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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
2see. It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
3specially designed to be readable as is.
5aabfad6 4
8736538c 5=head1 NAME
5aabfad6 6
f8dbba82 7README.cygwin - Perl for Cygwin
5aabfad6 8
8736538c 9=head1 SYNOPSIS
5aabfad6 10
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11This document will help you configure, make, test and install Perl
12on Cygwin. This document also describes features of Cygwin that will
13affect how Perl behaves at runtime.
5aabfad6 14
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15B<NOTE:> There are pre-built Perl packages available for Cygwin and a
16version of Perl is provided on the Cygwin CD. If you have no need to
17customize the configuration, consider using one of these packages:
5aabfad6 18
f8dbba82 19 http://cygutils.netpedia.net/
5aabfad6 20
f8dbba82 21=head1 PREREQUISITES
8736538c 22
f8dbba82 23=head2 Cygwin = GNU+Cygnus+Windows (Don't leave UNIX without it)
8736538c 24
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25The Cygwin tools are ports of the popular GNU development tools for Win32
26platforms. They run thanks to the Cygwin library which provides the UNIX
27system calls and environment these programs expect. More information
28about this project can be found at:
8736538c 29
f8dbba82 30 http://sourceware.cygnus.com/cygwin/
1cab015a 31
f8dbba82 32A recent net or commercial release of Cygwin is required.
8736538c 33
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34At the time this document was written, the port required recent
35development snapshots that were expected to stabilize early in 2000 and
36be released to the net as B21 and commercially as v1.1.
8736538c 37
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38B<NOTE:> At this point, minimal effort has been made to provide
39compatibility with old (beta) Cygwin releases. The focus has been to
40provide a high quality release and not worry about working around old
41Cygwin bugs. If you wish to use Perl with Cygwin B20.1 or earlier,
42consider using either perl5.005_03 or perl5.005_62, which are available
43in source and binary form at C<http://cygutils.netpedia.net/> or on the
44Cygwin CD. If there is significant demand, a patch kit can be developed
45to port back to earlier Cygwin versions.
8736538c 46
f8dbba82 47=head2 Compiler
1cab015a 48
f8dbba82 49A recent net or commercial release of I<gcc> is required.
1cab015a 50
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51At the time this document was written, I<gcc-2.95.2> was current and
52could be downloaded from:
1cab015a 53
f8dbba82 54 ftp://ftp.xraylith.wisc.edu/pub/khan/gnu-win32/cygwin/gcc-2.95.2/
1cab015a 55
f8dbba82 56=head2 Cygwin Configuration
1cab015a 57
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58While building Perl some changes may be necessary to your Cygwin setup so
59that Perl builds cleanly. These changes are B<not> required for normal
60Perl usage.
1cab015a 61
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62B<NOTE:> The binaries that are built will run on all Win32 versions.
63They do not depend on your host system (Win9x, WinNT) or your Cygwin
64configuration (I<ntea>, I<ntsec>, binary/text mounts). The only
65dependencies come from hardcoded pathnames like C</usr/local>. However,
66your host system and Cygwin configuration will affect Perl's runtime
67behavior (see L</"TEST">). Some regression tests may fail in different
68ways depending on your setup. For now, the test suite does not skip
69tests that do not make sense given a particular setup. If a test can
70pass in some Cygwin setup, it is left in and explainable test failures
71are documented.
1cab015a 72
f8dbba82 73=over 4
1cab015a 74
f8dbba82 75=item * C<PATH>
1cab015a 76
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77Set the C<PATH> environment variable so that Configure finds the Cygwin
78versions of programs. Any Windows directories should be removed or
79moved to the end of your C<PATH>.
1cab015a 80
f8dbba82 81=item * F</bin/cat.exe>
1cab015a 82
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83There should be an instance of I<cat> in F</bin> (or F</usr/bin>).
84Configure tests C<#!/bin/cat> and if it is not found, you will see
85the error:
1cab015a 86
f8dbba82 87 Configure: ./try: No such file or directory
1cab015a 88
f8dbba82 89=item * F</usr/bin>
1cab015a 90
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91If you do not have a F</usr/bin> directory, Configure will B<not> prompt
92you to install I<perl> into F</usr/bin>.
1cab015a 93
f8dbba82 94=item * I<nroff>
1cab015a 95
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96If you do not have I<nroff> (which is part of the I<groff> package),
97Configure will B<not> prompt you to install man pages.
98
99=item * Permissions
100
101On WinNT with either the I<ntea> or I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> settings, directory
102and file permissions may not be set correctly. Since the build process
103creates files and directories, to be safe you may want to run a `C<chmod
104-R +w *>' on the entire Perl source tree.
105
106Also, it is a well known WinNT "feature" that files created by a login
107that is a member of the I<Administrators> group will be owned by the
108I<Administrators> group. Depending on your umask, you may find that you
109can not write to files that you just created (because you are no longer
110the owner). When using the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, this is not an
111issue because it "corrects" the ownership to what you would expect on
112a UNIX system.
1cab015a 113
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114=back
115
f8dbba82 116=head1 CONFIGURE
8736538c 117
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118The default options gathered by Configure with the assistance of
119F<hints/cygwin.sh> will build a Perl that supports dynamic loading
120(which requires a shared F<libperl.dll>).
f89d6eaa 121
f8dbba82 122This will run Configure and keep a record:
8736538c 123
f8dbba82 124 ./Configure 2>&1 | tee log.configure
8736538c 125
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126If you are willing to accept all the defaults add a B<-d> option.
127However, several useful customizations are available.
5aabfad6 128
f8dbba82 129=head2 Strip Binaries
5aabfad6 130
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131It is possible to strip the EXEs and DLLs created by the build process.
132The resulting binaries will be significantly smaller. If you want the
133binaries to be stripped, you can either add a B<-s> option when Configure
134prompts you,
8736538c 135
f8dbba82 136 Any additional ld flags (NOT including libraries)? [none] -s
5db16f6a 137 Any special flags to pass to gcc to use dynamic linking? [none] -s
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138 Any special flags to pass to ld2 to create a dynamically loaded library?
139 [none] -s
8736538c 140
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141or you can edit F<hints/cygwin.sh> and uncomment the relevant variables
142near the end of the file.
8736538c 143
f8dbba82 144=head2 Optional Libraries
8736538c 145
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146Several Perl functions and modules depend on the existence of
147some optional libraries. Configure will find them if they are
148installed in one of the directories listed as being used for library
149searches. Pre-built packages for most of these are available at
150C<http://cygutils.netpedia.net/>.
8736538c 151
f8dbba82 152=over 4
8736538c 153
f8dbba82 154=item * C<-lcrypt>
8736538c 155
f8dbba82 156The crypt libraries in GNU libc have been ported to Cygwin.
1cab015a 157
5db16f6a 158The DES based Ultra Fast Crypt port was done by Alexey Truhan:
1cab015a 159
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160 http://dome.weeg.uiowa.edu/pub/domestic/sos/cw32crypt-dist-0.tgz
161
162NOTE: There are various export restrictions on DES implementations,
163see the glibc README for more details.
1cab015a 164
f8dbba82 165The MD5 port was done by Andy Piper:
1cab015a 166
f8dbba82 167 http://dome.weeg.uiowa.edu/pub/domestic/sos/libcrypt.tgz
1cab015a 168
f8dbba82 169More information can also be found at:
1cab015a 170
f8dbba82 171 http://miracle.geol.msu.ru/sos/
1cab015a 172
f8dbba82 173=item * C<-lgdbm> (C<use GDBM_File>)
1cab015a 174
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175GDBM is available for Cygwin. GDBM's ndbm/dbm compatibility feature
176also makes C<NDBM_File> and C<ODBM_File> possible (although they add
177little extra value).
1cab015a 178
f8dbba82 179=item * C<-ldb> (C<use DB_File>)
1cab015a 180
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181BerkeleyDB is available for Cygwin. Some details can be found in
182F<ext/DB_File/DB_File.pm>.
1cab015a 183
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184=item * C<-lcygipc> (C<use IPC::SysV>)
185
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186A port of SysV IPC is available for Cygwin. It has not been extensively
187tested. In particular, C<d_semctl_semun> does not configure properly
188because the configure test fails and on Win9x the shm*() functions hang.
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189
190=back
191
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192=head2 Configure-time Options
193
194The F<INSTALL> document describes several Configure-time options.
195Some of these will work with Cygwin, others are not yet possible. Also,
196some of these are experimental.
197
198=over 4
199
200=item * C<-Uusedl>
201
202If you want to force Perl to be compiled statically, you can either
203choose this when Configure prompts you or you can use the Configure
204command line option.
205
206=item * C<-Uusemymalloc>
1cab015a 207
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208By default Perl uses the malloc() included with the Perl source. If you
209want to force Perl to build with the system malloc(), you can either
210choose this when Configure prompts you or you can use the Configure
211command line option.
1cab015a 212
f8dbba82 213=item * C<-Dusemultiplicty>
1cab015a 214
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215Multiplicity is required when embedding Perl in a C program and using
216more than one interpreter instance. This works with the Cygwin port.
1cab015a 217
f8dbba82 218=item * C<-Duseperlio>
1cab015a 219
f8dbba82 220The PerlIO abstraction works with the Cygwin port.
1cab015a 221
5db16f6a 222=item * C<-Duse64bits>
1cab015a 223
f8dbba82 224I<gcc> supports 64-bit integers. However, several additional long long
5db16f6a 225functions are necessary to use them within Perl (I<{strtol,strtoul}l>).
f8dbba82 226These are B<not> yet available with Cygwin.
1cab015a 227
f8dbba82 228=item * C<-Duselongdouble>
1cab015a 229
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230I<gcc> supports long doubles (12 bytes). However, several additional
231long double math functions are necessary to use them within Perl
5db16f6a 232(I<{atan2,cos,exp,floor,fmod,frexp,log,modf,pow,sin,sqrt}l,strtold>).
f8dbba82 233These are B<not> yet available with Cygwin.
1cab015a 234
f8dbba82 235=item * C<-Dusethreads>
1cab015a 236
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237POSIX threads are B<not> yet implemented in Cygwin.
238
239=item * C<-Duselargefiles>
240
241Although Win32 supports large files, Cygwin currently uses 32-bit ints
5db16f6a 242for internal size and position calculations.
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243
244=back
245
f8dbba82 246=head2 Suspicious Warnings
1cab015a 247
f8dbba82 248You may see some messages during Configure that seem suspicious.
8736538c 249
f8dbba82 250=over 4
8736538c 251
f8dbba82 252=item * Whoa There
8736538c 253
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254Cygwin does not yet implement chroot(), setegid() or seteuid()
255functionality, but has stub functions that return C<ENOSYS>. You will
256see a message when Configure detects that its guess conflicts with the
257hint file.
8736538c 258
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259 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
260 The recommended value for $d_chroot on this machine was "undef"!
261 Keep the recommended value? [y]
8736538c 262
f8dbba82 263You should keep the recommended value.
8736538c 264
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265=item * Win9x and d_eofnblk
266
267Win9x does not correctly report C<EOF> with a non-blocking read on a
268closed pipe. You will see the following messages:
269
270 But it also returns -1 to signal EOF, so be careful!
271 WARNING: you can't distinguish between EOF and no data!
272
273 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
274 The recommended value for $d_eofnblk on this machine was "define"!
275 Keep the recommended value? [y]
276
277At least for consistency with WinNT, you should keep the recommended
278value.
279
f8dbba82 280=item * Checking how std your stdio is...
5aabfad6 281
f8dbba82 282Configure reports:
5aabfad6 283
f8dbba82 284 Your stdio doesn't appear very std.
5aabfad6 285
f8dbba82 286This is correct.
5aabfad6 287
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288=back
289
f8dbba82 290=head1 MAKE
5aabfad6 291
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292Simply run make and wait:
293
294 make 2>&1 | tee log.make
295
296=head2 Warnings
297
298Warnings like these are normal:
299
300 warning: overriding commands for target <file>
301 warning: ignoring old commands for target <file>
302
303 Warning: no export definition file provided
304 dllwrap will create one, but may not be what you want
305
306=head2 ld2
307
308During `C<make>', I<ld2> will be created and installed in your $installbin
309directory (where you said to put public executables). It does not
310wait until the `C<make install>' process to install the I<ld2> script,
311this is because the remainder of the `C<make>' refers to I<ld2> without
312fully specifying its path and does this from multiple subdirectories.
313The assumption is that $installbin is in your current C<PATH>. If this
314is not the case or if you do not have an I<install> program, `C<make>'
315will fail at some point. If this happens, just manually copy I<ld2>
316from the source directory to someplace in your C<PATH>.
317
318=head1 TEST
319
320There are two steps to running the test suite:
321
322 make test 2>&1 | tee log.make-test
323
324 cd t;./perl harness 2>&1 | tee ../log.harness
325
326The same tests are run both times, but more information is provided when
327running as `C<./perl harness>'.
5aabfad6 328
f8dbba82 329Test results vary depending on your host system and your Cygwin
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330configuration. It is possible that Cygwin will pass all the tests,
331but it is more likely that some tests will fail for one of these reasons.
1cab015a 332
f8dbba82 333=head2 File Permissions
1cab015a 334
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335UNIX file permissions are based on sets of mode bits for
336{read,write,execute} for each {user,group,other}. By default Cygwin only
337tracks the Win32 readonly attribute represented as the UNIX file user
338write bit (files are always readable, files are executable if they have
339a F<.{com,bat,exe}> extension or begin with C<#!>, directories are always
340readable and executable). On WinNT with the I<ntea> C<CYGWIN> setting,
341the remaining mode bits are stored as extended attributes. On WinNT
342with the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, permissions use the standard WinNT
343security descriptors and access control lists. Without one of these
344options, these tests will fail:
1cab015a 345
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346 Failed Test List of failed
347 ------------------------------------
348 io/fs.t 5, 7, 9-10
349 lib/anydbm.t 2
350 lib/db-btree.t 20
351 lib/db-hash.t 16
352 lib/db-recno.t 18
353 lib/gdbm.t 2
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354 lib/ndbm.t 2
355 lib/odbm.t 2
356 lib/sdbm.t 2
357 op/stat.t 9, 20 (.tmp not an executable extension)
1cab015a 358
f8dbba82 359=head2 Hard Links
1cab015a 360
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361FAT partitions do not support hard links (whereas NTFS does), in which
362case Cygwin implements link() by copying the file. These tests will fail:
1cab015a 363
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364 Failed Test List of failed
365 ------------------------------------
366 io/fs.t 4
367 op/stat.t 3
1cab015a 368
f8dbba82 369=head2 Filetime Granularity
1cab015a 370
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371On FAT partitions the filetime granularity is 2 seconds. The following
372test will fail:
1cab015a 373
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374 Failed Test List of failed
375 ------------------------------------
376 io/fs.t 18
1cab015a 377
f8dbba82 378=head2 Tainting Checks
1cab015a 379
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380When Perl is running in taint mode, C<$ENV{PATH}> is considered tainted
381and not used, so DLLs not in the default system directories will not
382be found. While the tests are running you will see warnings popup from
383the system with messages like:
1cab015a 384
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385 Win9x
386 Error Starting Program
387 A required .DLL file, CYGWIN1.DLL, was not found
1cab015a 388
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389 WinNT
390 perl.exe or sh.exe - Unable to Locate DLL
391 The dynamic link library cygwin1.dll could not be found in the
392 specified path ...
1cab015a 393
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394Just click OK and ignore them. When running `C<make test>', 2 popups
395occur. During `C<./perl harness>', 4 popups occur. Also, these tests
396will fail:
1cab015a 397
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398 Failed Test List of failed
399 ------------------------------------
400 op/taint.t 1, 3, 31, 37
1cab015a 401
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402Alternatively, you can copy F<cygwin1.dll> into one of the Windows system
403directories (although, this is B<not> recommended).
1cab015a 404
f8dbba82 405=head2 /etc/group
5aabfad6 406
5db16f6a 407Cygwin does not require F</etc/group>, in which case the F<op/grent.t>
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408test will be skipped. The check performed by F<op/grent.t> expects to
409see entries that use the members field, otherwise this test will fail:
f89d6eaa 410
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411 Failed Test List of failed
412 ------------------------------------
413 op/grent.t 1
1cab015a 414
f8dbba82 415=head2 Unexplained Failures
1cab015a 416
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417Any additional tests that fail are likely due to bugs in Cygwin or the
418optional libraries. It is expected that by the time of the next net
419release most of these will be solved so they are not described here.
1cab015a 420
f8dbba82 421=head2 Script Portability
1cab015a 422
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423Cygwin does an outstanding job of providing UNIX-like semantics on
424top of Win32 systems. However, in addition to the items noted above,
425there are some differences that you should know about. This is only a
426very brief guide to portability, more information can be found in the
427Cygwin documentation.
1cab015a 428
f8dbba82 429=over 4
1cab015a 430
f8dbba82 431=item * Pathnames
1cab015a 432
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433Cygwin pathnames can be separated by forward (F</>) or backward (F<\>)
434slashes. They may also begin with drive letters (F<C:>) or Universal
435Naming Codes (F<//UNC>). DOS device names (F<aux>, F<con>, F<prn>,
436F<com*>, F<lpt?>) are invalid as base filenames. However, they can be
437used in extensions (e.g., F<hello.aux>). Names may not contain these
438characters:
1cab015a 439
f8dbba82 440 : * ? " < > |
1cab015a 441
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442File names are case insensitive, but case preserving. With the I<mixed>
443C<CYGWIN> setting, file names are mixed-case (although, directory names
444remain case insensitive).
1cab015a 445
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446The I<mixed> setting is only available with the "coolview" version of
447F<cygwin1.dll> provided by Sergey Okhapkin at:
448
449 ftp://ftp.franken.de/pub/win32/develop/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Okhapkin_Sergey/
450
451=item * Text/Binary
452
453When a file is opened it is in either text or binary mode. In text mode
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454a file is subject to CR/LF/Ctrl-Z translations. With Cygwin, the default
455mode for an open() is determined by the mode of the mount that underlies
456the file. Perl provides a binmode() function to set binary mode on files
457that otherwise would be treated as text. sysopen() with the C<O_TEXT>
458flag sets text mode on files that otherwise would be treated as binary:
459
460 sysopen(FOO, "bar", O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_TEXT)
f8dbba82 461
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462lseek(), tell() and sysseek() only work with files opened in binary mode.
463
464The text/binary issue is covered at length in the Cygwin documentation.
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465
466=item * F<.exe>
467
468The Cygwin stat() makes the F<.exe> extension transparent by looking for
469a F<foo.exe> when you ask for F<foo> (unless a F<foo> also exists).
470Cygwin does not require a F<.exe> extension, but I<gcc> adds it
471automatically when building a program. However, when accessing an
472executable as a normal file (e.g., I<install> or I<cp> in a makefile)
473the F<.exe> is not transparent.
474
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475NOTE: There is a version of I<install> that understands the F<.exe>
476semantics, it can be found at:
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477
478 ftp://ftp.franken.de/pub/win32/develop/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Humblet_Pierre_A/
479
480=item * chown()
481
482On WinNT with the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, chown() can change a file's
483user and group IDs. In all other configurations chown() is a no-op,
484although this is appropriate on Win9x since there is no security model.
485
486=item * Miscellaneous
487
488File locking using the C<F_GETLK> command to fcntl() is a stub that
489returns C<ENOSYS>.
490
f8dbba82 491Win9x can not rename() an open file (although WinNT can).
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492
493=back
494
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495=head1 INSTALL
496
497This will install Perl, including man pages.
498
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499 make install | tee log.make-install
500
501NOTE: If C<STDERR> is redirected `C<make install>' will B<not> prompt
502you to install I<perl> into F</usr/bin>.
1cab015a 503
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504You may need to be I<Administrator> to run `C<make install>'. If you
505are not, you must have write access to the directories in question.
1cab015a 506
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507Information on installing the Perl documentation in HTML format can be
508found in the F<INSTALL> document.
1cab015a 509
f8dbba82 510=head1 MANIFEST
1cab015a 511
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512These are the files in the Perl release that contain references to Cygwin.
513These very brief notes attempt to explain the reason for all conditional
514code. Hopefully, keeping this up to date will allow the Cygwin port to
515be kept as clean as possible.
1cab015a 516
f8dbba82 517=over 4
1cab015a 518
f8dbba82 519=item Documentation
1cab015a 520
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521 INSTALL
522 Changes Changes5.005 Changes5.004
523 AUTHORS MAINTAIN MANIFEST
524 README.cygwin README.win32
525 pod/perl.pod pod/perlfaq3.pod pod/perlhist.pod pod/perlmodlib.pod
526 pod/perlport.pod pod/perltoc.pod pod/perl5004delta.pod
1cab015a 527
f8dbba82 528=item Build, Configure, Make, Install
1cab015a 529
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530 cygwin/Makefile.SHs
531 cygwin/ld2.in
532 cygwin/perlld.in
533 ext/IPC/SysV/hints/cygwin.pl
534 ext/NDBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
535 ext/ODBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
536 hints/cygwin.sh
537 Porting/patchls - cygwin in port list
5db16f6a 538 Makefile.SH - linklibperl
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539 makedepend.SH - uwinfix
540 Configure - help finding hints from uname,
541 shared libperl required for dynamic loading
542 installman - man pages with :: translated to .
5db16f6a 543 installperl - install dll/ld2/perlld, install to pods
1cab015a 544
f8dbba82 545=item Tests
1cab015a 546
f8dbba82 547 t/io/tell.t - binmode
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548 t/lib/glob-basic.t - Win32 directory list access differs from read mode
549 t/op/magic.t - $^X/symlink WORKAROUND, s/.exe//
550 t/op/stat.t - no /dev, skip Win32 ftCreationTime quirk
551 (cache manager sometimes preserves ctime of file
552 previously created and deleted), no -u (setuid)
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553
554=item Compiled Perl Source
555
5db16f6a 556 cygwin/cygwin.c - os_extras (getcwd)
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557 doio.c - win9x can not rename a file when it is open
558 EXTERN.h - __declspec(dllimport)
559 XSUB.h - __declspec(dllexport)
560 perl.h - binmode
561 mg.c - environ WORKAROUND
562 util.c - environ WORKAROUND
563 unixish.h - environ WORKAROUND
564
565=item Compiled Module Source
566
567 ext/POSIX/POSIX.xs - tzname defined externally
568 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/pair.c
569 - EXTCONST needs to be redefined from EXTERN.h
570 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/sdbm.c
571 - binary open
572
573=item Perl Modules/Scripts
574
575 lib/perl5db.pl - use stdin not /dev/tty
576 utils/perlcc.PL - DynaLoader.a in compile, -DUSEIMPORTLIB
577 utils/perldoc.PL - version comment
578 lib/File/Spec/Unix.pm - preserve //unc
579 lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm
580 - require MM_Cygwin.pm
581 lib/ExtUtils/MM_Cygwin.pm
582 - canonpath, cflags, manifypods, perl_archive
583 lib/Cwd.pm - `pwd`
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584
585=back
f89d6eaa 586
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587=head1 BUGS
588
589Upon each start, I<make> warns that a rule for F<perlmain.o> is overridden
590(but there seems to be no better solution than adding an explicit define).
591
592`C<make clean>' does not remove library F<.def> and F<.exe.stackdump>
593files.
594
595The I<ld2> script contains references to the source directory. You should
596change these to C</usr/local/bin> (or whatever) after install.
597
598=head1 AUTHORS
599
600Charles Wilson E<lt>cwilson@ece.gatech.eduE<gt>,
601Eric Fifer E<lt>efifer@sanwaint.comE<gt>,
602alexander smishlajev E<lt>als@turnhere.comE<gt>,
603Steven Morlock E<lt>newspost@morlock.netE<gt>,
604Sebastien Barre E<lt>Sebastien.Barre@utc.frE<gt>,
605Teun Burgers E<lt>burgers@ecn.nlE<gt>.
606
607=head1 HISTORY
608
5db16f6a 609Last updated: 24 February 2000