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9133bbab 1This document is written in pod format hence there are punctuation
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2characters in odd places. Do not worry, you've apparently got the
3ASCII->EBCDIC translation worked out correctly. You can read more
4about pod in pod/perlpod.pod or the short summary in the INSTALL file.
9d116dd7 5
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6=head1 NAME
7
8README.os390 - building and installing Perl for OS/390.
9
10=head1 SYNOPSIS
11
12This document will help you Configure, build, test and install Perl
13on OS/390 Unix System Services.
14
15=head1 DESCRIPTION
16
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17This is a fully ported Perl for OS/390 Version 2 Release 3, 5, 6, 7,
188, and 9. It may work on other versions or releases, but those are
eae55d03 19the ones we've tested it on.
8fde188e 20
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21You may need to carry out some system configuration tasks before
22running the Configure script for Perl.
8fde188e 23
a83b6f46 24=head2 Unpacking Perl distribution on OS/390
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25
26Gunzip/gzip for OS/390 is discussed at:
27
28 http://www.s390.ibm.com/products/oe/bpxqp1.html
29
30to extract an ASCII tar archive on OS/390, try this:
31
32 pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r < latest.tar
33
a83b6f46 34=head2 Setup and utilities for Perl on OS/390
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35
36Be sure that your yacc installation is in place including any necessary
37parser template files. If you have not already done so then be sure to:
38
39 cp /samples/yyparse.c /etc
40
9133bbab 41This may also be a good time to ensure that your /etc/protocol file
8fde188e 42and either your /etc/resolv.conf or /etc/hosts files are in place.
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43The IBM document that described such USS system setup issues was
44SC28-1890-07 "OS/390 UNIX System Services Planning", in particular
45Chapter 6 on customizing the OE shell.
8fde188e 46
8dd596cc 47GNU make for OS/390, which is recommended for the build of perl (as well as
eae55d03 48building CPAN modules and extensions), is available from:
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49
50 http://www.mks.com/s390/gnu/index.htm
51
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52Some people have reported encountering "Out of memory!" errors while
53trying to build Perl using GNU make binaries. If you encounter such
54trouble then try to download the source code kit and build GNU make
55from source to eliminate any such trouble. You might also find GNU make
56(as well as Perl and Apache) in the red-piece/book "Open Source Software
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57for OS/390 UNIX", SG24-5944-00 from IBM.
58
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59If instead of the recommended GNU make you would like to use the system
60supplied make program then be sure to install the default rules file
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61properly via the shell command:
62
63 cp /samples/startup.mk /etc
64
65and be sure to also set the environment variable _C89_CCMODE=1 (exporting
66_C89_CCMODE=1 is also a good idea for users of GNU make).
67
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68You might also want to have GNU groff for OS/390 installed before
69running the `make install` step for Perl.
70
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71There is a syntax error in the /usr/include/sys/socket.h header file
72that IBM supplies with USS V2R7, V2R8, and possibly V2R9. The problem with
73the header file is that near the definition of the SO_REUSEPORT constant
74there is a spurious extra '/' character outside of a comment like so:
75
76 #define SO_REUSEPORT 0x0200 /* allow local address & port
77 reuse */ /
78
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79You could edit that header yourself to remove that last '/', or you might
80note that Language Environment (LE) APAR PQ39997 describes the problem
eae55d03 81and PTF's UQ46272 and UQ46271 are the (R8 at least) fixes and apply them.
9133bbab 82If left unattended that syntax error will turn up as an inability for Perl
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83to build its "Socket" extension.
84
9133bbab 85For successful testing you may need to turn on the sticky bit for your
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86world readable /tmp directory if you have not already done so (see man chmod).
87
a83b6f46 88=head2 Configure Perl on OS/390
8fde188e 89
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90Once you've unpacked the distribution, run "sh Configure" (see INSTALL
91for a full discussion of the Configure options). There is a "hints" file
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92for os390 that specifies the correct values for most things. Some things
93to watch out for include:
94
95=over 4
96
97=item *
98
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99A message of the form:
100
101 (I see you are using the Korn shell. Some ksh's blow up on Configure,
102 mainly on older exotic systems. If yours does, try the Bourne shell instead.)
103
104is nothing to worry about at all.
105
106=item *
107
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108Some of the parser default template files in /samples are needed in /etc.
109In particular be sure that you at least copy /samples/yyparse.c to /etc
eae55d03 110before running Perl's Configure. This step ensures successful extraction
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111of EBCDIC versions of parser files such as perly.c, perly.h, and x2p/a2p.c.
112This has to be done before running Configure the first time. If you failed
113to do so then the easiest way to re-Configure Perl is to delete your
114misconfigured build root and re-extract the source from the tar ball.
115Then you must ensure that /etc/yyparse.c is properly in place before
59c9e5d6 116attempting to re-run Configure.
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117
118=item *
119
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120This port will support dynamic loading, but it is not selected by
121default. If you would like to experiment with dynamic loading then
122be sure to specify -Dusedl in the arguments to the Configure script.
123See the comments in hints/os390.sh for more information on dynamic loading.
124If you build with dynamic loading then you will need to add the
125$archlibexp/CORE directory to your LIBPATH environment variable in order
126for perl to work. See the config.sh file for the value of $archlibexp.
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127If in trying to use Perl you see an error message similar to:
128
129 CEE3501S The module libperl.dll was not found.
130 From entry point __dllstaticinit at compile unit offset +00000194 at
131
9133bbab 132then your LIBPATH does not have the location of libperl.x and either
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133libperl.dll or libperl.so in it. Add that directory to your LIBPATH and
134proceed.
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135
136=item *
9d116dd7 137
eae55d03 138Do not turn on the compiler optimization flag "-O". There is
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139a bug in either the optimizer or perl that causes perl to
140not work correctly when the optimizer is on.
9d116dd7 141
8fde188e 142=item *
9d116dd7 143
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144Some of the configuration files in /etc used by the
145networking APIs are either missing or have the wrong
146names. In particular, make sure that there's either
eae55d03 147an /etc/resolv.conf or an /etc/hosts, so that
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148gethostbyname() works, and make sure that the file
149/etc/proto has been renamed to /etc/protocol (NOT
150/etc/protocols, as used by other Unix systems).
59c9e5d6 151You may have to look for things like HOSTNAME and DOMAINORIGIN
9133bbab 152in the "//'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCPDATA)'" PDS member in order to
59c9e5d6 153properly set up your /etc networking files.
9d116dd7 154
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155=back
156
a83b6f46 157=head2 Build, Test, Install Perl on OS/390
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158
159Simply put:
160
161 sh Configure
162 make
163 make test
164
eae55d03 165if everything looks ok (see the next section for test/IVP diagnosis) then:
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166
167 make install
168
169this last step may or may not require UID=0 privileges depending
170on how you answered the questions that Configure asked and whether
171or not you have write access to the directories you specified.
172
a83b6f46 173=head2 Build Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
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174
175"Out of memory!" messages during the build of Perl are most often fixed
176by re building the GNU make utility for OS/390 from a source code kit.
177
178Another memory limiting item to check is your MAXASSIZE parameter in your
179'SYS1.PARMLIB(BPXPRMxx)' data set (note too that as of V2R8 address space
9133bbab 180limits can be set on a per user ID basis in the USS segment of a RACF
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181profile). People have reported successful builds of Perl with MAXASSIZE
182parameters as small as 503316480 (and it may be possible to build Perl
183with a MAXASSIZE smaller than that).
184
9133bbab 185Within USS your /etc/profile or $HOME/.profile may limit your ulimit
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186settings. Check that the following command returns reasonable values:
187
188 ulimit -a
189
190To conserve memory you should have your compiler modules loaded into the
191Link Pack Area (LPA/ELPA) rather than in a link list or step lib.
192
193If the c89 compiler complains of syntax errors during the build of the
194Socket extension then be sure to fix the syntax error in the system
195header /usr/include/sys/socket.h.
196
a83b6f46 197=head2 Testing Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
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198
199The `make test` step runs a Perl Verification Procedure, usually before
200installation. You might encounter STDERR messages even during a successful
201run of `make test`. Here is a guide to some of the more commonly seen
202anomalies:
203
204=over 4
205
206=item *
207
208A message of the form:
209
210 comp/cpp.............ERROR CBC3191 ./.301989890.c:1 The character $ is not a
211 valid C source character.
212 FSUM3065 The COMPILE step ended with return code 12.
213 FSUM3017 Could not compile .301989890.c. Correct the errors and try again.
214 ok
215
216indicates that the t/comp/cpp.t test of Perl's -P command line switch has
217passed but that the particular invocation of c89 -E in the cpp script does
218not suppress the C compiler check of source code validity.
219
220=item *
221
222A message of the form:
223
224 io/openpid...........CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
225 CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
226 CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
227 ok
228
229indicates that the t/io/openpid.t test of Perl has passed but done so
230with extraneous messages on stderr from CEE.
231
232=item *
233
234A message of the form:
235
236 lib/ftmp-security....File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/) is not safe
237 (sticky bit not set when world writable?) at lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
238 File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/) is not safe (sticky bit not
239 set when world writable?) at lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
240 ok
241
242indicates a problem with the permissions on your /tmp directory within the HFS.
243To correct that problem issue the command:
244
245 chmod a+t /tmp
246
247from an account with write access to the directory entry for /tmp.
248
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249=item *
250
251Out of Memory!
252
253Recent perl test suite is quite memory hunrgy. In addition to the comments
254above on memory limitations it is also worth checking for _CEE_RUNOPTS
255in your environment. Perl now has (in miniperlmain.c) a C #pragma
210b36aa 256to set CEE run options, but the environment variable wins.
9133bbab 257
210b36aa 258The C code asks for:
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259
260 #pragma runopts(HEAP(2M,500K,ANYWHERE,KEEP,8K,4K) STACK(,,ANY,) ALL31(ON))
261
262The important parts of that are the second argument (the increment) to HEAP,
263and allowing the stack to be "Above the (16M) line". If the heap
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264increment is too small then when perl (for example loading unicode/Name.pl) tries
265to create a "big" (400K+) string it cannot fit in a single segment
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266and you get "Out of Memory!" - even if there is still plenty of memory
267available.
268
269A related issue is use with perl's malloc. Perl's malloc uses C<sbrk()>
270to get memory, and C<sbrk()> is limited to the first allocation so in this
271case something like:
272
273 HEAP(8M,500K,ANYWHERE,KEEP,8K,4K)
274
275is needed to get through the test suite.
276
277
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278=back
279
a83b6f46 280=head2 Installation Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
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281
282The installman script will try to run on OS/390. There will be fewer errors
9133bbab 283if you have a roff utility installed. You can obtain GNU groff from the
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284Redbook SG24-5944-00 ftp site.
285
a83b6f46 286=head2 Usage Hints for Perl on OS/390
64d55c8a 287
9d116dd7 288When using perl on OS/390 please keep in mind that the EBCDIC and ASCII
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289character sets are different. See perlebcdic.pod for more on such character
290set issues. Perl builtin functions that may behave differently under
eae55d03 291EBCDIC are also mentioned in the perlport.pod document.
9d116dd7 292
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293Open Edition (UNIX System Services) from V2R8 onward does support
294#!/path/to/perl script invocation. There is a PTF available from
eae55d03 295IBM for V2R7 that will allow shell/kernel support for #!. USS
9133bbab 296releases prior to V2R7 did not support the #! means of script invocation.
eae55d03 297If you are running V2R6 or earlier then see:
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298
299 head `whence perldoc`
300
301for an example of how to use the "eval exec" trick to ask the shell to
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302have Perl run your scripts on those older releases of Unix System Services.
303
59c9e5d6 304If you are having trouble with square brackets then consider switching your
9133bbab 305rlogin or telnet client. Try to avoid older 3270 emulators and ISHELL for
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306working with Perl on USS.
307
a83b6f46 308=head2 Floating Point Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
35a77668 309
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310There appears to be a bug in the floating point implementation on S/390
311systems such that calling int() on the product of a number and a small
312magnitude number is not the same as calling int() on the quotient of
313that number and a large magnitude number. For example, in the following
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314Perl code:
315
316 my $x = 100000.0;
317 my $y = int($x * 1e-5) * 1e5; # '0'
318 my $z = int($x / 1e+5) * 1e5; # '100000'
319 print "\$y is $y and \$z is $z\n"; # $y is 0 and $z is 100000
320
9133bbab 321Although one would expect the quantities $y and $z to be the same and equal
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322to 100000 they will differ and instead will be 0 and 100000 respectively.
323
324The problem can be further examined in a roughly equivalent C program:
325
326 #include <stdio.h>
327 #include <math.h>
328 main()
329 {
330 double r1,r2;
331 double x = 100000.0;
332 double y = 0.0;
333 double z = 0.0;
334 x = 100000.0 * 1e-5;
335 r1 = modf (x,&y);
336 x = 100000.0 / 1e+5;
337 r2 = modf (x,&z);
338 printf("y is %e and z is %e\n",y*1e5,z*1e5);
339 /* y is 0.000000e+00 and z is 1.000000e+05 (with c89) */
340 }
341
a83b6f46 342=head2 Modules and Extensions for Perl on OS/390
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343
344Pure pure (that is non xs) modules may be installed via the usual:
345
346 perl Makefile.PL
347 make
348 make test
349 make install
350
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351If you built perl with dynamic loading capability then that would also
352be the way to build xs based extensions. However, if you built perl with
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353the default static linking you can still build xs based extensions for OS/390
354but you will need to follow the instructions in ExtUtils::MakeMaker for
355building statically linked perl binaries. In the simplest configurations
59c9e5d6 356building a static perl + xs extension boils down to:
9d116dd7 357
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358 perl Makefile.PL
359 make
360 make perl
361 make test
362 make install
363 make -f Makefile.aperl inst_perl MAP_TARGET=perl
8fde188e 364
9133bbab 365In most cases people have reported better results with GNU make rather
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366than the system's /bin/make program, whether for plain modules or for
367xs based extensions.
8fde188e 368
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369If the make process encounters trouble with either compilation or
370linking then try setting the _C89_CCMODE to 1. Assuming sh is your
371login shell then run:
372
373 export _C89_CCMODE=1
374
375If tcsh is your login shell then use the setenv command.
376
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377=head1 AUTHORS
378
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379David Fiander and Peter Prymmer with thanks to Dennis Longnecker
380and William Raffloer for valuable reports, LPAR and PTF feedback.
381Thanks to Mike MacIsaac and Egon Terwedow for SG24-5944-00.
35a77668 382Thanks to Ignasi Roca for pointing out the floating point problems.
f2766b05 383Thanks to John Goodyear for dynamic loading help.
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384
385=head1 SEE ALSO
386
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387L<INSTALL>, L<perlport>, L<perlebcdic>, L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>.
388
389 http://www.mks.com/s390/gnu/index.htm
390
391 http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg245944.html
392
1e32511c 393 http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1ty1.html#opensrc
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394
395 http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/
8fde188e 396
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397 http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/ceea3030/
398
399 http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/CBCUG030/
400
a83b6f46 401=head2 Mailing list for Perl on OS/390
8fde188e 402
9133bbab 403The Perl Institute (http://www.perl.org/) maintains a perl-mvs
8fde188e 404mailing list of interest to all folks building and/or
9133bbab 405using perl on all EBCDIC platforms (not just OS/390).
eae55d03 406To subscribe, send a message of:
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407
408 subscribe perl-mvs
409
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410to majordomo@perl.org. See also:
411
412 http://lists.perl.org/showlist.cgi?name=perl-mvs
413
414There are web archives of the mailing list at:
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415
416 http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/
35a77668 417 http://archive.develooper.com/perl-mvs@perl.org/
9d116dd7 418
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419=head1 HISTORY
420
421This document was originally written by David Fiander for the 5.005
422release of Perl.
423
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424This document was podified for the 5.005_03 release of Perl 11 March 1999.
425
426Updated 12 November 2000 for the 5.7.1 release of Perl.
8fde188e 427
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428Updated 15 January 2001 for the 5.7.1 release of Perl.
429
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430Updated 24 January 2001 to mention dynamic loading.
431
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432Updated 12 March 2001 to mention //'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCPDATA)'.
433
8fde188e 434=cut
eae55d03 435