This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
POSIX.xs: Move constant tests out of loop
[perl5.git] / utf8.c
CommitLineData
a0ed51b3
LW
1/* utf8.c
2 *
1129b882 3 * Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008
b94e2f88 4 * by Larry Wall and others
a0ed51b3
LW
5 *
6 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
8 *
9 */
10
11/*
4ac71550
TC
12 * 'What a fix!' said Sam. 'That's the one place in all the lands we've ever
13 * heard of that we don't want to see any closer; and that's the one place
14 * we're trying to get to! And that's just where we can't get, nohow.'
15 *
cdad3b53 16 * [p.603 of _The Lord of the Rings_, IV/I: "The Taming of Sméagol"]
a0ed51b3
LW
17 *
18 * 'Well do I understand your speech,' he answered in the same language;
19 * 'yet few strangers do so. Why then do you not speak in the Common Tongue,
4ac71550 20 * as is the custom in the West, if you wish to be answered?'
cdad3b53 21 * --Gandalf, addressing Théoden's door wardens
4ac71550
TC
22 *
23 * [p.508 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/vi: "The King of the Golden Hall"]
a0ed51b3
LW
24 *
25 * ...the travellers perceived that the floor was paved with stones of many
26 * hues; branching runes and strange devices intertwined beneath their feet.
4ac71550
TC
27 *
28 * [p.512 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/vi: "The King of the Golden Hall"]
a0ed51b3
LW
29 */
30
31#include "EXTERN.h"
864dbfa3 32#define PERL_IN_UTF8_C
a0ed51b3 33#include "perl.h"
b992490d 34#include "invlist_inline.h"
a0ed51b3 35
806547a7 36static const char malformed_text[] = "Malformed UTF-8 character";
27da23d5 37static const char unees[] =
806547a7 38 "Malformed UTF-8 character (unexpected end of string)";
760c7c2f 39static const char cp_above_legal_max[] =
d22ec717
KW
40 "Use of code point 0x%" UVXf " is not allowed; the"
41 " permissible max is 0x%" UVXf;
760c7c2f 42
d22ec717 43#define MAX_EXTERNALLY_LEGAL_CP ((UV) (IV_MAX))
901b21bf 44
48ef279e 45/*
ccfc67b7 46=head1 Unicode Support
7fefc6c1 47These are various utility functions for manipulating UTF8-encoded
72d33970 48strings. For the uninitiated, this is a method of representing arbitrary
61296642 49Unicode characters as a variable number of bytes, in such a way that
56da48f7
DM
50characters in the ASCII range are unmodified, and a zero byte never appears
51within non-zero characters.
166f8a29 52
eaf7a4d2
CS
53=cut
54*/
55
9cbfb8ab
KW
56void
57Perl__force_out_malformed_utf8_message(pTHX_
58 const U8 *const p, /* First byte in UTF-8 sequence */
59 const U8 * const e, /* Final byte in sequence (may include
60 multiple chars */
61 const U32 flags, /* Flags to pass to utf8n_to_uvchr(),
62 usually 0, or some DISALLOW flags */
63 const bool die_here) /* If TRUE, this function does not return */
64{
65 /* This core-only function is to be called when a malformed UTF-8 character
66 * is found, in order to output the detailed information about the
67 * malformation before dieing. The reason it exists is for the occasions
68 * when such a malformation is fatal, but warnings might be turned off, so
69 * that normally they would not be actually output. This ensures that they
70 * do get output. Because a sequence may be malformed in more than one
71 * way, multiple messages may be generated, so we can't make them fatal, as
72 * that would cause the first one to die.
73 *
74 * Instead we pretend -W was passed to perl, then die afterwards. The
75 * flexibility is here to return to the caller so they can finish up and
76 * die themselves */
77 U32 errors;
78
79 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__FORCE_OUT_MALFORMED_UTF8_MESSAGE;
80
81 ENTER;
c15a80f3 82 SAVEI8(PL_dowarn);
9cbfb8ab
KW
83 SAVESPTR(PL_curcop);
84
85 PL_dowarn = G_WARN_ALL_ON|G_WARN_ON;
86 if (PL_curcop) {
87 PL_curcop->cop_warnings = pWARN_ALL;
88 }
89
90 (void) utf8n_to_uvchr_error(p, e - p, NULL, flags & ~UTF8_CHECK_ONLY, &errors);
91
92 LEAVE;
93
94 if (! errors) {
95 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: _force_out_malformed_utf8_message should"
96 " be called only when there are errors found");
97 }
98
99 if (die_here) {
100 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-8 character (fatal)");
101 }
102}
103
eaf7a4d2 104/*
378516de 105=for apidoc uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags
eebe1485 106
a27992cc 107THIS FUNCTION SHOULD BE USED IN ONLY VERY SPECIALIZED CIRCUMSTANCES.
de69f3af
KW
108Instead, B<Almost all code should use L</uvchr_to_utf8> or
109L</uvchr_to_utf8_flags>>.
a27992cc 110
de69f3af
KW
111This function is like them, but the input is a strict Unicode
112(as opposed to native) code point. Only in very rare circumstances should code
113not be using the native code point.
949cf498 114
efa9cd84 115For details, see the description for L</uvchr_to_utf8_flags>.
949cf498 116
eebe1485
SC
117=cut
118*/
119
c94c2f39
KW
120/* All these formats take a single UV code point argument */
121const char surrogate_cp_format[] = "UTF-16 surrogate U+%04" UVXf;
122const char nonchar_cp_format[] = "Unicode non-character U+%04" UVXf
123 " is not recommended for open interchange";
124const char super_cp_format[] = "Code point 0x%" UVXf " is not Unicode,"
125 " may not be portable";
57ff5f59
KW
126const char perl_extended_cp_format[] = "Code point 0x%" UVXf " is not" \
127 " Unicode, requires a Perl extension," \
128 " and so is not portable";
c94c2f39 129
8ee1cdcb
KW
130#define HANDLE_UNICODE_SURROGATE(uv, flags) \
131 STMT_START { \
132 if (flags & UNICODE_WARN_SURROGATE) { \
133 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_SURROGATE), \
c94c2f39 134 surrogate_cp_format, uv); \
8ee1cdcb
KW
135 } \
136 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_SURROGATE) { \
137 return NULL; \
138 } \
139 } STMT_END;
140
141#define HANDLE_UNICODE_NONCHAR(uv, flags) \
142 STMT_START { \
143 if (flags & UNICODE_WARN_NONCHAR) { \
144 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NONCHAR), \
c94c2f39 145 nonchar_cp_format, uv); \
8ee1cdcb
KW
146 } \
147 if (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_NONCHAR) { \
148 return NULL; \
149 } \
150 } STMT_END;
151
ba6ed43c
KW
152/* Use shorter names internally in this file */
153#define SHIFT UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT
154#undef MARK
155#define MARK UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK
156#define MASK UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK
157
dfe13c55 158U8 *
4b31b634 159Perl_uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv, const UV flags)
a0ed51b3 160{
378516de 161 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UVOFFUNI_TO_UTF8_FLAGS;
7918f24d 162
2d1545e5 163 if (OFFUNI_IS_INVARIANT(uv)) {
4c8cd605 164 *d++ = LATIN1_TO_NATIVE(uv);
d9432125
KW
165 return d;
166 }
facc1dc2 167
3ea68d71 168 if (uv <= MAX_UTF8_TWO_BYTE) {
facc1dc2
KW
169 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(( uv >> SHIFT) | UTF_START_MARK(2));
170 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(( uv & MASK) | MARK);
3ea68d71
KW
171 return d;
172 }
d9432125 173
ba6ed43c
KW
174 /* Not 2-byte; test for and handle 3-byte result. In the test immediately
175 * below, the 16 is for start bytes E0-EF (which are all the possible ones
176 * for 3 byte characters). The 2 is for 2 continuation bytes; these each
177 * contribute SHIFT bits. This yields 0x4000 on EBCDIC platforms, 0x1_0000
178 * on ASCII; so 3 bytes covers the range 0x400-0x3FFF on EBCDIC;
179 * 0x800-0xFFFF on ASCII */
180 if (uv < (16 * (1U << (2 * SHIFT)))) {
181 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(( uv >> ((3 - 1) * SHIFT)) | UTF_START_MARK(3));
182 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(((uv >> ((2 - 1) * SHIFT)) & MASK) | MARK);
183 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(( uv /* (1 - 1) */ & MASK) | MARK);
184
185#ifndef EBCDIC /* These problematic code points are 4 bytes on EBCDIC, so
186 aren't tested here */
187 /* The most likely code points in this range are below the surrogates.
188 * Do an extra test to quickly exclude those. */
189 if (UNLIKELY(uv >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST)) {
190 if (UNLIKELY( UNICODE_IS_32_CONTIGUOUS_NONCHARS(uv)
191 || UNICODE_IS_END_PLANE_NONCHAR_GIVEN_NOT_SUPER(uv)))
192 {
8ee1cdcb
KW
193 HANDLE_UNICODE_NONCHAR(uv, flags);
194 }
195 else if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv))) {
196 HANDLE_UNICODE_SURROGATE(uv, flags);
760c7c2f 197 }
ba6ed43c
KW
198 }
199#endif
200 return d;
201 }
202
203 /* Not 3-byte; that means the code point is at least 0x1_0000 on ASCII
204 * platforms, and 0x4000 on EBCDIC. There are problematic cases that can
205 * happen starting with 4-byte characters on ASCII platforms. We unify the
206 * code for these with EBCDIC, even though some of them require 5-bytes on
207 * those, because khw believes the code saving is worth the very slight
208 * performance hit on these high EBCDIC code points. */
209
210 if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_SUPER(uv))) {
d22ec717
KW
211 if (UNLIKELY(uv > MAX_EXTERNALLY_LEGAL_CP)) {
212 Perl_croak(aTHX_ cp_above_legal_max, uv, MAX_EXTERNALLY_LEGAL_CP);
a5bf80e0 213 }
0a8a1a5b
KW
214 if ( (flags & UNICODE_WARN_SUPER)
215 || ( (flags & UNICODE_WARN_PERL_EXTENDED)
216 && UNICODE_IS_PERL_EXTENDED(uv)))
a5bf80e0
KW
217 {
218 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE),
219
220 /* Choose the more dire applicable warning */
d044b7a7 221 (UNICODE_IS_PERL_EXTENDED(uv))
57ff5f59 222 ? perl_extended_cp_format
c94c2f39 223 : super_cp_format,
a5bf80e0
KW
224 uv);
225 }
56576a04 226 if ( (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER)
0a8a1a5b
KW
227 || ( (flags & UNICODE_DISALLOW_PERL_EXTENDED)
228 && UNICODE_IS_PERL_EXTENDED(uv)))
a5bf80e0
KW
229 {
230 return NULL;
231 }
232 }
ba6ed43c
KW
233 else if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_END_PLANE_NONCHAR_GIVEN_NOT_SUPER(uv))) {
234 HANDLE_UNICODE_NONCHAR(uv, flags);
507b9800 235 }
d9432125 236
ba6ed43c
KW
237 /* Test for and handle 4-byte result. In the test immediately below, the
238 * 8 is for start bytes F0-F7 (which are all the possible ones for 4 byte
239 * characters). The 3 is for 3 continuation bytes; these each contribute
240 * SHIFT bits. This yields 0x4_0000 on EBCDIC platforms, 0x20_0000 on
241 * ASCII, so 4 bytes covers the range 0x4000-0x3_FFFF on EBCDIC;
242 * 0x1_0000-0x1F_FFFF on ASCII */
243 if (uv < (8 * (1U << (3 * SHIFT)))) {
244 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(( uv >> ((4 - 1) * SHIFT)) | UTF_START_MARK(4));
245 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(((uv >> ((3 - 1) * SHIFT)) & MASK) | MARK);
246 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(((uv >> ((2 - 1) * SHIFT)) & MASK) | MARK);
247 *d++ = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(( uv /* (1 - 1) */ & MASK) | MARK);
248
249#ifdef EBCDIC /* These were handled on ASCII platforms in the code for 3-byte
250 characters. The end-plane non-characters for EBCDIC were
251 handled just above */
252 if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_32_CONTIGUOUS_NONCHARS(uv))) {
253 HANDLE_UNICODE_NONCHAR(uv, flags);
d528804a 254 }
ba6ed43c
KW
255 else if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv))) {
256 HANDLE_UNICODE_SURROGATE(uv, flags);
257 }
258#endif
259
260 return d;
261 }
262
263 /* Not 4-byte; that means the code point is at least 0x20_0000 on ASCII
264 * platforms, and 0x4000 on EBCDIC. At this point we switch to a loop
265 * format. The unrolled version above turns out to not save all that much
266 * time, and at these high code points (well above the legal Unicode range
267 * on ASCII platforms, and well above anything in common use in EBCDIC),
268 * khw believes that less code outweighs slight performance gains. */
269
d9432125 270 {
5aaebcb3 271 STRLEN len = OFFUNISKIP(uv);
1d72bdf6
NIS
272 U8 *p = d+len-1;
273 while (p > d) {
4c8cd605 274 *p-- = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8((uv & UTF_CONTINUATION_MASK) | UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK);
1d72bdf6
NIS
275 uv >>= UTF_ACCUMULATION_SHIFT;
276 }
4c8cd605 277 *p = I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8((uv & UTF_START_MASK(len)) | UTF_START_MARK(len));
1d72bdf6
NIS
278 return d+len;
279 }
a0ed51b3 280}
a5bf80e0 281
646ca15d 282/*
07693fe6
KW
283=for apidoc uvchr_to_utf8
284
bcb1a2d4 285Adds the UTF-8 representation of the native code point C<uv> to the end
f2fc1b45 286of the string C<d>; C<d> should have at least C<UVCHR_SKIP(uv)+1> (up to
c749c9fd
KW
287C<UTF8_MAXBYTES+1>) free bytes available. The return value is the pointer to
288the byte after the end of the new character. In other words,
07693fe6
KW
289
290 d = uvchr_to_utf8(d, uv);
291
292is the recommended wide native character-aware way of saying
293
294 *(d++) = uv;
295
d22ec717
KW
296This function accepts any code point from 0..C<IV_MAX> as input.
297C<IV_MAX> is typically 0x7FFF_FFFF in a 32-bit word.
760c7c2f
KW
298
299It is possible to forbid or warn on non-Unicode code points, or those that may
300be problematic by using L</uvchr_to_utf8_flags>.
de69f3af 301
07693fe6
KW
302=cut
303*/
304
de69f3af
KW
305/* This is also a macro */
306PERL_CALLCONV U8* Perl_uvchr_to_utf8(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv);
307
07693fe6
KW
308U8 *
309Perl_uvchr_to_utf8(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv)
310{
de69f3af 311 return uvchr_to_utf8(d, uv);
07693fe6
KW
312}
313
de69f3af
KW
314/*
315=for apidoc uvchr_to_utf8_flags
316
317Adds the UTF-8 representation of the native code point C<uv> to the end
f2fc1b45 318of the string C<d>; C<d> should have at least C<UVCHR_SKIP(uv)+1> (up to
c749c9fd
KW
319C<UTF8_MAXBYTES+1>) free bytes available. The return value is the pointer to
320the byte after the end of the new character. In other words,
de69f3af
KW
321
322 d = uvchr_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, flags);
323
324or, in most cases,
325
326 d = uvchr_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, 0);
327
328This is the Unicode-aware way of saying
329
330 *(d++) = uv;
331
d22ec717
KW
332If C<flags> is 0, this function accepts any code point from 0..C<IV_MAX> as
333input. C<IV_MAX> is typically 0x7FFF_FFFF in a 32-bit word.
760c7c2f
KW
334
335Specifying C<flags> can further restrict what is allowed and not warned on, as
336follows:
de69f3af 337
796b6530 338If C<uv> is a Unicode surrogate code point and C<UNICODE_WARN_SURROGATE> is set,
7ee537e6
KW
339the function will raise a warning, provided UTF8 warnings are enabled. If
340instead C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_SURROGATE> is set, the function will fail and return
341NULL. If both flags are set, the function will both warn and return NULL.
de69f3af 342
760c7c2f
KW
343Similarly, the C<UNICODE_WARN_NONCHAR> and C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_NONCHAR> flags
344affect how the function handles a Unicode non-character.
93e6dbd6 345
760c7c2f
KW
346And likewise, the C<UNICODE_WARN_SUPER> and C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER> flags
347affect the handling of code points that are above the Unicode maximum of
3480x10FFFF. Languages other than Perl may not be able to accept files that
349contain these.
93e6dbd6
KW
350
351The flag C<UNICODE_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE> selects all three of
352the above WARN flags; and C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE> selects all
ecc1615f
KW
353three DISALLOW flags. C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE> restricts the
354allowed inputs to the strict UTF-8 traditionally defined by Unicode.
355Similarly, C<UNICODE_WARN_ILLEGAL_C9_INTERCHANGE> and
356C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_C9_INTERCHANGE> are shortcuts to select the
357above-Unicode and surrogate flags, but not the non-character ones, as
358defined in
359L<Unicode Corrigendum #9|http://www.unicode.org/versions/corrigendum9.html>.
360See L<perlunicode/Noncharacter code points>.
93e6dbd6 361
57ff5f59
KW
362Extremely high code points were never specified in any standard, and require an
363extension to UTF-8 to express, which Perl does. It is likely that programs
364written in something other than Perl would not be able to read files that
365contain these; nor would Perl understand files written by something that uses a
366different extension. For these reasons, there is a separate set of flags that
367can warn and/or disallow these extremely high code points, even if other
368above-Unicode ones are accepted. They are the C<UNICODE_WARN_PERL_EXTENDED>
369and C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_PERL_EXTENDED> flags. For more information see
370L</C<UTF8_GOT_PERL_EXTENDED>>. Of course C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_SUPER> will
371treat all above-Unicode code points, including these, as malformations. (Note
372that the Unicode standard considers anything above 0x10FFFF to be illegal, but
373there are standards predating it that allow up to 0x7FFF_FFFF (2**31 -1))
374
375A somewhat misleadingly named synonym for C<UNICODE_WARN_PERL_EXTENDED> is
376retained for backward compatibility: C<UNICODE_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT>. Similarly,
377C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT> is usable instead of the more accurately named
378C<UNICODE_DISALLOW_PERL_EXTENDED>. The names are misleading because these
379flags can apply to code points that actually do fit in 31 bits. This happens
380on EBCDIC platforms, and sometimes when the L<overlong
381malformation|/C<UTF8_GOT_LONG>> is also present. The new names accurately
382describe the situation in all cases.
de69f3af 383
de69f3af
KW
384=cut
385*/
386
387/* This is also a macro */
388PERL_CALLCONV U8* Perl_uvchr_to_utf8_flags(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags);
389
07693fe6
KW
390U8 *
391Perl_uvchr_to_utf8_flags(pTHX_ U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags)
392{
de69f3af 393 return uvchr_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, flags);
07693fe6
KW
394}
395
57ff5f59
KW
396#ifndef UV_IS_QUAD
397
e050c007
KW
398STATIC int
399S_is_utf8_cp_above_31_bits(const U8 * const s,
400 const U8 * const e,
401 const bool consider_overlongs)
83dc0f42
KW
402{
403 /* Returns TRUE if the first code point represented by the Perl-extended-
404 * UTF-8-encoded string starting at 's', and looking no further than 'e -
405 * 1' doesn't fit into 31 bytes. That is, that if it is >= 2**31.
406 *
407 * The function handles the case where the input bytes do not include all
408 * the ones necessary to represent a full character. That is, they may be
409 * the intial bytes of the representation of a code point, but possibly
410 * the final ones necessary for the complete representation may be beyond
411 * 'e - 1'.
412 *
e050c007
KW
413 * The function also can handle the case where the input is an overlong
414 * sequence. If 'consider_overlongs' is 0, the function assumes the
415 * input is not overlong, without checking, and will return based on that
416 * assumption. If this parameter is 1, the function will go to the trouble
417 * of figuring out if it actually evaluates to above or below 31 bits.
83dc0f42 418 *
e050c007 419 * The sequence is otherwise assumed to be well-formed, without checking.
83dc0f42
KW
420 */
421
e050c007
KW
422 const STRLEN len = e - s;
423 int is_overlong;
424
425 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_CP_ABOVE_31_BITS;
426
427 assert(! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*s) && e > s);
428
83dc0f42
KW
429#ifdef EBCDIC
430
e050c007 431 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(consider_overlongs);
83dc0f42 432
e050c007
KW
433 /* On the EBCDIC code pages we handle, only the native start byte 0xFE can
434 * mean a 32-bit or larger code point (0xFF is an invariant). 0xFE can
435 * also be the start byte for a 31-bit code point; we need at least 2
436 * bytes, and maybe up through 8 bytes, to determine that. (It can also be
437 * the start byte for an overlong sequence, but for 30-bit or smaller code
438 * points, so we don't have to worry about overlongs on EBCDIC.) */
439 if (*s != 0xFE) {
440 return 0;
441 }
83dc0f42 442
e050c007
KW
443 if (len == 1) {
444 return -1;
445 }
83dc0f42 446
e050c007 447#else
83dc0f42 448
e050c007
KW
449 /* On ASCII, FE and FF are the only start bytes that can evaluate to
450 * needing more than 31 bits. */
451 if (LIKELY(*s < 0xFE)) {
452 return 0;
453 }
83dc0f42 454
e050c007
KW
455 /* What we have left are FE and FF. Both of these require more than 31
456 * bits unless they are for overlongs. */
457 if (! consider_overlongs) {
458 return 1;
459 }
83dc0f42 460
e050c007
KW
461 /* Here, we have FE or FF. If the input isn't overlong, it evaluates to
462 * above 31 bits. But we need more than one byte to discern this, so if
463 * passed just the start byte, it could be an overlong evaluating to
464 * smaller */
465 if (len == 1) {
466 return -1;
467 }
83dc0f42 468
e050c007
KW
469 /* Having excluded len==1, and knowing that FE and FF are both valid start
470 * bytes, we can call the function below to see if the sequence is
471 * overlong. (We don't need the full generality of the called function,
472 * but for these huge code points, speed shouldn't be a consideration, and
473 * the compiler does have enough information, since it's static to this
474 * file, to optimize to just the needed parts.) */
475 is_overlong = is_utf8_overlong_given_start_byte_ok(s, len);
83dc0f42 476
e050c007
KW
477 /* If it isn't overlong, more than 31 bits are required. */
478 if (is_overlong == 0) {
479 return 1;
480 }
83dc0f42 481
e050c007
KW
482 /* If it is indeterminate if it is overlong, return that */
483 if (is_overlong < 0) {
484 return -1;
485 }
486
487 /* Here is overlong. Such a sequence starting with FE is below 31 bits, as
488 * the max it can be is 2**31 - 1 */
489 if (*s == 0xFE) {
490 return 0;
83dc0f42
KW
491 }
492
e050c007
KW
493#endif
494
495 /* Here, ASCII and EBCDIC rejoin:
496 * On ASCII: We have an overlong sequence starting with FF
497 * On EBCDIC: We have a sequence starting with FE. */
498
499 { /* For C89, use a block so the declaration can be close to its use */
500
501#ifdef EBCDIC
502
5f995336
KW
503 /* U+7FFFFFFF (2 ** 31 - 1)
504 * [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] 10 11 12 13
505 * IBM-1047: \xFE\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x42\x73\x73\x73\x73\x73\x73
506 * IBM-037: \xFE\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x42\x72\x72\x72\x72\x72\x72
507 * POSIX-BC: \xFE\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x42\x75\x75\x75\x75\x75\x75
508 * I8: \xFF\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA1\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF
509 * U+80000000 (2 ** 31):
510 * IBM-1047: \xFE\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x43\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41
511 * IBM-037: \xFE\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x43\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41
512 * POSIX-BC: \xFE\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x43\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41
513 * I8: \xFF\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA2\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0
e050c007
KW
514 *
515 * and since we know that *s = \xfe, any continuation sequcence
516 * following it that is gt the below is above 31 bits
517 [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] */
518 const U8 conts_for_highest_30_bit[] = "\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x42";
519
520#else
521
522 /* FF overlong for U+7FFFFFFF (2 ** 31 - 1)
523 * ASCII: \xFF\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80\x81\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF
524 * FF overlong for U+80000000 (2 ** 31):
525 * ASCII: \xFF\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80\x82\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80
526 * and since we know that *s = \xff, any continuation sequcence
527 * following it that is gt the below is above 30 bits
528 [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] */
529 const U8 conts_for_highest_30_bit[] = "\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80\x81";
5f995336 530
83dc0f42
KW
531
532#endif
e050c007
KW
533 const STRLEN conts_len = sizeof(conts_for_highest_30_bit) - 1;
534 const STRLEN cmp_len = MIN(conts_len, len - 1);
535
536 /* Now compare the continuation bytes in s with the ones we have
537 * compiled in that are for the largest 30 bit code point. If we have
538 * enough bytes available to determine the answer, or the bytes we do
539 * have differ from them, we can compare the two to get a definitive
540 * answer (Note that in UTF-EBCDIC, the two lowest possible
541 * continuation bytes are \x41 and \x42.) */
542 if (cmp_len >= conts_len || memNE(s + 1,
543 conts_for_highest_30_bit,
544 cmp_len))
545 {
546 return cBOOL(memGT(s + 1, conts_for_highest_30_bit, cmp_len));
547 }
83dc0f42 548
e050c007
KW
549 /* Here, all the bytes we have are the same as the highest 30-bit code
550 * point, but we are missing so many bytes that we can't make the
551 * determination */
552 return -1;
553 }
83dc0f42
KW
554}
555
57ff5f59
KW
556#endif
557
d6be65ae 558PERL_STATIC_INLINE int
12a4bed3
KW
559S_is_utf8_overlong_given_start_byte_ok(const U8 * const s, const STRLEN len)
560{
d6be65ae
KW
561 /* Returns an int indicating whether or not the UTF-8 sequence from 's' to
562 * 's' + 'len' - 1 is an overlong. It returns 1 if it is an overlong; 0 if
563 * it isn't, and -1 if there isn't enough information to tell. This last
564 * return value can happen if the sequence is incomplete, missing some
565 * trailing bytes that would form a complete character. If there are
566 * enough bytes to make a definitive decision, this function does so.
567 * Usually 2 bytes sufficient.
568 *
569 * Overlongs can occur whenever the number of continuation bytes changes.
570 * That means whenever the number of leading 1 bits in a start byte
571 * increases from the next lower start byte. That happens for start bytes
572 * C0, E0, F0, F8, FC, FE, and FF. On modern perls, the following illegal
573 * start bytes have already been excluded, so don't need to be tested here;
12a4bed3
KW
574 * ASCII platforms: C0, C1
575 * EBCDIC platforms C0, C1, C2, C3, C4, E0
d6be65ae 576 */
12a4bed3
KW
577
578 const U8 s0 = NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(s[0]);
579 const U8 s1 = NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(s[1]);
580
581 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_OVERLONG_GIVEN_START_BYTE_OK;
582 assert(len > 1 && UTF8_IS_START(*s));
583
584 /* Each platform has overlongs after the start bytes given above (expressed
585 * in I8 for EBCDIC). What constitutes an overlong varies by platform, but
586 * the logic is the same, except the E0 overlong has already been excluded
587 * on EBCDIC platforms. The values below were found by manually
588 * inspecting the UTF-8 patterns. See the tables in utf8.h and
589 * utfebcdic.h. */
590
591# ifdef EBCDIC
592# define F0_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0xB0
593# define F8_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0xA8
594# define FC_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0xA4
595# define FE_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0xA2
596# define FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX "\xfe\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41\x41"
597 /* I8(0xfe) is FF */
598# else
599
600 if (s0 == 0xE0 && UNLIKELY(s1 < 0xA0)) {
d6be65ae 601 return 1;
12a4bed3
KW
602 }
603
604# define F0_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0x90
605# define F8_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0x88
606# define FC_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0x84
607# define FE_ABOVE_OVERLONG 0x82
608# define FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX "\xff\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80"
609# endif
610
611
612 if ( (s0 == 0xF0 && UNLIKELY(s1 < F0_ABOVE_OVERLONG))
613 || (s0 == 0xF8 && UNLIKELY(s1 < F8_ABOVE_OVERLONG))
614 || (s0 == 0xFC && UNLIKELY(s1 < FC_ABOVE_OVERLONG))
615 || (s0 == 0xFE && UNLIKELY(s1 < FE_ABOVE_OVERLONG)))
616 {
d6be65ae 617 return 1;
12a4bed3
KW
618 }
619
b0b342d4 620 /* Check for the FF overlong */
d6be65ae 621 return isFF_OVERLONG(s, len);
b0b342d4
KW
622}
623
8d6204cc 624PERL_STATIC_INLINE int
b0b342d4
KW
625S_isFF_OVERLONG(const U8 * const s, const STRLEN len)
626{
8d6204cc
KW
627 /* Returns an int indicating whether or not the UTF-8 sequence from 's' to
628 * 'e' - 1 is an overlong beginning with \xFF. It returns 1 if it is; 0 if
629 * it isn't, and -1 if there isn't enough information to tell. This last
630 * return value can happen if the sequence is incomplete, missing some
631 * trailing bytes that would form a complete character. If there are
632 * enough bytes to make a definitive decision, this function does so. */
633
b0b342d4 634 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_ISFF_OVERLONG;
12a4bed3 635
8d6204cc
KW
636 /* To be an FF overlong, all the available bytes must match */
637 if (LIKELY(memNE(s, FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX,
638 MIN(len, sizeof(FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX) - 1))))
639 {
640 return 0;
641 }
642
643 /* To be an FF overlong sequence, all the bytes in FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX must
644 * be there; what comes after them doesn't matter. See tables in utf8.h,
b0b342d4 645 * utfebcdic.h. */
8d6204cc
KW
646 if (len >= sizeof(FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX) - 1) {
647 return 1;
648 }
12a4bed3 649
8d6204cc
KW
650 /* The missing bytes could cause the result to go one way or the other, so
651 * the result is indeterminate */
652 return -1;
12a4bed3
KW
653}
654
d22ec717 655#if defined(UV_IS_QUAD) /* These assume IV_MAX is 2**63-1 */
a77c906e
KW
656# ifdef EBCDIC /* Actually is I8 */
657# define HIGHEST_REPRESENTABLE_UTF8 \
d22ec717 658 "\xFF\xA7\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF"
a77c906e
KW
659# else
660# define HIGHEST_REPRESENTABLE_UTF8 \
d22ec717 661 "\xFF\x80\x87\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF"
a77c906e
KW
662# endif
663#endif
664
c285bbc4 665PERL_STATIC_INLINE int
e050c007
KW
666S_does_utf8_overflow(const U8 * const s,
667 const U8 * e,
668 const bool consider_overlongs)
a77c906e 669{
c285bbc4 670 /* Returns an int indicating whether or not the UTF-8 sequence from 's' to
d22ec717
KW
671 * 'e' - 1 would overflow an IV on this platform; that is if it represents
672 * a code point larger than the highest representable code point. It
673 * returns 1 if it does overflow; 0 if it doesn't, and -1 if there isn't
674 * enough information to tell. This last return value can happen if the
675 * sequence is incomplete, missing some trailing bytes that would form a
676 * complete character. If there are enough bytes to make a definitive
677 * decision, this function does so.
c285bbc4 678 *
e050c007
KW
679 * If 'consider_overlongs' is TRUE, the function checks for the possibility
680 * that the sequence is an overlong that doesn't overflow. Otherwise, it
681 * assumes the sequence is not an overlong. This can give different
682 * results only on ASCII 32-bit platforms.
683 *
c285bbc4
KW
684 * (For ASCII platforms, we could use memcmp() because we don't have to
685 * convert each byte to I8, but it's very rare input indeed that would
686 * approach overflow, so the loop below will likely only get executed once.)
687 *
688 * 'e' - 1 must not be beyond a full character. */
a77c906e 689
a77c906e
KW
690
691 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_DOES_UTF8_OVERFLOW;
692 assert(s <= e && s + UTF8SKIP(s) >= e);
693
d22ec717
KW
694#if ! defined(UV_IS_QUAD)
695
696 return is_utf8_cp_above_31_bits(s, e, consider_overlongs);
697
698#else
699
700 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(consider_overlongs);
701
702 {
703 const STRLEN len = e - s;
704 const U8 *x;
705 const U8 * y = (const U8 *) HIGHEST_REPRESENTABLE_UTF8;
706
707 for (x = s; x < e; x++, y++) {
708
709 if (UNLIKELY(NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(*x) == *y)) {
710 continue;
711 }
712
713 /* If this byte is larger than the corresponding highest UTF-8
714 * byte, the sequence overflow; otherwise the byte is less than,
715 * and so the sequence doesn't overflow */
716 return NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(*x) > *y;
717
718 }
719
720 /* Got to the end and all bytes are the same. If the input is a whole
721 * character, it doesn't overflow. And if it is a partial character,
722 * there's not enough information to tell */
723 if (len < sizeof(HIGHEST_REPRESENTABLE_UTF8) - 1) {
724 return -1;
725 }
726
727 return 0;
728 }
729
730#endif
731
732}
733
734#if 0
735
736/* This is the portions of the above function that deal with UV_MAX instead of
737 * IV_MAX. They are left here in case we want to combine them so that internal
738 * uses can have larger code points. The only logic difference is that the
739 * 32-bit EBCDIC platform is treate like the 64-bit, and the 32-bit ASCII has
740 * different logic.
741 */
742
743/* Anything larger than this will overflow the word if it were converted into a UV */
744#if defined(UV_IS_QUAD)
745# ifdef EBCDIC /* Actually is I8 */
746# define HIGHEST_REPRESENTABLE_UTF8 \
747 "\xFF\xAF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF"
748# else
749# define HIGHEST_REPRESENTABLE_UTF8 \
750 "\xFF\x80\x8F\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF"
751# endif
752#else /* 32-bit */
753# ifdef EBCDIC
754# define HIGHEST_REPRESENTABLE_UTF8 \
755 "\xFF\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA0\xA3\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF"
756# else
757# define HIGHEST_REPRESENTABLE_UTF8 "\xFE\x83\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF\xBF"
758# endif
759#endif
760
a77c906e
KW
761#if ! defined(UV_IS_QUAD) && ! defined(EBCDIC)
762
763 /* On 32 bit ASCII machines, many overlongs that start with FF don't
764 * overflow */
e050c007 765 if (consider_overlongs && isFF_OVERLONG(s, len) > 0) {
c285bbc4
KW
766
767 /* To be such an overlong, the first bytes of 's' must match
768 * FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX, which is "\xff\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80\x80". If we
769 * don't have any additional bytes available, the sequence, when
770 * completed might or might not fit in 32 bits. But if we have that
771 * next byte, we can tell for sure. If it is <= 0x83, then it does
772 * fit. */
773 if (len <= sizeof(FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX) - 1) {
774 return -1;
775 }
776
777 return s[sizeof(FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX) - 1] > 0x83;
a77c906e
KW
778 }
779
d22ec717
KW
780/* Starting with the #else, the rest of the function is identical except
781 * 1. we need to move the 'len' declaration to be global to the function
782 * 2. the endif move to just after the UNUSED_ARG.
783 * An empty endif is given just below to satisfy the preprocessor
784 */
a77c906e
KW
785#endif
786
d22ec717 787#endif
a77c906e 788
12a4bed3
KW
789#undef F0_ABOVE_OVERLONG
790#undef F8_ABOVE_OVERLONG
791#undef FC_ABOVE_OVERLONG
792#undef FE_ABOVE_OVERLONG
793#undef FF_OVERLONG_PREFIX
794
35f8c9bd 795STRLEN
edc2c47a 796Perl__is_utf8_char_helper(const U8 * const s, const U8 * e, const U32 flags)
35f8c9bd 797{
2b479609 798 STRLEN len;
12a4bed3 799 const U8 *x;
35f8c9bd 800
2b479609
KW
801 /* A helper function that should not be called directly.
802 *
803 * This function returns non-zero if the string beginning at 's' and
804 * looking no further than 'e - 1' is well-formed Perl-extended-UTF-8 for a
805 * code point; otherwise it returns 0. The examination stops after the
806 * first code point in 's' is validated, not looking at the rest of the
807 * input. If 'e' is such that there are not enough bytes to represent a
808 * complete code point, this function will return non-zero anyway, if the
809 * bytes it does have are well-formed UTF-8 as far as they go, and aren't
810 * excluded by 'flags'.
811 *
812 * A non-zero return gives the number of bytes required to represent the
813 * code point. Be aware that if the input is for a partial character, the
814 * return will be larger than 'e - s'.
815 *
816 * This function assumes that the code point represented is UTF-8 variant.
56576a04
KW
817 * The caller should have excluded the possibility of it being invariant
818 * before calling this function.
2b479609
KW
819 *
820 * 'flags' can be 0, or any combination of the UTF8_DISALLOW_foo flags
821 * accepted by L</utf8n_to_uvchr>. If non-zero, this function will return
822 * 0 if the code point represented is well-formed Perl-extended-UTF-8, but
823 * disallowed by the flags. If the input is only for a partial character,
824 * the function will return non-zero if there is any sequence of
825 * well-formed UTF-8 that, when appended to the input sequence, could
826 * result in an allowed code point; otherwise it returns 0. Non characters
827 * cannot be determined based on partial character input. But many of the
828 * other excluded types can be determined with just the first one or two
829 * bytes.
830 *
831 */
832
833 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_CHAR_HELPER;
834
835 assert(0 == (flags & ~(UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE
d044b7a7 836 |UTF8_DISALLOW_PERL_EXTENDED)));
2b479609 837 assert(! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*s));
35f8c9bd 838
2b479609 839 /* A variant char must begin with a start byte */
35f8c9bd
KW
840 if (UNLIKELY(! UTF8_IS_START(*s))) {
841 return 0;
842 }
843
edc2c47a
KW
844 /* Examine a maximum of a single whole code point */
845 if (e - s > UTF8SKIP(s)) {
846 e = s + UTF8SKIP(s);
847 }
848
2b479609
KW
849 len = e - s;
850
851 if (flags && isUTF8_POSSIBLY_PROBLEMATIC(*s)) {
852 const U8 s0 = NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(s[0]);
35f8c9bd 853
56576a04
KW
854 /* Here, we are disallowing some set of largish code points, and the
855 * first byte indicates the sequence is for a code point that could be
856 * in the excluded set. We generally don't have to look beyond this or
857 * the second byte to see if the sequence is actually for one of the
858 * excluded classes. The code below is derived from this table:
859 *
2b479609
KW
860 * UTF-8 UTF-EBCDIC I8
861 * U+D800: \xED\xA0\x80 \xF1\xB6\xA0\xA0 First surrogate
862 * U+DFFF: \xED\xBF\xBF \xF1\xB7\xBF\xBF Final surrogate
863 * U+110000: \xF4\x90\x80\x80 \xF9\xA2\xA0\xA0\xA0 First above Unicode
864 *
56576a04
KW
865 * Keep in mind that legal continuation bytes range between \x80..\xBF
866 * for UTF-8, and \xA0..\xBF for I8. Anything above those aren't
867 * continuation bytes. Hence, we don't have to test the upper edge
868 * because if any of those is encountered, the sequence is malformed,
869 * and would fail elsewhere in this function.
870 *
871 * The code here likewise assumes that there aren't other
872 * malformations; again the function should fail elsewhere because of
873 * these. For example, an overlong beginning with FC doesn't actually
874 * have to be a super; it could actually represent a small code point,
875 * even U+0000. But, since overlongs (and other malformations) are
876 * illegal, the function should return FALSE in either case.
2b479609
KW
877 */
878
879#ifdef EBCDIC /* On EBCDIC, these are actually I8 bytes */
880# define FIRST_START_BYTE_THAT_IS_DEFINITELY_SUPER 0xFA
19794540 881# define IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SUPER(s0, s1) ((s0) == 0xF9 && (s1) >= 0xA2)
2b479609 882
19794540
KW
883# define IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SURROGATE(s0, s1) ((s0) == 0xF1 \
884 /* B6 and B7 */ \
885 && ((s1) & 0xFE ) == 0xB6)
57ff5f59 886# define isUTF8_PERL_EXTENDED(s) (*s == I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(0xFF))
2b479609
KW
887#else
888# define FIRST_START_BYTE_THAT_IS_DEFINITELY_SUPER 0xF5
19794540
KW
889# define IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SUPER(s0, s1) ((s0) == 0xF4 && (s1) >= 0x90)
890# define IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SURROGATE(s0, s1) ((s0) == 0xED && (s1) >= 0xA0)
57ff5f59 891# define isUTF8_PERL_EXTENDED(s) (*s >= 0xFE)
2b479609
KW
892#endif
893
894 if ( (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER)
ddb65933
KW
895 && UNLIKELY(s0 >= FIRST_START_BYTE_THAT_IS_DEFINITELY_SUPER))
896 {
2b479609
KW
897 return 0; /* Above Unicode */
898 }
899
d044b7a7 900 if ( (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_PERL_EXTENDED)
57ff5f59 901 && UNLIKELY(isUTF8_PERL_EXTENDED(s)))
2b479609 902 {
57ff5f59 903 return 0;
2b479609
KW
904 }
905
906 if (len > 1) {
907 const U8 s1 = NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(s[1]);
908
909 if ( (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER)
19794540 910 && UNLIKELY(IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SUPER(s0, s1)))
2b479609
KW
911 {
912 return 0; /* Above Unicode */
913 }
914
915 if ( (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE)
19794540 916 && UNLIKELY(IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SURROGATE(s0, s1)))
2b479609
KW
917 {
918 return 0; /* Surrogate */
919 }
920
921 if ( (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR)
922 && UNLIKELY(UTF8_IS_NONCHAR(s, e)))
923 {
924 return 0; /* Noncharacter code point */
925 }
926 }
927 }
928
929 /* Make sure that all that follows are continuation bytes */
35f8c9bd
KW
930 for (x = s + 1; x < e; x++) {
931 if (UNLIKELY(! UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(*x))) {
932 return 0;
933 }
934 }
935
af13dd8a 936 /* Here is syntactically valid. Next, make sure this isn't the start of an
12a4bed3 937 * overlong. */
d6be65ae 938 if (len > 1 && is_utf8_overlong_given_start_byte_ok(s, len) > 0) {
12a4bed3 939 return 0;
af13dd8a
KW
940 }
941
12a4bed3
KW
942 /* And finally, that the code point represented fits in a word on this
943 * platform */
e050c007
KW
944 if (0 < does_utf8_overflow(s, e,
945 0 /* Don't consider overlongs */
946 ))
947 {
12a4bed3 948 return 0;
35f8c9bd
KW
949 }
950
2b479609 951 return UTF8SKIP(s);
35f8c9bd
KW
952}
953
7e2f38b2
KW
954char *
955Perl__byte_dump_string(pTHX_ const U8 * s, const STRLEN len, const bool format)
7cf8d05d
KW
956{
957 /* Returns a mortalized C string that is a displayable copy of the 'len'
7e2f38b2
KW
958 * bytes starting at 's'. 'format' gives how to display each byte.
959 * Currently, there are only two formats, so it is currently a bool:
960 * 0 \xab
961 * 1 ab (that is a space between two hex digit bytes)
962 */
7cf8d05d
KW
963
964 const STRLEN output_len = 4 * len + 1; /* 4 bytes per each input, plus a
965 trailing NUL */
966 const U8 * const e = s + len;
967 char * output;
968 char * d;
969
970 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__BYTE_DUMP_STRING;
971
972 Newx(output, output_len, char);
973 SAVEFREEPV(output);
974
975 d = output;
976 for (; s < e; s++) {
977 const unsigned high_nibble = (*s & 0xF0) >> 4;
978 const unsigned low_nibble = (*s & 0x0F);
979
7e2f38b2
KW
980 if (format) {
981 *d++ = ' ';
982 }
983 else {
984 *d++ = '\\';
985 *d++ = 'x';
986 }
7cf8d05d
KW
987
988 if (high_nibble < 10) {
989 *d++ = high_nibble + '0';
990 }
991 else {
992 *d++ = high_nibble - 10 + 'a';
993 }
994
995 if (low_nibble < 10) {
996 *d++ = low_nibble + '0';
997 }
998 else {
999 *d++ = low_nibble - 10 + 'a';
1000 }
1001 }
1002
1003 *d = '\0';
1004 return output;
1005}
1006
806547a7 1007PERL_STATIC_INLINE char *
7cf8d05d
KW
1008S_unexpected_non_continuation_text(pTHX_ const U8 * const s,
1009
1010 /* How many bytes to print */
3cc6a05e 1011 STRLEN print_len,
7cf8d05d
KW
1012
1013 /* Which one is the non-continuation */
1014 const STRLEN non_cont_byte_pos,
1015
1016 /* How many bytes should there be? */
1017 const STRLEN expect_len)
806547a7
KW
1018{
1019 /* Return the malformation warning text for an unexpected continuation
1020 * byte. */
1021
7cf8d05d 1022 const char * const where = (non_cont_byte_pos == 1)
806547a7 1023 ? "immediately"
7cf8d05d
KW
1024 : Perl_form(aTHX_ "%d bytes",
1025 (int) non_cont_byte_pos);
806547a7
KW
1026
1027 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UNEXPECTED_NON_CONTINUATION_TEXT;
1028
7cf8d05d
KW
1029 /* We don't need to pass this parameter, but since it has already been
1030 * calculated, it's likely faster to pass it; verify under DEBUGGING */
1031 assert(expect_len == UTF8SKIP(s));
1032
1033 return Perl_form(aTHX_ "%s: %s (unexpected non-continuation byte 0x%02x,"
1034 " %s after start byte 0x%02x; need %d bytes, got %d)",
1035 malformed_text,
7e2f38b2 1036 _byte_dump_string(s, print_len, 0),
7cf8d05d
KW
1037 *(s + non_cont_byte_pos),
1038 where,
1039 *s,
1040 (int) expect_len,
1041 (int) non_cont_byte_pos);
806547a7
KW
1042}
1043
35f8c9bd
KW
1044/*
1045
de69f3af 1046=for apidoc utf8n_to_uvchr
378516de
KW
1047
1048THIS FUNCTION SHOULD BE USED IN ONLY VERY SPECIALIZED CIRCUMSTANCES.
de69f3af 1049Most code should use L</utf8_to_uvchr_buf>() rather than call this directly.
67e989fb 1050
9041c2e3 1051Bottom level UTF-8 decode routine.
de69f3af 1052Returns the native code point value of the first character in the string C<s>,
746afd53
KW
1053which is assumed to be in UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC) encoding, and no longer than
1054C<curlen> bytes; C<*retlen> (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) will be set to
1055the length, in bytes, of that character.
949cf498
KW
1056
1057The value of C<flags> determines the behavior when C<s> does not point to a
2b5e7bc2
KW
1058well-formed UTF-8 character. If C<flags> is 0, encountering a malformation
1059causes zero to be returned and C<*retlen> is set so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>)
1060is the next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed
1061character. Also, if UTF-8 warnings haven't been lexically disabled, a warning
1062is raised. Some UTF-8 input sequences may contain multiple malformations.
1063This function tries to find every possible one in each call, so multiple
56576a04 1064warnings can be raised for the same sequence.
949cf498
KW
1065
1066Various ALLOW flags can be set in C<flags> to allow (and not warn on)
1067individual types of malformations, such as the sequence being overlong (that
1068is, when there is a shorter sequence that can express the same code point;
1069overlong sequences are expressly forbidden in the UTF-8 standard due to
1070potential security issues). Another malformation example is the first byte of
1071a character not being a legal first byte. See F<utf8.h> for the list of such
94953955
KW
1072flags. Even if allowed, this function generally returns the Unicode
1073REPLACEMENT CHARACTER when it encounters a malformation. There are flags in
1074F<utf8.h> to override this behavior for the overlong malformations, but don't
1075do that except for very specialized purposes.
949cf498 1076
796b6530 1077The C<UTF8_CHECK_ONLY> flag overrides the behavior when a non-allowed (by other
949cf498
KW
1078flags) malformation is found. If this flag is set, the routine assumes that
1079the caller will raise a warning, and this function will silently just set
d088425d
KW
1080C<retlen> to C<-1> (cast to C<STRLEN>) and return zero.
1081
75200dff 1082Note that this API requires disambiguation between successful decoding a C<NUL>
796b6530 1083character, and an error return (unless the C<UTF8_CHECK_ONLY> flag is set), as
111fa700
KW
1084in both cases, 0 is returned, and, depending on the malformation, C<retlen> may
1085be set to 1. To disambiguate, upon a zero return, see if the first byte of
1086C<s> is 0 as well. If so, the input was a C<NUL>; if not, the input had an
f9380377 1087error. Or you can use C<L</utf8n_to_uvchr_error>>.
949cf498
KW
1088
1089Certain code points are considered problematic. These are Unicode surrogates,
746afd53 1090Unicode non-characters, and code points above the Unicode maximum of 0x10FFFF.
949cf498 1091By default these are considered regular code points, but certain situations
ecc1615f
KW
1092warrant special handling for them, which can be specified using the C<flags>
1093parameter. If C<flags> contains C<UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE>, all
1094three classes are treated as malformations and handled as such. The flags
1095C<UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE>, C<UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR>, and
1096C<UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER> (meaning above the legal Unicode maximum) can be set to
1097disallow these categories individually. C<UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE>
1098restricts the allowed inputs to the strict UTF-8 traditionally defined by
1099Unicode. Use C<UTF8_DISALLOW_ILLEGAL_C9_INTERCHANGE> to use the strictness
1100definition given by
1101L<Unicode Corrigendum #9|http://www.unicode.org/versions/corrigendum9.html>.
1102The difference between traditional strictness and C9 strictness is that the
1103latter does not forbid non-character code points. (They are still discouraged,
1104however.) For more discussion see L<perlunicode/Noncharacter code points>.
1105
1106The flags C<UTF8_WARN_ILLEGAL_INTERCHANGE>,
1107C<UTF8_WARN_ILLEGAL_C9_INTERCHANGE>, C<UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE>,
796b6530
KW
1108C<UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR>, and C<UTF8_WARN_SUPER> will cause warning messages to be
1109raised for their respective categories, but otherwise the code points are
1110considered valid (not malformations). To get a category to both be treated as
1111a malformation and raise a warning, specify both the WARN and DISALLOW flags.
949cf498 1112(But note that warnings are not raised if lexically disabled nor if
796b6530 1113C<UTF8_CHECK_ONLY> is also specified.)
949cf498 1114
57ff5f59
KW
1115Extremely high code points were never specified in any standard, and require an
1116extension to UTF-8 to express, which Perl does. It is likely that programs
1117written in something other than Perl would not be able to read files that
1118contain these; nor would Perl understand files written by something that uses a
1119different extension. For these reasons, there is a separate set of flags that
1120can warn and/or disallow these extremely high code points, even if other
1121above-Unicode ones are accepted. They are the C<UTF8_WARN_PERL_EXTENDED> and
1122C<UTF8_DISALLOW_PERL_EXTENDED> flags. For more information see
1123L</C<UTF8_GOT_PERL_EXTENDED>>. Of course C<UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER> will treat all
1124above-Unicode code points, including these, as malformations.
1125(Note that the Unicode standard considers anything above 0x10FFFF to be
1126illegal, but there are standards predating it that allow up to 0x7FFF_FFFF
1127(2**31 -1))
1128
1129A somewhat misleadingly named synonym for C<UTF8_WARN_PERL_EXTENDED> is
1130retained for backward compatibility: C<UTF8_WARN_ABOVE_31_BIT>. Similarly,
1131C<UTF8_DISALLOW_ABOVE_31_BIT> is usable instead of the more accurately named
1132C<UTF8_DISALLOW_PERL_EXTENDED>. The names are misleading because these flags
1133can apply to code points that actually do fit in 31 bits. This happens on
1134EBCDIC platforms, and sometimes when the L<overlong
1135malformation|/C<UTF8_GOT_LONG>> is also present. The new names accurately
1136describe the situation in all cases.
1137
ab8e6d41 1138
949cf498
KW
1139All other code points corresponding to Unicode characters, including private
1140use and those yet to be assigned, are never considered malformed and never
1141warn.
67e989fb 1142
37607a96 1143=cut
f9380377
KW
1144
1145Also implemented as a macro in utf8.h
1146*/
1147
1148UV
1149Perl_utf8n_to_uvchr(pTHX_ const U8 *s,
1150 STRLEN curlen,
1151 STRLEN *retlen,
1152 const U32 flags)
1153{
1154 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8N_TO_UVCHR;
1155
1156 return utf8n_to_uvchr_error(s, curlen, retlen, flags, NULL);
1157}
1158
1159/*
1160
1161=for apidoc utf8n_to_uvchr_error
1162
1163THIS FUNCTION SHOULD BE USED IN ONLY VERY SPECIALIZED CIRCUMSTANCES.
1164Most code should use L</utf8_to_uvchr_buf>() rather than call this directly.
1165
1166This function is for code that needs to know what the precise malformation(s)
1167are when an error is found.
1168
1169It is like C<L</utf8n_to_uvchr>> but it takes an extra parameter placed after
1170all the others, C<errors>. If this parameter is 0, this function behaves
1171identically to C<L</utf8n_to_uvchr>>. Otherwise, C<errors> should be a pointer
1172to a C<U32> variable, which this function sets to indicate any errors found.
1173Upon return, if C<*errors> is 0, there were no errors found. Otherwise,
1174C<*errors> is the bit-wise C<OR> of the bits described in the list below. Some
1175of these bits will be set if a malformation is found, even if the input
7a65503b 1176C<flags> parameter indicates that the given malformation is allowed; those
f9380377
KW
1177exceptions are noted:
1178
1179=over 4
1180
57ff5f59 1181=item C<UTF8_GOT_PERL_EXTENDED>
f9380377 1182
57ff5f59
KW
1183The input sequence is not standard UTF-8, but a Perl extension. This bit is
1184set only if the input C<flags> parameter contains either the
1185C<UTF8_DISALLOW_PERL_EXTENDED> or the C<UTF8_WARN_PERL_EXTENDED> flags.
1186
1187Code points above 0x7FFF_FFFF (2**31 - 1) were never specified in any standard,
1188and so some extension must be used to express them. Perl uses a natural
1189extension to UTF-8 to represent the ones up to 2**36-1, and invented a further
1190extension to represent even higher ones, so that any code point that fits in a
119164-bit word can be represented. Text using these extensions is not likely to
1192be portable to non-Perl code. We lump both of these extensions together and
1193refer to them as Perl extended UTF-8. There exist other extensions that people
1194have invented, incompatible with Perl's.
1195
1196On EBCDIC platforms starting in Perl v5.24, the Perl extension for representing
1197extremely high code points kicks in at 0x3FFF_FFFF (2**30 -1), which is lower
1198than on ASCII. Prior to that, code points 2**31 and higher were simply
1199unrepresentable, and a different, incompatible method was used to represent
1200code points between 2**30 and 2**31 - 1.
1201
1202On both platforms, ASCII and EBCDIC, C<UTF8_GOT_PERL_EXTENDED> is set if
1203Perl extended UTF-8 is used.
1204
1205In earlier Perls, this bit was named C<UTF8_GOT_ABOVE_31_BIT>, which you still
1206may use for backward compatibility. That name is misleading, as this flag may
1207be set when the code point actually does fit in 31 bits. This happens on
1208EBCDIC platforms, and sometimes when the L<overlong
1209malformation|/C<UTF8_GOT_LONG>> is also present. The new name accurately
1210describes the situation in all cases.
f9380377
KW
1211
1212=item C<UTF8_GOT_CONTINUATION>
1213
1214The input sequence was malformed in that the first byte was a a UTF-8
1215continuation byte.
1216
1217=item C<UTF8_GOT_EMPTY>
1218
1219The input C<curlen> parameter was 0.
1220
1221=item C<UTF8_GOT_LONG>
1222
1223The input sequence was malformed in that there is some other sequence that
1224evaluates to the same code point, but that sequence is shorter than this one.
1225
fecaf136
KW
1226Until Unicode 3.1, it was legal for programs to accept this malformation, but
1227it was discovered that this created security issues.
1228
f9380377
KW
1229=item C<UTF8_GOT_NONCHAR>
1230
1231The code point represented by the input UTF-8 sequence is for a Unicode
1232non-character code point.
1233This bit is set only if the input C<flags> parameter contains either the
1234C<UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR> or the C<UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR> flags.
1235
1236=item C<UTF8_GOT_NON_CONTINUATION>
1237
1238The input sequence was malformed in that a non-continuation type byte was found
1239in a position where only a continuation type one should be.
1240
1241=item C<UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW>
1242
1243The input sequence was malformed in that it is for a code point that is not
d22ec717 1244representable in the number of bits available in an IV on the current platform.
f9380377
KW
1245
1246=item C<UTF8_GOT_SHORT>
1247
1248The input sequence was malformed in that C<curlen> is smaller than required for
1249a complete sequence. In other words, the input is for a partial character
1250sequence.
1251
1252=item C<UTF8_GOT_SUPER>
1253
1254The input sequence was malformed in that it is for a non-Unicode code point;
1255that is, one above the legal Unicode maximum.
1256This bit is set only if the input C<flags> parameter contains either the
1257C<UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER> or the C<UTF8_WARN_SUPER> flags.
1258
1259=item C<UTF8_GOT_SURROGATE>
1260
1261The input sequence was malformed in that it is for a -Unicode UTF-16 surrogate
1262code point.
1263This bit is set only if the input C<flags> parameter contains either the
1264C<UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE> or the C<UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE> flags.
1265
1266=back
1267
133551d8
KW
1268To do your own error handling, call this function with the C<UTF8_CHECK_ONLY>
1269flag to suppress any warnings, and then examine the C<*errors> return.
1270
f9380377 1271=cut
37607a96 1272*/
67e989fb 1273
a0ed51b3 1274UV
f9380377
KW
1275Perl_utf8n_to_uvchr_error(pTHX_ const U8 *s,
1276 STRLEN curlen,
1277 STRLEN *retlen,
1278 const U32 flags,
1279 U32 * errors)
a0ed51b3 1280{
d4c19fe8 1281 const U8 * const s0 = s;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1282 U8 * send = NULL; /* (initialized to silence compilers' wrong
1283 warning) */
1284 U32 possible_problems = 0; /* A bit is set here for each potential problem
1285 found as we go along */
eb83ed87 1286 UV uv = *s;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1287 STRLEN expectlen = 0; /* How long should this sequence be?
1288 (initialized to silence compilers' wrong
1289 warning) */
e308b348 1290 STRLEN avail_len = 0; /* When input is too short, gives what that is */
f9380377
KW
1291 U32 discard_errors = 0; /* Used to save branches when 'errors' is NULL;
1292 this gets set and discarded */
a0dbb045 1293
2b5e7bc2
KW
1294 /* The below are used only if there is both an overlong malformation and a
1295 * too short one. Otherwise the first two are set to 's0' and 'send', and
1296 * the third not used at all */
1297 U8 * adjusted_s0 = (U8 *) s0;
e9f2c446
KW
1298 U8 temp_char_buf[UTF8_MAXBYTES + 1]; /* Used to avoid a Newx in this
1299 routine; see [perl #130921] */
2b5e7bc2 1300 UV uv_so_far = 0; /* (Initialized to silence compilers' wrong warning) */
7918f24d 1301
f9380377
KW
1302 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8N_TO_UVCHR_ERROR;
1303
1304 if (errors) {
1305 *errors = 0;
1306 }
1307 else {
1308 errors = &discard_errors;
1309 }
a0dbb045 1310
eb83ed87
KW
1311 /* The order of malformation tests here is important. We should consume as
1312 * few bytes as possible in order to not skip any valid character. This is
1313 * required by the Unicode Standard (section 3.9 of Unicode 6.0); see also
1314 * http://unicode.org/reports/tr36 for more discussion as to why. For
1315 * example, once we've done a UTF8SKIP, we can tell the expected number of
1316 * bytes, and could fail right off the bat if the input parameters indicate
1317 * that there are too few available. But it could be that just that first
1318 * byte is garbled, and the intended character occupies fewer bytes. If we
1319 * blindly assumed that the first byte is correct, and skipped based on
1320 * that number, we could skip over a valid input character. So instead, we
1321 * always examine the sequence byte-by-byte.
1322 *
1323 * We also should not consume too few bytes, otherwise someone could inject
1324 * things. For example, an input could be deliberately designed to
1325 * overflow, and if this code bailed out immediately upon discovering that,
e2660c54 1326 * returning to the caller C<*retlen> pointing to the very next byte (one
eb83ed87
KW
1327 * which is actually part of of the overflowing sequence), that could look
1328 * legitimate to the caller, which could discard the initial partial
2b5e7bc2
KW
1329 * sequence and process the rest, inappropriately.
1330 *
1331 * Some possible input sequences are malformed in more than one way. This
1332 * function goes to lengths to try to find all of them. This is necessary
1333 * for correctness, as the inputs may allow one malformation but not
1334 * another, and if we abandon searching for others after finding the
1335 * allowed one, we could allow in something that shouldn't have been.
1336 */
eb83ed87 1337
b5b9af04 1338 if (UNLIKELY(curlen == 0)) {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1339 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_EMPTY;
1340 curlen = 0;
5a48568d 1341 uv = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
2b5e7bc2 1342 goto ready_to_handle_errors;
0c443dc2
JH
1343 }
1344
eb83ed87
KW
1345 expectlen = UTF8SKIP(s);
1346
1347 /* A well-formed UTF-8 character, as the vast majority of calls to this
1348 * function will be for, has this expected length. For efficiency, set
1349 * things up here to return it. It will be overriden only in those rare
1350 * cases where a malformation is found */
1351 if (retlen) {
1352 *retlen = expectlen;
1353 }
1354
1355 /* An invariant is trivially well-formed */
1d72bdf6 1356 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(uv)) {
de69f3af 1357 return uv;
a0ed51b3 1358 }
67e989fb 1359
eb83ed87 1360 /* A continuation character can't start a valid sequence */
b5b9af04 1361 if (UNLIKELY(UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(uv))) {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1362 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_CONTINUATION;
1363 curlen = 1;
1364 uv = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
1365 goto ready_to_handle_errors;
ba210ebe 1366 }
9041c2e3 1367
dcd27b3c 1368 /* Here is not a continuation byte, nor an invariant. The only thing left
ddb65933
KW
1369 * is a start byte (possibly for an overlong). (We can't use UTF8_IS_START
1370 * because it excludes start bytes like \xC0 that always lead to
1371 * overlongs.) */
dcd27b3c 1372
534752c1
KW
1373 /* Convert to I8 on EBCDIC (no-op on ASCII), then remove the leading bits
1374 * that indicate the number of bytes in the character's whole UTF-8
1375 * sequence, leaving just the bits that are part of the value. */
1376 uv = NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(uv) & UTF_START_MASK(expectlen);
ba210ebe 1377
e308b348
KW
1378 /* Setup the loop end point, making sure to not look past the end of the
1379 * input string, and flag it as too short if the size isn't big enough. */
1380 send = (U8*) s0;
1381 if (UNLIKELY(curlen < expectlen)) {
1382 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_SHORT;
1383 avail_len = curlen;
1384 send += curlen;
1385 }
1386 else {
1387 send += expectlen;
1388 }
e308b348 1389
eb83ed87 1390 /* Now, loop through the remaining bytes in the character's sequence,
e308b348 1391 * accumulating each into the working value as we go. */
eb83ed87 1392 for (s = s0 + 1; s < send; s++) {
b5b9af04 1393 if (LIKELY(UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(*s))) {
8850bf83 1394 uv = UTF8_ACCUMULATE(uv, *s);
2b5e7bc2
KW
1395 continue;
1396 }
1397
1398 /* Here, found a non-continuation before processing all expected bytes.
1399 * This byte indicates the beginning of a new character, so quit, even
1400 * if allowing this malformation. */
2b5e7bc2 1401 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_NON_CONTINUATION;
e308b348 1402 break;
eb83ed87
KW
1403 } /* End of loop through the character's bytes */
1404
1405 /* Save how many bytes were actually in the character */
1406 curlen = s - s0;
1407
2b5e7bc2
KW
1408 /* Note that there are two types of too-short malformation. One is when
1409 * there is actual wrong data before the normal termination of the
1410 * sequence. The other is that the sequence wasn't complete before the end
1411 * of the data we are allowed to look at, based on the input 'curlen'.
1412 * This means that we were passed data for a partial character, but it is
1413 * valid as far as we saw. The other is definitely invalid. This
1414 * distinction could be important to a caller, so the two types are kept
15b010f0
KW
1415 * separate.
1416 *
1417 * A convenience macro that matches either of the too-short conditions. */
1418# define UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT (UTF8_GOT_SHORT|UTF8_GOT_NON_CONTINUATION)
1419
1420 if (UNLIKELY(possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT)) {
1421 uv_so_far = uv;
1422 uv = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
1423 }
2b5e7bc2 1424
08e73697
KW
1425 /* Check for overflow. The algorithm requires us to not look past the end
1426 * of the current character, even if partial, so the upper limit is 's' */
e050c007
KW
1427 if (UNLIKELY(0 < does_utf8_overflow(s0, s,
1428 1 /* Do consider overlongs */
1429 )))
1430 {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1431 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW;
1432 uv = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
eb83ed87 1433 }
eb83ed87 1434
2b5e7bc2
KW
1435 /* Check for overlong. If no problems so far, 'uv' is the correct code
1436 * point value. Simply see if it is expressible in fewer bytes. Otherwise
1437 * we must look at the UTF-8 byte sequence itself to see if it is for an
1438 * overlong */
1439 if ( ( LIKELY(! possible_problems)
1440 && UNLIKELY(expectlen > (STRLEN) OFFUNISKIP(uv)))
56576a04 1441 || ( UNLIKELY(possible_problems)
2b5e7bc2
KW
1442 && ( UNLIKELY(! UTF8_IS_START(*s0))
1443 || ( curlen > 1
d6be65ae 1444 && UNLIKELY(0 < is_utf8_overlong_given_start_byte_ok(s0,
08e73697 1445 s - s0))))))
2f8f112e 1446 {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1447 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_LONG;
1448
abc28b54 1449 if ( UNLIKELY( possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT)
56576a04 1450
abc28b54
KW
1451 /* The calculation in the 'true' branch of this 'if'
1452 * below won't work if overflows, and isn't needed
1453 * anyway. Further below we handle all overflow
1454 * cases */
1455 && LIKELY(! (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW)))
1456 {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1457 UV min_uv = uv_so_far;
1458 STRLEN i;
1459
1460 /* Here, the input is both overlong and is missing some trailing
1461 * bytes. There is no single code point it could be for, but there
1462 * may be enough information present to determine if what we have
1463 * so far is for an unallowed code point, such as for a surrogate.
56576a04
KW
1464 * The code further below has the intelligence to determine this,
1465 * but just for non-overlong UTF-8 sequences. What we do here is
1466 * calculate the smallest code point the input could represent if
1467 * there were no too short malformation. Then we compute and save
1468 * the UTF-8 for that, which is what the code below looks at
1469 * instead of the raw input. It turns out that the smallest such
1470 * code point is all we need. */
2b5e7bc2
KW
1471 for (i = curlen; i < expectlen; i++) {
1472 min_uv = UTF8_ACCUMULATE(min_uv,
1473 I8_TO_NATIVE_UTF8(UTF_CONTINUATION_MARK));
1474 }
1475
e9f2c446 1476 adjusted_s0 = temp_char_buf;
57ff5f59 1477 (void) uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags(adjusted_s0, min_uv, 0);
2b5e7bc2 1478 }
eb83ed87
KW
1479 }
1480
56576a04
KW
1481 /* Here, we have found all the possible problems, except for when the input
1482 * is for a problematic code point not allowed by the input parameters. */
1483
06188866
KW
1484 /* uv is valid for overlongs */
1485 if ( ( ( LIKELY(! (possible_problems & ~UTF8_GOT_LONG))
1486
1487 /* isn't problematic if < this */
1488 && uv >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST)
2b5e7bc2 1489 || ( UNLIKELY(possible_problems)
d60baaa7
KW
1490
1491 /* if overflow, we know without looking further
1492 * precisely which of the problematic types it is,
1493 * and we deal with those in the overflow handling
1494 * code */
1495 && LIKELY(! (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW))
57ff5f59
KW
1496 && ( isUTF8_POSSIBLY_PROBLEMATIC(*adjusted_s0)
1497 || UNLIKELY(isUTF8_PERL_EXTENDED(s0)))))
760c7c2f
KW
1498 && ((flags & ( UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR
1499 |UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE
1500 |UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER
d044b7a7 1501 |UTF8_DISALLOW_PERL_EXTENDED
760c7c2f
KW
1502 |UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR
1503 |UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE
1504 |UTF8_WARN_SUPER
d22ec717 1505 |UTF8_WARN_PERL_EXTENDED))))
eb83ed87 1506 {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1507 /* If there were no malformations, or the only malformation is an
1508 * overlong, 'uv' is valid */
1509 if (LIKELY(! (possible_problems & ~UTF8_GOT_LONG))) {
1510 if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv))) {
1511 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_SURROGATE;
1512 }
1513 else if (UNLIKELY(uv > PERL_UNICODE_MAX)) {
1514 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_SUPER;
1515 }
1516 else if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_NONCHAR(uv))) {
1517 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_NONCHAR;
1518 }
1519 }
1520 else { /* Otherwise, need to look at the source UTF-8, possibly
1521 adjusted to be non-overlong */
1522
1523 if (UNLIKELY(NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(*adjusted_s0)
1524 >= FIRST_START_BYTE_THAT_IS_DEFINITELY_SUPER))
ea5ced44 1525 {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1526 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_SUPER;
1527 }
1528 else if (curlen > 1) {
1529 if (UNLIKELY(IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SUPER(
1530 NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(*adjusted_s0),
1531 NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(*(adjusted_s0 + 1)))))
ea5ced44 1532 {
2b5e7bc2 1533 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_SUPER;
ea5ced44 1534 }
2b5e7bc2
KW
1535 else if (UNLIKELY(IS_UTF8_2_BYTE_SURROGATE(
1536 NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(*adjusted_s0),
1537 NATIVE_UTF8_TO_I8(*(adjusted_s0 + 1)))))
1538 {
1539 possible_problems |= UTF8_GOT_SURROGATE;
ea5ced44
KW
1540 }
1541 }
c0236afe 1542
2b5e7bc2
KW
1543 /* We need a complete well-formed UTF-8 character to discern
1544 * non-characters, so can't look for them here */
1545 }
1546 }
949cf498 1547
2b5e7bc2
KW
1548 ready_to_handle_errors:
1549
1550 /* At this point:
1551 * curlen contains the number of bytes in the sequence that
1552 * this call should advance the input by.
e308b348
KW
1553 * avail_len gives the available number of bytes passed in, but
1554 * only if this is less than the expected number of
1555 * bytes, based on the code point's start byte.
2b5e7bc2
KW
1556 * possible_problems' is 0 if there weren't any problems; otherwise a bit
1557 * is set in it for each potential problem found.
1558 * uv contains the code point the input sequence
1559 * represents; or if there is a problem that prevents
1560 * a well-defined value from being computed, it is
1561 * some subsitute value, typically the REPLACEMENT
1562 * CHARACTER.
1563 * s0 points to the first byte of the character
56576a04
KW
1564 * s points to just after were we left off processing
1565 * the character
1566 * send points to just after where that character should
1567 * end, based on how many bytes the start byte tells
1568 * us should be in it, but no further than s0 +
1569 * avail_len
2b5e7bc2 1570 */
eb83ed87 1571
2b5e7bc2
KW
1572 if (UNLIKELY(possible_problems)) {
1573 bool disallowed = FALSE;
1574 const U32 orig_problems = possible_problems;
1575
1576 while (possible_problems) { /* Handle each possible problem */
1577 UV pack_warn = 0;
1578 char * message = NULL;
1579
1580 /* Each 'if' clause handles one problem. They are ordered so that
1581 * the first ones' messages will be displayed before the later
6c64cd9d
KW
1582 * ones; this is kinda in decreasing severity order. But the
1583 * overlong must come last, as it changes 'uv' looked at by the
1584 * others */
2b5e7bc2
KW
1585 if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW) {
1586
56576a04
KW
1587 /* Overflow means also got a super and are using Perl's
1588 * extended UTF-8, but we handle all three cases here */
2b5e7bc2 1589 possible_problems
d044b7a7 1590 &= ~(UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW|UTF8_GOT_SUPER|UTF8_GOT_PERL_EXTENDED);
f9380377
KW
1591 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW;
1592
1593 /* But the API says we flag all errors found */
1594 if (flags & (UTF8_WARN_SUPER|UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER)) {
1595 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_SUPER;
1596 }
ddb65933 1597 if (flags
d044b7a7 1598 & (UTF8_WARN_PERL_EXTENDED|UTF8_DISALLOW_PERL_EXTENDED))
ddb65933 1599 {
d044b7a7 1600 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_PERL_EXTENDED;
f9380377 1601 }
2b5e7bc2 1602
d60baaa7 1603 /* Disallow if any of the three categories say to */
56576a04 1604 if ( ! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_OVERFLOW)
d60baaa7 1605 || (flags & ( UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER
d044b7a7 1606 |UTF8_DISALLOW_PERL_EXTENDED)))
d60baaa7
KW
1607 {
1608 disallowed = TRUE;
1609 }
1610
d22ec717
KW
1611 /* Likewise, warn if any say to */
1612 if ( ! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_OVERFLOW)
1613 || (flags & (UTF8_WARN_SUPER|UTF8_WARN_PERL_EXTENDED)))
d60baaa7 1614 {
2b5e7bc2 1615
ddb65933
KW
1616 /* The warnings code explicitly says it doesn't handle the
1617 * case of packWARN2 and two categories which have
1618 * parent-child relationship. Even if it works now to
1619 * raise the warning if either is enabled, it wouldn't
1620 * necessarily do so in the future. We output (only) the
56576a04 1621 * most dire warning */
ddb65933
KW
1622 if (! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
1623 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8)) {
1624 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
1625 }
1626 else if (ckWARN_d(WARN_NON_UNICODE)) {
1627 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE);
1628 }
1629 if (pack_warn) {
1630 message = Perl_form(aTHX_ "%s: %s (overflows)",
1631 malformed_text,
05b9033b 1632 _byte_dump_string(s0, curlen, 0));
ddb65933 1633 }
2b5e7bc2
KW
1634 }
1635 }
1636 }
1637 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_EMPTY) {
1638 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_EMPTY;
f9380377 1639 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_EMPTY;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1640
1641 if (! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_EMPTY)) {
d1f8d421
KW
1642
1643 /* This so-called malformation is now treated as a bug in
1644 * the caller. If you have nothing to decode, skip calling
1645 * this function */
1646 assert(0);
1647
2b5e7bc2
KW
1648 disallowed = TRUE;
1649 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) && ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
1650 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
1651 message = Perl_form(aTHX_ "%s (empty string)",
1652 malformed_text);
1653 }
1654 }
1655 }
1656 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_CONTINUATION) {
1657 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_CONTINUATION;
f9380377 1658 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_CONTINUATION;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1659
1660 if (! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_CONTINUATION)) {
1661 disallowed = TRUE;
1662 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) && ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
1663 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
1664 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
1665 "%s: %s (unexpected continuation byte 0x%02x,"
1666 " with no preceding start byte)",
1667 malformed_text,
7e2f38b2 1668 _byte_dump_string(s0, 1, 0), *s0);
2b5e7bc2
KW
1669 }
1670 }
1671 }
2b5e7bc2
KW
1672 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_SHORT) {
1673 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_SHORT;
f9380377 1674 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_SHORT;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1675
1676 if (! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_SHORT)) {
1677 disallowed = TRUE;
1678 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) && ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
1679 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
1680 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
56576a04
KW
1681 "%s: %s (too short; %d byte%s available, need %d)",
1682 malformed_text,
1683 _byte_dump_string(s0, send - s0, 0),
1684 (int)avail_len,
1685 avail_len == 1 ? "" : "s",
1686 (int)expectlen);
2b5e7bc2
KW
1687 }
1688 }
ba210ebe 1689
2b5e7bc2 1690 }
e308b348
KW
1691 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_NON_CONTINUATION) {
1692 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_NON_CONTINUATION;
1693 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_NON_CONTINUATION;
1694
1695 if (! (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_NON_CONTINUATION)) {
1696 disallowed = TRUE;
1697 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) && ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
99a765e9
KW
1698
1699 /* If we don't know for sure that the input length is
1700 * valid, avoid as much as possible reading past the
1701 * end of the buffer */
1702 int printlen = (flags & _UTF8_NO_CONFIDENCE_IN_CURLEN)
1703 ? s - s0
1704 : send - s0;
e308b348
KW
1705 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
1706 message = Perl_form(aTHX_ "%s",
1707 unexpected_non_continuation_text(s0,
99a765e9 1708 printlen,
e308b348
KW
1709 s - s0,
1710 (int) expectlen));
1711 }
1712 }
1713 }
2b5e7bc2
KW
1714 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_SURROGATE) {
1715 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_SURROGATE;
1716
f9380377
KW
1717 if (flags & UTF8_WARN_SURROGATE) {
1718 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_SURROGATE;
1719
1720 if ( ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)
1721 && ckWARN_d(WARN_SURROGATE))
1722 {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1723 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_SURROGATE);
1724
1725 /* These are the only errors that can occur with a
1726 * surrogate when the 'uv' isn't valid */
1727 if (orig_problems & UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT) {
1728 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
1729 "UTF-16 surrogate (any UTF-8 sequence that"
1730 " starts with \"%s\" is for a surrogate)",
7e2f38b2 1731 _byte_dump_string(s0, curlen, 0));
2b5e7bc2
KW
1732 }
1733 else {
c94c2f39 1734 message = Perl_form(aTHX_ surrogate_cp_format, uv);
2b5e7bc2 1735 }
f9380377 1736 }
2b5e7bc2 1737 }
ba210ebe 1738
2b5e7bc2
KW
1739 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SURROGATE) {
1740 disallowed = TRUE;
f9380377 1741 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_SURROGATE;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1742 }
1743 }
1744 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_SUPER) {
1745 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_SUPER;
949cf498 1746
f9380377
KW
1747 if (flags & UTF8_WARN_SUPER) {
1748 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_SUPER;
1749
1750 if ( ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)
1751 && ckWARN_d(WARN_NON_UNICODE))
1752 {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1753 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE);
1754
1755 if (orig_problems & UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT) {
1756 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
1757 "Any UTF-8 sequence that starts with"
1758 " \"%s\" is for a non-Unicode code point,"
1759 " may not be portable",
7e2f38b2 1760 _byte_dump_string(s0, curlen, 0));
2b5e7bc2
KW
1761 }
1762 else {
c94c2f39 1763 message = Perl_form(aTHX_ super_cp_format, uv);
2b5e7bc2 1764 }
f9380377 1765 }
2b5e7bc2 1766 }
ba210ebe 1767
57ff5f59
KW
1768 /* Test for Perl's extended UTF-8 after the regular SUPER ones,
1769 * and before possibly bailing out, so that the more dire
1770 * warning will override the regular one. */
1771 if (UNLIKELY(isUTF8_PERL_EXTENDED(s0))) {
2b5e7bc2 1772 if ( ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)
d044b7a7 1773 && (flags & (UTF8_WARN_PERL_EXTENDED|UTF8_WARN_SUPER))
db0f09e6 1774 && ckWARN_d(WARN_NON_UNICODE))
2b5e7bc2 1775 {
db0f09e6 1776 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE);
2b5e7bc2 1777
57ff5f59
KW
1778 /* If it is an overlong that evaluates to a code point
1779 * that doesn't have to use the Perl extended UTF-8, it
1780 * still used it, and so we output a message that
1781 * doesn't refer to the code point. The same is true
1782 * if there was a SHORT malformation where the code
1783 * point is not valid. In that case, 'uv' will have
1784 * been set to the REPLACEMENT CHAR, and the message
1785 * below without the code point in it will be selected
1786 * */
1787 if (UNICODE_IS_PERL_EXTENDED(uv)) {
2b5e7bc2 1788 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
57ff5f59 1789 perl_extended_cp_format, uv);
2b5e7bc2
KW
1790 }
1791 else {
1792 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
57ff5f59
KW
1793 "Any UTF-8 sequence that starts with"
1794 " \"%s\" is a Perl extension, and"
1795 " so is not portable",
1796 _byte_dump_string(s0, curlen, 0));
2b5e7bc2
KW
1797 }
1798 }
1799
d044b7a7
KW
1800 if (flags & ( UTF8_WARN_PERL_EXTENDED
1801 |UTF8_DISALLOW_PERL_EXTENDED))
ddb65933 1802 {
d044b7a7 1803 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_PERL_EXTENDED;
f9380377 1804
d044b7a7 1805 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_PERL_EXTENDED) {
f9380377
KW
1806 disallowed = TRUE;
1807 }
2b5e7bc2
KW
1808 }
1809 }
eb83ed87 1810
2b5e7bc2 1811 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_SUPER) {
f9380377 1812 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_SUPER;
2b5e7bc2
KW
1813 disallowed = TRUE;
1814 }
2b5e7bc2
KW
1815 }
1816 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_NONCHAR) {
1817 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_NONCHAR;
ba210ebe 1818
f9380377
KW
1819 if (flags & UTF8_WARN_NONCHAR) {
1820 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_NONCHAR;
1821
1822 if ( ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)
1823 && ckWARN_d(WARN_NONCHAR))
1824 {
2b5e7bc2
KW
1825 /* The code above should have guaranteed that we don't
1826 * get here with errors other than overlong */
1827 assert (! (orig_problems
1828 & ~(UTF8_GOT_LONG|UTF8_GOT_NONCHAR)));
1829
1830 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_NONCHAR);
c94c2f39 1831 message = Perl_form(aTHX_ nonchar_cp_format, uv);
f9380377 1832 }
2b5e7bc2 1833 }
5b311467 1834
2b5e7bc2
KW
1835 if (flags & UTF8_DISALLOW_NONCHAR) {
1836 disallowed = TRUE;
f9380377 1837 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_NONCHAR;
2b5e7bc2 1838 }
6c64cd9d
KW
1839 }
1840 else if (possible_problems & UTF8_GOT_LONG) {
1841 possible_problems &= ~UTF8_GOT_LONG;
1842 *errors |= UTF8_GOT_LONG;
1843
1844 if (flags & UTF8_ALLOW_LONG) {
1845
1846 /* We don't allow the actual overlong value, unless the
1847 * special extra bit is also set */
1848 if (! (flags & ( UTF8_ALLOW_LONG_AND_ITS_VALUE
1849 & ~UTF8_ALLOW_LONG)))
1850 {
1851 uv = UNICODE_REPLACEMENT;
1852 }
1853 }
1854 else {
1855 disallowed = TRUE;
1856
1857 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) && ! (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY)) {
1858 pack_warn = packWARN(WARN_UTF8);
1859
1860 /* These error types cause 'uv' to be something that
1861 * isn't what was intended, so can't use it in the
1862 * message. The other error types either can't
1863 * generate an overlong, or else the 'uv' is valid */
1864 if (orig_problems &
1865 (UTF8_GOT_TOO_SHORT|UTF8_GOT_OVERFLOW))
1866 {
1867 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
1868 "%s: %s (any UTF-8 sequence that starts"
1869 " with \"%s\" is overlong which can and"
1870 " should be represented with a"
1871 " different, shorter sequence)",
1872 malformed_text,
1873 _byte_dump_string(s0, send - s0, 0),
1874 _byte_dump_string(s0, curlen, 0));
1875 }
1876 else {
1877 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
1be62ab9
KW
1878 const U8 * const e = uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags(tmpbuf,
1879 uv, 0);
d819dc50
KW
1880 /* Don't use U+ for non-Unicode code points, which
1881 * includes those in the Latin1 range */
1882 const char * preface = ( uv > PERL_UNICODE_MAX
1883#ifdef EBCDIC
1884 || uv <= 0xFF
1885#endif
1886 )
1887 ? "0x"
1888 : "U+";
6c64cd9d
KW
1889 message = Perl_form(aTHX_
1890 "%s: %s (overlong; instead use %s to represent"
1891 " %s%0*" UVXf ")",
1892 malformed_text,
1893 _byte_dump_string(s0, send - s0, 0),
1894 _byte_dump_string(tmpbuf, e - tmpbuf, 0),
1895 preface,
1896 ((uv < 256) ? 2 : 4), /* Field width of 2 for
1897 small code points */
1be62ab9 1898 UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv));
6c64cd9d
KW
1899 }
1900 }
1901 }
2b5e7bc2
KW
1902 } /* End of looking through the possible flags */
1903
1904 /* Display the message (if any) for the problem being handled in
1905 * this iteration of the loop */
1906 if (message) {
1907 if (PL_op)
1908 Perl_warner(aTHX_ pack_warn, "%s in %s", message,
1909 OP_DESC(PL_op));
1910 else
1911 Perl_warner(aTHX_ pack_warn, "%s", message);
1912 }
ddb65933 1913 } /* End of 'while (possible_problems)' */
a0dbb045 1914
2b5e7bc2
KW
1915 /* Since there was a possible problem, the returned length may need to
1916 * be changed from the one stored at the beginning of this function.
1917 * Instead of trying to figure out if that's needed, just do it. */
1918 if (retlen) {
1919 *retlen = curlen;
1920 }
a0dbb045 1921
2b5e7bc2
KW
1922 if (disallowed) {
1923 if (flags & UTF8_CHECK_ONLY && retlen) {
1924 *retlen = ((STRLEN) -1);
1925 }
1926 return 0;
1927 }
eb83ed87 1928 }
ba210ebe 1929
2b5e7bc2 1930 return UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv);
a0ed51b3
LW
1931}
1932
8e84507e 1933/*
ec5f19d0
KW
1934=for apidoc utf8_to_uvchr_buf
1935
1936Returns the native code point of the first character in the string C<s> which
1937is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<send> points to 1 beyond the end of C<s>.
524080c4 1938C<*retlen> will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.
ec5f19d0 1939
524080c4
KW
1940If C<s> does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character and UTF8 warnings are
1941enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't
796b6530 1942C<NULL>) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value, if well-defined
173db420 1943(or the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER if not), is silently returned, and
796b6530 1944C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't C<NULL>) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is
173db420 1945the next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
de69f3af 1946See L</utf8n_to_uvchr> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is
173db420 1947returned.
ec5f19d0
KW
1948
1949=cut
52be2536
KW
1950
1951Also implemented as a macro in utf8.h
1952
ec5f19d0
KW
1953*/
1954
1955
1956UV
1957Perl_utf8_to_uvchr_buf(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *send, STRLEN *retlen)
1958{
7f974d7e
KW
1959 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVCHR_BUF;
1960
ec5f19d0
KW
1961 assert(s < send);
1962
1963 return utf8n_to_uvchr(s, send - s, retlen,
ddb65933 1964 ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8) ? 0 : UTF8_ALLOW_ANY);
ec5f19d0
KW
1965}
1966
52be2536
KW
1967/* This is marked as deprecated
1968 *
ec5f19d0
KW
1969=for apidoc utf8_to_uvuni_buf
1970
de69f3af
KW
1971Only in very rare circumstances should code need to be dealing in Unicode
1972(as opposed to native) code points. In those few cases, use
1973C<L<NATIVE_TO_UNI(utf8_to_uvchr_buf(...))|/utf8_to_uvchr_buf>> instead.
4f83cdcd
KW
1974
1975Returns the Unicode (not-native) code point of the first character in the
1976string C<s> which
ec5f19d0
KW
1977is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; C<send> points to 1 beyond the end of C<s>.
1978C<retlen> will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.
1979
524080c4
KW
1980If C<s> does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character and UTF8 warnings are
1981enabled, zero is returned and C<*retlen> is set (if C<retlen> isn't
1982NULL) to -1. If those warnings are off, the computed value if well-defined (or
1983the Unicode REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, if not) is silently returned, and C<*retlen>
1984is set (if C<retlen> isn't NULL) so that (S<C<s> + C<*retlen>>) is the
1985next possible position in C<s> that could begin a non-malformed character.
de69f3af 1986See L</utf8n_to_uvchr> for details on when the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER is returned.
ec5f19d0
KW
1987
1988=cut
1989*/
1990
1991UV
1992Perl_utf8_to_uvuni_buf(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *send, STRLEN *retlen)
1993{
1994 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_UVUNI_BUF;
1995
1996 assert(send > s);
1997
5962d97e 1998 return NATIVE_TO_UNI(utf8_to_uvchr_buf(s, send, retlen));
ec5f19d0
KW
1999}
2000
b76347f2 2001/*
87cea99e 2002=for apidoc utf8_length
b76347f2
JH
2003
2004Return the length of the UTF-8 char encoded string C<s> in characters.
02eb7b47
JH
2005Stops at C<e> (inclusive). If C<e E<lt> s> or if the scan would end
2006up past C<e>, croaks.
b76347f2
JH
2007
2008=cut
2009*/
2010
2011STRLEN
35a4481c 2012Perl_utf8_length(pTHX_ const U8 *s, const U8 *e)
b76347f2
JH
2013{
2014 STRLEN len = 0;
2015
7918f24d
NC
2016 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_LENGTH;
2017
8850bf83
JH
2018 /* Note: cannot use UTF8_IS_...() too eagerly here since e.g.
2019 * the bitops (especially ~) can create illegal UTF-8.
2020 * In other words: in Perl UTF-8 is not just for Unicode. */
2021
a3b680e6
AL
2022 if (e < s)
2023 goto warn_and_return;
b76347f2 2024 while (s < e) {
4cbf4130 2025 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
8e91ec7f
AV
2026 len++;
2027 }
2028
2029 if (e != s) {
2030 len--;
2031 warn_and_return:
9b387841
NC
2032 if (PL_op)
2033 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
2034 "%s in %s", unees, OP_DESC(PL_op));
2035 else
61a12c31 2036 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8), "%s", unees);
b76347f2
JH
2037 }
2038
2039 return len;
2040}
2041
b06226ff 2042/*
fed3ba5d
NC
2043=for apidoc bytes_cmp_utf8
2044
a1433954 2045Compares the sequence of characters (stored as octets) in C<b>, C<blen> with the
72d33970
FC
2046sequence of characters (stored as UTF-8)
2047in C<u>, C<ulen>. Returns 0 if they are
fed3ba5d
NC
2048equal, -1 or -2 if the first string is less than the second string, +1 or +2
2049if the first string is greater than the second string.
2050
2051-1 or +1 is returned if the shorter string was identical to the start of the
72d33970
FC
2052longer string. -2 or +2 is returned if
2053there was a difference between characters
fed3ba5d
NC
2054within the strings.
2055
2056=cut
2057*/
2058
2059int
2060Perl_bytes_cmp_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *b, STRLEN blen, const U8 *u, STRLEN ulen)
2061{
2062 const U8 *const bend = b + blen;
2063 const U8 *const uend = u + ulen;
2064
2065 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_CMP_UTF8;
fed3ba5d
NC
2066
2067 while (b < bend && u < uend) {
2068 U8 c = *u++;
2069 if (!UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
2070 if (UTF8_IS_DOWNGRADEABLE_START(c)) {
2071 if (u < uend) {
2072 U8 c1 = *u++;
2073 if (UTF8_IS_CONTINUATION(c1)) {
a62b247b 2074 c = EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(c, c1);
fed3ba5d 2075 } else {
2b5e7bc2 2076 /* diag_listed_as: Malformed UTF-8 character%s */
fed3ba5d 2077 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
56576a04
KW
2078 "%s %s%s",
2079 unexpected_non_continuation_text(u - 2, 2, 1, 2),
2080 PL_op ? " in " : "",
2081 PL_op ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : "");
fed3ba5d
NC
2082 return -2;
2083 }
2084 } else {
2085 if (PL_op)
2086 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
2087 "%s in %s", unees, OP_DESC(PL_op));
2088 else
61a12c31 2089 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8), "%s", unees);
fed3ba5d
NC
2090 return -2; /* Really want to return undef :-) */
2091 }
2092 } else {
2093 return -2;
2094 }
2095 }
2096 if (*b != c) {
2097 return *b < c ? -2 : +2;
2098 }
2099 ++b;
2100 }
2101
2102 if (b == bend && u == uend)
2103 return 0;
2104
2105 return b < bend ? +1 : -1;
2106}
2107
2108/*
87cea99e 2109=for apidoc utf8_to_bytes
6940069f 2110
3bc0c78c 2111Converts a string C<"s"> of length C<*lenp> from UTF-8 into native byte encoding.
a1433954 2112Unlike L</bytes_to_utf8>, this over-writes the original string, and
09af0336 2113updates C<*lenp> to contain the new length.
3bc0c78c
KW
2114Returns zero on failure (leaving C<"s"> unchanged) setting C<*lenp> to -1.
2115
2116Upon successful return, the number of variants in the string can be computed by
23b37b12
KW
2117having saved the value of C<*lenp> before the call, and subtracting the
2118after-call value of C<*lenp> from it.
6940069f 2119
a1433954 2120If you need a copy of the string, see L</bytes_from_utf8>.
95be277c 2121
6940069f
GS
2122=cut
2123*/
2124
2125U8 *
09af0336 2126Perl_utf8_to_bytes(pTHX_ U8 *s, STRLEN *lenp)
6940069f 2127{
9fe0d3c2 2128 U8 * first_variant;
246fae53 2129
7918f24d 2130 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF8_TO_BYTES;
81611534 2131 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
7918f24d 2132
9fe0d3c2 2133 /* This is a no-op if no variants at all in the input */
09af0336 2134 if (is_utf8_invariant_string_loc(s, *lenp, (const U8 **) &first_variant)) {
9fe0d3c2
KW
2135 return s;
2136 }
2137
2138 {
3c5aa262 2139 U8 * const save = s;
09af0336 2140 U8 * const send = s + *lenp;
3c5aa262
KW
2141 U8 * d;
2142
2143 /* Nothing before the first variant needs to be changed, so start the real
2144 * work there */
2145 s = first_variant;
2146 while (s < send) {
2147 if (! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*s)) {
2148 if (! UTF8_IS_NEXT_CHAR_DOWNGRADEABLE(s, send)) {
09af0336 2149 *lenp = ((STRLEN) -1);
3c5aa262
KW
2150 return 0;
2151 }
2152 s++;
d59937ca
KW
2153 }
2154 s++;
dcad2880 2155 }
dcad2880 2156
3c5aa262
KW
2157 /* Is downgradable, so do it */
2158 d = s = first_variant;
2159 while (s < send) {
2160 U8 c = *s++;
2161 if (! UVCHR_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
2162 /* Then it is two-byte encoded */
2163 c = EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(c, *s);
2164 s++;
2165 }
2166 *d++ = c;
2167 }
2168 *d = '\0';
09af0336 2169 *lenp = d - save;
3c5aa262
KW
2170
2171 return save;
9fe0d3c2 2172 }
6940069f
GS
2173}
2174
2175/*
87cea99e 2176=for apidoc bytes_from_utf8
f9a63242 2177
09af0336 2178Converts a potentially UTF-8 encoded string C<s> of length C<*lenp> into native
41ae6089 2179byte encoding. On input, the boolean C<*is_utf8p> gives whether or not C<s> is
4f3d592d
KW
2180actually encoded in UTF-8.
2181
2182Unlike L</utf8_to_bytes> but like L</bytes_to_utf8>, this is non-destructive of
2183the input string.
2184
41ae6089
KW
2185Do nothing if C<*is_utf8p> is 0, or if there are code points in the string
2186not expressible in native byte encoding. In these cases, C<*is_utf8p> and
09af0336 2187C<*lenp> are unchanged, and the return value is the original C<s>.
4f3d592d 2188
41ae6089 2189Otherwise, C<*is_utf8p> is set to 0, and the return value is a pointer to a
4f3d592d 2190newly created string containing a downgraded copy of C<s>, and whose length is
23b37b12 2191returned in C<*lenp>, updated. The new string is C<NUL>-terminated.
f9a63242 2192
3bc0c78c 2193Upon successful return, the number of variants in the string can be computed by
23b37b12
KW
2194having saved the value of C<*lenp> before the call, and subtracting the
2195after-call value of C<*lenp> from it.
3bc0c78c 2196
37607a96 2197=cut
976c1b08
KW
2198
2199There is a macro that avoids this function call, but this is retained for
2200anyone who calls it with the Perl_ prefix */
f9a63242
JH
2201
2202U8 *
41ae6089 2203Perl_bytes_from_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *lenp, bool *is_utf8p)
f9a63242 2204{
7918f24d 2205 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_FROM_UTF8;
96a5add6 2206 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
f9a63242 2207
976c1b08
KW
2208 return bytes_from_utf8_loc(s, lenp, is_utf8p, NULL);
2209}
2210
2211/*
2212No = here because currently externally undocumented
2213for apidoc bytes_from_utf8_loc
2214
2215Like C<L</bytes_from_utf8>()>, but takes an extra parameter, a pointer to where
2216to store the location of the first character in C<"s"> that cannot be
2217converted to non-UTF8.
2218
2219If that parameter is C<NULL>, this function behaves identically to
2220C<bytes_from_utf8>.
2221
2222Otherwise if C<*is_utf8p> is 0 on input, the function behaves identically to
2223C<bytes_from_utf8>, except it also sets C<*first_non_downgradable> to C<NULL>.
2224
2225Otherwise, the function returns a newly created C<NUL>-terminated string
2226containing the non-UTF8 equivalent of the convertible first portion of
2227C<"s">. C<*lenp> is set to its length, not including the terminating C<NUL>.
2228If the entire input string was converted, C<*is_utf8p> is set to a FALSE value,
2229and C<*first_non_downgradable> is set to C<NULL>.
2230
2231Otherwise, C<*first_non_downgradable> set to point to the first byte of the
2232first character in the original string that wasn't converted. C<*is_utf8p> is
2233unchanged. Note that the new string may have length 0.
2234
2235Another way to look at it is, if C<*first_non_downgradable> is non-C<NULL> and
2236C<*is_utf8p> is TRUE, this function starts at the beginning of C<"s"> and
2237converts as many characters in it as possible stopping at the first one it
385b74be 2238finds that can't be converted to non-UTF-8. C<*first_non_downgradable> is
976c1b08
KW
2239set to point to that. The function returns the portion that could be converted
2240in a newly created C<NUL>-terminated string, and C<*lenp> is set to its length,
2241not including the terminating C<NUL>. If the very first character in the
2242original could not be converted, C<*lenp> will be 0, and the new string will
2243contain just a single C<NUL>. If the entire input string was converted,
2244C<*is_utf8p> is set to FALSE and C<*first_non_downgradable> is set to C<NULL>.
2245
2246Upon successful return, the number of variants in the converted portion of the
2247string can be computed by having saved the value of C<*lenp> before the call,
2248and subtracting the after-call value of C<*lenp> from it.
2249
2250=cut
2251
2252
2253*/
2254
2255U8 *
2256Perl_bytes_from_utf8_loc(const U8 *s, STRLEN *lenp, bool *is_utf8p, const U8** first_unconverted)
2257{
2258 U8 *d;
2259 const U8 *original = s;
2260 U8 *converted_start;
2261 const U8 *send = s + *lenp;
f9a63242 2262
976c1b08 2263 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_FROM_UTF8_LOC;
170a1c22 2264
976c1b08
KW
2265 if (! *is_utf8p) {
2266 if (first_unconverted) {
2267 *first_unconverted = NULL;
2268 }
2269
2270 return (U8 *) original;
2271 }
2272
2273 Newx(d, (*lenp) + 1, U8);
2274
2275 converted_start = d;
7299a045
KW
2276 while (s < send) {
2277 U8 c = *s++;
2278 if (! UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(c)) {
976c1b08
KW
2279
2280 /* Then it is multi-byte encoded. If the code point is above 0xFF,
2281 * have to stop now */
2282 if (UNLIKELY (! UTF8_IS_NEXT_CHAR_DOWNGRADEABLE(s - 1, send))) {
2283 if (first_unconverted) {
2284 *first_unconverted = s - 1;
2285 goto finish_and_return;
2286 }
2287 else {
2288 Safefree(converted_start);
2289 return (U8 *) original;
2290 }
2291 }
2292
7299a045
KW
2293 c = EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(c, *s);
2294 s++;
38af28cf 2295 }
7299a045
KW
2296 *d++ = c;
2297 }
170a1c22 2298
976c1b08
KW
2299 /* Here, converted the whole of the input */
2300 *is_utf8p = FALSE;
2301 if (first_unconverted) {
2302 *first_unconverted = NULL;
170a1c22 2303 }
976c1b08
KW
2304
2305 finish_and_return:
2306 *d = '\0';
2307 *lenp = d - converted_start;
2308
2309 /* Trim unused space */
2310 Renew(converted_start, *lenp + 1, U8);
2311
2312 return converted_start;
f9a63242
JH
2313}
2314
2315/*
87cea99e 2316=for apidoc bytes_to_utf8
6940069f 2317
09af0336 2318Converts a string C<s> of length C<*lenp> bytes from the native encoding into
ff97e5cf 2319UTF-8.
09af0336 2320Returns a pointer to the newly-created string, and sets C<*lenp> to
ff97e5cf 2321reflect the new length in bytes.
6940069f 2322
3bc0c78c 2323Upon successful return, the number of variants in the string can be computed by
23b37b12 2324having saved the value of C<*lenp> before the call, and subtracting it from the
3bc0c78c
KW
2325after-call value of C<*lenp>.
2326
75200dff 2327A C<NUL> character will be written after the end of the string.
2bbc8d55
SP
2328
2329If you want to convert to UTF-8 from encodings other than
2330the native (Latin1 or EBCDIC),
a1433954 2331see L</sv_recode_to_utf8>().
c9ada85f 2332
497711e7 2333=cut
6940069f
GS
2334*/
2335
2336U8*
09af0336 2337Perl_bytes_to_utf8(pTHX_ const U8 *s, STRLEN *lenp)
6940069f 2338{
09af0336 2339 const U8 * const send = s + (*lenp);
6940069f
GS
2340 U8 *d;
2341 U8 *dst;
7918f24d
NC
2342
2343 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_BYTES_TO_UTF8;
96a5add6 2344 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
6940069f 2345
09af0336 2346 Newx(d, (*lenp) * 2 + 1, U8);
6940069f
GS
2347 dst = d;
2348
2349 while (s < send) {
55d09dc8
KW
2350 append_utf8_from_native_byte(*s, &d);
2351 s++;
6940069f 2352 }
2e11cf67 2353
6940069f 2354 *d = '\0';
09af0336 2355 *lenp = d-dst;
2e11cf67
KW
2356
2357 /* Trim unused space */
2358 Renew(dst, *lenp + 1, U8);
2359
6940069f
GS
2360 return dst;
2361}
2362
a0ed51b3 2363/*
dea0fc0b 2364 * Convert native (big-endian) or reversed (little-endian) UTF-16 to UTF-8.
a0ed51b3
LW
2365 *
2366 * Destination must be pre-extended to 3/2 source. Do not use in-place.
2367 * We optimize for native, for obvious reasons. */
2368
2369U8*
dea0fc0b 2370Perl_utf16_to_utf8(pTHX_ U8* p, U8* d, I32 bytelen, I32 *newlen)
a0ed51b3 2371{
dea0fc0b
JH
2372 U8* pend;
2373 U8* dstart = d;
2374
7918f24d
NC
2375 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF16_TO_UTF8;
2376
dea0fc0b 2377 if (bytelen & 1)
56576a04
KW
2378 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen %" UVuf,
2379 (UV)bytelen);
dea0fc0b
JH
2380
2381 pend = p + bytelen;
2382
a0ed51b3 2383 while (p < pend) {
dea0fc0b
JH
2384 UV uv = (p[0] << 8) + p[1]; /* UTF-16BE */
2385 p += 2;
2d1545e5 2386 if (OFFUNI_IS_INVARIANT(uv)) {
56d37426 2387 *d++ = LATIN1_TO_NATIVE((U8) uv);
a0ed51b3
LW
2388 continue;
2389 }
56d37426
KW
2390 if (uv <= MAX_UTF8_TWO_BYTE) {
2391 *d++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv));
2392 *d++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(UNI_TO_NATIVE(uv));
a0ed51b3
LW
2393 continue;
2394 }
ffd0a9d3 2395
46956fad
KW
2396#define FIRST_HIGH_SURROGATE UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST
2397#define LAST_HIGH_SURROGATE 0xDBFF
2398#define FIRST_LOW_SURROGATE 0xDC00
2399#define LAST_LOW_SURROGATE UNICODE_SURROGATE_LAST
ffd0a9d3 2400#define FIRST_IN_PLANE1 0x10000
e23c50db
KW
2401
2402 /* This assumes that most uses will be in the first Unicode plane, not
2403 * needing surrogates */
2404 if (UNLIKELY(uv >= UNICODE_SURROGATE_FIRST
2405 && uv <= UNICODE_SURROGATE_LAST))
2406 {
2407 if (UNLIKELY(p >= pend) || UNLIKELY(uv > LAST_HIGH_SURROGATE)) {
2408 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-16 surrogate");
2409 }
2410 else {
01ea242b 2411 UV low = (p[0] << 8) + p[1];
e23c50db
KW
2412 if ( UNLIKELY(low < FIRST_LOW_SURROGATE)
2413 || UNLIKELY(low > LAST_LOW_SURROGATE))
2414 {
01ea242b 2415 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Malformed UTF-16 surrogate");
e23c50db
KW
2416 }
2417 p += 2;
46956fad 2418 uv = ((uv - FIRST_HIGH_SURROGATE) << 10)
ffd0a9d3 2419 + (low - FIRST_LOW_SURROGATE) + FIRST_IN_PLANE1;
01ea242b 2420 }
a0ed51b3 2421 }
56d37426
KW
2422#ifdef EBCDIC
2423 d = uvoffuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, 0);
2424#else
ffd0a9d3 2425 if (uv < FIRST_IN_PLANE1) {
eb160463
GS
2426 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 12) | 0xe0);
2427 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
2428 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
2429 continue;
2430 }
2431 else {
eb160463
GS
2432 *d++ = (U8)(( uv >> 18) | 0xf0);
2433 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 12) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
2434 *d++ = (U8)(((uv >> 6) & 0x3f) | 0x80);
2435 *d++ = (U8)(( uv & 0x3f) | 0x80);
a0ed51b3
LW
2436 continue;
2437 }
56d37426 2438#endif
a0ed51b3 2439 }
dea0fc0b 2440 *newlen = d - dstart;
a0ed51b3
LW
2441 return d;
2442}
2443
2444/* Note: this one is slightly destructive of the source. */
2445
2446U8*
dea0fc0b 2447Perl_utf16_to_utf8_reversed(pTHX_ U8* p, U8* d, I32 bytelen, I32 *newlen)
a0ed51b3
LW
2448{
2449 U8* s = (U8*)p;
d4c19fe8 2450 U8* const send = s + bytelen;
7918f24d
NC
2451
2452 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UTF16_TO_UTF8_REVERSED;
2453
e0ea5e2d 2454 if (bytelen & 1)
147e3846 2455 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: utf16_to_utf8_reversed: odd bytelen %" UVuf,
e0ea5e2d
NC
2456 (UV)bytelen);
2457
a0ed51b3 2458 while (s < send) {
d4c19fe8 2459 const U8 tmp = s[0];
a0ed51b3
LW
2460 s[0] = s[1];
2461 s[1] = tmp;
2462 s += 2;
2463 }
dea0fc0b 2464 return utf16_to_utf8(p, d, bytelen, newlen);
a0ed51b3
LW
2465}
2466
922e8cb4
KW
2467bool
2468Perl__is_uni_FOO(pTHX_ const U8 classnum, const UV c)
2469{
2470 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
2471 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
da8c1a98 2472 return _is_utf8_FOO_with_len(classnum, tmpbuf, tmpbuf + sizeof(tmpbuf));
922e8cb4
KW
2473}
2474
f9ae8fb6
JD
2475/* Internal function so we can deprecate the external one, and call
2476 this one from other deprecated functions in this file */
2477
f2645549
KW
2478bool
2479Perl__is_utf8_idstart(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
61b19385 2480{
f2645549 2481 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_IDSTART;
61b19385
KW
2482
2483 if (*p == '_')
2484 return TRUE;
f25ce844 2485 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idstart, "IdStart", NULL);
61b19385
KW
2486}
2487
5092f92a 2488bool
eba68aa0
KW
2489Perl__is_uni_perl_idcont(pTHX_ UV c)
2490{
2491 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
2492 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
da8c1a98 2493 return _is_utf8_perl_idcont_with_len(tmpbuf, tmpbuf + sizeof(tmpbuf));
eba68aa0
KW
2494}
2495
2496bool
f91dcd13
KW
2497Perl__is_uni_perl_idstart(pTHX_ UV c)
2498{
2499 U8 tmpbuf[UTF8_MAXBYTES+1];
2500 uvchr_to_utf8(tmpbuf, c);
da8c1a98 2501 return _is_utf8_perl_idstart_with_len(tmpbuf, tmpbuf + sizeof(tmpbuf));
f91dcd13
KW
2502}
2503
3a4c58c9 2504UV
56576a04
KW
2505Perl__to_upper_title_latin1(pTHX_ const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp,
2506 const char S_or_s)
3a4c58c9
KW
2507{
2508 /* We have the latin1-range values compiled into the core, so just use
4a4088c4 2509 * those, converting the result to UTF-8. The only difference between upper
3a4c58c9
KW
2510 * and title case in this range is that LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S is
2511 * either "SS" or "Ss". Which one to use is passed into the routine in
2512 * 'S_or_s' to avoid a test */
2513
2514 UV converted = toUPPER_LATIN1_MOD(c);
2515
2516 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UPPER_TITLE_LATIN1;
2517
2518 assert(S_or_s == 'S' || S_or_s == 's');
2519
6f2d5cbc 2520 if (UVCHR_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) { /* No difference between the two for
f4cd282c 2521 characters in this range */
3a4c58c9
KW
2522 *p = (U8) converted;
2523 *lenp = 1;
2524 return converted;
2525 }
2526
2527 /* toUPPER_LATIN1_MOD gives the correct results except for three outliers,
2528 * which it maps to one of them, so as to only have to have one check for
2529 * it in the main case */
2530 if (UNLIKELY(converted == LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS)) {
2531 switch (c) {
2532 case LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS:
2533 converted = LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS;
2534 break;
2535 case MICRO_SIGN:
2536 converted = GREEK_CAPITAL_LETTER_MU;
2537 break;
79e064b9
KW
2538#if UNICODE_MAJOR_VERSION > 2 \
2539 || (UNICODE_MAJOR_VERSION == 2 && UNICODE_DOT_VERSION >= 1 \
2540 && UNICODE_DOT_DOT_VERSION >= 8)
3a4c58c9
KW
2541 case LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S:
2542 *(p)++ = 'S';
2543 *p = S_or_s;
2544 *lenp = 2;
2545 return 'S';
79e064b9 2546#endif
3a4c58c9 2547 default:
56576a04
KW
2548 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: to_upper_title_latin1 did not expect"
2549 " '%c' to map to '%c'",
2550 c, LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_Y_WITH_DIAERESIS);
e5964223 2551 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
3a4c58c9
KW
2552 }
2553 }
2554
2555 *(p)++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(converted);
2556 *p = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(converted);
2557 *lenp = 2;
2558
2559 return converted;
2560}
2561
50bda2c3
KW
2562/* Call the function to convert a UTF-8 encoded character to the specified case.
2563 * Note that there may be more than one character in the result.
2564 * INP is a pointer to the first byte of the input character
2565 * OUTP will be set to the first byte of the string of changed characters. It
2566 * needs to have space for UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes
2567 * LENP will be set to the length in bytes of the string of changed characters
2568 *
56576a04
KW
2569 * The functions return the ordinal of the first character in the string of
2570 * OUTP */
2571#define CALL_UPPER_CASE(uv, s, d, lenp) \
2572 _to_utf8_case(uv, s, d, lenp, &PL_utf8_toupper, "ToUc", "")
2573#define CALL_TITLE_CASE(uv, s, d, lenp) \
2574 _to_utf8_case(uv, s, d, lenp, &PL_utf8_totitle, "ToTc", "")
2575#define CALL_LOWER_CASE(uv, s, d, lenp) \
2576 _to_utf8_case(uv, s, d, lenp, &PL_utf8_tolower, "ToLc", "")
50bda2c3 2577
b9992569
KW
2578/* This additionally has the input parameter 'specials', which if non-zero will
2579 * cause this to use the specials hash for folding (meaning get full case
50bda2c3 2580 * folding); otherwise, when zero, this implies a simple case fold */
56576a04
KW
2581#define CALL_FOLD_CASE(uv, s, d, lenp, specials) \
2582_to_utf8_case(uv, s, d, lenp, &PL_utf8_tofold, "ToCf", (specials) ? "" : NULL)
c3fd2246 2583
84afefe6
JH
2584UV
2585Perl_to_uni_upper(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 2586{
a1433954
KW
2587 /* Convert the Unicode character whose ordinal is <c> to its uppercase
2588 * version and store that in UTF-8 in <p> and its length in bytes in <lenp>.
2589 * Note that the <p> needs to be at least UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since
c3fd2246
KW
2590 * the changed version may be longer than the original character.
2591 *
2592 * The ordinal of the first character of the changed version is returned
2593 * (but note, as explained above, that there may be more.) */
2594
7918f24d
NC
2595 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_UPPER;
2596
3a4c58c9
KW
2597 if (c < 256) {
2598 return _to_upper_title_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp, 'S');
2599 }
2600
0ebc6274 2601 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
b9992569 2602 return CALL_UPPER_CASE(c, p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
2603}
2604
84afefe6
JH
2605UV
2606Perl_to_uni_title(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 2607{
7918f24d
NC
2608 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_TITLE;
2609
3a4c58c9
KW
2610 if (c < 256) {
2611 return _to_upper_title_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp, 's');
2612 }
2613
0ebc6274 2614 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
b9992569 2615 return CALL_TITLE_CASE(c, p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
2616}
2617
afc16117 2618STATIC U8
eaf412bf 2619S_to_lower_latin1(const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, const char dummy)
afc16117
KW
2620{
2621 /* We have the latin1-range values compiled into the core, so just use
4a4088c4 2622 * those, converting the result to UTF-8. Since the result is always just
a1433954 2623 * one character, we allow <p> to be NULL */
afc16117
KW
2624
2625 U8 converted = toLOWER_LATIN1(c);
2626
eaf412bf
KW
2627 PERL_UNUSED_ARG(dummy);
2628
afc16117 2629 if (p != NULL) {
6f2d5cbc 2630 if (NATIVE_BYTE_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) {
afc16117
KW
2631 *p = converted;
2632 *lenp = 1;
2633 }
2634 else {
430c9760
KW
2635 /* Result is known to always be < 256, so can use the EIGHT_BIT
2636 * macros */
2637 *p = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(converted);
2638 *(p+1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(converted);
afc16117
KW
2639 *lenp = 2;
2640 }
2641 }
2642 return converted;
2643}
2644
84afefe6
JH
2645UV
2646Perl_to_uni_lower(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp)
a0ed51b3 2647{
7918f24d
NC
2648 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_TO_UNI_LOWER;
2649
afc16117 2650 if (c < 256) {
eaf412bf 2651 return to_lower_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp, 0 /* 0 is a dummy arg */ );
bca00c02
KW
2652 }
2653
afc16117 2654 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
b9992569 2655 return CALL_LOWER_CASE(c, p, p, lenp);
a0ed51b3
LW
2656}
2657
84afefe6 2658UV
56576a04
KW
2659Perl__to_fold_latin1(pTHX_ const U8 c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp,
2660 const unsigned int flags)
a1dde8de 2661{
51910141 2662 /* Corresponds to to_lower_latin1(); <flags> bits meanings:
1ca267a5 2663 * FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII iff non-ASCII to ASCII folds are prohibited
51910141 2664 * FOLD_FLAGS_FULL iff full folding is to be used;
1ca267a5
KW
2665 *
2666 * Not to be used for locale folds
51910141 2667 */
f673fad4 2668
a1dde8de
KW
2669 UV converted;
2670
2671 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_FOLD_LATIN1;
81611534 2672 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
a1dde8de 2673
1ca267a5
KW
2674 assert (! (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE));
2675
659a7c2d 2676 if (UNLIKELY(c == MICRO_SIGN)) {
a1dde8de
KW
2677 converted = GREEK_SMALL_LETTER_MU;
2678 }
9b63e895
KW
2679#if UNICODE_MAJOR_VERSION > 3 /* no multifolds in early Unicode */ \
2680 || (UNICODE_MAJOR_VERSION == 3 && ( UNICODE_DOT_VERSION > 0) \
2681 || UNICODE_DOT_DOT_VERSION > 0)
659a7c2d
KW
2682 else if ( (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL)
2683 && UNLIKELY(c == LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S))
2684 {
1ca267a5
KW
2685 /* If can't cross 127/128 boundary, can't return "ss"; instead return
2686 * two U+017F characters, as fc("\df") should eq fc("\x{17f}\x{17f}")
2687 * under those circumstances. */
2688 if (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII) {
2689 *lenp = 2 * sizeof(LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_LONG_S_UTF8) - 2;
2690 Copy(LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_LONG_S_UTF8 LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_LONG_S_UTF8,
2691 p, *lenp, U8);
2692 return LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_LONG_S;
2693 }
2694 else {
4f489194
KW
2695 *(p)++ = 's';
2696 *p = 's';
2697 *lenp = 2;
2698 return 's';
1ca267a5 2699 }
a1dde8de 2700 }
9b63e895 2701#endif
a1dde8de
KW
2702 else { /* In this range the fold of all other characters is their lower
2703 case */
2704 converted = toLOWER_LATIN1(c);
2705 }
2706
6f2d5cbc 2707 if (UVCHR_IS_INVARIANT(converted)) {
a1dde8de
KW
2708 *p = (U8) converted;
2709 *lenp = 1;
2710 }
2711 else {
2712 *(p)++ = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_HI(converted);
2713 *p = UTF8_TWO_BYTE_LO(converted);
2714 *lenp = 2;
2715 }
2716
2717 return converted;
2718}
2719
2720UV
31f05a37 2721Perl__to_uni_fold_flags(pTHX_ UV c, U8* p, STRLEN *lenp, U8 flags)
84afefe6 2722{
4b593389 2723
a0270393
KW
2724 /* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change
2725 * <flags> bits meanings:
2726 * FOLD_FLAGS_FULL iff full folding is to be used;
31f05a37
KW
2727 * FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE is set iff the rules from the current underlying
2728 * locale are to be used.
a0270393
KW
2729 * FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII iff non-ASCII to ASCII folds are prohibited
2730 */
4b593389 2731
36bb2ab6 2732 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UNI_FOLD_FLAGS;
7918f24d 2733
780fcc9f
KW
2734 if (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE) {
2735 /* Treat a UTF-8 locale as not being in locale at all */
2736 if (IN_UTF8_CTYPE_LOCALE) {
2737 flags &= ~FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE;
2738 }
2739 else {
2740 _CHECK_AND_WARN_PROBLEMATIC_LOCALE;
e7b7ac46 2741 goto needs_full_generality;
780fcc9f 2742 }
31f05a37
KW
2743 }
2744
a1dde8de 2745 if (c < 256) {
e7b7ac46 2746 return _to_fold_latin1((U8) c, p, lenp,
31f05a37 2747 flags & (FOLD_FLAGS_FULL | FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII));
a1dde8de
KW
2748 }
2749
2f306ab9 2750 /* Here, above 255. If no special needs, just use the macro */
a0270393
KW
2751 if ( ! (flags & (FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE|FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII))) {
2752 uvchr_to_utf8(p, c);
b9992569 2753 return CALL_FOLD_CASE(c, p, p, lenp, flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL);
a0270393 2754 }
567b353c 2755 else { /* Otherwise, _toFOLD_utf8_flags has the intelligence to deal with
a0270393
KW
2756 the special flags. */
2757 U8 utf8_c[UTF8_MAXBYTES + 1];
e7b7ac46
KW
2758
2759 needs_full_generality:
a0270393 2760 uvchr_to_utf8(utf8_c, c);
56576a04
KW
2761 return _toFOLD_utf8_flags(utf8_c, utf8_c + sizeof(utf8_c),
2762 p, lenp, flags);
a0270393 2763 }
84afefe6
JH
2764}
2765
26483009 2766PERL_STATIC_INLINE bool
5141f98e 2767S_is_utf8_common(pTHX_ const U8 *const p, SV **swash,
f25ce844 2768 const char *const swashname, SV* const invlist)
bde6a22d 2769{
ea317ccb
KW
2770 /* returns a boolean giving whether or not the UTF8-encoded character that
2771 * starts at <p> is in the swash indicated by <swashname>. <swash>
2772 * contains a pointer to where the swash indicated by <swashname>
2773 * is to be stored; which this routine will do, so that future calls will
f25ce844
KW
2774 * look at <*swash> and only generate a swash if it is not null. <invlist>
2775 * is NULL or an inversion list that defines the swash. If not null, it
2776 * saves time during initialization of the swash.
ea317ccb
KW
2777 *
2778 * Note that it is assumed that the buffer length of <p> is enough to
2779 * contain all the bytes that comprise the character. Thus, <*p> should
2780 * have been checked before this call for mal-formedness enough to assure
2781 * that. */
2782
7918f24d
NC
2783 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_COMMON;
2784
492a624f 2785 /* The API should have included a length for the UTF-8 character in <p>,
28123549 2786 * but it doesn't. We therefore assume that p has been validated at least
492a624f
KW
2787 * as far as there being enough bytes available in it to accommodate the
2788 * character without reading beyond the end, and pass that number on to the
2789 * validating routine */
6302f837 2790 if (! isUTF8_CHAR(p, p + UTF8SKIP(p))) {
86ae6e94 2791 _force_out_malformed_utf8_message(p, p + UTF8SKIP(p),
99a765e9 2792 _UTF8_NO_CONFIDENCE_IN_CURLEN,
86ae6e94
KW
2793 1 /* Die */ );
2794 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
28123549 2795 }
86ae6e94 2796
87367d5f
KW
2797 if (!*swash) {
2798 U8 flags = _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST;
f25ce844
KW
2799 *swash = _core_swash_init("utf8",
2800
2801 /* Only use the name if there is no inversion
2802 * list; otherwise will go out to disk */
2803 (invlist) ? "" : swashname,
2804
2805 &PL_sv_undef, 1, 0, invlist, &flags);
87367d5f 2806 }
28123549 2807
bde6a22d
NC
2808 return swash_fetch(*swash, p, TRUE) != 0;
2809}
2810
da8c1a98 2811PERL_STATIC_INLINE bool
56576a04
KW
2812S_is_utf8_common_with_len(pTHX_ const U8 *const p, const U8 * const e,
2813 SV **swash, const char *const swashname,
2814 SV* const invlist)
da8c1a98
KW
2815{
2816 /* returns a boolean giving whether or not the UTF8-encoded character that
2817 * starts at <p>, and extending no further than <e - 1> is in the swash
2818 * indicated by <swashname>. <swash> contains a pointer to where the swash
2819 * indicated by <swashname> is to be stored; which this routine will do, so
2820 * that future calls will look at <*swash> and only generate a swash if it
2821 * is not null. <invlist> is NULL or an inversion list that defines the
2822 * swash. If not null, it saves time during initialization of the swash.
2823 */
2824
2825 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_IS_UTF8_COMMON_WITH_LEN;
2826
2827 if (! isUTF8_CHAR(p, e)) {
2828 _force_out_malformed_utf8_message(p, e, 0, 1);
2829 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
2830 }
2831
2832 if (!*swash) {
2833 U8 flags = _CORE_SWASH_INIT_ACCEPT_INVLIST;
2834 *swash = _core_swash_init("utf8",
2835
2836 /* Only use the name if there is no inversion
2837 * list; otherwise will go out to disk */
2838 (invlist) ? "" : swashname,
2839
2840 &PL_sv_undef, 1, 0, invlist, &flags);
2841 }
2842
2843 return swash_fetch(*swash, p, TRUE) != 0;
2844}
2845
34aeb2e9
KW
2846STATIC void
2847S_warn_on_first_deprecated_use(pTHX_ const char * const name,
2848 const char * const alternative,
2849 const bool use_locale,
2850 const char * const file,
2851 const unsigned line)
2852{
2853 const char * key;
2854
2855 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_WARN_ON_FIRST_DEPRECATED_USE;
2856
2857 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_DEPRECATED)) {
2858
2859 key = Perl_form(aTHX_ "%s;%d;%s;%d", name, use_locale, file, line);
2860 if (! hv_fetch(PL_seen_deprecated_macro, key, strlen(key), 0)) {
2861 if (! PL_seen_deprecated_macro) {
2862 PL_seen_deprecated_macro = newHV();
2863 }
2864 if (! hv_store(PL_seen_deprecated_macro, key,
2865 strlen(key), &PL_sv_undef, 0))
2866 {
2867 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: hv_store() unexpectedly failed");
2868 }
2869
c44e9413 2870 if (instr(file, "mathoms.c")) {
607313a1
KW
2871 Perl_warner(aTHX_ WARN_DEPRECATED,
2872 "In %s, line %d, starting in Perl v5.30, %s()"
2873 " will be removed. Avoid this message by"
2874 " converting to use %s().\n",
2875 file, line, name, alternative);
2876 }
2877 else {
34aeb2e9
KW
2878 Perl_warner(aTHX_ WARN_DEPRECATED,
2879 "In %s, line %d, starting in Perl v5.30, %s() will"
2880 " require an additional parameter. Avoid this"
2881 " message by converting to use %s().\n",
2882 file, line, name, alternative);
607313a1 2883 }
34aeb2e9
KW
2884 }
2885 }
2886}
2887
bde6a22d 2888bool
34aeb2e9 2889Perl__is_utf8_FOO(pTHX_ U8 classnum,
be99e2c2 2890 const U8 * const p,
34aeb2e9
KW
2891 const char * const name,
2892 const char * const alternative,
2893 const bool use_utf8,
2894 const bool use_locale,
2895 const char * const file,
2896 const unsigned line)
922e8cb4 2897{
922e8cb4
KW
2898 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_FOO;
2899
34aeb2e9
KW
2900 warn_on_first_deprecated_use(name, alternative, use_locale, file, line);
2901
2902 if (use_utf8 && UTF8_IS_ABOVE_LATIN1(*p)) {
34aeb2e9
KW
2903
2904 switch (classnum) {
2905 case _CC_WORDCHAR:
2906 case _CC_DIGIT:
2907 case _CC_ALPHA:
2908 case _CC_LOWER:
2909 case _CC_UPPER:
2910 case _CC_PUNCT:
2911 case _CC_PRINT:
2912 case _CC_ALPHANUMERIC:
2913 case _CC_GRAPH:
2914 case _CC_CASED:
2915
2916 return is_utf8_common(p,
2917 &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[classnum],
2918 swash_property_names[classnum],
2919 PL_XPosix_ptrs[classnum]);
2920
2921 case _CC_SPACE:
2922 return is_XPERLSPACE_high(p);
2923 case _CC_BLANK:
2924 return is_HORIZWS_high(p);
2925 case _CC_XDIGIT:
2926 return is_XDIGIT_high(p);
2927 case _CC_CNTRL:
2928 return 0;
2929 case _CC_ASCII:
2930 return 0;
2931 case _CC_VERTSPACE:
2932 return is_VERTWS_high(p);
2933 case _CC_IDFIRST:
2934 if (! PL_utf8_perl_idstart) {
22f0498f
KW
2935 PL_utf8_perl_idstart
2936 = _new_invlist_C_array(_Perl_IDStart_invlist);
34aeb2e9 2937 }
22f0498f
KW
2938 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_perl_idstart,
2939 "_Perl_IDStart", NULL);
34aeb2e9
KW
2940 case _CC_IDCONT:
2941 if (! PL_utf8_perl_idcont) {
22f0498f
KW
2942 PL_utf8_perl_idcont
2943 = _new_invlist_C_array(_Perl_IDCont_invlist);
34aeb2e9 2944 }
22f0498f
KW
2945 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_perl_idcont,
2946 "_Perl_IDCont", NULL);
34aeb2e9
KW
2947 }
2948 }
2949
2950 /* idcont is the same as wordchar below 256 */
2951 if (classnum == _CC_IDCONT) {
2952 classnum = _CC_WORDCHAR;
2953 }
2954 else if (classnum == _CC_IDFIRST) {
2955 if (*p == '_') {
2956 return TRUE;
2957 }
2958 classnum = _CC_ALPHA;
2959 }
2960
2961 if (! use_locale) {
2962 if (! use_utf8 || UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
2963 return _generic_isCC(*p, classnum);
2964 }
922e8cb4 2965
34aeb2e9
KW
2966 return _generic_isCC(EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(*p, *(p + 1 )), classnum);
2967 }
2968 else {
2969 if (! use_utf8 || UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) {
2970 return isFOO_lc(classnum, *p);
2971 }
2972
2973 return isFOO_lc(classnum, EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(*p, *(p + 1 )));
2974 }
2975
2976 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
922e8cb4
KW
2977}
2978
2979bool
da8c1a98
KW
2980Perl__is_utf8_FOO_with_len(pTHX_ const U8 classnum, const U8 *p,
2981 const U8 * const e)
2982{
2983 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_FOO_WITH_LEN;
2984
2985 assert(classnum < _FIRST_NON_SWASH_CC);
2986
2987 return is_utf8_common_with_len(p,
2988 e,
2989 &PL_utf8_swash_ptrs[classnum],
2990 swash_property_names[classnum],
2991 PL_XPosix_ptrs[classnum]);
2992}
2993
2994bool
da8c1a98
KW
2995Perl__is_utf8_perl_idstart_with_len(pTHX_ const U8 *p, const U8 * const e)
2996{
2997 SV* invlist = NULL;
2998
2999 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_PERL_IDSTART_WITH_LEN;
3000
3001 if (! PL_utf8_perl_idstart) {
3002 invlist = _new_invlist_C_array(_Perl_IDStart_invlist);
3003 }
3004 return is_utf8_common_with_len(p, e, &PL_utf8_perl_idstart,
3005 "_Perl_IDStart", invlist);
3006}
3007
3008bool
f2645549 3009Perl__is_utf8_xidstart(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
c11ff943 3010{
f2645549 3011 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_XIDSTART;
c11ff943
KW
3012
3013 if (*p == '_')
3014 return TRUE;
f25ce844 3015 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_xidstart, "XIdStart", NULL);
c11ff943
KW
3016}
3017
3018bool
da8c1a98
KW
3019Perl__is_utf8_perl_idcont_with_len(pTHX_ const U8 *p, const U8 * const e)
3020{
3021 SV* invlist = NULL;
3022
3023 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_PERL_IDCONT_WITH_LEN;
3024
3025 if (! PL_utf8_perl_idcont) {
3026 invlist = _new_invlist_C_array(_Perl_IDCont_invlist);
3027 }
3028 return is_utf8_common_with_len(p, e, &PL_utf8_perl_idcont,
3029 "_Perl_IDCont", invlist);
3030}
3031
3032bool
f2645549 3033Perl__is_utf8_idcont(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
82686b01 3034{
f2645549 3035 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_IDCONT;
7918f24d 3036
f25ce844 3037 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idcont, "IdContinue", NULL);
a0ed51b3
LW
3038}
3039
3040bool
f2645549 3041Perl__is_utf8_xidcont(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
c11ff943 3042{
f2645549 3043 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_XIDCONT;
c11ff943 3044
f25ce844 3045 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_idcont, "XIdContinue", NULL);
c11ff943
KW
3046}
3047
3048bool
7dbf68d2
KW
3049Perl__is_utf8_mark(pTHX_ const U8 *p)
3050{
7dbf68d2
KW
3051 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__IS_UTF8_MARK;
3052
f25ce844 3053 return is_utf8_common(p, &PL_utf8_mark, "IsM", NULL);
7dbf68d2
KW
3054}
3055
b9992569 3056 /* change namve uv1 to 'from' */
6a4a25f4 3057STATIC UV
b9992569
KW
3058S__to_utf8_case(pTHX_ const UV uv1, const U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp,
3059 SV **swashp, const char *normal, const char *special)
3060{
0134edef 3061 STRLEN len = 0;
7918f24d 3062
b9992569 3063 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_CASE;
7918f24d 3064
36eaa811
KW
3065 /* For code points that don't change case, we already know that the output
3066 * of this function is the unchanged input, so we can skip doing look-ups
3067 * for them. Unfortunately the case-changing code points are scattered
3068 * around. But there are some long consecutive ranges where there are no
3069 * case changing code points. By adding tests, we can eliminate the lookup
3070 * for all the ones in such ranges. This is currently done here only for
3071 * just a few cases where the scripts are in common use in modern commerce
3072 * (and scripts adjacent to those which can be included without additional
3073 * tests). */
3074
3075 if (uv1 >= 0x0590) {
3076 /* This keeps from needing further processing the code points most
3077 * likely to be used in the following non-cased scripts: Hebrew,
3078 * Arabic, Syriac, Thaana, NKo, Samaritan, Mandaic, Devanagari,
3079 * Bengali, Gurmukhi, Gujarati, Oriya, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada,
3080 * Malayalam, Sinhala, Thai, Lao, Tibetan, Myanmar */
3081 if (uv1 < 0x10A0) {
3082 goto cases_to_self;
3083 }
3084
3085 /* The following largish code point ranges also don't have case
3086 * changes, but khw didn't think they warranted extra tests to speed
3087 * them up (which would slightly slow down everything else above them):
3088 * 1100..139F Hangul Jamo, Ethiopic
3089 * 1400..1CFF Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, Ogham, Runic,
3090 * Tagalog, Hanunoo, Buhid, Tagbanwa, Khmer, Mongolian,
3091 * Limbu, Tai Le, New Tai Lue, Buginese, Tai Tham,
3092 * Combining Diacritical Marks Extended, Balinese,
3093 * Sundanese, Batak, Lepcha, Ol Chiki
3094 * 2000..206F General Punctuation
3095 */
3096
3097 if (uv1 >= 0x2D30) {
3098
3099 /* This keeps the from needing further processing the code points
3100 * most likely to be used in the following non-cased major scripts:
3101 * CJK, Katakana, Hiragana, plus some less-likely scripts.
3102 *
3103 * (0x2D30 above might have to be changed to 2F00 in the unlikely
3104 * event that Unicode eventually allocates the unused block as of
3105 * v8.0 2FE0..2FEF to code points that are cased. khw has verified
3106 * that the test suite will start having failures to alert you
3107 * should that happen) */
3108 if (uv1 < 0xA640) {
3109 goto cases_to_self;
3110 }
3111
3112 if (uv1 >= 0xAC00) {
3113 if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_SURROGATE(uv1))) {
5af9bc97
KW
3114 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_SURROGATE)) {
3115 const char* desc = (PL_op) ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : normal;
3116 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_SURROGATE),
56576a04
KW
3117 "Operation \"%s\" returns its argument for"
3118 " UTF-16 surrogate U+%04" UVXf, desc, uv1);
5af9bc97
KW
3119 }
3120 goto cases_to_self;
3121 }
36eaa811
KW
3122
3123 /* AC00..FAFF Catches Hangul syllables and private use, plus
3124 * some others */
3125 if (uv1 < 0xFB00) {
3126 goto cases_to_self;
3127
3128 }
3129
5af9bc97 3130 if (UNLIKELY(UNICODE_IS_SUPER(uv1))) {
d22ec717
KW
3131 if (UNLIKELY(uv1 > MAX_EXTERNALLY_LEGAL_CP)) {
3132 Perl_croak(aTHX_ cp_above_legal_max, uv1,
3133 MAX_EXTERNALLY_LEGAL_CP);
5af9bc97
KW
3134 }
3135 if (ckWARN_d(WARN_NON_UNICODE)) {
3136 const char* desc = (PL_op) ? OP_DESC(PL_op) : normal;
3137 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NON_UNICODE),
56576a04
KW
3138 "Operation \"%s\" returns its argument for"
3139 " non-Unicode code point 0x%04" UVXf, desc, uv1);
5af9bc97
KW
3140 }
3141 goto cases_to_self;
3142 }
3bfc1e70
KW
3143#ifdef HIGHEST_CASE_CHANGING_CP_FOR_USE_ONLY_BY_UTF8_DOT_C
3144 if (UNLIKELY(uv1
3145 > HIGHEST_CASE_CHANGING_CP_FOR_USE_ONLY_BY_UTF8_DOT_C))
3146 {
3147
56576a04
KW
3148 /* As of Unicode 10.0, this means we avoid swash creation
3149 * for anything beyond high Plane 1 (below emojis) */
3bfc1e70
KW
3150 goto cases_to_self;
3151 }
3152#endif
36eaa811
KW
3153 }
3154 }
9ae3ac1a 3155
36eaa811
KW
3156 /* Note that non-characters are perfectly legal, so no warning should
3157 * be given. There are so few of them, that it isn't worth the extra
3158 * tests to avoid swash creation */
9ae3ac1a
KW
3159 }
3160
0134edef 3161 if (!*swashp) /* load on-demand */
56576a04
KW
3162 *swashp = _core_swash_init("utf8", normal, &PL_sv_undef,
3163 4, 0, NULL, NULL);
0134edef 3164
a6f87d8c 3165 if (special) {
0134edef 3166 /* It might be "special" (sometimes, but not always,
2a37f04d 3167 * a multicharacter mapping) */
4a8240a3 3168 HV *hv = NULL;
b08cf34e
JH
3169 SV **svp;
3170
4a8240a3
KW
3171 /* If passed in the specials name, use that; otherwise use any
3172 * given in the swash */
3173 if (*special != '\0') {
3174 hv = get_hv(special, 0);
3175 }
3176 else {
3177 svp = hv_fetchs(MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(*swashp)), "SPECIALS", 0);
3178 if (svp) {
3179 hv = MUTABLE_HV(SvRV(*svp));
3180 }
3181 }
3182
176fe009 3183 if (hv
5f560d8a 3184 && (svp = hv_fetch(hv, (const char*)p, UVCHR_SKIP(uv1), FALSE))
176fe009
KW
3185 && (*svp))
3186 {
cfd0369c 3187 const char *s;
47654450 3188
cfd0369c 3189 s = SvPV_const(*svp, len);
47654450 3190 if (len == 1)
f4cd282c 3191 /* EIGHTBIT */
c80e42f3 3192 len = uvchr_to_utf8(ustrp, *(U8*)s) - ustrp;
2a37f04d 3193 else {
d2dcd0fb 3194 Copy(s, ustrp, len, U8);
29e98929 3195 }
983ffd37 3196 }
0134edef
JH
3197 }
3198
3199 if (!len && *swashp) {
4a4088c4 3200 const UV uv2 = swash_fetch(*swashp, p, TRUE /* => is UTF-8 */);
d4c19fe8 3201
0134edef
JH
3202 if (uv2) {
3203 /* It was "normal" (a single character mapping). */
f4cd282c 3204 len = uvchr_to_utf8(ustrp, uv2) - ustrp;
2a37f04d
JH
3205 }
3206 }
1feea2c7 3207
cbe07460
KW
3208 if (len) {
3209 if (lenp) {
3210 *lenp = len;
3211 }
3212 return valid_utf8_to_uvchr(ustrp, 0);
3213 }
3214
3215 /* Here, there was no mapping defined, which means that the code point maps
3216 * to itself. Return the inputs */
e24dfe9c 3217 cases_to_self:
bfdf22ec 3218 len = UTF8SKIP(p);
ca9fab46
KW
3219 if (p != ustrp) { /* Don't copy onto itself */
3220 Copy(p, ustrp, len, U8);
3221 }
0134edef 3222
2a37f04d
JH
3223 if (lenp)
3224 *lenp = len;
3225
f4cd282c 3226 return uv1;
cbe07460 3227
a0ed51b3
LW
3228}
3229
051a06d4 3230STATIC UV
56576a04
KW
3231S_check_locale_boundary_crossing(pTHX_ const U8* const p, const UV result,
3232 U8* const ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)
051a06d4 3233{
4a4088c4 3234 /* This is called when changing the case of a UTF-8-encoded character above
31f05a37
KW
3235 * the Latin1 range, and the operation is in a non-UTF-8 locale. If the
3236 * result contains a character that crosses the 255/256 boundary, disallow
3237 * the change, and return the original code point. See L<perlfunc/lc> for
3238 * why;
051a06d4 3239 *
a1433954
KW
3240 * p points to the original string whose case was changed; assumed
3241 * by this routine to be well-formed
051a06d4 3242 * result the code point of the first character in the changed-case string
56576a04
KW
3243 * ustrp points to the changed-case string (<result> represents its
3244 * first char)
051a06d4
KW
3245 * lenp points to the length of <ustrp> */
3246
3247 UV original; /* To store the first code point of <p> */
3248
3249 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_CHECK_LOCALE_BOUNDARY_CROSSING;
3250
a4f12ed7 3251 assert(UTF8_IS_ABOVE_LATIN1(*p));
051a06d4
KW
3252
3253 /* We know immediately if the first character in the string crosses the
3254 * boundary, so can skip */
3255 if (result > 255) {
3256
3257 /* Look at every character in the result; if any cross the
3258 * boundary, the whole thing is disallowed */
3259 U8* s = ustrp + UTF8SKIP(ustrp);
3260 U8* e = ustrp + *lenp;
3261 while (s < e) {
a4f12ed7 3262 if (! UTF8_IS_ABOVE_LATIN1(*s)) {
051a06d4
KW
3263 goto bad_crossing;
3264 }
3265 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
3266 }
3267
613abc6d
KW
3268 /* Here, no characters crossed, result is ok as-is, but we warn. */
3269 _CHECK_AND_OUTPUT_WIDE_LOCALE_UTF8_MSG(p, p + UTF8SKIP(p));
051a06d4
KW
3270 return result;
3271 }
3272
7b52d656 3273 bad_crossing:
051a06d4
KW
3274
3275 /* Failed, have to return the original */
4b88fb76 3276 original = valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, lenp);
ab0b796c
KW
3277
3278 /* diag_listed_as: Can't do %s("%s") on non-UTF-8 locale; resolved to "%s". */
3279 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_LOCALE),
56576a04
KW
3280 "Can't do %s(\"\\x{%" UVXf "}\") on non-UTF-8"
3281 " locale; resolved to \"\\x{%" UVXf "}\".",
357aadde 3282 OP_DESC(PL_op),
ab0b796c
KW
3283 original,
3284 original);
051a06d4
KW
3285 Copy(p, ustrp, *lenp, char);
3286 return original;
3287}
3288
607313a1
KW
3289STATIC U32
3290S_check_and_deprecate(pTHX_ const U8 *p,
3291 const U8 **e,
3292 const unsigned int type, /* See below */
3293 const bool use_locale, /* Is this a 'LC_'
3294 macro call? */
3295 const char * const file,
3296 const unsigned line)
3297{
3298 /* This is a temporary function to deprecate the unsafe calls to the case
3299 * changing macros and functions. It keeps all the special stuff in just
3300 * one place.
3301 *
3302 * It updates *e with the pointer to the end of the input string. If using
3303 * the old-style macros, *e is NULL on input, and so this function assumes
3304 * the input string is long enough to hold the entire UTF-8 sequence, and
3305 * sets *e accordingly, but it then returns a flag to pass the
3306 * utf8n_to_uvchr(), to tell it that this size is a guess, and to avoid
3307 * using the full length if possible.
3308 *
3309 * It also does the assert that *e > p when *e is not NULL. This should be
3310 * migrated to the callers when this function gets deleted.
3311 *
3312 * The 'type' parameter is used for the caller to specify which case
3313 * changing function this is called from: */
3314
3315# define DEPRECATE_TO_UPPER 0
3316# define DEPRECATE_TO_TITLE 1
3317# define DEPRECATE_TO_LOWER 2
3318# define DEPRECATE_TO_FOLD 3
3319
3320 U32 utf8n_flags = 0;
3321 const char * name;
3322 const char * alternative;
3323
3324 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_CHECK_AND_DEPRECATE;
3325
3326 if (*e == NULL) {
3327 utf8n_flags = _UTF8_NO_CONFIDENCE_IN_CURLEN;
3328 *e = p + UTF8SKIP(p);
3329
3330 /* For mathoms.c calls, we use the function name we know is stored
c44e9413 3331 * there. It could be part of a larger path */
607313a1 3332 if (type == DEPRECATE_TO_UPPER) {
c44e9413 3333 name = instr(file, "mathoms.c")
607313a1
KW
3334 ? "to_utf8_upper"
3335 : "toUPPER_utf8";
3336 alternative = "toUPPER_utf8_safe";
3337 }
3338 else if (type == DEPRECATE_TO_TITLE) {
c44e9413 3339 name = instr(file, "mathoms.c")
607313a1
KW
3340 ? "to_utf8_title"
3341 : "toTITLE_utf8";
3342 alternative = "toTITLE_utf8_safe";
3343 }
3344 else if (type == DEPRECATE_TO_LOWER) {
c44e9413 3345 name = instr(file, "mathoms.c")
607313a1
KW
3346 ? "to_utf8_lower"
3347 : "toLOWER_utf8";
3348 alternative = "toLOWER_utf8_safe";
3349 }
3350 else if (type == DEPRECATE_TO_FOLD) {
c44e9413 3351 name = instr(file, "mathoms.c")
607313a1
KW
3352 ? "to_utf8_fold"
3353 : "toFOLD_utf8";
3354 alternative = "toFOLD_utf8_safe";
3355 }
3356 else Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: Unexpected case change type");
3357
3358 warn_on_first_deprecated_use(name, alternative, use_locale, file, line);
3359 }
3360 else {
3361 assert (p < *e);
3362 }
3363
3364 return utf8n_flags;
3365}
3366
eaf412bf
KW
3367/* The process for changing the case is essentially the same for the four case
3368 * change types, except there are complications for folding. Otherwise the
3369 * difference is only which case to change to. To make sure that they all do
3370 * the same thing, the bodies of the functions are extracted out into the
3371 * following two macros. The functions are written with the same variable
3372 * names, and these are known and used inside these macros. It would be
3373 * better, of course, to have inline functions to do it, but since different
3374 * macros are called, depending on which case is being changed to, this is not
3375 * feasible in C (to khw's knowledge). Two macros are created so that the fold
3376 * function can start with the common start macro, then finish with its special
3377 * handling; while the other three cases can just use the common end macro.
3378 *
3379 * The algorithm is to use the proper (passed in) macro or function to change
3380 * the case for code points that are below 256. The macro is used if using
3381 * locale rules for the case change; the function if not. If the code point is
3382 * above 255, it is computed from the input UTF-8, and another macro is called
3383 * to do the conversion. If necessary, the output is converted to UTF-8. If
3384 * using a locale, we have to check that the change did not cross the 255/256
3385 * boundary, see check_locale_boundary_crossing() for further details.
3386 *
3387 * The macros are split with the correct case change for the below-256 case
3388 * stored into 'result', and in the middle of an else clause for the above-255
3389 * case. At that point in the 'else', 'result' is not the final result, but is
3390 * the input code point calculated from the UTF-8. The fold code needs to
3391 * realize all this and take it from there.
3392 *
3393 * If you read the two macros as sequential, it's easier to understand what's
3394 * going on. */
3395#define CASE_CHANGE_BODY_START(locale_flags, LC_L1_change_macro, L1_func, \
3396 L1_func_extra_param) \
a239b1e2 3397 \
eaf412bf
KW
3398 if (flags & (locale_flags)) { \
3399 /* Treat a UTF-8 locale as not being in locale at all */ \
3400 if (IN_UTF8_CTYPE_LOCALE) { \
3401 flags &= ~(locale_flags); \
3402 } \
3403 else { \
3404 _CHECK_AND_WARN_PROBLEMATIC_LOCALE; \
3405 } \
3406 } \
3407 \
3408 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(*p)) { \
3409 if (flags & (locale_flags)) { \
3410 result = LC_L1_change_macro(*p); \
3411 } \
3412 else { \
3413 return L1_func(*p, ustrp, lenp, L1_func_extra_param); \
3414 } \
3415 } \
a239b1e2 3416 else if UTF8_IS_NEXT_CHAR_DOWNGRADEABLE(p, e) { \
eaf412bf
KW
3417 if (flags & (locale_flags)) { \
3418 result = LC_L1_change_macro(EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(*p, \
3419 *(p+1))); \
3420 } \
3421 else { \
3422 return L1_func(EIGHT_BIT_UTF8_TO_NATIVE(*p, *(p+1)), \
3423 ustrp, lenp, L1_func_extra_param); \
3424 } \
3425 } \
fa8ab374
KW
3426 else { /* malformed UTF-8 or ord above 255 */ \
3427 STRLEN len_result; \
fa8ab374
KW
3428 result = utf8n_to_uvchr(p, e - p, &len_result, UTF8_CHECK_ONLY); \
3429 if (len_result == (STRLEN) -1) { \
607313a1
KW
3430 _force_out_malformed_utf8_message(p, e, utf8n_flags, \
3431 1 /* Die */ ); \
fa8ab374 3432 }
eaf412bf
KW
3433
3434#define CASE_CHANGE_BODY_END(locale_flags, change_macro) \
3435 result = change_macro(result, p, ustrp, lenp); \
3436 \
3437 if (flags & (locale_flags)) { \
3438 result = check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp); \
3439 } \
3440 return result; \
3441 } \
3442 \
3443 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to UTF-8 */ \
3444 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) { \
3445 *ustrp = (U8) result; \
3446 *lenp = 1; \
3447 } \
3448 else { \
3449 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI((U8) result); \
3450 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO((U8) result); \
3451 *lenp = 2; \
3452 } \
3453 \
3454 return result;
3455
d3e79532 3456/*
87cea99e 3457=for apidoc to_utf8_upper
d3e79532 3458
a239b1e2 3459Instead use L</toUPPER_utf8_safe>.
a1433954 3460
d3e79532
JH
3461=cut */
3462
051a06d4 3463/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change:
31f05a37
KW
3464 * <flags> is set iff iff the rules from the current underlying locale are to
3465 * be used. */
051a06d4 3466
2104c8d9 3467UV
607313a1
KW
3468Perl__to_utf8_upper_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p,
3469 const U8 *e,
3470 U8* ustrp,
3471 STRLEN *lenp,
3472 bool flags,
3473 const char * const file,
3474 const int line)
a0ed51b3 3475{
051a06d4 3476 UV result;
607313a1
KW
3477 const U32 utf8n_flags = check_and_deprecate(p, &e, DEPRECATE_TO_UPPER,
3478 cBOOL(flags), file, line);
051a06d4
KW
3479
3480 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_UPPER_FLAGS;
7918f24d 3481
eaf412bf
KW
3482 /* ~0 makes anything non-zero in 'flags' mean we are using locale rules */
3483 /* 2nd char of uc(U+DF) is 'S' */
3484 CASE_CHANGE_BODY_START(~0, toUPPER_LC, _to_upper_title_latin1, 'S');
3485 CASE_CHANGE_BODY_END (~0, CALL_UPPER_CASE);
983ffd37 3486}
a0ed51b3 3487
d3e79532 3488/*
87cea99e 3489=for apidoc to_utf8_title
d3e79532 3490
a239b1e2 3491Instead use L</toTITLE_utf8_safe>.
a1433954 3492
d3e79532
JH
3493=cut */
3494
051a06d4 3495/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change:
31f05a37
KW
3496 * <flags> is set iff the rules from the current underlying locale are to be
3497 * used. Since titlecase is not defined in POSIX, for other than a
3498 * UTF-8 locale, uppercase is used instead for code points < 256.
445bf929 3499 */
051a06d4 3500
983ffd37 3501UV
607313a1
KW
3502Perl__to_utf8_title_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p,
3503 const U8 *e,
3504 U8* ustrp,
3505 STRLEN *lenp,
3506 bool flags,
3507 const char * const file,
3508 const int line)
983ffd37 3509{
051a06d4 3510 UV result;
607313a1
KW
3511 const U32 utf8n_flags = check_and_deprecate(p, &e, DEPRECATE_TO_TITLE,
3512 cBOOL(flags), file, line);
051a06d4
KW
3513
3514 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_TITLE_FLAGS;
7918f24d 3515
eaf412bf
KW
3516 /* 2nd char of ucfirst(U+DF) is 's' */
3517 CASE_CHANGE_BODY_START(~0, toUPPER_LC, _to_upper_title_latin1, 's');
3518 CASE_CHANGE_BODY_END (~0, CALL_TITLE_CASE);
a0ed51b3
LW
3519}
3520
d3e79532 3521/*
87cea99e 3522=for apidoc to_utf8_lower
d3e79532 3523
a239b1e2 3524Instead use L</toLOWER_utf8_safe>.
a1433954 3525
d3e79532
JH
3526=cut */
3527
051a06d4 3528/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change:
31f05a37
KW
3529 * <flags> is set iff iff the rules from the current underlying locale are to
3530 * be used.
3531 */
051a06d4 3532
2104c8d9 3533UV
607313a1
KW
3534Perl__to_utf8_lower_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p,
3535 const U8 *e,
3536 U8* ustrp,
3537 STRLEN *lenp,
3538 bool flags,
3539 const char * const file,
3540 const int line)
a0ed51b3 3541{
051a06d4 3542 UV result;
607313a1
KW
3543 const U32 utf8n_flags = check_and_deprecate(p, &e, DEPRECATE_TO_LOWER,
3544 cBOOL(flags), file, line);
051a06d4 3545
051a06d4 3546 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_LOWER_FLAGS;
7918f24d 3547
eaf412bf
KW
3548 CASE_CHANGE_BODY_START(~0, toLOWER_LC, to_lower_latin1, 0 /* 0 is dummy */)
3549 CASE_CHANGE_BODY_END (~0, CALL_LOWER_CASE)
b4e400f9
JH
3550}
3551
d3e79532 3552/*
87cea99e 3553=for apidoc to_utf8_fold
d3e79532 3554
a239b1e2 3555Instead use L</toFOLD_utf8_safe>.
a1433954 3556
d3e79532
JH
3557=cut */
3558
051a06d4
KW
3559/* Not currently externally documented, and subject to change,
3560 * in <flags>
31f05a37
KW
3561 * bit FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE is set iff the rules from the current underlying
3562 * locale are to be used.
051a06d4
KW
3563 * bit FOLD_FLAGS_FULL is set iff full case folds are to be used;
3564 * otherwise simple folds
a0270393
KW
3565 * bit FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII is set iff folds of non-ASCII to ASCII are
3566 * prohibited
445bf929 3567 */
36bb2ab6 3568
b4e400f9 3569UV
607313a1
KW
3570Perl__to_utf8_fold_flags(pTHX_ const U8 *p,
3571 const U8 *e,
3572 U8* ustrp,
3573 STRLEN *lenp,
3574 U8 flags,
3575 const char * const file,
3576 const int line)
b4e400f9 3577{
051a06d4 3578 UV result;
607313a1
KW
3579 const U32 utf8n_flags = check_and_deprecate(p, &e, DEPRECATE_TO_FOLD,
3580 cBOOL(flags), file, line);
051a06d4 3581
36bb2ab6 3582 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT__TO_UTF8_FOLD_FLAGS;
7918f24d 3583
a0270393
KW
3584 /* These are mutually exclusive */
3585 assert (! ((flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE) && (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII)));
3586
50ba90ff
KW
3587 assert(p != ustrp); /* Otherwise overwrites */
3588
eaf412bf
KW
3589 CASE_CHANGE_BODY_START(FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE, toFOLD_LC, _to_fold_latin1,
3590 ((flags) & (FOLD_FLAGS_FULL | FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII)));
31f05a37 3591
eaf412bf 3592 result = CALL_FOLD_CASE(result, p, ustrp, lenp, flags & FOLD_FLAGS_FULL);
a1dde8de 3593
1ca267a5
KW
3594 if (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_LOCALE) {
3595
76f2ffcd 3596# define LONG_S_T LATIN_SMALL_LIGATURE_LONG_S_T_UTF8
0766489e
KW
3597# ifdef LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_SHARP_S_UTF8
3598# define CAP_SHARP_S LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_SHARP_S_UTF8
76f2ffcd 3599
538e84ed
KW
3600 /* Special case these two characters, as what normally gets
3601 * returned under locale doesn't work */
b59bf0b2 3602 if (memEQs((char *) p, UTF8SKIP(p), CAP_SHARP_S))
1ca267a5 3603 {
ab0b796c
KW
3604 /* diag_listed_as: Can't do %s("%s") on non-UTF-8 locale; resolved to "%s". */
3605 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_LOCALE),
3606 "Can't do fc(\"\\x{1E9E}\") on non-UTF-8 locale; "
3607 "resolved to \"\\x{17F}\\x{17F}\".");
1ca267a5
KW
3608 goto return_long_s;
3609 }
0766489e
KW
3610 else
3611#endif
b59bf0b2 3612 if (memEQs((char *) p, UTF8SKIP(p), LONG_S_T))
9fc2026f 3613 {
ab0b796c
KW
3614 /* diag_listed_as: Can't do %s("%s") on non-UTF-8 locale; resolved to "%s". */
3615 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_LOCALE),
3616 "Can't do fc(\"\\x{FB05}\") on non-UTF-8 locale; "
3617 "resolved to \"\\x{FB06}\".");
9fc2026f
KW
3618 goto return_ligature_st;
3619 }
74894415
KW
3620
3621#if UNICODE_MAJOR_VERSION == 3 \
3622 && UNICODE_DOT_VERSION == 0 \
3623 && UNICODE_DOT_DOT_VERSION == 1
3624# define DOTTED_I LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_I_WITH_DOT_ABOVE_UTF8
3625
3626 /* And special case this on this Unicode version only, for the same
3627 * reaons the other two are special cased. They would cross the
3628 * 255/256 boundary which is forbidden under /l, and so the code
3629 * wouldn't catch that they are equivalent (which they are only in
3630 * this release) */
b59bf0b2 3631 else if (memEQs((char *) p, UTF8SKIP(p), DOTTED_I)) {
74894415
KW
3632 /* diag_listed_as: Can't do %s("%s") on non-UTF-8 locale; resolved to "%s". */
3633 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_LOCALE),
3634 "Can't do fc(\"\\x{0130}\") on non-UTF-8 locale; "
3635 "resolved to \"\\x{0131}\".");
3636 goto return_dotless_i;
3637 }
3638#endif
3639
357aadde 3640 return check_locale_boundary_crossing(p, result, ustrp, lenp);
051a06d4 3641 }
a0270393
KW
3642 else if (! (flags & FOLD_FLAGS_NOMIX_ASCII)) {
3643 return result;
3644 }
3645 else {
4a4088c4 3646 /* This is called when changing the case of a UTF-8-encoded
9fc2026f
KW
3647 * character above the ASCII range, and the result should not
3648 * contain an ASCII character. */
a0270393
KW
3649
3650 UV original; /* To store the first code point of <p> */
3651
3652 /* Look at every character in the result; if any cross the
3653 * boundary, the whole thing is disallowed */
3654 U8* s = ustrp;
3655 U8* e = ustrp + *lenp;
3656 while (s < e) {
3657 if (isASCII(*s)) {
3658 /* Crossed, have to return the original */
3659 original = valid_utf8_to_uvchr(p, lenp);
1ca267a5 3660
9fc2026f 3661 /* But in these instances, there is an alternative we can
1ca267a5 3662 * return that is valid */
0766489e
KW
3663 if (original == LATIN_SMALL_LETTER_SHARP_S
3664#ifdef LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_SHARP_S /* not defined in early Unicode releases */
3665 || original == LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_SHARP_S
3666#endif
3667 ) {
1ca267a5
KW
3668 goto return_long_s;
3669 }
9fc2026f
KW
3670 else if (original == LATIN_SMALL_LIGATURE_LONG_S_T) {
3671 goto return_ligature_st;
3672 }
74894415
KW
3673#if UNICODE_MAJOR_VERSION == 3 \
3674 && UNICODE_DOT_VERSION == 0 \
3675 && UNICODE_DOT_DOT_VERSION == 1
3676
3677 else if (original == LATIN_CAPITAL_LETTER_I_WITH_DOT_ABOVE) {
3678 goto return_dotless_i;
3679 }
3680#endif
a0270393
KW
3681 Copy(p, ustrp, *lenp, char);
3682 return original;
3683 }
3684 s += UTF8SKIP(s);
3685 }
051a06d4 3686
a0270393
KW
3687 /* Here, no characters crossed, result is ok as-is */
3688 return result;
3689 }
051a06d4
KW
3690 }
3691
4a4088c4 3692 /* Here, used locale rules. Convert back to UTF-8 */
051a06d4
KW
3693 if (UTF8_IS_INVARIANT(result)) {
3694 *ustrp = (U8) result;
3695 *lenp = 1;
3696 }
3697 else {
62cb07ea
KW
3698 *ustrp = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI((U8) result);
3699 *(ustrp + 1) = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO((U8) result);
051a06d4
KW
3700 *lenp = 2;
3701 }
3702
051a06d4 3703 return result;
1ca267a5
KW
3704
3705 return_long_s:
3706 /* Certain folds to 'ss' are prohibited by the options, but they do allow
3707 * folds to a string of two of these characters. By returning this