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1=head1 NAME
2
3Install - Build and Installation guide for perl5.
4
5=head1 SYNOPSIS
6
7f678428 7The basic steps to build and install perl5 on a Unix system are:
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dc45a647 9 rm -f config.sh Policy.sh
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10 sh Configure
11 make
12 make test
13 make install
36477c24 14
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15 # You may also wish to add these:
16 (cd /usr/include && h2ph *.h sys/*.h)
3e3baf6d 17 (installhtml --help)
aa689395 18 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
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19
20Each of these is explained in further detail below.
21
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22For information on non-Unix systems, see the section on
23L<"Porting information"> below.
7f678428 24
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25For information on what's new in this release, see the
26pod/perldelta.pod file. For more detailed information about specific
27changes, see the Changes file.
c3edaffb 28
1ec51d55 29=head1 DESCRIPTION
edb1cbcb 30
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31This document is written in pod format as an easy way to indicate its
32structure. The pod format is described in pod/perlpod.pod, but you can
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33read it as is with any pager or editor. Headings and items are marked
34by lines beginning with '='. The other mark-up used is
35
36 B<text> embolden text, used for switches, programs or commands
37 C<code> literal code
38 L<name> A link (cross reference) to name
39
40You should probably at least skim through this entire document before
41proceeding.
c3edaffb 42
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43If you're building Perl on a non-Unix system, you should also read
44the README file specific to your operating system, since this may
45provide additional or different instructions for building Perl.
46
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47If there is a hint file for your system (in the hints/ directory) you
48should also read that hint file for specific information for your
49system. (Unixware users should use the svr4.sh hint file.)
50
bfb7748a 51=head1 WARNING: This version is not binary compatible with Perl 5.004.
693762b4 52
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53Starting with Perl 5.004_50 there were many deep and far-reaching changes
54to the language internals. If you have dynamically loaded extensions
55that you built under perl 5.003 or 5.004, you can continue to use them
56with 5.004, but you will need to rebuild and reinstall those extensions
57to use them 5.005. See the discussions below on
58L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> and
59L<"Upgrading from 5.004 to 5.005"> for more details.
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60
61The standard extensions supplied with Perl will be handled automatically.
62
63In a related issue, old extensions may possibly be affected by the
64changes in the Perl language in the current release. Please see
65pod/perldelta.pod for a description of what's changed.
66
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67=head1 WARNING: This version requires a compiler that supports ANSI C.
68
69If you find that your C compiler is not ANSI-capable, try obtaining
70GCC, available from GNU mirrors worldwide (e.g. ftp://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu).
71Another alternative may be to use a tool like C<ansi2knr> to convert the
72sources back to K&R style, but there is no guarantee this route will get
73you anywhere, since the prototypes are not the only ANSI features used
74in the Perl sources. C<ansi2knr> is usually found as part of the freely
75available C<Ghostscript> distribution. Another similar tool is
76C<unprotoize>, distributed with GCC. Since C<unprotoize> requires GCC to
77run, you may have to run it on a platform where GCC is available, and move
78the sources back to the platform without GCC.
79
80If you succeed in automatically converting the sources to a K&R compatible
81form, be sure to email perlbug@perl.com to let us know the steps you
82followed. This will enable us to officially support this option.
83
aa689395 84=head1 Space Requirements
eed2e782 85
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86The complete perl5 source tree takes up about 10 MB of disk space. The
87complete tree after completing make takes roughly 20 MB, though the
1ec51d55 88actual total is likely to be quite system-dependent. The installation
dc45a647 89directories need something on the order of 10 MB, though again that
1ec51d55 90value is system-dependent.
8e07c86e 91
aa689395 92=head1 Start with a Fresh Distribution
8e07c86e 93
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94If you have built perl before, you should clean out the build directory
95with the command
96
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97 make distclean
98
99or
100
edb1cbcb 101 make realclean
c3edaffb 102
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103The only difference between the two is that make distclean also removes
104your old config.sh and Policy.sh files.
105
106The results of a Configure run are stored in the config.sh and Policy.sh
107files. If you are upgrading from a previous version of perl, or if you
108change systems or compilers or make other significant changes, or if
109you are experiencing difficulties building perl, you should probably
110not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or rename it, e.g.
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111
112 mv config.sh config.sh.old
4633a7c4 113
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114If you wish to use your old config.sh, be especially attentive to the
115version and architecture-specific questions and answers. For example,
116the default directory for architecture-dependent library modules
117includes the version name. By default, Configure will reuse your old
118name (e.g. /opt/perl/lib/i86pc-solaris/5.003) even if you're running
119Configure for a different version, e.g. 5.004. Yes, Configure should
120probably check and correct for this, but it doesn't, presently.
121Similarly, if you used a shared libperl.so (see below) with version
122numbers, you will probably want to adjust them as well.
123
124Also, be careful to check your architecture name. Some Linux systems
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125(such as Debian) use i386, while others may use i486, i586, or i686.
126If you pick up a precompiled binary, it might not use the same name.
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127
128In short, if you wish to use your old config.sh, I recommend running
129Configure interactively rather than blindly accepting the defaults.
8e07c86e 130
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131If your reason to reuse your old config.sh is to save your
132particular installation choices, then you can probably achieve the
133same effect by using the new Policy.sh file. See the section on
134L<"Site-wide Policy settings"> below.
135
aa689395 136=head1 Run Configure
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137
138Configure will figure out various things about your system. Some
139things Configure will figure out for itself, other things it will ask
1ec51d55 140you about. To accept the default, just press RETURN. The default
a3cb178b 141is almost always okay. At any Configure prompt, you can type &-d
203c3eec 142and Configure will use the defaults from then on.
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143
144After it runs, Configure will perform variable substitution on all the
1ec51d55 145*.SH files and offer to run make depend.
8e07c86e 146
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147Configure supports a number of useful options. Run B<Configure -h> to
148get a listing. See the Porting/Glossary file for a complete list of
149Configure variables you can set and their definitions.
150
151To compile with gcc, for example, you should run
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152
153 sh Configure -Dcc=gcc
154
155This is the preferred way to specify gcc (or another alternative
156compiler) so that the hints files can set appropriate defaults.
157
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158If you want to use your old config.sh but override some of the items
159with command line options, you need to use B<Configure -O>.
160
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161By default, for most systems, perl will be installed in
162/usr/local/{bin, lib, man}. You can specify a different 'prefix' for
163the default installation directory, when Configure prompts you or by
164using the Configure command line option -Dprefix='/some/directory',
165e.g.
166
25f94b33 167 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl
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168
169If your prefix contains the string "perl", then the directories
170are simplified. For example, if you use prefix=/opt/perl,
171then Configure will suggest /opt/perl/lib instead of
4fdae800 172/opt/perl/lib/perl5/.
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174NOTE: You must not specify an installation directory that is below
175your perl source directory. If you do, installperl will attempt
176infinite recursion.
177
a3cb178b 178It may seem obvious to say, but Perl is useful only when users can
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179easily find it. It's often a good idea to have both /usr/bin/perl and
180/usr/local/bin/perl be symlinks to the actual binary. Be especially
181careful, however, of overwriting a version of perl supplied by your
182vendor. In any case, system administrators are strongly encouraged to
183put (symlinks to) perl and its accompanying utilities, such as perldoc,
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184into a directory typically found along a user's PATH, or in another
185obvious and convenient place.
186
aa689395 187By default, Configure will compile perl to use dynamic loading if
8e07c86e 188your system supports it. If you want to force perl to be compiled
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189statically, you can either choose this when Configure prompts you or
190you can use the Configure command line option -Uusedl.
8e07c86e 191
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192If you are willing to accept all the defaults, and you want terse
193output, you can run
194
195 sh Configure -des
196
197For my Solaris system, I usually use
198
199 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl -Doptimize='-xpentium -xO4' -des
200
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201=head2 GNU-style configure
202
1ec51d55 203If you prefer the GNU-style configure command line interface, you can
dc45a647 204use the supplied configure.gnu command, e.g.
46bb10fb 205
693762b4 206 CC=gcc ./configure.gnu
46bb10fb 207
dc45a647 208The configure.gnu script emulates a few of the more common configure
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209options. Try
210
693762b4 211 ./configure.gnu --help
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212
213for a listing.
214
aa689395 215Cross compiling is not supported.
46bb10fb 216
dc45a647 217(The file is called configure.gnu to avoid problems on systems
693762b4 218that would not distinguish the files "Configure" and "configure".)
46bb10fb 219
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220=head2 Extensions
221
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222By default, Configure will offer to build every extension which appears
223to be supported. For example, Configure will offer to build GDBM_File
224only if it is able to find the gdbm library. (See examples below.)
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225B, DynaLoader, Fcntl, IO, and attrs are always built by default.
226Configure does not contain code to test for POSIX compliance, so POSIX
227is always built by default as well. If you wish to skip POSIX, you can
228set the Configure variable useposix=false either in a hint file or from
229the Configure command line. Similarly, the Opcode extension is always
230built by default, but you can skip it by setting the Configure variable
c3edaffb 231useopcode=false either in a hint file for from the command line.
24b3df7f 232
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233You can learn more about each of these extensions by consulting the
234documentation in the individual .pm modules, located under the
235ext/ subdirectory.
236
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237Even if you do not have dynamic loading, you must still build the
238DynaLoader extension; you should just build the stub dl_none.xs
239version. (Configure will suggest this as the default.)
240
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241In summary, here are the Configure command-line variables you can set
242to turn off each extension:
243
693762b4 244 B (Always included by default)
24b3df7f 245 DB_File i_db
56c6f531 246 DynaLoader (Must always be included as a static extension)
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247 Fcntl (Always included by default)
248 GDBM_File i_gdbm
9d67150a 249 IO (Always included by default)
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250 NDBM_File i_ndbm
251 ODBM_File i_dbm
252 POSIX useposix
253 SDBM_File (Always included by default)
c3edaffb 254 Opcode useopcode
24b3df7f 255 Socket d_socket
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256 Threads usethreads
257 attrs (Always included by default)
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258
259Thus to skip the NDBM_File extension, you can use
260
261 sh Configure -Ui_ndbm
262
263Again, this is taken care of automatically if you don't have the ndbm
264library.
265
266Of course, you may always run Configure interactively and select only
aa689395 267the extensions you want.
24b3df7f 268
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269Note: The DB_File module will only work with version 1.x of Berkeley
270DB or newer releases of version 2. Configure will automatically detect
271this for you and refuse to try to build DB_File with version 2.
1ec51d55 272
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273If you re-use your old config.sh but change your system (e.g. by
274adding libgdbm) Configure will still offer your old choices of extensions
275for the default answer, but it will also point out the discrepancy to
276you.
277
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278Finally, if you have dynamic loading (most modern Unix systems do)
279remember that these extensions do not increase the size of your perl
280executable, nor do they impact start-up time, so you probably might as
281well build all the ones that will work on your system.
282
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283=head2 Including locally-installed libraries
284
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285Perl5 comes with interfaces to number of database extensions, including
286dbm, ndbm, gdbm, and Berkeley db. For each extension, if
287Configure can find the appropriate header files and libraries, it will
288automatically include that extension. The gdbm and db libraries
1ec51d55 289are not included with perl. See the library documentation for
4633a7c4 290how to obtain the libraries.
8e07c86e 291
1ec51d55 292Note: If your database header (.h) files are not in a
8e07c86e 293directory normally searched by your C compiler, then you will need to
1ec51d55 294include the appropriate -I/your/directory option when prompted by
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295Configure. If your database library (.a) files are not in a directory
296normally searched by your C compiler and linker, then you will need to
1ec51d55 297include the appropriate -L/your/directory option when prompted by
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298Configure. See the examples below.
299
300=head2 Examples
301
302=over 4
303
aa689395 304=item gdbm in /usr/local
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305
306Suppose you have gdbm and want Configure to find it and build the
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307GDBM_File extension. This examples assumes you have gdbm.h
308installed in /usr/local/include/gdbm.h and libgdbm.a installed in
309/usr/local/lib/libgdbm.a. Configure should figure all the
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310necessary steps out automatically.
311
312Specifically, when Configure prompts you for flags for
1ec51d55 313your C compiler, you should include -I/usr/local/include.
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314
315When Configure prompts you for linker flags, you should include
1ec51d55 316-L/usr/local/lib.
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317
318If you are using dynamic loading, then when Configure prompts you for
319linker flags for dynamic loading, you should again include
1ec51d55 320-L/usr/local/lib.
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321
322Again, this should all happen automatically. If you want to accept the
323defaults for all the questions and have Configure print out only terse
324messages, then you can just run
325
326 sh Configure -des
327
328and Configure should include the GDBM_File extension automatically.
329
330This should actually work if you have gdbm installed in any of
331(/usr/local, /opt/local, /usr/gnu, /opt/gnu, /usr/GNU, or /opt/GNU).
332
333=item gdbm in /usr/you
334
335Suppose you have gdbm installed in some place other than /usr/local/,
3a6175e1 336but you still want Configure to find it. To be specific, assume you
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337have /usr/you/include/gdbm.h and /usr/you/lib/libgdbm.a. You
338still have to add -I/usr/you/include to cc flags, but you have to take
339an extra step to help Configure find libgdbm.a. Specifically, when
8e07c86e 340Configure prompts you for library directories, you have to add
1ec51d55 341/usr/you/lib to the list.
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342
343It is possible to specify this from the command line too (all on one
344line):
345
346 sh Configure -des \
347 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include" \
348 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib"
349
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350locincpth is a space-separated list of include directories to search.
351Configure will automatically add the appropriate -I directives.
8e07c86e 352
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353loclibpth is a space-separated list of library directories to search.
354Configure will automatically add the appropriate -L directives. If
355you have some libraries under /usr/local/ and others under
356/usr/you, then you have to include both, namely
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357
358 sh Configure -des \
359 -Dlocincpth="/usr/you/include /usr/local/include" \
360 -Dloclibpth="/usr/you/lib /usr/local/lib"
361
362=back
363
aa689395 364=head2 Installation Directories
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365
366The installation directories can all be changed by answering the
367appropriate questions in Configure. For convenience, all the
368installation questions are near the beginning of Configure.
369
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370I highly recommend running Configure interactively to be sure it puts
371everything where you want it. At any point during the Configure
372process, you can answer a question with &-d and Configure
373will use the defaults from then on.
1ec51d55 374
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375By default, Configure will use the following directories for library files
376for 5.005 (archname is a string like sun4-sunos, determined by Configure).
4633a7c4 377
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378 Configure variable Default value
379 $archlib /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.005/archname
380 $privlib /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.005
381 $sitearch /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/archname
382 $sitelib /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
4633a7c4 383
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384Some users prefer to append a "/share" to $privlib and $sitelib
385to emphasize that those directories can be shared among different
386architectures.
4633a7c4 387
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388By default, Configure will use the following directories for manual pages:
389
390 Configure variable Default value
391 $man1dir /usr/local/man/man1
392 $man3dir /usr/local/lib/perl5/man/man3
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393
394(Actually, Configure recognizes the SVR3-style
395/usr/local/man/l_man/man1 directories, if present, and uses those
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396instead.)
397
398The module man pages are stuck in that strange spot so that
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399they don't collide with other man pages stored in /usr/local/man/man3,
400and so that Perl's man pages don't hide system man pages. On some
401systems, B<man less> would end up calling up Perl's less.pm module man
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402page, rather than the less program. (This default location will likely
403change to /usr/local/man/man3 in a future release of perl.)
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404
405Note: Many users prefer to store the module man pages in
406/usr/local/man/man3. You can do this from the command line with
407
408 sh Configure -Dman3dir=/usr/local/man/man3
409
410Some users also prefer to use a .3pm suffix. You can do that with
411
412 sh Configure -Dman3ext=3pm
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413
414If you specify a prefix that contains the string "perl", then the
aa689395 415directory structure is simplified. For example, if you Configure with
bfb7748a 416-Dprefix=/opt/perl, then the defaults for 5.005 are
4633a7c4 417
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418 Configure variable Default value
419 $archlib /opt/perl/lib/5.005/archname
420 $privlib /opt/perl/lib/5.005
421 $sitearch /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.005/archname
422 $sitelib /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.005
4633a7c4 423
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424 $man1dir /opt/perl/man/man1
425 $man3dir /opt/perl/man/man3
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426
427The perl executable will search the libraries in the order given
428above.
429
3a6175e1 430The directories under site_perl are empty, but are intended to be used
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431for installing local or site-wide extensions. Perl will automatically
432look in these directories.
4633a7c4 433
bfb7748a 434In order to support using things like #!/usr/local/bin/perl5.005 after
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435a later version is released, architecture-dependent libraries are
436stored in a version-specific directory, such as
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437/usr/local/lib/perl5/archname/5.005/.
438
439Further details about the installation directories, maintenance and
440development subversions, and about supporting multiple versions are
441discussed in L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5"> below.
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442
443Again, these are just the defaults, and can be changed as you run
444Configure.
445
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446=head2 Changing the installation directory
447
448Configure distinguishes between the directory in which perl (and its
449associated files) should be installed and the directory in which it
450will eventually reside. For most sites, these two are the same; for
451sites that use AFS, this distinction is handled automatically.
1ec51d55 452However, sites that use software such as depot to manage software
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453packages may also wish to install perl into a different directory and
454use that management software to move perl to its final destination.
455This section describes how to do this. Someday, Configure may support
456an option -Dinstallprefix=/foo to simplify this.
457
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458Suppose you want to install perl under the /tmp/perl5 directory. You
459can edit config.sh and change all the install* variables to point to
460/tmp/perl5 instead of /usr/local/wherever. Or, you can automate this
461process by placing the following lines in a file config.over before you
462run Configure (replace /tmp/perl5 by a directory of your choice):
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463
464 installprefix=/tmp/perl5
465 test -d $installprefix || mkdir $installprefix
466 test -d $installprefix/bin || mkdir $installprefix/bin
467 installarchlib=`echo $installarchlib | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
468 installbin=`echo $installbin | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
469 installman1dir=`echo $installman1dir | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
470 installman3dir=`echo $installman3dir | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
471 installprivlib=`echo $installprivlib | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
472 installscript=`echo $installscript | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
473 installsitelib=`echo $installsitelib | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
474 installsitearch=`echo $installsitearch | sed "s!$prefix!$installprefix!"`
475
476Then, you can Configure and install in the usual way:
477
478 sh Configure -des
479 make
480 make test
481 make install
482
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483Beware, though, that if you go to try to install new add-on
484extensions, they too will get installed in under '/tmp/perl5' if you
485follow this example. The next section shows one way of dealing with
486that problem.
487
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488=head2 Creating an installable tar archive
489
490If you need to install perl on many identical systems, it is
491convenient to compile it once and create an archive that can be
492installed on multiple systems. Here's one way to do that:
493
494 # Set up config.over to install perl into a different directory,
495 # e.g. /tmp/perl5 (see previous part).
496 sh Configure -des
497 make
498 make test
499 make install
500 cd /tmp/perl5
bfb7748a 501 # Edit $archlib/Config.pm to change all the
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502 # install* variables back to reflect where everything will
503 # really be installed.
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504 # Edit any of the scripts in $scriptdir to have the correct
505 # #!/wherever/perl line.
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506 tar cvf ../perl5-archive.tar .
507 # Then, on each machine where you want to install perl,
508 cd /usr/local # Or wherever you specified as $prefix
509 tar xvf perl5-archive.tar
510
dc45a647 511=head2 Site-wide Policy settings
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512
513After Configure runs, it stores a number of common site-wide "policy"
514answers (such as installation directories and the local perl contact
515person) in the Policy.sh file. If you want to build perl on another
516system using the same policy defaults, simply copy the Policy.sh file
517to the new system and Configure will use it along with the appropriate
518hint file for your system.
519
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520Alternatively, if you wish to change some or all of those policy
521answers, you should
522
523 rm -f Policy.sh
524
525to ensure that Configure doesn't re-use them.
526
527Further information is in the Policy_sh.SH file itself.
528
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529=head2 Configure-time Options
530
531There are several different ways to Configure and build perl for your
532system. For most users, the defaults are sensible and will work.
533Some users, however, may wish to further customize perl. Here are
534some of the main things you can change.
535
693762b4 536=head2 Threads
aa689395 537
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538On some platforms, perl5.005 can be compiled to use threads. To
539enable this, read the file README.threads, and then try
f7542a9d 540
693762b4 541 sh Configure -Dusethreads
aa689395 542
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543Currently, you need to specify -Dusethreads on the Configure command
544line so that the hint files can make appropriate adjustments.
545
546The default is to compile without thread support.
3fe9a6f1 547
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548=head2 Selecting File IO mechanisms
549
550Previous versions of perl used the standard IO mechanisms as defined in
1ec51d55 551stdio.h. Versions 5.003_02 and later of perl allow alternate IO
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552mechanisms via a "PerlIO" abstraction, but the stdio mechanism is still
553the default and is the only supported mechanism.
554
555This PerlIO abstraction can be enabled either on the Configure command
556line with
557
558 sh Configure -Duseperlio
559
560or interactively at the appropriate Configure prompt.
561
562If you choose to use the PerlIO abstraction layer, there are two
563(experimental) possibilities for the underlying IO calls. These have been
564tested to some extent on some platforms, but are not guaranteed to work
565everywhere.
566
567=over 4
568
569=item 1.
570
1ec51d55 571AT&T's "sfio". This has superior performance to stdio.h in many
aa689395 572cases, and is extensible by the use of "discipline" modules. Sfio
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573currently only builds on a subset of the UNIX platforms perl supports.
574Because the data structures are completely different from stdio, perl
575extension modules or external libraries may not work. This
576configuration exists to allow these issues to be worked on.
577
578This option requires the 'sfio' package to have been built and installed.
bfb7748a 579A (fairly old) version of sfio is in CPAN.
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580
581You select this option by
582
583 sh Configure -Duseperlio -Dusesfio
584
585If you have already selected -Duseperlio, and if Configure detects
586that you have sfio, then sfio will be the default suggested by
587Configure.
588
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589Note: On some systems, sfio's iffe configuration script fails
590to detect that you have an atexit function (or equivalent).
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591Apparently, this is a problem at least for some versions of Linux
592and SunOS 4.
593
594You can test if you have this problem by trying the following shell
595script. (You may have to add some extra cflags and libraries. A
596portable version of this may eventually make its way into Configure.)
597
598 #!/bin/sh
599 cat > try.c <<'EOCP'
600 #include <stdio.h>
601 main() { printf("42\n"); }
602 EOCP
603 cc -o try try.c -lsfio
604 val=`./try`
605 if test X$val = X42; then
606 echo "Your sfio looks ok"
607 else
608 echo "Your sfio has the exit problem."
609 fi
610
611If you have this problem, the fix is to go back to your sfio sources
bfb7748a 612and correct iffe's guess about atexit.
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613
614There also might be a more recent release of Sfio that fixes your
615problem.
616
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617=item 2.
618
619Normal stdio IO, but with all IO going through calls to the PerlIO
620abstraction layer. This configuration can be used to check that perl and
621extension modules have been correctly converted to use the PerlIO
622abstraction.
623
624This configuration should work on all platforms (but might not).
625
aa689395 626You select this option via:
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627
628 sh Configure -Duseperlio -Uusesfio
629
630If you have already selected -Duseperlio, and if Configure does not
631detect sfio, then this will be the default suggested by Configure.
632
633=back
634
aa689395 635=head2 Building a shared libperl.so Perl library
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636
637Currently, for most systems, the main perl executable is built by
638linking the "perl library" libperl.a with perlmain.o, your static
639extensions (usually just DynaLoader.a) and various extra libraries,
640such as -lm.
641
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642On some systems that support dynamic loading, it may be possible to
643replace libperl.a with a shared libperl.so. If you anticipate building
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644several different perl binaries (e.g. by embedding libperl into
645different programs, or by using the optional compiler extension), then
9d67150a 646you might wish to build a shared libperl.so so that all your binaries
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647can share the same library.
648
649The disadvantages are that there may be a significant performance
9d67150a 650penalty associated with the shared libperl.so, and that the overall
aa689395 651mechanism is still rather fragile with respect to different versions
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652and upgrades.
653
654In terms of performance, on my test system (Solaris 2.5_x86) the perl
9d67150a 655test suite took roughly 15% longer to run with the shared libperl.so.
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656Your system and typical applications may well give quite different
657results.
658
659The default name for the shared library is typically something like
a6006777 660libperl.so.3.2 (for Perl 5.003_02) or libperl.so.302 or simply
9d67150a 661libperl.so. Configure tries to guess a sensible naming convention
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662based on your C library name. Since the library gets installed in a
663version-specific architecture-dependent directory, the exact name
664isn't very important anyway, as long as your linker is happy.
665
666For some systems (mostly SVR4), building a shared libperl is required
667for dynamic loading to work, and hence is already the default.
668
669You can elect to build a shared libperl by
670
671 sh Configure -Duseshrplib
672
673To actually build perl, you must add the current working directory to your
aa689395 674LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable before running make. You can do
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675this with
676
677 LD_LIBRARY_PATH=`pwd`:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
678
679for Bourne-style shells, or
680
681 setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH `pwd`
682
683for Csh-style shells. You *MUST* do this before running make.
684Folks running NeXT OPENSTEP must substitute DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH for
685LD_LIBRARY_PATH above.
686
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687There is also an potential problem with the shared perl library if you
688want to have more than one "flavor" of the same version of perl (e.g.
689with and without -DDEBUGGING). For example, suppose you build and
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690install a standard Perl 5.004 with a shared library. Then, suppose you
691try to build Perl 5.004 with -DDEBUGGING enabled, but everything else
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692the same, including all the installation directories. How can you
693ensure that your newly built perl will link with your newly built
7f678428 694libperl.so.4 rather with the installed libperl.so.4? The answer is
9d67150a 695that you might not be able to. The installation directory is encoded
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696in the perl binary with the LD_RUN_PATH environment variable (or
697equivalent ld command-line option). On Solaris, you can override that
7beaa944 698with LD_LIBRARY_PATH; on Linux you can't. On Digital Unix, you can
0dcb58f4 699override LD_LIBRARY_PATH by setting the _RLD_ROOT environment variable
7beaa944 700to point to the perl build directory.
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701
702The only reliable answer is that you should specify a different
703directory for the architecture-dependent library for your -DDEBUGGING
fb73857a 704version of perl. You can do this by changing all the *archlib*
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705variables in config.sh, namely archlib, archlib_exp, and
706installarchlib, to point to your new architecture-dependent library.
707
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708=head2 Malloc Issues
709
710Perl relies heavily on malloc(3) to grow data structures as needed, so
711perl's performance can be noticeably affected by the performance of
712the malloc function on your system.
713
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714The perl source is shipped with a version of malloc that is very fast but
715somewhat wasteful of space. On the other hand, your system's malloc
716function may be a bit slower but also a bit more frugal. However,
717as of 5.004_68, perl's malloc has been optimized for the typical
718requests from perl, so there's a chance that it may be both faster and
719use less memory.
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720
721For many uses, speed is probably the most important consideration, so
722the default behavior (for most systems) is to use the malloc supplied
723with perl. However, if you will be running very large applications
724(e.g. Tk or PDL) or if your system already has an excellent malloc, or
725if you are experiencing difficulties with extensions that use
726third-party libraries that call malloc, then you might wish to use
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727your system's malloc. (Or, you might wish to explore the malloc flags
728discussed below.)
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729
730To build without perl's malloc, you can use the Configure command
731
732 sh Configure -Uusemymalloc
733
734or you can answer 'n' at the appropriate interactive Configure prompt.
735
aa689395 736=head2 Malloc Performance Flags
c3edaffb 737
87c6202a 738If you are using Perl's malloc, you may add one or more of the following
808270a4 739items to your ccflags config.sh variable to change its behavior. You can
87c6202a 740find out more about these and other flags by reading the commentary near
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741the top of the malloc.c source. The defaults should be fine for
742nearly everyone.
c3edaffb 743
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744=over 4
745
87c6202a 746=item -DNO_FANCY_MALLOC
2ae324a7 747
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748Undefined by default. Defining it returns malloc to the version used
749in Perl 5.004.
aa689395 750
87c6202a 751=item -DPLAIN_MALLOC
aa689395 752
87c6202a 753Undefined by default. Defining it in addition to NO_FANCY_MALLOC returns
bfb7748a 754malloc to the version used in Perl version 5.000.
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755
756=back
757
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758=head2 Building a debugging perl
759
760You can run perl scripts under the perl debugger at any time with
3fe9a6f1 761B<perl -d your_script>. If, however, you want to debug perl itself,
3bf462b8
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762you probably want to do
763
764 sh Configure -Doptimize='-g'
765
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766This will do two independent things: First, it will force compilation
767to use cc -g so that you can use your system's debugger on the
768executable. (Note: Your system may actually require something like
a3cb178b 769cc -g2. Check your man pages for cc(1) and also any hint file for your
203c3eec 770system.) Second, it will add -DDEBUGGING to your ccflags variable in
1ec51d55 771config.sh so that you can use B<perl -D> to access perl's internal
203c3eec 772state. (Note: Configure will only add -DDEBUGGING by
1ec51d55
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773default if you are not reusing your old config.sh. If you want to
774reuse your old config.sh, then you can just edit it and change the
3fe9a6f1 775optimize and ccflags variables by hand and then propagate your changes
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776as shown in L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below.)
777
778You can actually specify -g and -DDEBUGGING independently, but usually
779it's convenient to have both.
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780
781If you are using a shared libperl, see the warnings about multiple
782versions of perl under L<Building a shared libperl.so Perl library>.
783
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784=head2 Other Compiler Flags
785
786For most users, all of the Configure defaults are fine. However,
787you can change a number of factors in the way perl is built
1ec51d55 788by adding appropriate -D directives to your ccflags variable in
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789config.sh.
790
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791Starting from Perl 5.005_53 you no more need to replace the rand() and
792srand() functions in the perl source by any other random number
793generator because Configure chooses the widest one available
794(drand48(), srandom(), or rand()).
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795
796You should also run Configure interactively to verify that a hint file
797doesn't inadvertently override your ccflags setting. (Hints files
798shouldn't do that, but some might.)
c3edaffb 799
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800=head2 What if it doesn't work?
801
802=over 4
803
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804=item Running Configure Interactively
805
806If Configure runs into trouble, remember that you can always run
807Configure interactively so that you can check (and correct) its
808guesses.
809
810All the installation questions have been moved to the top, so you don't
aa689395 811have to wait for them. Once you've handled them (and your C compiler and
1ec51d55 812flags) you can type &-d at the next Configure prompt and Configure
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813will use the defaults from then on.
814
815If you find yourself trying obscure command line incantations and
816config.over tricks, I recommend you run Configure interactively
817instead. You'll probably save yourself time in the long run.
818
aa689395 819=item Hint files
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820
821The perl distribution includes a number of system-specific hints files
822in the hints/ directory. If one of them matches your system, Configure
823will offer to use that hint file.
824
825Several of the hint files contain additional important information.
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826If you have any problems, it is a good idea to read the relevant hint file
827for further information. See hints/solaris_2.sh for an extensive example.
828More information about writing good hints is in the hints/README.hints
829file.
8e07c86e 830
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831=item *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
832
833Occasionally, Configure makes a wrong guess. For example, on SunOS
8344.1.3, Configure incorrectly concludes that tzname[] is in the
835standard C library. The hint file is set up to correct for this. You
836will see a message:
837
838 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
839 The recommended value for $d_tzname on this machine was "undef"!
840 Keep the recommended value? [y]
841
842You should always keep the recommended value unless, after reading the
843relevant section of the hint file, you are sure you want to try
844overriding it.
845
846If you are re-using an old config.sh, the word "previous" will be
847used instead of "recommended". Again, you will almost always want
848to keep the previous value, unless you have changed something on your
849system.
850
851For example, suppose you have added libgdbm.a to your system
852and you decide to reconfigure perl to use GDBM_File. When you run
853Configure again, you will need to add -lgdbm to the list of libraries.
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854Now, Configure will find your gdbm include file and library and will
855issue a message:
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856
857 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
858 The previous value for $i_gdbm on this machine was "undef"!
859 Keep the previous value? [y]
860
1ec51d55 861In this case, you do not want to keep the previous value, so you
c3edaffb 862should answer 'n'. (You'll also have to manually add GDBM_File to
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863the list of dynamic extensions to build.)
864
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865=item Changing Compilers
866
867If you change compilers or make other significant changes, you should
1ec51d55 868probably not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or
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869rename it, e.g. mv config.sh config.sh.old. Then rerun Configure
870with the options you want to use.
871
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872This is a common source of problems. If you change from cc to
873gcc, you should almost always remove your old config.sh.
8e07c86e 874
c3edaffb 875=item Propagating your changes to config.sh
8e07c86e 876
1ec51d55
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877If you make any changes to config.sh, you should propagate
878them to all the .SH files by running
879
880 sh Configure -S
881
882You will then have to rebuild by running
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883
884 make depend
885 make
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886
887=item config.over
888
889You can also supply a shell script config.over to over-ride Configure's
890guesses. It will get loaded up at the very end, just before config.sh
891is created. You have to be careful with this, however, as Configure
d52d4e46 892does no checking that your changes make sense. See the section on
7f678428 893L<"Changing the installation directory"> for an example.
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894
895=item config.h
896
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897Many of the system dependencies are contained in config.h.
898Configure builds config.h by running the config_h.SH script.
899The values for the variables are taken from config.sh.
8e07c86e 900
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901If there are any problems, you can edit config.h directly. Beware,
902though, that the next time you run Configure, your changes will be
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903lost.
904
905=item cflags
906
907If you have any additional changes to make to the C compiler command
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908line, they can be made in cflags.SH. For instance, to turn off the
909optimizer on toke.c, find the line in the switch structure for
910toke.c and put the command optimize='-g' before the ;; . You
911can also edit cflags directly, but beware that your changes will be
912lost the next time you run Configure.
8e07c86e 913
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914To explore various ways of changing ccflags from within a hint file,
915see the file hints/README.hints.
916
917To change the C flags for all the files, edit config.sh and change either
918$ccflags or $optimize, and then re-run
1ec51d55
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919
920 sh Configure -S
921 make depend
8e07c86e 922
aa689395 923=item No sh
8e07c86e 924
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925If you don't have sh, you'll have to copy the sample file Porting/config_H
926to config.h and edit the config.h to reflect your system's peculiarities.
8e07c86e
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927You'll probably also have to extensively modify the extension building
928mechanism.
929
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930=item Porting information
931
2ae324a7 932Specific information for the OS/2, Plan9, VMS and Win32 ports is in the
1ec51d55
CS
933corresponding README files and subdirectories. Additional information,
934including a glossary of all those config.sh variables, is in the Porting
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935subdirectory.
936
7f678428 937Ports for other systems may also be available. You should check out
1ec51d55 938http://www.perl.com/CPAN/ports for current information on ports to
7f678428
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939various other operating systems.
940
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941=back
942
943=head1 make depend
944
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945This will look for all the includes. The output is stored in makefile.
946The only difference between Makefile and makefile is the dependencies at
947the bottom of makefile. If you have to make any changes, you should edit
948makefile, not Makefile since the Unix make command reads makefile first.
949(On non-Unix systems, the output may be stored in a different file.
950Check the value of $firstmakefile in your config.sh if in doubt.)
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951
952Configure will offer to do this step for you, so it isn't listed
953explicitly above.
954
955=head1 make
956
957This will attempt to make perl in the current directory.
958
959If you can't compile successfully, try some of the following ideas.
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960If none of them help, and careful reading of the error message and
961the relevant manual pages on your system doesn't help, you can
962send a message to either the comp.lang.perl.misc newsgroup or to
963perlbug@perl.com with an accurate description of your problem.
aa689395 964See L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
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965
966=over 4
967
1ec51d55 968=item hints
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969
970If you used a hint file, try reading the comments in the hint file
971for further tips and information.
972
1ec51d55 973=item extensions
8e07c86e 974
1ec51d55 975If you can successfully build miniperl, but the process crashes
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976during the building of extensions, you should run
977
3a6175e1 978 make minitest
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979
980to test your version of miniperl.
981
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982=item locale
983
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984If you have any locale-related environment variables set, try unsetting
985them. I have some reports that some versions of IRIX hang while
986running B<./miniperl configpm> with locales other than the C locale.
987See the discussion under L<"make test"> below about locales and the
988whole L<"Locale problems"> section in the file pod/perllocale.pod.
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989The latter is especially useful if you see something like this
990
991 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
992 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
993 LC_ALL = "En_US",
994 LANG = (unset)
995 are supported and installed on your system.
996 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
997
998at Perl startup.
e57fd563 999
1ec51d55 1000=item malloc duplicates
c3edaffb 1001
dc45a647
MB
1002If you get duplicates upon linking for malloc et al, add -DEMBEDMYMALLOC
1003to your ccflags variable in config.sh.
c3edaffb 1004
7f678428 1005=item varargs
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1006
1007If you get varargs problems with gcc, be sure that gcc is installed
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1008correctly and that you are not passing -I/usr/include to gcc. When using
1009gcc, you should probably have i_stdarg='define' and i_varargs='undef'
1010in config.sh. The problem is usually solved by running fixincludes
1011correctly. If you do change config.sh, don't forget to propagate
1012your changes (see L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below).
7f678428 1013See also the L<"vsprintf"> item below.
c3edaffb 1014
bfb7748a 1015=item util.c
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1016
1017If you get error messages such as the following (the exact line
bfb7748a 1018numbers and function name may vary in different versions of perl):
c3edaffb 1019
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1020 util.c: In function `Perl_form':
1021 util.c:1107: number of arguments doesn't match prototype
1022 proto.h:125: prototype declaration
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1023
1024it might well be a symptom of the gcc "varargs problem". See the
7f678428 1025previous L<"varargs"> item.
c3edaffb 1026
9d67150a 1027=item Solaris and SunOS dynamic loading
c3edaffb
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1028
1029If you have problems with dynamic loading using gcc on SunOS or
1030Solaris, and you are using GNU as and GNU ld, you may need to add
1ec51d55 1031-B/bin/ (for SunOS) or -B/usr/ccs/bin/ (for Solaris) to your
c3edaffb 1032$ccflags, $ldflags, and $lddlflags so that the system's versions of as
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1033and ld are used. Note that the trailing '/' is required.
1034Alternatively, you can use the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX
c3edaffb 1035environment variable to ensure that Sun's as and ld are used. Consult
1ec51d55 1036your gcc documentation for further information on the -B option and
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1037the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX variable.
1038
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1039One convenient way to ensure you are not using GNU as and ld is to
1040invoke Configure with
1041
1042 sh Configure -Dcc='gcc -B/usr/ccs/bin/'
1043
1044for Solaris systems. For a SunOS system, you must use -B/bin/
1045instead.
1046
84902520
TB
1047Alternatively, recent versions of GNU ld reportedly work if you
1048include C<-Wl,-export-dynamic> in the ccdlflags variable in
1049config.sh.
1050
9d67150a
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1051=item ld.so.1: ./perl: fatal: relocation error:
1052
1053If you get this message on SunOS or Solaris, and you're using gcc,
7f678428
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1054it's probably the GNU as or GNU ld problem in the previous item
1055L<"Solaris and SunOS dynamic loading">.
9d67150a 1056
1ec51d55 1057=item LD_LIBRARY_PATH
c3edaffb
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1058
1059If you run into dynamic loading problems, check your setting of
aa689395
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1060the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable. If you're creating a static
1061Perl library (libperl.a rather than libperl.so) it should build
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1062fine with LD_LIBRARY_PATH unset, though that may depend on details
1063of your local set-up.
1064
1065=item dlopen: stub interception failed
1066
1067The primary cause of the 'dlopen: stub interception failed' message is
1068that the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable includes a directory
1069which is a symlink to /usr/lib (such as /lib).
1070
aa689395 1071The reason this causes a problem is quite subtle. The file libdl.so.1.0
c3edaffb
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1072actually *only* contains functions which generate 'stub interception
1073failed' errors! The runtime linker intercepts links to
1074"/usr/lib/libdl.so.1.0" and links in internal implementation of those
1075functions instead. [Thanks to Tim Bunce for this explanation.]
1076
aa689395 1077=item nm extraction
c3edaffb
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1078
1079If Configure seems to be having trouble finding library functions,
1080try not using nm extraction. You can do this from the command line
1081with
1082
1083 sh Configure -Uusenm
1084
1085or by answering the nm extraction question interactively.
1ec51d55 1086If you have previously run Configure, you should not reuse your old
c3edaffb
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1087config.sh.
1088
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1089=item umask not found
1090
1091If the build processes encounters errors relating to umask(), the problem
1092is probably that Configure couldn't find your umask() system call.
1093Check your config.sh. You should have d_umask='define'. If you don't,
1094this is probably the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above. Also,
1095try reading the hints file for your system for further information.
1096
7f678428 1097=item vsprintf
c3edaffb
PP
1098
1099If you run into problems with vsprintf in compiling util.c, the
1100problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
1101version of vsprintf(). Check whether your system has vprintf().
1102(Virtually all modern Unix systems do.) Then, check the variable
1103d_vprintf in config.sh. If your system has vprintf, it should be:
1104
1105 d_vprintf='define'
1106
1107If Configure guessed wrong, it is likely that Configure guessed wrong
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1108on a number of other common functions too. This is probably
1109the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
c3edaffb 1110
3fe9a6f1
PP
1111=item do_aspawn
1112
1113If you run into problems relating to do_aspawn or do_spawn, the
1114problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
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1115fork() function. Follow the procedure in the previous item
1116on L<"nm extraction">.
3fe9a6f1 1117
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1118=item __inet_* errors
1119
1120If you receive unresolved symbol errors during Perl build and/or test
1121referring to __inet_* symbols, check to see whether BIND 8.1 is
1122installed. It installs a /usr/local/include/arpa/inet.h that refers to
1123these symbols. Versions of BIND later than 8.1 do not install inet.h
1124in that location and avoid the errors. You should probably update to a
1125newer version of BIND. If you can't, you can either link with the
1126updated resolver library provided with BIND 8.1 or rename
1127/usr/local/bin/arpa/inet.h during the Perl build and test process to
1128avoid the problem.
1129
aa689395 1130=item Optimizer
c3edaffb 1131
9d67150a 1132If you can't compile successfully, try turning off your compiler's
aa689395 1133optimizer. Edit config.sh and change the line
9d67150a
PP
1134
1135 optimize='-O'
1136
bfb7748a 1137to
9d67150a
PP
1138
1139 optimize=' '
1140
1141then propagate your changes with B<sh Configure -S> and rebuild
1142with B<make depend; make>.
1143
1ec51d55 1144=item CRIPPLED_CC
9d67150a 1145
1ec51d55 1146If you still can't compile successfully, try adding a -DCRIPPLED_CC
56c6f531
JH
1147flag. (Just because you get no errors doesn't mean it compiled right!)
1148This simplifies some complicated expressions for compilers that get
1149indigestion easily.
9d67150a
PP
1150
1151=item Missing functions
1152
1153If you have missing routines, you probably need to add some library or
1154other, or you need to undefine some feature that Configure thought was
1155there but is defective or incomplete. Look through config.h for
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1156likely suspects. If Configure guessed wrong on a number of functions,
1157you might have the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
8e07c86e 1158
1ec51d55 1159=item toke.c
8e07c86e 1160
1ec51d55
CS
1161Some compilers will not compile or optimize the larger files (such as
1162toke.c) without some extra switches to use larger jump offsets or
1163allocate larger internal tables. You can customize the switches for
1164each file in cflags. It's okay to insert rules for specific files into
1165makefile since a default rule only takes effect in the absence of a
8e07c86e
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1166specific rule.
1167
7f678428 1168=item Missing dbmclose
8e07c86e 1169
c3edaffb
PP
1170SCO prior to 3.2.4 may be missing dbmclose(). An upgrade to 3.2.4
1171that includes libdbm.nfs (which includes dbmclose()) may be available.
8e07c86e 1172
f3d9a6ba 1173=item Note (probably harmless): No library found for -lsomething
7f678428
PP
1174
1175If you see such a message during the building of an extension, but
1176the extension passes its tests anyway (see L<"make test"> below),
1177then don't worry about the warning message. The extension
1178Makefile.PL goes looking for various libraries needed on various
aa689395 1179systems; few systems will need all the possible libraries listed.
7f678428
PP
1180For example, a system may have -lcposix or -lposix, but it's
1181unlikely to have both, so most users will see warnings for the one
f3d9a6ba
CS
1182they don't have. The phrase 'probably harmless' is intended to
1183reassure you that nothing unusual is happening, and the build
1184process is continuing.
7f678428
PP
1185
1186On the other hand, if you are building GDBM_File and you get the
1187message
1188
f3d9a6ba 1189 Note (probably harmless): No library found for -lgdbm
7f678428
PP
1190
1191then it's likely you're going to run into trouble somewhere along
1192the line, since it's hard to see how you can use the GDBM_File
1193extension without the -lgdbm library.
1194
1195It is true that, in principle, Configure could have figured all of
1196this out, but Configure and the extension building process are not
1197quite that tightly coordinated.
1198
aa689395
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1199=item sh: ar: not found
1200
1201This is a message from your shell telling you that the command 'ar'
1202was not found. You need to check your PATH environment variable to
1203make sure that it includes the directory with the 'ar' command. This
1ec51d55 1204is a common problem on Solaris, where 'ar' is in the /usr/ccs/bin
aa689395
PP
1205directory.
1206
1207=item db-recno failure on tests 51, 53 and 55
1208
1209Old versions of the DB library (including the DB library which comes
1210with FreeBSD 2.1) had broken handling of recno databases with modified
1211bval settings. Upgrade your DB library or OS.
1212
6087ac44
JH
1213=item Bad arg length for semctl, is XX, should be ZZZ
1214
1215If you get this error message from the lib/ipc_sysv test, your System
1216V IPC may be broken. The XX typically is 20, and that is what ZZZ
1217also should be. Consider upgrading your OS, or reconfiguring your OS
1218to include the System V semaphores.
1219
220f3621
GS
1220=item lib/ipc_sysv........semget: No space left on device
1221
1222Either your account or the whole system has run out of semaphores. Or
1223both. Either list the semaphores with "ipcs" and remove the unneeded
1224ones (which ones these are depends on your system and applications)
1225with "ipcrm -s SEMAPHORE_ID_HERE" or configure more semaphores to your
1226system.
1227
1ec51d55 1228=item Miscellaneous
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1229
1230Some additional things that have been reported for either perl4 or perl5:
1231
1232Genix may need to use libc rather than libc_s, or #undef VARARGS.
1233
1234NCR Tower 32 (OS 2.01.01) may need -W2,-Sl,2000 and #undef MKDIR.
1235
1ec51d55 1236UTS may need one or more of -DCRIPPLED_CC, -K or -g, and undef LSTAT.
8e07c86e 1237
220f3621
GS
1238FreeBSD can fail the lib/ipc_sysv.t test if SysV IPC has not been
1239configured to the kernel. Perl tries to detect this, though, and
1240you will get a message telling what to do.
6087ac44 1241
8e07c86e
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1242If you get syntax errors on '(', try -DCRIPPLED_CC.
1243
1244Machines with half-implemented dbm routines will need to #undef I_ODBM
1245
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1246=back
1247
1248=head1 make test
1249
84902520
TB
1250This will run the regression tests on the perl you just made (you
1251should run plain 'make' before 'make test' otherwise you won't have a
1252complete build). If 'make test' doesn't say "All tests successful"
1253then something went wrong. See the file t/README in the t subdirectory.
1254
84902520 1255Note that you can't run the tests in background if this disables
fb73857a
PP
1256opening of /dev/tty. You can use 'make test-notty' in that case but
1257a few tty tests will be skipped.
c3edaffb 1258
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1259=head2 What if make test doesn't work?
1260
1ec51d55
CS
1261If make test bombs out, just cd to the t directory and run ./TEST
1262by hand to see if it makes any difference. If individual tests
c3edaffb 1263bomb, you can run them by hand, e.g.,
8e07c86e
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1264
1265 ./perl op/groups.t
1266
aa689395 1267Another way to get more detailed information about failed tests and
1ec51d55 1268individual subtests is to cd to the t directory and run
aa689395
PP
1269
1270 ./perl harness
1271
fb73857a 1272(this assumes that most basic tests succeed, since harness uses
aa689395
PP
1273complicated constructs).
1274
fb73857a 1275You should also read the individual tests to see if there are any helpful
c3edaffb
PP
1276comments that apply to your system.
1277
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1278=over 4
1279
1280=item locale
1281
1ec51d55 1282Note: One possible reason for errors is that some external programs
c07a80fd 1283may be broken due to the combination of your environment and the way
3fe9a6f1 1284B<make test> exercises them. For example, this may happen if you have
1ec51d55
CS
1285one or more of these environment variables set: LC_ALL LC_CTYPE
1286LC_COLLATE LANG. In some versions of UNIX, the non-English locales
e57fd563
PP
1287are known to cause programs to exhibit mysterious errors.
1288
1289If you have any of the above environment variables set, please try
aa689395
PP
1290
1291 setenv LC_ALL C
1292
1293(for C shell) or
1294
1295 LC_ALL=C;export LC_ALL
1296
1ec51d55
CS
1297for Bourne or Korn shell) from the command line and then retry
1298make test. If the tests then succeed, you may have a broken program that
aa689395 1299is confusing the testing. Please run the troublesome test by hand as
e57fd563 1300shown above and see whether you can locate the program. Look for
1ec51d55
CS
1301things like: exec, `backquoted command`, system, open("|...") or
1302open("...|"). All these mean that Perl is trying to run some
e57fd563 1303external program.
eed2e782 1304
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1305=item Out of memory
1306
1307On some systems, particularly those with smaller amounts of RAM, some
1308of the tests in t/op/pat.t may fail with an "Out of memory" message.
1309Specifically, in perl5.004_64, tests 74 and 78 have been reported to
1310fail on some systems. On my SparcStation IPC with 8 MB of RAM, test 78
1311will fail if the system is running any other significant tasks at the
1312same time.
1313
1314Try stopping other jobs on the system and then running the test by itself:
1315
1316 cd t; ./perl op/pat.t
1317
1318to see if you have any better luck. If your perl still fails this
1319test, it does not necessarily mean you have a broken perl. This test
1320tries to exercise the regular expression subsystem quite thoroughly,
1321and may well be far more demanding than your normal usage.
1322
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1323=back
1324
8e07c86e
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1325=head1 make install
1326
1327This will put perl into the public directory you specified to
1ec51d55 1328Configure; by default this is /usr/local/bin. It will also try
8e07c86e 1329to put the man pages in a reasonable place. It will not nroff the man
aa689395 1330pages, however. You may need to be root to run B<make install>. If you
8e07c86e
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1331are not root, you must own the directories in question and you should
1332ignore any messages about chown not working.
1333
dd64f1c3
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1334=head2 Installing perl under different names
1335
1336If you want to install perl under a name other than "perl" (for example,
1337when installing perl with special features enabled, such as debugging),
1338indicate the alternate name on the "make install" line, such as:
1339
1340 make install PERLNAME=myperl
1341
1342=head2 Installed files
1343
8e07c86e
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1344If you want to see exactly what will happen without installing
1345anything, you can run
4633a7c4 1346
8e07c86e
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1347 ./perl installperl -n
1348 ./perl installman -n
1349
1ec51d55 1350make install will install the following:
8e07c86e
AD
1351
1352 perl,
1353 perl5.nnn where nnn is the current release number. This
1354 will be a link to perl.
1355 suidperl,
1356 sperl5.nnn If you requested setuid emulation.
1357 a2p awk-to-perl translator
1358 cppstdin This is used by perl -P, if your cc -E can't
1359 read from stdin.
1360 c2ph, pstruct Scripts for handling C structures in header files.
1361 s2p sed-to-perl translator
1362 find2perl find-to-perl translator
aa689395 1363 h2ph Extract constants and simple macros from C headers
8e07c86e 1364 h2xs Converts C .h header files to Perl extensions.
24b3df7f 1365 perlbug Tool to report bugs in Perl.
8e07c86e 1366 perldoc Tool to read perl's pod documentation.
aa689395 1367 pl2pm Convert Perl 4 .pl files to Perl 5 .pm modules
8e07c86e 1368 pod2html, Converters from perl's pod documentation format
aa689395
PP
1369 pod2latex, to other useful formats.
1370 pod2man, and
1371 pod2text
1372 splain Describe Perl warnings and errors
8e07c86e
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1373
1374 library files in $privlib and $archlib specified to
1375 Configure, usually under /usr/local/lib/perl5/.
1376 man pages in the location specified to Configure, usually
1377 something like /usr/local/man/man1.
1378 module in the location specified to Configure, usually
1379 man pages under /usr/local/lib/perl5/man/man3.
1380 pod/*.pod in $privlib/pod/.
1381
4633a7c4
LW
1382Installperl will also create the library directories $siteperl and
1383$sitearch listed in config.sh. Usually, these are something like
bfb7748a 1384
3a6175e1 1385 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
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1386 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/archname
1387
1388where archname is something like sun4-sunos. These directories
4633a7c4
LW
1389will be used for installing extensions.
1390
56c6f531
JH
1391Perl's *.h header files and the libperl.a library are also installed
1392under $archlib so that any user may later build new extensions, run the
1393optional Perl compiler, or embed the perl interpreter into another
1394program even if the Perl source is no longer available.
8e07c86e 1395
aa689395 1396=head1 Coexistence with earlier versions of perl5
4633a7c4 1397
693762b4
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1398WARNING: The upgrade from 5.004_0x to 5.005 is going to be a bit
1399tricky. See L<"Upgrading from 5.004 to 5.005"> below.
1400
1401In general, you can usually safely upgrade from one version of Perl (e.g.
14025.004_04) to another similar version (e.g. 5.004_05) without re-compiling
1403all of your add-on extensions. You can also safely leave the old version
1404around in case the new version causes you problems for some reason.
1405For example, if you want to be sure that your script continues to run
dc45a647 1406with 5.004_04, simply replace the '#!/usr/local/bin/perl' line at the
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1407top of the script with the particular version you want to run, e.g.
1408#!/usr/local/bin/perl5.00404.
1409
693762b4
AD
1410Most extensions will probably not need to be recompiled to use
1411with a newer version of perl. Here is how it is supposed to work.
1412(These examples assume you accept all the Configure defaults.)
1413
bfb7748a
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1414The directories searched by version 5.005 will be
1415
1416 Configure variable Default value
1417 $archlib /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.005/archname
3a6175e1 1418 $privlib /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.005
bfb7748a 1419 $sitearch /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/archname
3a6175e1 1420 $sitelib /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
bfb7748a
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1421
1422while the directories searched by version 5.005_01 will be
1423
1424 $archlib /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.00501/archname
3a6175e1 1425 $privlib /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.00501
bfb7748a 1426 $sitearch /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/archname
3a6175e1 1427 $sitelib /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
bfb7748a
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1428
1429When you install an add-on extension, it gets installed into $sitelib (or
1430$sitearch if it is architecture-specific). This directory deliberately
1431does NOT include the sub-version number (01) so that both 5.005 and
14325.005_01 can use the extension. Only when a perl version changes to
1433break backwards compatibility will the default suggestions for the
1434$sitearch and $sitelib version numbers be increased.
1435
1436However, if you do run into problems, and you want to continue to use the
1437old version of perl along with your extension, move those extension files
1438to the appropriate version directory, such as $privlib (or $archlib).
1439(The extension's .packlist file lists the files installed with that
1440extension. For the Tk extension, for example, the list of files installed
1441is in $sitearch/auto/Tk/.packlist.) Then use your newer version of perl
1442to rebuild and re-install the extension into $sitelib. This way, Perl
14435.005 will find your files in the 5.005 directory, and newer versions
1444of perl will find your newer extension in the $sitelib directory.
1445(This is also why perl searches the site-specific libraries last.)
1446
1447Alternatively, if you are willing to reinstall all your extensions
1448every time you upgrade perl, then you can include the subversion
1449number in $sitearch and $sitelib when you run Configure.
693762b4
AD
1450
1451=head2 Maintaining completely separate versions
4633a7c4 1452
1ec51d55 1453Many users prefer to keep all versions of perl in completely
d52d4e46
PP
1454separate directories. One convenient way to do this is by
1455using a separate prefix for each version, such as
1456
46bb10fb 1457 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl5.004
d52d4e46 1458
46bb10fb 1459and adding /opt/perl5.004/bin to the shell PATH variable. Such users
d52d4e46
PP
1460may also wish to add a symbolic link /usr/local/bin/perl so that
1461scripts can still start with #!/usr/local/bin/perl.
1462
693762b4
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1463Others might share a common directory for maintenance sub-versions
1464(e.g. 5.004 for all 5.004_0x versions), but change directory with
1465each major version.
1466
6877a1cf
AD
1467If you are installing a development subversion, you probably ought to
1468seriously consider using a separate directory, since development
1469subversions may not have all the compatibility wrinkles ironed out
1470yet.
1471
693762b4
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1472=head2 Upgrading from 5.004 to 5.005
1473
bfb7748a
AD
1474Extensions built and installed with versions of perl prior to 5.004_50
1475will need to be recompiled to be used with 5.004_50 and later. You will,
1476however, be able to continue using 5.004 even after you install 5.005.
1477The 5.004 binary will still be able to find the extensions built under
14785.004; the 5.005 binary will look in the new $sitearch and $sitelib
1479directories, and will not find them.
693762b4 1480
8e07c86e
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1481=head1 Coexistence with perl4
1482
1483You can safely install perl5 even if you want to keep perl4 around.
1484
1ec51d55
CS
1485By default, the perl5 libraries go into /usr/local/lib/perl5/, so
1486they don't override the perl4 libraries in /usr/local/lib/perl/.
8e07c86e
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1487
1488In your /usr/local/bin directory, you should have a binary named
1ec51d55 1489perl4.036. That will not be touched by the perl5 installation
8e07c86e
AD
1490process. Most perl4 scripts should run just fine under perl5.
1491However, if you have any scripts that require perl4, you can replace
1ec51d55 1492the #! line at the top of them by #!/usr/local/bin/perl4.036
edb1cbcb
PP
1493(or whatever the appropriate pathname is). See pod/perltrap.pod
1494for possible problems running perl4 scripts under perl5.
8e07c86e 1495
aa689395
PP
1496=head1 cd /usr/include; h2ph *.h sys/*.h
1497
1498Some perl scripts need to be able to obtain information from
1499the system header files. This command will convert the most commonly used
1ec51d55 1500header files in /usr/include into files that can be easily interpreted
bfb7748a
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1501by perl. These files will be placed in the architecture-dependent library
1502($archlib) directory you specified to Configure.
aa689395 1503
1ec51d55 1504Note: Due to differences in the C and perl languages, the
aa689395
PP
1505conversion of the header files is not perfect. You will probably have
1506to hand-edit some of the converted files to get them to parse
1507correctly. For example, h2ph breaks spectacularly on type casting and
1508certain structures.
1509
fb73857a 1510=head1 installhtml --help
aa689395 1511
3e3baf6d
TB
1512Some sites may wish to make perl documentation available in HTML
1513format. The installhtml utility can be used to convert pod
fb73857a 1514documentation into linked HTML files and install them.
aa689395 1515
fb73857a 1516The following command-line is an example of one used to convert
3e3baf6d 1517perl documentation:
aa689395 1518
3e3baf6d
TB
1519 ./installhtml \
1520 --podroot=. \
1521 --podpath=lib:ext:pod:vms \
1522 --recurse \
1523 --htmldir=/perl/nmanual \
1524 --htmlroot=/perl/nmanual \
1525 --splithead=pod/perlipc \
1526 --splititem=pod/perlfunc \
1527 --libpods=perlfunc:perlguts:perlvar:perlrun:perlop \
1528 --verbose
1529
1530See the documentation in installhtml for more details. It can take
1531many minutes to execute a large installation and you should expect to
1532see warnings like "no title", "unexpected directive" and "cannot
1533resolve" as the files are processed. We are aware of these problems
1534(and would welcome patches for them).
aa689395 1535
fb73857a
PP
1536You may find it helpful to run installhtml twice. That should reduce
1537the number of "cannot resolve" warnings.
1538
aa689395
PP
1539=head1 cd pod && make tex && (process the latex files)
1540
1541Some sites may also wish to make the documentation in the pod/ directory
1542available in TeX format. Type
1543
1544 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
1545
1546=head1 Reporting Problems
1547
bfb7748a
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1548If you have difficulty building perl, and none of the advice in this file
1549helps, and careful reading of the error message and the relevant manual
1550pages on your system doesn't help either, then you should send a message
1551to either the comp.lang.perl.misc newsgroup or to perlbug@perl.com with
1552an accurate description of your problem.
aa689395 1553
bfb7748a
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1554Please include the output of the ./myconfig shell script that comes with
1555the distribution. Alternatively, you can use the perlbug program that
1556comes with the perl distribution, but you need to have perl compiled
1557before you can use it. (If you have not installed it yet, you need to
f5b3b617 1558run C<./perl -Ilib utils/perlbug> instead of a plain C<perlbug>.)
aa689395 1559
bfb7748a
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1560You might also find helpful information in the Porting directory of the
1561perl distribution.
aa689395 1562
8e07c86e
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1563=head1 DOCUMENTATION
1564
bfb7748a
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1565Read the manual entries before running perl. The main documentation
1566is in the pod/ subdirectory and should have been installed during the
8e07c86e 1567build process. Type B<man perl> to get started. Alternatively, you
bfb7748a
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1568can type B<perldoc perl> to use the supplied perldoc script. This is
1569sometimes useful for finding things in the library modules.
8e07c86e 1570
1ec51d55 1571Under UNIX, you can produce a documentation book in postscript form,
bfb7748a
AD
1572along with its table of contents, by going to the pod/ subdirectory and
1573running (either):
34a2a22e
RM
1574
1575 ./roffitall -groff # If you have GNU groff installed
aa689395 1576 ./roffitall -psroff # If you have psroff
34a2a22e
RM
1577
1578This will leave you with two postscript files ready to be printed.
aa689395
PP
1579(You may need to fix the roffitall command to use your local troff
1580set-up.)
34a2a22e 1581
bfb7748a
AD
1582Note that you must have performed the installation already before running
1583the above, since the script collects the installed files to generate
1584the documentation.
34a2a22e 1585
8e07c86e
AD
1586=head1 AUTHOR
1587
bfb7748a
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1588Original author: Andy Dougherty doughera@lafayette.edu , borrowing very
1589heavily from the original README by Larry Wall, with lots of helpful
1590feedback and additions from the perl5-porters@perl.org folks.
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1592If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
1593L<"Reporting Problems"> above.
1594
1595=head1 REDISTRIBUTION
1596
1597This document is part of the Perl package and may be distributed under
1598the same terms as perl itself.
1599
1600If you are distributing a modified version of perl (perhaps as part of
1601a larger package) please do modify these installation instructions and
1602the contact information to match your distribution.
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a5f75d66 1604=head1 LAST MODIFIED
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56cb0a1c 1606$Id: INSTALL,v 1.42 1998/07/15 18:04:44 doughera Released $