file user
359write bit (files are always readable, files are executable if they have
360a F<.{com,bat,exe}> extension or begin with C<#!>, directories are always
361readable and executable). On WinNT with the I<ntea> C<CYGWIN> setting,
362the remaining mode bits are stored as extended attributes. On WinNT
363with the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, permissions use the standard WinNT
364security descriptors and access control lists. Without one of these
365options, these tests will fail:
1cab015a 366
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367 Failed Test List of failed
368 ------------------------------------
369 io/fs.t 5, 7, 9-10
370 lib/anydbm.t 2
371 lib/db-btree.t 20
372 lib/db-hash.t 16
373 lib/db-recno.t 18
374 lib/gdbm.t 2
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375 lib/ndbm.t 2
376 lib/odbm.t 2
377 lib/sdbm.t 2
378 op/stat.t 9, 20 (.tmp not an executable extension)
1cab015a 379
f8dbba82 380=head2 Hard Links
1cab015a 381
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382FAT partitions do not support hard links (whereas NTFS does), in which
383case Cygwin implements link() by copying the file. These tests will fail:
1cab015a 384
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385 Failed Test List of failed
386 ------------------------------------
387 io/fs.t 4
388 op/stat.t 3
1cab015a 389
f8dbba82 390=head2 Filetime Granularity
1cab015a 391
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392On FAT partitions the filetime granularity is 2 seconds. The following
393test will fail:
1cab015a 394
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395 Failed Test List of failed
396 ------------------------------------
397 io/fs.t 18
1cab015a 398
f8dbba82 399=head2 Tainting Checks
1cab015a 400
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401When Perl is running in taint mode, C<$ENV{PATH}> is considered tainted
402and not used, so DLLs not in the default system directories will not
403be found. While the tests are running you will see warnings popup from
404the system with messages like:
1cab015a 405
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406 Win9x
407 Error Starting Program
408 A required .DLL file, CYGWIN1.DLL, was not found
1cab015a 409
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410 WinNT
411 perl.exe or sh.exe - Unable to Locate DLL
412 The dynamic link library cygwin1.dll could not be found in the
413 specified path ...
1cab015a 414
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415Just click OK and ignore them. When running `C<make test>', 2 popups
416occur. During `C<./perl harness>', 4 popups occur. Also, these tests
417will fail:
1cab015a 418
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419 Failed Test List of failed
420 ------------------------------------
421 op/taint.t 1, 3, 31, 37
1cab015a 422
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423Alternatively, you can copy F<cygwin1.dll> into one of the Windows system
424directories (although, this is B<not> recommended).
1cab015a 425
f8dbba82 426=head2 /etc/group
5aabfad6 427
5db16f6a 428Cygwin does not require F</etc/group>, in which case the F<op/grent.t>
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429test will be skipped. The check performed by F<op/grent.t> expects to
430see entries that use the members field, otherwise this test will fail:
f89d6eaa 431
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432 Failed Test List of failed
433 ------------------------------------
434 op/grent.t 1
1cab015a 435
f8dbba82 436=head2 Unexplained Failures
1cab015a 437
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438Any additional tests that fail are likely due to bugs in Cygwin or the
439optional libraries. It is expected that by the time of the next net
440release most of these will be solved so they are not described here.
1cab015a 441
f8dbba82 442=head2 Script Portability
1cab015a 443
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444Cygwin does an outstanding job of providing UNIX-like semantics on
445top of Win32 systems. However, in addition to the items noted above,
446there are some differences that you should know about. This is only a
447very brief guide to portability, more information can be found in the
448Cygwin documentation.
1cab015a 449
f8dbba82 450=over 4
1cab015a 451
f8dbba82 452=item * Pathnames
1cab015a 453
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454Cygwin pathnames can be separated by forward (F</>) or backward (F<\>)
455slashes. They may also begin with drive letters (F<C:>) or Universal
456Naming Codes (F<//UNC>). DOS device names (F<aux>, F<con>, F<prn>,
457F<com*>, F<lpt?>) are invalid as base filenames. However, they can be
458used in extensions (e.g., F<hello.aux>). Names may not contain these
459characters:
1cab015a 460
f8dbba82 461 : * ? " < > |
1cab015a 462
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463File names are case insensitive, but case preserving. With the I<mixed>
464C<CYGWIN> setting, file names are mixed-case (although, directory names
465remain case insensitive).
1cab015a 466
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467The I<mixed> setting is only available with the "coolview" version of
468F<cygwin1.dll> provided by Sergey Okhapkin at:
469
470 ftp://ftp.franken.de/pub/win32/develop/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Okhapkin_Sergey/
471
472=item * Text/Binary
473
474When a file is opened it is in either text or binary mode. In text mode
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475a file is subject to CR/LF/Ctrl-Z translations. With Cygwin, the default
476mode for an open() is determined by the mode of the mount that underlies
477the file. Perl provides a binmode() function to set binary mode on files
478that otherwise would be treated as text. sysopen() with the C<O_TEXT>
479flag sets text mode on files that otherwise would be treated as binary:
480
481 sysopen(FOO, "bar", O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_TEXT)
f8dbba82 482
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483lseek(), tell() and sysseek() only work with files opened in binary mode.
484
485The text/binary issue is covered at length in the Cygwin documentation.
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486
487=item * F<.exe>
488
489The Cygwin stat() makes the F<.exe> extension transparent by looking for
490a F<foo.exe> when you ask for F<foo> (unless a F<foo> also exists).
491Cygwin does not require a F<.exe> extension, but I<gcc> adds it
492automatically when building a program. However, when accessing an
493executable as a normal file (e.g., I<install> or I<cp> in a makefile)
494the F<.exe> is not transparent.
495
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496NOTE: There is a version of I<install> that understands the F<.exe>
497semantics, it can be found at:
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498
499 ftp://ftp.franken.de/pub/win32/develop/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Humblet_Pierre_A/
500
501=item * chown()
502
503On WinNT with the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, chown() can change a file's
504user and group IDs. In all other configurations chown() is a no-op,
505although this is appropriate on Win9x since there is no security model.
506
507=item * Miscellaneous
508
509File locking using the C<F_GETLK> command to fcntl() is a stub that
510returns C<ENOSYS>.
511
f8dbba82 512Win9x can not rename() an open file (although WinNT can).
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513
514=back
515
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516=head1 INSTALL
517
518This will install Perl, including man pages.
519
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520 make install | tee log.make-install
521
522NOTE: If C<STDERR> is redirected `C<make install>' will B<not> prompt
523you to install I<perl> into F</usr/bin>.
1cab015a 524
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525You may need to be I<Administrator> to run `C<make install>'. If you
526are not, you must have write access to the directories in question.
1cab015a 527
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528Information on installing the Perl documentation in HTML format can be
529found in the F<INSTALL> document.
1cab015a 530
f8dbba82 531=head1 MANIFEST
1cab015a 532
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533These are the files in the Perl release that contain references to Cygwin.
534These very brief notes attempt to explain the reason for all conditional
535code. Hopefully, keeping this up to date will allow the Cygwin port to
536be kept as clean as possible.
1cab015a 537
f8dbba82 538=over 4
1cab015a 539
f8dbba82 540=item Documentation
1cab015a 541
6b49d266 542 INSTALL README.cygwin
f8dbba82 543 Changes Changes5.005 Changes5.004
6b49d266 544 AUTHORS MAINTAIN MANIFEST README.win32
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545 pod/perl.pod pod/perlfaq3.pod pod/perlhist.pod pod/perlmodlib.pod
546 pod/perlport.pod pod/perltoc.pod pod/perl5004delta.pod
1cab015a 547
f8dbba82 548=item Build, Configure, Make, Install
1cab015a 549
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550 cygwin/Makefile.SHs
551 cygwin/ld2.in
552 cygwin/perlld.in
553 ext/IPC/SysV/hints/cygwin.pl
554 ext/NDBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
555 ext/ODBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
556 hints/cygwin.sh
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557 Configure - help finding hints from uname,
558 shared libperl required for dynamic loading
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559 Makefile.SH - linklibperl
560 Porting/patchls - cygwin in port list
f8dbba82 561 installman - man pages with :: translated to .
5db16f6a 562 installperl - install dll/ld2/perlld, install to pods
6b49d266 563 makedepend.SH - uwinfix
1cab015a 564
f8dbba82 565=item Tests
1cab015a 566
f8dbba82 567 t/io/tell.t - binmode
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568 t/lib/glob-basic.t - Win32 directory list access differs from read mode
569 t/op/magic.t - $^X/symlink WORKAROUND, s/.exe//
570 t/op/stat.t - no /dev, skip Win32 ftCreationTime quirk
571 (cache manager sometimes preserves ctime of file
572 previously created and deleted), no -u (setuid)
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573
574=item Compiled Perl Source
575
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576 EXTERN.h - __declspec(dllimport)
577 XSUB.h - __declspec(dllexport)
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578 cygwin/cygwin.c - os_extras (getcwd)
579 perl.c - os_extras
f8dbba82 580 perl.h - binmode
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581 doio.c - win9x can not rename a file when it is open
582 pp_sys.c - do not define h_errno
f8dbba82 583 mg.c - environ WORKAROUND
f8dbba82 584 unixish.h - environ WORKAROUND
6b49d266 585 util.c - environ WORKAROUND
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586
587=item Compiled Module Source
588
589 ext/POSIX/POSIX.xs - tzname defined externally
590 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/pair.c
591 - EXTCONST needs to be redefined from EXTERN.h
592 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/sdbm.c
593 - binary open
594
595=item Perl Modules/Scripts
596
6b49d266 597 lib/Cwd.pm - hook to internal Cwd::cwd
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598 lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm
599 - require MM_Cygwin.pm
600 lib/ExtUtils/MM_Cygwin.pm
601 - canonpath, cflags, manifypods, perl_archive
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602 lib/File/Spec/Unix.pm - preserve //unc
603 lib/perl5db.pl - use stdin not /dev/tty
604 utils/perlcc.PL - DynaLoader.a in compile, -DUSEIMPORTLIB
605 utils/perldoc.PL - version comment
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606
607=back
f89d6eaa 608
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609=head1 BUGS
610
611Upon each start, I<make> warns that a rule for F<perlmain.o> is overridden
612(but there seems to be no better solution than adding an explicit define).
613
614`C<make clean>' does not remove library F<.def> and F<.exe.stackdump>
615files.
616
617The I<ld2> script contains references to the source directory. You should
618change these to C</usr/local/bin> (or whatever) after install.
619
620=head1 AUTHORS
621
622Charles Wilson E<lt>cwilson@ece.gatech.eduE<gt>,
623Eric Fifer E<lt>efifer@sanwaint.comE<gt>,
624alexander smishlajev E<lt>als@turnhere.comE<gt>,
625Steven Morlock E<lt>newspost@morlock.netE<gt>,
626Sebastien Barre E<lt>Sebastien.Barre@utc.frE<gt>,
627Teun Burgers E<lt>burgers@ecn.nlE<gt>.
628
629=head1 HISTORY
630
0a110db2 631Last updated: 1 March 2000