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1=encoding utf8
2
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3=head1 NAME
4
5perlebcdic - Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms
6
7=head1 DESCRIPTION
8
9An exploration of some of the issues facing Perl programmers
eaf8b9b9 10on EBCDIC based computers. We do not cover localization,
8a50e6a3 11internationalization, or multi-byte character set issues other
395f5a0c 12than some discussion of UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC.
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13
14Portions that are still incomplete are marked with XXX.
15
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16Perl used to work on EBCDIC machines, but there are now areas of the code where
17it doesn't. If you want to use Perl on an EBCDIC machine, please let us know
18by sending mail to perlbug@perl.org
19
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20=head1 COMMON CHARACTER CODE SETS
21
22=head2 ASCII
23
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24The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII or US-ASCII) is a
25set of
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26integers running from 0 to 127 (decimal) that imply character
27interpretation by the display and other systems of computers.
28The range 0..127 can be covered by setting the bits in a 7-bit binary
29digit, hence the set is sometimes referred to as "7-bit ASCII".
30ASCII was described by the American National Standards Institute
31document ANSI X3.4-1986. It was also described by ISO 646:1991
32(with localization for currency symbols). The full ASCII set is
33given in the table below as the first 128 elements. Languages that
34can be written adequately with the characters in ASCII include
35English, Hawaiian, Indonesian, Swahili and some Native American
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36languages.
37
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38There are many character sets that extend the range of integers
39from 0..2**7-1 up to 2**8-1, or 8 bit bytes (octets if you prefer).
40One common one is the ISO 8859-1 character set.
41
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42=head2 ISO 8859
43
eaf8b9b9 44The ISO 8859-$n are a collection of character code sets from the
5d9fe53c 45International Organization for Standardization (ISO), each of which
eaf8b9b9 46adds characters to the ASCII set that are typically found in European
5d9fe53c 47languages, many of which are based on the Roman, or Latin, alphabet.
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48
49=head2 Latin 1 (ISO 8859-1)
50
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51A particular 8-bit extension to ASCII that includes grave and acute
52accented Latin characters. Languages that can employ ISO 8859-1
53include all the languages covered by ASCII as well as Afrikaans,
54Albanian, Basque, Catalan, Danish, Faroese, Finnish, Norwegian,
55Portuguese, Spanish, and Swedish. Dutch is covered albeit without
56the ij ligature. French is covered too but without the oe ligature.
d396a558 57German can use ISO 8859-1 but must do so without German-style
eaf8b9b9 58quotation marks. This set is based on Western European extensions
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59to ASCII and is commonly encountered in world wide web work.
60In IBM character code set identification terminology ISO 8859-1 is
51b5cecb 61also known as CCSID 819 (or sometimes 0819 or even 00819).
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62
63=head2 EBCDIC
64
eaf8b9b9 65The Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code refers to a
8a50e6a3 66large collection of single- and multi-byte coded character sets that are
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67different from ASCII or ISO 8859-1 and are all slightly different from each
68other; they typically run on host computers. The EBCDIC encodings derive from
8a50e6a3 698-bit byte extensions of Hollerith punched card encodings. The layout on the
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70cards was such that high bits were set for the upper and lower case alphabet
71characters [a-z] and [A-Z], but there were gaps within each Latin alphabet
72range.
d396a558 73
eaf8b9b9 74Some IBM EBCDIC character sets may be known by character code set
2c09a866 75identification numbers (CCSID numbers) or code page numbers.
51b5cecb 76
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77Perl can be compiled on platforms that run any of three commonly used EBCDIC
78character sets, listed below.
79
f4084e39 80=head2 The 13 variant characters
1e054b24 81
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82Among IBM EBCDIC character code sets there are 13 characters that
83are often mapped to different integer values. Those characters
84are known as the 13 "variant" characters and are:
d396a558 85
eaf8b9b9 86 \ [ ] { } ^ ~ ! # | $ @ `
d396a558 87
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88When Perl is compiled for a platform, it looks at some of these characters to
89guess which EBCDIC character set the platform uses, and adapts itself
90accordingly to that platform. If the platform uses a character set that is not
91one of the three Perl knows about, Perl will either fail to compile, or
92mistakenly and silently choose one of the three.
93They are:
94
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95=head2 0037
96
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97Character code set ID 0037 is a mapping of the ASCII plus Latin-1
98characters (i.e. ISO 8859-1) to an EBCDIC set. 0037 is used
99in North American English locales on the OS/400 operating system
100that runs on AS/400 computers. CCSID 0037 differs from ISO 8859-1
51b5cecb 101in 237 places, in other words they agree on only 19 code point values.
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102
103=head2 1047
104
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105Character code set ID 1047 is also a mapping of the ASCII plus
106Latin-1 characters (i.e. ISO 8859-1) to an EBCDIC set. 1047 is
107used under Unix System Services for OS/390 or z/OS, and OpenEdition
395f5a0c 108for VM/ESA. CCSID 1047 differs from CCSID 0037 in eight places.
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109
110=head2 POSIX-BC
111
112The EBCDIC code page in use on Siemens' BS2000 system is distinct from
1131047 and 0037. It is identified below as the POSIX-BC set.
114
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115=head2 Unicode code points versus EBCDIC code points
116
117In Unicode terminology a I<code point> is the number assigned to a
118character: for example, in EBCDIC the character "A" is usually assigned
119the number 193. In Unicode the character "A" is assigned the number 65.
120This causes a problem with the semantics of the pack/unpack "U", which
121are supposed to pack Unicode code points to characters and back to numbers.
122The problem is: which code points to use for code points less than 256?
123(for 256 and over there's no problem: Unicode code points are used)
124In EBCDIC, for the low 256 the EBCDIC code points are used. This
125means that the equivalences
126
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127 pack("U", ord($character)) eq $character
128 unpack("U", $character) == ord $character
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129
130will hold. (If Unicode code points were applied consistently over
131all the possible code points, pack("U",ord("A")) would in EBCDIC
132equal I<A with acute> or chr(101), and unpack("U", "A") would equal
13365, or I<non-breaking space>, not 193, or ord "A".)
134
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135=head2 Remaining Perl Unicode problems in EBCDIC
136
137=over 4
138
139=item *
140
2bbc8d55 141Many of the remaining problems seem to be related to case-insensitive matching
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142
143=item *
144
145The extensions Unicode::Collate and Unicode::Normalized are not
146supported under EBCDIC, likewise for the encoding pragma.
147
148=back
149
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150=head2 Unicode and UTF
151
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152UTF stands for C<Unicode Transformation Format>.
153UTF-8 is an encoding of Unicode into a sequence of 8-bit byte chunks, based on
154ASCII and Latin-1.
155The length of a sequence required to represent a Unicode code point
156depends on the ordinal number of that code point,
157with larger numbers requiring more bytes.
158UTF-EBCDIC is like UTF-8, but based on EBCDIC.
159
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160You may see the term C<invariant> character or code point.
161This simply means that the character has the same numeric
162value when encoded as when not.
42bde815 163(Note that this is a very different concept from L</The 13 variant characters>
2bbc8d55 164mentioned above.)
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165For example, the ordinal value of 'A' is 193 in most EBCDIC code pages,
166and also is 193 when encoded in UTF-EBCDIC.
e1b711da 167All variant code points occupy at least two bytes when encoded.
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168In UTF-8, the code points corresponding to the lowest 128
169ordinal numbers (0 - 127: the ASCII characters) are invariant.
170In UTF-EBCDIC, there are 160 invariant characters.
2bbc8d55 171(If you care, the EBCDIC invariants are those characters
fe749c9a 172which have ASCII equivalents, plus those that correspond to
2bbc8d55 173the C1 controls (80..9f on ASCII platforms).)
fe749c9a 174
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175A string encoded in UTF-EBCDIC may be longer (but never shorter) than
176one encoded in UTF-8.
395f5a0c 177
8704cfd1 178=head2 Using Encode
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179
180Starting from Perl 5.8 you can use the standard new module Encode
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181to translate from EBCDIC to Latin-1 code points.
182Encode knows about more EBCDIC character sets than Perl can currently
183be compiled to run on.
8f94de01 184
c72e675e 185 use Encode 'from_to';
8f94de01 186
c72e675e 187 my %ebcdic = ( 176 => 'cp37', 95 => 'cp1047', 106 => 'posix-bc' );
8f94de01 188
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189 # $a is in EBCDIC code points
190 from_to($a, $ebcdic{ord '^'}, 'latin1');
191 # $a is ISO 8859-1 code points
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192
193and from Latin-1 code points to EBCDIC code points
194
c72e675e 195 use Encode 'from_to';
8f94de01 196
c72e675e 197 my %ebcdic = ( 176 => 'cp37', 95 => 'cp1047', 106 => 'posix-bc' );
8f94de01 198
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199 # $a is ISO 8859-1 code points
200 from_to($a, 'latin1', $ebcdic{ord '^'});
201 # $a is in EBCDIC code points
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202
203For doing I/O it is suggested that you use the autotranslating features
204of PerlIO, see L<perluniintro>.
205
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206Since version 5.8 Perl uses the new PerlIO I/O library. This enables
207you to use different encodings per IO channel. For example you may use
208
209 use Encode;
210 open($f, ">:encoding(ascii)", "test.ascii");
211 print $f "Hello World!\n";
212 open($f, ">:encoding(cp37)", "test.ebcdic");
213 print $f "Hello World!\n";
214 open($f, ">:encoding(latin1)", "test.latin1");
215 print $f "Hello World!\n";
216 open($f, ">:encoding(utf8)", "test.utf8");
217 print $f "Hello World!\n";
218
2c09a866 219to get four files containing "Hello World!\n" in ASCII, CP 0037 EBCDIC,
2bbc8d55 220ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) (in this example identical to ASCII since only ASCII
eaf8b9b9 221characters were printed), and
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222UTF-EBCDIC (in this example identical to normal EBCDIC since only characters
223that don't differ between EBCDIC and UTF-EBCDIC were printed). See the
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224documentation of Encode::PerlIO for details.
225
226As the PerlIO layer uses raw IO (bytes) internally, all this totally
227ignores things like the type of your filesystem (ASCII or EBCDIC).
228
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229=head1 SINGLE OCTET TABLES
230
231The following tables list the ASCII and Latin 1 ordered sets including
232the subsets: C0 controls (0..31), ASCII graphics (32..7e), delete (7f),
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233C1 controls (80..9f), and Latin-1 (a.k.a. ISO 8859-1) (a0..ff). In the
234table non-printing control character names as well as the Latin 1
235extensions to ASCII have been labelled with character names roughly
236corresponding to I<The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0> albeit with
237substitutions such as s/LATIN// and s/VULGAR// in all cases,
238s/CAPITAL LETTER// in some cases, and s/SMALL LETTER ([A-Z])/\l$1/
239in some other cases. The "names" of the controls listed here are
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240the Unicode Version 1 names, except for the few that don't have names, in which
241case the names in the Wikipedia article were used
8a50e6a3 242(L<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C0_and_C1_control_codes>).
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243The differences between the 0037 and 1047 sets are
244flagged with ***. The differences between the 1047 and POSIX-BC sets
245are flagged with ###. All ord() numbers listed are decimal. If you
246would rather see this table listing octal values then run the table
247(that is, the pod version of this document since this recipe may not
1e054b24 248work with a pod2_other_format translation) through:
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249
250=over 4
251
252=item recipe 0
253
254=back
255
2c09a866 256 perl -ne 'if(/(.{43})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/)' \
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257 -e '{printf("%s%-9.03o%-9.03o%-9.03o%.03o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}' \
258 perlebcdic.pod
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259
260If you want to retain the UTF-x code points then in script form you
261might want to write:
262
263=over 4
264
265=item recipe 1
266
267=back
268
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269 open(FH,"<perlebcdic.pod") or die "Could not open perlebcdic.pod: $!";
270 while (<FH>) {
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271 if (/(.{43})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)/)
272 {
c72e675e 273 if ($7 ne '' && $9 ne '') {
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274 printf(
275 "%s%-9.03o%-9.03o%-9.03o%-9.03o%-3o.%-5o%-3o.%.03o\n",
276 $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8,$9);
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277 }
278 elsif ($7 ne '') {
5f26d5fd 279 printf("%s%-9.03o%-9.03o%-9.03o%-9.03o%-3o.%-5o%.03o\n",
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280 $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8);
281 }
282 else {
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283 printf("%s%-9.03o%-9.03o%-9.03o%-9.03o%-9.03o%.03o\n",
284 $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$8);
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285 }
286 }
287 }
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288
289If you would rather see this table listing hexadecimal values then
290run the table through:
291
292=over 4
293
395f5a0c 294=item recipe 2
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295
296=back
297
2c09a866 298 perl -ne 'if(/(.{43})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/)' \
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299 -e '{printf("%s%-9.02X%-9.02X%-9.02X%.02X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}' \
300 perlebcdic.pod
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301
302Or, in order to retain the UTF-x code points in hexadecimal:
303
304=over 4
305
306=item recipe 3
307
308=back
309
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310 open(FH,"<perlebcdic.pod") or die "Could not open perlebcdic.pod: $!";
311 while (<FH>) {
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312 if (/(.{43})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)/)
313 {
c72e675e 314 if ($7 ne '' && $9 ne '') {
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315 printf(
316 "%s%-9.02X%-9.02X%-9.02X%-9.02X%-2X.%-6.02X%02X.%02X\n",
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317 $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8,$9);
318 }
319 elsif ($7 ne '') {
5f26d5fd 320 printf("%s%-9.02X%-9.02X%-9.02X%-9.02X%-2X.%-6.02X%02X\n",
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321 $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8);
322 }
323 else {
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324 printf("%s%-9.02X%-9.02X%-9.02X%-9.02X%-9.02X%02X\n",
325 $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$8);
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326 }
327 }
328 }
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329
330
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331 ISO 8859-1 CCSID CCSID CCSID 1047
332 chr CCSID 0819 0037 1047 POSIX-BC UTF-8 UTF-EBCDIC
333 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
eaf8b9b9 334 <NULL> 0 0 0 0 0 0
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335 <START OF HEADING> 1 1 1 1 1 1
336 <START OF TEXT> 2 2 2 2 2 2
337 <END OF TEXT> 3 3 3 3 3 3
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338 <END OF TRANSMISSION> 4 55 55 55 4 55
339 <ENQUIRY> 5 45 45 45 5 45
340 <ACKNOWLEDGE> 6 46 46 46 6 46
341 <BELL> 7 47 47 47 7 47
342 <BACKSPACE> 8 22 22 22 8 22
343 <HORIZONTAL TABULATION> 9 5 5 5 9 5
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344 <LINE FEED> 10 37 21 21 10 21 ***
345 <VERTICAL TABULATION> 11 11 11 11 11 11
346 <FORM FEED> 12 12 12 12 12 12
347 <CARRIAGE RETURN> 13 13 13 13 13 13
348 <SHIFT OUT> 14 14 14 14 14 14
349 <SHIFT IN> 15 15 15 15 15 15
350 <DATA LINK ESCAPE> 16 16 16 16 16 16
351 <DEVICE CONTROL ONE> 17 17 17 17 17 17
352 <DEVICE CONTROL TWO> 18 18 18 18 18 18
353 <DEVICE CONTROL THREE> 19 19 19 19 19 19
354 <DEVICE CONTROL FOUR> 20 60 60 60 20 60
355 <NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE> 21 61 61 61 21 61
356 <SYNCHRONOUS IDLE> 22 50 50 50 22 50
357 <END OF TRANSMISSION BLOCK> 23 38 38 38 23 38
358 <CANCEL> 24 24 24 24 24 24
359 <END OF MEDIUM> 25 25 25 25 25 25
360 <SUBSTITUTE> 26 63 63 63 26 63
361 <ESCAPE> 27 39 39 39 27 39
362 <FILE SEPARATOR> 28 28 28 28 28 28
363 <GROUP SEPARATOR> 29 29 29 29 29 29
364 <RECORD SEPARATOR> 30 30 30 30 30 30
365 <UNIT SEPARATOR> 31 31 31 31 31 31
366 <SPACE> 32 64 64 64 32 64
367 ! 33 90 90 90 33 90
368 " 34 127 127 127 34 127
369 # 35 123 123 123 35 123
370 $ 36 91 91 91 36 91
371 % 37 108 108 108 37 108
372 & 38 80 80 80 38 80
373 ' 39 125 125 125 39 125
374 ( 40 77 77 77 40 77
375 ) 41 93 93 93 41 93
376 * 42 92 92 92 42 92
377 + 43 78 78 78 43 78
378 , 44 107 107 107 44 107
379 - 45 96 96 96 45 96
380 . 46 75 75 75 46 75
381 / 47 97 97 97 47 97
382 0 48 240 240 240 48 240
383 1 49 241 241 241 49 241
384 2 50 242 242 242 50 242
385 3 51 243 243 243 51 243
386 4 52 244 244 244 52 244
387 5 53 245 245 245 53 245
388 6 54 246 246 246 54 246
389 7 55 247 247 247 55 247
390 8 56 248 248 248 56 248
391 9 57 249 249 249 57 249
392 : 58 122 122 122 58 122
393 ; 59 94 94 94 59 94
394 < 60 76 76 76 60 76
395 = 61 126 126 126 61 126
396 > 62 110 110 110 62 110
397 ? 63 111 111 111 63 111
398 @ 64 124 124 124 64 124
399 A 65 193 193 193 65 193
400 B 66 194 194 194 66 194
401 C 67 195 195 195 67 195
402 D 68 196 196 196 68 196
403 E 69 197 197 197 69 197
404 F 70 198 198 198 70 198
405 G 71 199 199 199 71 199
406 H 72 200 200 200 72 200
407 I 73 201 201 201 73 201
408 J 74 209 209 209 74 209
409 K 75 210 210 210 75 210
410 L 76 211 211 211 76 211
411 M 77 212 212 212 77 212
412 N 78 213 213 213 78 213
413 O 79 214 214 214 79 214
414 P 80 215 215 215 80 215
415 Q 81 216 216 216 81 216
416 R 82 217 217 217 82 217
417 S 83 226 226 226 83 226
418 T 84 227 227 227 84 227
419 U 85 228 228 228 85 228
420 V 86 229 229 229 86 229
421 W 87 230 230 230 87 230
422 X 88 231 231 231 88 231
423 Y 89 232 232 232 89 232
424 Z 90 233 233 233 90 233
425 [ 91 186 173 187 91 173 *** ###
eaf8b9b9 426 \ 92 224 224 188 92 224 ###
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427 ] 93 187 189 189 93 189 ***
428 ^ 94 176 95 106 94 95 *** ###
429 _ 95 109 109 109 95 109
430 ` 96 121 121 74 96 121 ###
431 a 97 129 129 129 97 129
432 b 98 130 130 130 98 130
433 c 99 131 131 131 99 131
434 d 100 132 132 132 100 132
435 e 101 133 133 133 101 133
436 f 102 134 134 134 102 134
437 g 103 135 135 135 103 135
438 h 104 136 136 136 104 136
439 i 105 137 137 137 105 137
440 j 106 145 145 145 106 145
441 k 107 146 146 146 107 146
442 l 108 147 147 147 108 147
443 m 109 148 148 148 109 148
444 n 110 149 149 149 110 149
445 o 111 150 150 150 111 150
446 p 112 151 151 151 112 151
447 q 113 152 152 152 113 152
448 r 114 153 153 153 114 153
449 s 115 162 162 162 115 162
450 t 116 163 163 163 116 163
451 u 117 164 164 164 117 164
452 v 118 165 165 165 118 165
453 w 119 166 166 166 119 166
454 x 120 167 167 167 120 167
455 y 121 168 168 168 121 168
456 z 122 169 169 169 122 169
457 { 123 192 192 251 123 192 ###
458 | 124 79 79 79 124 79
459 } 125 208 208 253 125 208 ###
460 ~ 126 161 161 255 126 161 ###
461 <DELETE> 127 7 7 7 127 7
462 <PADDING CHARACTER> 128 32 32 32 194.128 32
463 <HIGH OCTET PRESET> 129 33 33 33 194.129 33
464 <BREAK PERMITTED HERE> 130 34 34 34 194.130 34
465 <NO BREAK HERE> 131 35 35 35 194.131 35
466 <INDEX> 132 36 36 36 194.132 36
467 <NEXT LINE> 133 21 37 37 194.133 37 ***
468 <START OF SELECTED AREA> 134 6 6 6 194.134 6
469 <END OF SELECTED AREA> 135 23 23 23 194.135 23
470 <CHARACTER TABULATION SET> 136 40 40 40 194.136 40
471 <CHARACTER TABULATION WITH JUSTIFICATION> 137 41 41 41 194.137 41
472 <LINE TABULATION SET> 138 42 42 42 194.138 42
473 <PARTIAL LINE FORWARD> 139 43 43 43 194.139 43
474 <PARTIAL LINE BACKWARD> 140 44 44 44 194.140 44
475 <REVERSE LINE FEED> 141 9 9 9 194.141 9
476 <SINGLE SHIFT TWO> 142 10 10 10 194.142 10
477 <SINGLE SHIFT THREE> 143 27 27 27 194.143 27
478 <DEVICE CONTROL STRING> 144 48 48 48 194.144 48
479 <PRIVATE USE ONE> 145 49 49 49 194.145 49
480 <PRIVATE USE TWO> 146 26 26 26 194.146 26
481 <SET TRANSMIT STATE> 147 51 51 51 194.147 51
482 <CANCEL CHARACTER> 148 52 52 52 194.148 52
483 <MESSAGE WAITING> 149 53 53 53 194.149 53
484 <START OF GUARDED AREA> 150 54 54 54 194.150 54
485 <END OF GUARDED AREA> 151 8 8 8 194.151 8
486 <START OF STRING> 152 56 56 56 194.152 56
487 <SINGLE GRAPHIC CHARACTER INTRODUCER> 153 57 57 57 194.153 57
488 <SINGLE CHARACTER INTRODUCER> 154 58 58 58 194.154 58
489 <CONTROL SEQUENCE INTRODUCER> 155 59 59 59 194.155 59
490 <STRING TERMINATOR> 156 4 4 4 194.156 4
491 <OPERATING SYSTEM COMMAND> 157 20 20 20 194.157 20
492 <PRIVACY MESSAGE> 158 62 62 62 194.158 62
493 <APPLICATION PROGRAM COMMAND> 159 255 255 95 194.159 255 ###
494 <NON-BREAKING SPACE> 160 65 65 65 194.160 128.65
495 <INVERTED EXCLAMATION MARK> 161 170 170 170 194.161 128.66
496 <CENT SIGN> 162 74 74 176 194.162 128.67 ###
497 <POUND SIGN> 163 177 177 177 194.163 128.68
498 <CURRENCY SIGN> 164 159 159 159 194.164 128.69
499 <YEN SIGN> 165 178 178 178 194.165 128.70
500 <BROKEN BAR> 166 106 106 208 194.166 128.71 ###
501 <SECTION SIGN> 167 181 181 181 194.167 128.72
502 <DIAERESIS> 168 189 187 121 194.168 128.73 *** ###
503 <COPYRIGHT SIGN> 169 180 180 180 194.169 128.74
504 <FEMININE ORDINAL INDICATOR> 170 154 154 154 194.170 128.81
505 <LEFT POINTING GUILLEMET> 171 138 138 138 194.171 128.82
506 <NOT SIGN> 172 95 176 186 194.172 128.83 *** ###
507 <SOFT HYPHEN> 173 202 202 202 194.173 128.84
508 <REGISTERED TRADE MARK SIGN> 174 175 175 175 194.174 128.85
509 <MACRON> 175 188 188 161 194.175 128.86 ###
510 <DEGREE SIGN> 176 144 144 144 194.176 128.87
511 <PLUS-OR-MINUS SIGN> 177 143 143 143 194.177 128.88
512 <SUPERSCRIPT TWO> 178 234 234 234 194.178 128.89
513 <SUPERSCRIPT THREE> 179 250 250 250 194.179 128.98
514 <ACUTE ACCENT> 180 190 190 190 194.180 128.99
515 <MICRO SIGN> 181 160 160 160 194.181 128.100
516 <PARAGRAPH SIGN> 182 182 182 182 194.182 128.101
517 <MIDDLE DOT> 183 179 179 179 194.183 128.102
518 <CEDILLA> 184 157 157 157 194.184 128.103
519 <SUPERSCRIPT ONE> 185 218 218 218 194.185 128.104
520 <MASC. ORDINAL INDICATOR> 186 155 155 155 194.186 128.105
521 <RIGHT POINTING GUILLEMET> 187 139 139 139 194.187 128.106
522 <FRACTION ONE QUARTER> 188 183 183 183 194.188 128.112
523 <FRACTION ONE HALF> 189 184 184 184 194.189 128.113
524 <FRACTION THREE QUARTERS> 190 185 185 185 194.190 128.114
525 <INVERTED QUESTION MARK> 191 171 171 171 194.191 128.115
526 <A WITH GRAVE> 192 100 100 100 195.128 138.65
527 <A WITH ACUTE> 193 101 101 101 195.129 138.66
528 <A WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 194 98 98 98 195.130 138.67
529 <A WITH TILDE> 195 102 102 102 195.131 138.68
530 <A WITH DIAERESIS> 196 99 99 99 195.132 138.69
531 <A WITH RING ABOVE> 197 103 103 103 195.133 138.70
532 <CAPITAL LIGATURE AE> 198 158 158 158 195.134 138.71
533 <C WITH CEDILLA> 199 104 104 104 195.135 138.72
534 <E WITH GRAVE> 200 116 116 116 195.136 138.73
535 <E WITH ACUTE> 201 113 113 113 195.137 138.74
536 <E WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 202 114 114 114 195.138 138.81
537 <E WITH DIAERESIS> 203 115 115 115 195.139 138.82
538 <I WITH GRAVE> 204 120 120 120 195.140 138.83
539 <I WITH ACUTE> 205 117 117 117 195.141 138.84
540 <I WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 206 118 118 118 195.142 138.85
541 <I WITH DIAERESIS> 207 119 119 119 195.143 138.86
542 <CAPITAL LETTER ETH> 208 172 172 172 195.144 138.87
543 <N WITH TILDE> 209 105 105 105 195.145 138.88
544 <O WITH GRAVE> 210 237 237 237 195.146 138.89
545 <O WITH ACUTE> 211 238 238 238 195.147 138.98
546 <O WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 212 235 235 235 195.148 138.99
547 <O WITH TILDE> 213 239 239 239 195.149 138.100
548 <O WITH DIAERESIS> 214 236 236 236 195.150 138.101
549 <MULTIPLICATION SIGN> 215 191 191 191 195.151 138.102
550 <O WITH STROKE> 216 128 128 128 195.152 138.103
551 <U WITH GRAVE> 217 253 253 224 195.153 138.104 ###
552 <U WITH ACUTE> 218 254 254 254 195.154 138.105
553 <U WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 219 251 251 221 195.155 138.106 ###
554 <U WITH DIAERESIS> 220 252 252 252 195.156 138.112
555 <Y WITH ACUTE> 221 173 186 173 195.157 138.113 *** ###
556 <CAPITAL LETTER THORN> 222 174 174 174 195.158 138.114
557 <SMALL LETTER SHARP S> 223 89 89 89 195.159 138.115
558 <a WITH GRAVE> 224 68 68 68 195.160 139.65
559 <a WITH ACUTE> 225 69 69 69 195.161 139.66
560 <a WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 226 66 66 66 195.162 139.67
561 <a WITH TILDE> 227 70 70 70 195.163 139.68
562 <a WITH DIAERESIS> 228 67 67 67 195.164 139.69
563 <a WITH RING ABOVE> 229 71 71 71 195.165 139.70
564 <SMALL LIGATURE ae> 230 156 156 156 195.166 139.71
565 <c WITH CEDILLA> 231 72 72 72 195.167 139.72
566 <e WITH GRAVE> 232 84 84 84 195.168 139.73
567 <e WITH ACUTE> 233 81 81 81 195.169 139.74
568 <e WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 234 82 82 82 195.170 139.81
569 <e WITH DIAERESIS> 235 83 83 83 195.171 139.82
570 <i WITH GRAVE> 236 88 88 88 195.172 139.83
571 <i WITH ACUTE> 237 85 85 85 195.173 139.84
572 <i WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 238 86 86 86 195.174 139.85
573 <i WITH DIAERESIS> 239 87 87 87 195.175 139.86
574 <SMALL LETTER eth> 240 140 140 140 195.176 139.87
575 <n WITH TILDE> 241 73 73 73 195.177 139.88
576 <o WITH GRAVE> 242 205 205 205 195.178 139.89
577 <o WITH ACUTE> 243 206 206 206 195.179 139.98
578 <o WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 244 203 203 203 195.180 139.99
579 <o WITH TILDE> 245 207 207 207 195.181 139.100
580 <o WITH DIAERESIS> 246 204 204 204 195.182 139.101
581 <DIVISION SIGN> 247 225 225 225 195.183 139.102
582 <o WITH STROKE> 248 112 112 112 195.184 139.103
583 <u WITH GRAVE> 249 221 221 192 195.185 139.104 ###
584 <u WITH ACUTE> 250 222 222 222 195.186 139.105
585 <u WITH CIRCUMFLEX> 251 219 219 219 195.187 139.106
586 <u WITH DIAERESIS> 252 220 220 220 195.188 139.112
587 <y WITH ACUTE> 253 141 141 141 195.189 139.113
588 <SMALL LETTER thorn> 254 142 142 142 195.190 139.114
589 <y WITH DIAERESIS> 255 223 223 223 195.191 139.115
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590
591If you would rather see the above table in CCSID 0037 order rather than
592ASCII + Latin-1 order then run the table through:
593
594=over 4
595
395f5a0c 596=item recipe 4
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597
598=back
599
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600 perl \
601 -ne 'if(/.{43}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
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602 -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
603 -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
604 -e ' sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
2c09a866 605 -e ' map{[$_,substr($_,52,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod
d396a558 606
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607If you would rather see it in CCSID 1047 order then change the number
60852 in the last line to 61, like this:
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609
610=over 4
611
395f5a0c 612=item recipe 5
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613
614=back
615
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616 perl \
617 -ne 'if(/.{43}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
618 -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
619 -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
620 -e ' sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
621 -e ' map{[$_,substr($_,61,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod
d396a558 622
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623If you would rather see it in POSIX-BC order then change the number
62461 in the last line to 70, like this:
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625
626=over 4
627
395f5a0c 628=item recipe 6
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629
630=back
631
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632 perl \
633 -ne 'if(/.{43}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
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634 -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
635 -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
636 -e ' sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
2c09a866 637 -e ' map{[$_,substr($_,70,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod
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638
639
640=head1 IDENTIFYING CHARACTER CODE SETS
641
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642To determine the character set you are running under from perl one
643could use the return value of ord() or chr() to test one or more
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644character values. For example:
645
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646 $is_ascii = "A" eq chr(65);
647 $is_ebcdic = "A" eq chr(193);
d396a558 648
51b5cecb 649Also, "\t" is a C<HORIZONTAL TABULATION> character so that:
d396a558 650
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651 $is_ascii = ord("\t") == 9;
652 $is_ebcdic = ord("\t") == 5;
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653
654To distinguish EBCDIC code pages try looking at one or more of
655the characters that differ between them. For example:
656
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657 $is_ebcdic_37 = "\n" eq chr(37);
658 $is_ebcdic_1047 = "\n" eq chr(21);
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659
660Or better still choose a character that is uniquely encoded in any
661of the code sets, e.g.:
662
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663 $is_ascii = ord('[') == 91;
664 $is_ebcdic_37 = ord('[') == 186;
665 $is_ebcdic_1047 = ord('[') == 173;
666 $is_ebcdic_POSIX_BC = ord('[') == 187;
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667
668However, it would be unwise to write tests such as:
669
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670 $is_ascii = "\r" ne chr(13); # WRONG
671 $is_ascii = "\n" ne chr(10); # ILL ADVISED
d396a558 672
2bbc8d55 673Obviously the first of these will fail to distinguish most ASCII platforms
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674from either a CCSID 0037, a 1047, or a POSIX-BC EBCDIC platform since "\r" eq
675chr(13) under all of those coded character sets. But note too that
676because "\n" is chr(13) and "\r" is chr(10) on the Macintosh (which is an
2bbc8d55 677ASCII platform) the second C<$is_ascii> test will lead to trouble there.
d396a558 678
eaf8b9b9 679To determine whether or not perl was built under an EBCDIC
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680code page you can use the Config module like so:
681
682 use Config;
84f709e7 683 $is_ebcdic = $Config{'ebcdic'} eq 'define';
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684
685=head1 CONVERSIONS
686
1e054b24
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687=head2 tr///
688
eaf8b9b9 689In order to convert a string of characters from one character set to
d396a558 690another a simple list of numbers, such as in the right columns in the
eaf8b9b9 691above table, along with perl's tr/// operator is all that is needed.
5f26d5fd 692The data in the table are in ASCII/Latin1 order, hence the EBCDIC columns
eaf8b9b9 693provide easy-to-use ASCII/Latin1 to EBCDIC operations that are also easily
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694reversed.
695
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696For example, to convert ASCII/Latin1 to code page 037 take the output of the
697second numbers column from the output of recipe 2 (modified to add '\'
5d9fe53c 698characters), and use it in tr/// like so:
d396a558 699
eaf8b9b9 700 $cp_037 =
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701 '\x00\x01\x02\x03\x37\x2D\x2E\x2F\x16\x05\x25\x0B\x0C\x0D\x0E\x0F' .
702 '\x10\x11\x12\x13\x3C\x3D\x32\x26\x18\x19\x3F\x27\x1C\x1D\x1E\x1F' .
703 '\x40\x5A\x7F\x7B\x5B\x6C\x50\x7D\x4D\x5D\x5C\x4E\x6B\x60\x4B\x61' .
704 '\xF0\xF1\xF2\xF3\xF4\xF5\xF6\xF7\xF8\xF9\x7A\x5E\x4C\x7E\x6E\x6F' .
705 '\x7C\xC1\xC2\xC3\xC4\xC5\xC6\xC7\xC8\xC9\xD1\xD2\xD3\xD4\xD5\xD6' .
706 '\xD7\xD8\xD9\xE2\xE3\xE4\xE5\xE6\xE7\xE8\xE9\xBA\xE0\xBB\xB0\x6D' .
707 '\x79\x81\x82\x83\x84\x85\x86\x87\x88\x89\x91\x92\x93\x94\x95\x96' .
708 '\x97\x98\x99\xA2\xA3\xA4\xA5\xA6\xA7\xA8\xA9\xC0\x4F\xD0\xA1\x07' .
709 '\x20\x21\x22\x23\x24\x15\x06\x17\x28\x29\x2A\x2B\x2C\x09\x0A\x1B' .
710 '\x30\x31\x1A\x33\x34\x35\x36\x08\x38\x39\x3A\x3B\x04\x14\x3E\xFF' .
711 '\x41\xAA\x4A\xB1\x9F\xB2\x6A\xB5\xBD\xB4\x9A\x8A\x5F\xCA\xAF\xBC' .
712 '\x90\x8F\xEA\xFA\xBE\xA0\xB6\xB3\x9D\xDA\x9B\x8B\xB7\xB8\xB9\xAB' .
713 '\x64\x65\x62\x66\x63\x67\x9E\x68\x74\x71\x72\x73\x78\x75\x76\x77' .
714 '\xAC\x69\xED\xEE\xEB\xEF\xEC\xBF\x80\xFD\xFE\xFB\xFC\xAD\xAE\x59' .
715 '\x44\x45\x42\x46\x43\x47\x9C\x48\x54\x51\x52\x53\x58\x55\x56\x57' .
716 '\x8C\x49\xCD\xCE\xCB\xCF\xCC\xE1\x70\xDD\xDE\xDB\xDC\x8D\x8E\xDF';
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717
718 my $ebcdic_string = $ascii_string;
5f26d5fd 719 eval '$ebcdic_string =~ tr/\000-\377/' . $cp_037 . '/';
d396a558 720
0be03469 721To convert from EBCDIC 037 to ASCII just reverse the order of the tr///
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722arguments like so:
723
724 my $ascii_string = $ebcdic_string;
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725 eval '$ascii_string =~ tr/' . $cp_037 . '/\000-\377/';
726
727Similarly one could take the output of the third numbers column from recipe 2
728to obtain a C<$cp_1047> table. The fourth numbers column of the output from
729recipe 2 could provide a C<$cp_posix_bc> table suitable for transcoding as
730well.
d5d9880c 731
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732If you wanted to see the inverse tables, you would first have to sort on the
733desired numbers column as in recipes 4, 5 or 6, then take the output of the
734first numbers column.
1e054b24
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735
736=head2 iconv
d396a558 737
d5d9880c 738XPG operability often implies the presence of an I<iconv> utility
d396a558
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739available from the shell or from the C library. Consult your system's
740documentation for information on iconv.
741
eaf8b9b9 742On OS/390 or z/OS see the iconv(1) manpage. One way to invoke the iconv
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743shell utility from within perl would be to:
744
395f5a0c 745 # OS/390 or z/OS example
84f709e7 746 $ascii_data = `echo '$ebcdic_data'| iconv -f IBM-1047 -t ISO8859-1`
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747
748or the inverse map:
749
395f5a0c 750 # OS/390 or z/OS example
84f709e7 751 $ebcdic_data = `echo '$ascii_data'| iconv -f ISO8859-1 -t IBM-1047`
d396a558 752
8a50e6a3 753For other perl-based conversion options see the Convert::* modules on CPAN.
d396a558 754
1e054b24
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755=head2 C RTL
756
8a50e6a3 757The OS/390 and z/OS C run-time libraries provide _atoe() and _etoa() functions.
1e054b24 758
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759=head1 OPERATOR DIFFERENCES
760
eaf8b9b9 761The C<..> range operator treats certain character ranges with
2bbc8d55
SP
762care on EBCDIC platforms. For example the following array
763will have twenty six elements on either an EBCDIC platform
764or an ASCII platform:
d396a558 765
84f709e7 766 @alphabet = ('A'..'Z'); # $#alphabet == 25
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767
768The bitwise operators such as & ^ | may return different results
eaf8b9b9 769when operating on string or character data in a perl program running
2bbc8d55 770on an EBCDIC platform than when run on an ASCII platform. Here is
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771an example adapted from the one in L<perlop>:
772
773 # EBCDIC-based examples
84f709e7 774 print "j p \n" ^ " a h"; # prints "JAPH\n"
eaf8b9b9 775 print "JA" | " ph\n"; # prints "japh\n"
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776 print "JAPH\nJunk" & "\277\277\277\277\277"; # prints "japh\n";
777 print 'p N$' ^ " E<H\n"; # prints "Perl\n";
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778
779An interesting property of the 32 C0 control characters
780in the ASCII table is that they can "literally" be constructed
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781as control characters in perl, e.g. C<(chr(0)> eq C<\c@>)>
782C<(chr(1)> eq C<\cA>)>, and so on. Perl on EBCDIC platforms has been
2c09a866 783ported to take C<\c@> to chr(0) and C<\cA> to chr(1), etc. as well, but the
d396a558 784thirty three characters that result depend on which code page you are
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785using. The table below uses the standard acronyms for the controls.
786The POSIX-BC and 1047 sets are
eaf8b9b9 787identical throughout this range and differ from the 0037 set at only
51b5cecb 788one spot (21 decimal). Note that the C<LINE FEED> character
eaf8b9b9
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789may be generated by C<\cJ> on ASCII platforms but by C<\cU> on 1047 or POSIX-BC
790platforms and cannot be generated as a C<"\c.letter."> control character on
2c09a866
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7910037 platforms. Note also that C<\c\> cannot be the final element in a string
792or regex, as it will absorb the terminator. But C<\c\I<X>> is a C<FILE
793SEPARATOR> concatenated with I<X> for all I<X>.
794
eaf8b9b9 795 chr ord 8859-1 0037 1047 && POSIX-BC
c72e675e 796 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
eaf8b9b9 797 \c? 127 <DEL> " "
2c09a866 798 \c@ 0 <NUL> <NUL> <NUL>
eaf8b9b9 799 \cA 1 <SOH> <SOH> <SOH>
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800 \cB 2 <STX> <STX> <STX>
801 \cC 3 <ETX> <ETX> <ETX>
eaf8b9b9
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802 \cD 4 <EOT> <ST> <ST>
803 \cE 5 <ENQ> <HT> <HT>
804 \cF 6 <ACK> <SSA> <SSA>
805 \cG 7 <BEL> <DEL> <DEL>
806 \cH 8 <BS> <EPA> <EPA>
807 \cI 9 <HT> <RI> <RI>
808 \cJ 10 <LF> <SS2> <SS2>
2c09a866 809 \cK 11 <VT> <VT> <VT>
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810 \cL 12 <FF> <FF> <FF>
811 \cM 13 <CR> <CR> <CR>
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812 \cN 14 <SO> <SO> <SO>
813 \cO 15 <SI> <SI> <SI>
eaf8b9b9 814 \cP 16 <DLE> <DLE> <DLE>
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815 \cQ 17 <DC1> <DC1> <DC1>
816 \cR 18 <DC2> <DC2> <DC2>
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817 \cS 19 <DC3> <DC3> <DC3>
818 \cT 20 <DC4> <OSC> <OSC>
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819 \cU 21 <NAK> <NEL> <LF> ***
820 \cV 22 <SYN> <BS> <BS>
eaf8b9b9 821 \cW 23 <ETB> <ESA> <ESA>
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822 \cX 24 <CAN> <CAN> <CAN>
823 \cY 25 <EOM> <EOM> <EOM>
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824 \cZ 26 <SUB> <PU2> <PU2>
825 \c[ 27 <ESC> <SS3> <SS3>
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826 \c\X 28 <FS>X <FS>X <FS>X
827 \c] 29 <GS> <GS> <GS>
828 \c^ 30 <RS> <RS> <RS>
829 \c_ 31 <US> <US> <US>
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830
831=head1 FUNCTION DIFFERENCES
832
833=over 8
834
835=item chr()
836
eaf8b9b9 837chr() must be given an EBCDIC code number argument to yield a desired
2bbc8d55 838character return value on an EBCDIC platform. For example:
d396a558 839
84f709e7 840 $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = chr(193);
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841
842=item ord()
843
2bbc8d55 844ord() will return EBCDIC code number values on an EBCDIC platform.
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845For example:
846
84f709e7 847 $the_number_193 = ord("A");
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848
849=item pack()
850
eaf8b9b9 851The c and C templates for pack() are dependent upon character set
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852encoding. Examples of usage on EBCDIC include:
853
854 $foo = pack("CCCC",193,194,195,196);
855 # $foo eq "ABCD"
84f709e7 856 $foo = pack("C4",193,194,195,196);
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857 # same thing
858
859 $foo = pack("ccxxcc",193,194,195,196);
860 # $foo eq "AB\0\0CD"
861
862=item print()
863
864One must be careful with scalars and strings that are passed to
865print that contain ASCII encodings. One common place
866for this to occur is in the output of the MIME type header for
eaf8b9b9 867CGI script writing. For example, many perl programming guides
d396a558
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868recommend something similar to:
869
eaf8b9b9 870 print "Content-type:\ttext/html\015\012\015\012";
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871 # this may be wrong on EBCDIC
872
eaf8b9b9 873Under the IBM OS/390 USS Web Server or WebSphere on z/OS for example
395f5a0c 874you should instead write that as:
d396a558 875
5f26d5fd 876 print "Content-type:\ttext/html\r\n\r\n"; # OK for DGW et al
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877
878That is because the translation from EBCDIC to ASCII is done
879by the web server in this case (such code will not be appropriate for
eaf8b9b9 880the Macintosh however). Consult your web server's documentation for
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881further details.
882
883=item printf()
884
885The formats that can convert characters to numbers and vice versa
886will be different from their ASCII counterparts when executed
2bbc8d55 887on an EBCDIC platform. Examples include:
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888
889 printf("%c%c%c",193,194,195); # prints ABC
890
891=item sort()
892
eaf8b9b9 893EBCDIC sort results may differ from ASCII sort results especially for
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894mixed case strings. This is discussed in more detail below.
895
896=item sprintf()
897
898See the discussion of printf() above. An example of the use
899of sprintf would be:
900
84f709e7 901 $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = sprintf("%c",193);
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902
903=item unpack()
904
905See the discussion of pack() above.
906
907=back
908
909=head1 REGULAR EXPRESSION DIFFERENCES
910
eaf8b9b9
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911As of perl 5.005_03 the letter range regular expressions such as
912[A-Z] and [a-z] have been especially coded to not pick up gap
913characters. For example, characters such as E<ocirc> C<o WITH CIRCUMFLEX>
914that lie between I and J would not be matched by the
1b2d223b
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915regular expression range C</[H-K]/>. This works in
916the other direction, too, if either of the range end points is
917explicitly numeric: C<[\x89-\x91]> will match C<\x8e>, even
918though C<\x89> is C<i> and C<\x91 > is C<j>, and C<\x8e>
919is a gap character from the alphabetic viewpoint.
51b5cecb 920
eaf8b9b9
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921If you do want to match the alphabet gap characters in a single octet
922regular expression try matching the hex or octal code such
923as C</\313/> on EBCDIC or C</\364/> on ASCII platforms to
51b5cecb 924have your regular expression match C<o WITH CIRCUMFLEX>.
d396a558 925
51b5cecb 926Another construct to be wary of is the inappropriate use of hex or
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927octal constants in regular expressions. Consider the following
928set of subs:
929
930 sub is_c0 {
931 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
932 $char =~ /[\000-\037]/;
933 }
934
935 sub is_print_ascii {
936 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
937 $char =~ /[\040-\176]/;
938 }
939
940 sub is_delete {
941 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
942 $char eq "\177";
943 }
944
945 sub is_c1 {
946 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
947 $char =~ /[\200-\237]/;
948 }
949
950 sub is_latin_1 {
951 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
952 $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
953 }
954
51b5cecb 955The above would be adequate if the concern was only with numeric code points.
eaf8b9b9
KW
956However, the concern may be with characters rather than code points
957and on an EBCDIC platform it may be desirable for constructs such as
d396a558
JH
958C<if (is_print_ascii("A")) {print "A is a printable character\n";}> to print
959out the expected message. One way to represent the above collection
960of character classification subs that is capable of working across the
961four coded character sets discussed in this document is as follows:
962
963 sub Is_c0 {
964 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
84f709e7 965 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
d396a558 966 return $char =~ /[\000-\037]/;
eaf8b9b9 967 }
2c09a866 968 if (ord('^')==176) { # 0037
d396a558
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969 return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\045\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
970 }
84f709e7 971 if (ord('^')==95 || ord('^')==106) { # 1047 || posix-bc
d396a558
JH
972 return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\025\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
973 }
974 }
975
976 sub Is_print_ascii {
977 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
978 $char =~ /[ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<=>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~]/;
979 }
980
981 sub Is_delete {
982 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
84f709e7 983 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
d396a558 984 return $char eq "\177";
84f709e7
JH
985 }
986 else { # ebcdic
d396a558
JH
987 return $char eq "\007";
988 }
989 }
990
991 sub Is_c1 {
992 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
84f709e7 993 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
d396a558
JH
994 return $char =~ /[\200-\237]/;
995 }
2c09a866 996 if (ord('^')==176) { # 0037
d396a558
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997 return $char =~ /[\040-\044\025\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\377]/;
998 }
84f709e7 999 if (ord('^')==95) { # 1047
d396a558
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1000 return $char =~ /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\377]/;
1001 }
84f709e7 1002 if (ord('^')==106) { # posix-bc
eaf8b9b9 1003 return $char =~
d396a558
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1004 /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\137]/;
1005 }
1006 }
1007
1008 sub Is_latin_1 {
1009 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
84f709e7 1010 if (ord('^')==94) { # ascii
d396a558
JH
1011 return $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
1012 }
2c09a866 1013 if (ord('^')==176) { # 0037
eaf8b9b9 1014 return $char =~
d396a558
JH
1015 /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\275\264\232\212\137\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
1016 }
84f709e7 1017 if (ord('^')==95) { # 1047
d396a558 1018 return $char =~
eaf8b9b9 1019 /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\273\264\232\212\260\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\272\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
d396a558 1020 }
84f709e7 1021 if (ord('^')==106) { # posix-bc
eaf8b9b9 1022 return $char =~
d396a558
JH
1023 /[\101\252\260\261\237\262\320\265\171\264\232\212\272\312\257\241\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\340\376\335\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\300\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
1024 }
1025 }
1026
eaf8b9b9
KW
1027Note however that only the C<Is_ascii_print()> sub is really independent
1028of coded character set. Another way to write C<Is_latin_1()> would be
d396a558
JH
1029to use the characters in the range explicitly:
1030
1031 sub Is_latin_1 {
1032 my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
aadc0e04 1033 $char =~ /[ ¡¢£¤¥¦§¨©ª«¬­®¯°±²³´µ¶·¸¹º»¼½¾¿ÀÁÂÃÄÅÆÇÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏÐÑÒÓÔÕÖ×ØÙÚÛÜÝÞßàáâãäåæçèéêëìíîïðñòóôõö÷øùúûüýþÿ]/;
d396a558
JH
1034 }
1035
eaf8b9b9 1036Although that form may run into trouble in network transit (due to the
d396a558 1037presence of 8 bit characters) or on non ISO-Latin character sets.
d396a558
JH
1038
1039=head1 SOCKETS
1040
1041Most socket programming assumes ASCII character encodings in network
1042byte order. Exceptions can include CGI script writing under a
1043host web server where the server may take care of translation for you.
1044Most host web servers convert EBCDIC data to ISO-8859-1 or Unicode on
1045output.
1046
1047=head1 SORTING
1048
8a50e6a3 1049One big difference between ASCII-based character sets and EBCDIC ones
d396a558 1050are the relative positions of upper and lower case letters and the
8a50e6a3
FC
1051letters compared to the digits. If sorted on an ASCII-based platform the
1052two-letter abbreviation for a physician comes before the two letter
1053abbreviation for drive; that is:
d396a558 1054
c72e675e 1055 @sorted = sort(qw(Dr. dr.)); # @sorted holds ('Dr.','dr.') on ASCII,
84f709e7 1056 # but ('dr.','Dr.') on EBCDIC
d396a558 1057
8a50e6a3 1058The property of lowercase before uppercase letters in EBCDIC is
d396a558 1059even carried to the Latin 1 EBCDIC pages such as 0037 and 1047.
eaf8b9b9
KW
1060An example would be that E<Euml> C<E WITH DIAERESIS> (203) comes
1061before E<euml> C<e WITH DIAERESIS> (235) on an ASCII platform, but
1062the latter (83) comes before the former (115) on an EBCDIC platform.
1063(Astute readers will note that the uppercase version of E<szlig>
1064C<SMALL LETTER SHARP S> is simply "SS" and that the upper case version of
1065E<yuml> C<y WITH DIAERESIS> is not in the 0..255 range but it is
51b5cecb 1066at U+x0178 in Unicode, or C<"\x{178}"> in a Unicode enabled Perl).
d396a558
JH
1067
1068The sort order will cause differences between results obtained on
2bbc8d55 1069ASCII platforms versus EBCDIC platforms. What follows are some suggestions
d396a558
JH
1070on how to deal with these differences.
1071
51b5cecb 1072=head2 Ignore ASCII vs. EBCDIC sort differences.
d396a558
JH
1073
1074This is the least computationally expensive strategy. It may require
1075some user education.
1076
51b5cecb 1077=head2 MONO CASE then sort data.
d396a558 1078
8a50e6a3 1079In order to minimize the expense of mono casing mixed-case text, try to
d396a558
JH
1080C<tr///> towards the character set case most employed within the data.
1081If the data are primarily UPPERCASE non Latin 1 then apply tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/
1082then sort(). If the data are primarily lowercase non Latin 1 then
1083apply tr/[A-Z]/[a-z]/ before sorting. If the data are primarily UPPERCASE
eaf8b9b9 1084and include Latin-1 characters then apply:
51b5cecb 1085
0be03469 1086 tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/;
aadc0e04 1087 tr/[àáâãäåæçèéêëìíîïðñòóôõöøùúûüýþ]/[ÀÁÂÃÄÅÆÇÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏÐÑÒÓÔÕÖØÙÚÛÜÝÞ/;
0be03469 1088 s/ß/SS/g;
d396a558 1089
eaf8b9b9
KW
1090then sort(). Do note however that such Latin-1 manipulation does not
1091address the E<yuml> C<y WITH DIAERESIS> character that will remain at
1092code point 255 on ASCII platforms, but 223 on most EBCDIC platforms
1093where it will sort to a place less than the EBCDIC numerals. With a
8a50e6a3 1094Unicode-enabled Perl you might try:
d396a558 1095
51b5cecb
PP
1096 tr/^?/\x{178}/;
1097
eaf8b9b9 1098The strategy of mono casing data before sorting does not preserve the case
51b5cecb
PP
1099of the data and may not be acceptable for that reason.
1100
1101=head2 Convert, sort data, then re convert.
d396a558
JH
1102
1103This is the most expensive proposition that does not employ a network
1104connection.
1105
2bbc8d55 1106=head2 Perform sorting on one type of platform only.
d396a558
JH
1107
1108This strategy can employ a network connection. As such
1109it would be computationally expensive.
1110
395f5a0c 1111=head1 TRANSFORMATION FORMATS
1e054b24 1112
eaf8b9b9
KW
1113There are a variety of ways of transforming data with an intra character set
1114mapping that serve a variety of purposes. Sorting was discussed in the
1115previous section and a few of the other more popular mapping techniques are
1e054b24
PP
1116discussed next.
1117
1118=head2 URL decoding and encoding
d396a558 1119
51b5cecb 1120Note that some URLs have hexadecimal ASCII code points in them in an
eaf8b9b9 1121attempt to overcome character or protocol limitation issues. For example
1e054b24 1122the tilde character is not on every keyboard hence a URL of the form:
d396a558
JH
1123
1124 http://www.pvhp.com/~pvhp/
1125
1126may also be expressed as either of:
1127
1128 http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/
1129
1130 http://www.pvhp.com/%7epvhp/
1131
51b5cecb 1132where 7E is the hexadecimal ASCII code point for '~'. Here is an example
d396a558
JH
1133of decoding such a URL under CCSID 1047:
1134
84f709e7 1135 $url = 'http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/';
d396a558
JH
1136 # this array assumes code page 1047
1137 my @a2e_1047 = (
1138 0, 1, 2, 3, 55, 45, 46, 47, 22, 5, 21, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
1139 16, 17, 18, 19, 60, 61, 50, 38, 24, 25, 63, 39, 28, 29, 30, 31,
1140 64, 90,127,123, 91,108, 80,125, 77, 93, 92, 78,107, 96, 75, 97,
1141 240,241,242,243,244,245,246,247,248,249,122, 94, 76,126,110,111,
1142 124,193,194,195,196,197,198,199,200,201,209,210,211,212,213,214,
1143 215,216,217,226,227,228,229,230,231,232,233,173,224,189, 95,109,
1144 121,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,145,146,147,148,149,150,
1145 151,152,153,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,192, 79,208,161, 7,
1146 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 6, 23, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 9, 10, 27,
1147 48, 49, 26, 51, 52, 53, 54, 8, 56, 57, 58, 59, 4, 20, 62,255,
1148 65,170, 74,177,159,178,106,181,187,180,154,138,176,202,175,188,
1149 144,143,234,250,190,160,182,179,157,218,155,139,183,184,185,171,
1150 100,101, 98,102, 99,103,158,104,116,113,114,115,120,117,118,119,
1151 172,105,237,238,235,239,236,191,128,253,254,251,252,186,174, 89,
1152 68, 69, 66, 70, 67, 71,156, 72, 84, 81, 82, 83, 88, 85, 86, 87,
1153 140, 73,205,206,203,207,204,225,112,221,222,219,220,141,142,223
1154 );
1155 $url =~ s/%([0-9a-fA-F]{2})/pack("c",$a2e_1047[hex($1)])/ge;
1156
eaf8b9b9 1157Conversely, here is a partial solution for the task of encoding such
1e054b24
PP
1158a URL under the 1047 code page:
1159
84f709e7 1160 $url = 'http://www.pvhp.com/~pvhp/';
1e054b24
PP
1161 # this array assumes code page 1047
1162 my @e2a_1047 = (
1163 0, 1, 2, 3,156, 9,134,127,151,141,142, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
1164 16, 17, 18, 19,157, 10, 8,135, 24, 25,146,143, 28, 29, 30, 31,
1165 128,129,130,131,132,133, 23, 27,136,137,138,139,140, 5, 6, 7,
1166 144,145, 22,147,148,149,150, 4,152,153,154,155, 20, 21,158, 26,
1167 32,160,226,228,224,225,227,229,231,241,162, 46, 60, 40, 43,124,
1168 38,233,234,235,232,237,238,239,236,223, 33, 36, 42, 41, 59, 94,
1169 45, 47,194,196,192,193,195,197,199,209,166, 44, 37, 95, 62, 63,
1170 248,201,202,203,200,205,206,207,204, 96, 58, 35, 64, 39, 61, 34,
1171 216, 97, 98, 99,100,101,102,103,104,105,171,187,240,253,254,177,
1172 176,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,170,186,230,184,198,164,
1173 181,126,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,161,191,208, 91,222,174,
1174 172,163,165,183,169,167,182,188,189,190,221,168,175, 93,180,215,
1175 123, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73,173,244,246,242,243,245,
1176 125, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82,185,251,252,249,250,255,
1177 92,247, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90,178,212,214,210,211,213,
1178 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57,179,219,220,217,218,159
1179 );
eaf8b9b9
KW
1180 # The following regular expression does not address the
1181 # mappings for: ('.' => '%2E', '/' => '%2F', ':' => '%3A')
1e054b24
PP
1182 $url =~ s/([\t "#%&\(\),;<=>\?\@\[\\\]^`{|}~])/sprintf("%%%02X",$e2a_1047[ord($1)])/ge;
1183
eaf8b9b9 1184where a more complete solution would split the URL into components
1e054b24
PP
1185and apply a full s/// substitution only to the appropriate parts.
1186
1187In the remaining examples a @e2a or @a2e array may be employed
1188but the assignment will not be shown explicitly. For code page 1047
1189you could use the @a2e_1047 or @e2a_1047 arrays just shown.
1190
1191=head2 uu encoding and decoding
1192
eaf8b9b9
KW
1193The C<u> template to pack() or unpack() will render EBCDIC data in EBCDIC
1194characters equivalent to their ASCII counterparts. For example, the
1e054b24
PP
1195following will print "Yes indeed\n" on either an ASCII or EBCDIC computer:
1196
84f709e7
JH
1197 $all_byte_chrs = '';
1198 for (0..255) { $all_byte_chrs .= chr($_); }
1199 $uuencode_byte_chrs = pack('u', $all_byte_chrs);
210b36aa 1200 ($uu = <<'ENDOFHEREDOC') =~ s/^\s*//gm;
1e054b24
PP
1201 M``$"`P0%!@<("0H+#`T.#Q`1$A,4%187&!D:&QP='A\@(2(C)"4F)R@I*BLL
1202 M+2XO,#$R,S0U-C<X.3H[/#T^/T!!0D-$149'2$E*2TQ-3D]045)35%565UA9
1203 M6EM<75Y?8&%B8V1E9F=H:6IK;&UN;W!Q<G-T=79W>'EZ>WQ]?G^`@8*#A(6&
1204 MAXB)BHN,C8Z/D)&2DY25EI>8F9J;G)V>GZ"AHJ.DI::GJ*FJJZRMKJ^PL;*S
1205 MM+6VM[BYNKN\O;Z_P,'"P\3%QL?(R<K+S,W.S]#1TM/4U=;7V-G:V]S=WM_@
1206 ?X>+CY.7FY^CIZNOL[>[O\/'R\_3U]O?X^?K[_/W^_P``
1207 ENDOFHEREDOC
84f709e7 1208 if ($uuencode_byte_chrs eq $uu) {
1e054b24
PP
1209 print "Yes ";
1210 }
1211 $uudecode_byte_chrs = unpack('u', $uuencode_byte_chrs);
84f709e7 1212 if ($uudecode_byte_chrs eq $all_byte_chrs) {
1e054b24
PP
1213 print "indeed\n";
1214 }
1215
1216Here is a very spartan uudecoder that will work on EBCDIC provided
1217that the @e2a array is filled in appropriately:
1218
84f709e7
JH
1219 #!/usr/local/bin/perl
1220 @e2a = ( # this must be filled in
1221 );
1222 $_ = <> until ($mode,$file) = /^begin\s*(\d*)\s*(\S*)/;
1e054b24
PP
1223 open(OUT, "> $file") if $file ne "";
1224 while(<>) {
1225 last if /^end/;
1226 next if /[a-z]/;
1227 next unless int(((($e2a[ord()] - 32 ) & 077) + 2) / 3) ==
1228 int(length() / 4);
1229 print OUT unpack("u", $_);
1230 }
1231 close(OUT);
1232 chmod oct($mode), $file;
1233
1234
1235=head2 Quoted-Printable encoding and decoding
1236
8a50e6a3 1237On ASCII-encoded platforms it is possible to strip characters outside of
1e054b24
PP
1238the printable set using:
1239
1240 # This QP encoder works on ASCII only
84f709e7 1241 $qp_string =~ s/([=\x00-\x1F\x80-\xFF])/sprintf("=%02X",ord($1))/ge;
1e054b24 1242
eaf8b9b9
KW
1243Whereas a QP encoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC platforms
1244would look somewhat like the following (where the EBCDIC branch @e2a
1e054b24
PP
1245array is omitted for brevity):
1246
1247 if (ord('A') == 65) { # ASCII
1248 $delete = "\x7F"; # ASCII
1249 @e2a = (0 .. 255) # ASCII to ASCII identity map
84f709e7
JH
1250 }
1251 else { # EBCDIC
1e054b24 1252 $delete = "\x07"; # EBCDIC
84f709e7 1253 @e2a = # EBCDIC to ASCII map (as shown above)
1e054b24 1254 }
84f709e7 1255 $qp_string =~
1e054b24
PP
1256 s/([^ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~$delete])/sprintf("=%02X",$e2a[ord($1)])/ge;
1257
1258(although in production code the substitutions might be done
eaf8b9b9 1259in the EBCDIC branch with the @e2a array and separately in the
1e054b24
PP
1260ASCII branch without the expense of the identity map).
1261
1262Such QP strings can be decoded with:
1263
1264 # This QP decoder is limited to ASCII only
1265 $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr hex $1/ge;
1266 $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;
1267
eaf8b9b9 1268Whereas a QP decoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC platforms
1e054b24
PP
1269would look somewhat like the following (where the @a2e array is
1270omitted for brevity):
1271
1272 $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr $a2e[hex $1]/ge;
1273 $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;
1274
c69ca1d4 1275=head2 Caesarean ciphers
1e054b24
PP
1276
1277The practice of shifting an alphabet one or more characters for encipherment
1278dates back thousands of years and was explicitly detailed by Gaius Julius
eaf8b9b9 1279Caesar in his B<Gallic Wars> text. A single alphabet shift is sometimes
1e054b24 1280referred to as a rotation and the shift amount is given as a number $n after
eaf8b9b9
KW
1281the string 'rot' or "rot$n". Rot0 and rot26 would designate identity maps
1282on the 26-letter English version of the Latin alphabet. Rot13 has the
1283interesting property that alternate subsequent invocations are identity maps
1284(thus rot13 is its own non-trivial inverse in the group of 26 alphabet
1285rotations). Hence the following is a rot13 encoder and decoder that will
2bbc8d55 1286work on ASCII and EBCDIC platforms:
1e054b24
PP
1287
1288 #!/usr/local/bin/perl
1289
84f709e7 1290 while(<>){
1e054b24
PP
1291 tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/;
1292 print;
1293 }
1294
1295In one-liner form:
1296
84f709e7 1297 perl -ne 'tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/;print'
1e054b24
PP
1298
1299
1300=head1 Hashing order and checksums
1301
eaf8b9b9 1302To the extent that it is possible to write code that depends on
395f5a0c 1303hashing order there may be differences between hashes as stored
8a50e6a3 1304on an ASCII-based platform and hashes stored on an EBCDIC-based platform.
1e054b24
PP
1305XXX
1306
d396a558
JH
1307=head1 I18N AND L10N
1308
eaf8b9b9
KW
1309Internationalization (I18N) and localization (L10N) are supported at least
1310in principle even on EBCDIC platforms. The details are system-dependent
d396a558
JH
1311and discussed under the L<perlebcdic/OS ISSUES> section below.
1312
8a50e6a3 1313=head1 MULTI-OCTET CHARACTER SETS
d396a558 1314
eaf8b9b9
KW
1315Perl may work with an internal UTF-EBCDIC encoding form for wide characters
1316on EBCDIC platforms in a manner analogous to the way that it works with
395f5a0c
PK
1317the UTF-8 internal encoding form on ASCII based platforms.
1318
1319Legacy multi byte EBCDIC code pages XXX.
d396a558
JH
1320
1321=head1 OS ISSUES
1322
eaf8b9b9 1323There may be a few system-dependent issues
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1324of concern to EBCDIC Perl programmers.
1325
522b859a 1326=head2 OS/400
51b5cecb 1327
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1328=over 8
1329
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1330=item PASE
1331
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1332The PASE environment is a runtime environment for OS/400 that can run
1333executables built for PowerPC AIX in OS/400; see L<perlos400>. PASE
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1334is ASCII-based, not EBCDIC-based as the ILE.
1335
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1336=item IFS access
1337
1338XXX.
1339
1340=back
1341
395f5a0c 1342=head2 OS/390, z/OS
d396a558 1343
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1344Perl runs under Unix Systems Services or USS.
1345
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1346=over 8
1347
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1348=item chcp
1349
eaf8b9b9 1350B<chcp> is supported as a shell utility for displaying and changing
75cdcc93 1351one's code page. See also L<chcp(1)>.
51b5cecb 1352
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1353=item dataset access
1354
1355For sequential data set access try:
1356
1357 my @ds_records = `cat //DSNAME`;
1358
1359or:
1360
1361 my @ds_records = `cat //'HLQ.DSNAME'`;
1362
1363See also the OS390::Stdio module on CPAN.
1364
395f5a0c 1365=item OS/390, z/OS iconv
51b5cecb 1366
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1367B<iconv> is supported as both a shell utility and a C RTL routine.
1368See also the iconv(1) and iconv(3) manual pages.
51b5cecb 1369
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1370=item locales
1371
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1372On OS/390 or z/OS see L<locale> for information on locales. The L10N files
1373are in F</usr/nls/locale>. $Config{d_setlocale} is 'define' on OS/390
1374or z/OS.
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1375
1376=back
1377
1378=head2 VM/ESA?
1379
1380XXX.
1381
1382=head2 POSIX-BC?
1383
1384XXX.
1385
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1386=head1 BUGS
1387
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1388This pod document contains literal Latin 1 characters and may encounter
1389translation difficulties. In particular one popular nroff implementation
1390was known to strip accented characters to their unaccented counterparts
1391while attempting to view this document through the B<pod2man> program
1392(for example, you may see a plain C<y> rather than one with a diaeresis
3958b146 1393as in E<yuml>). Another nroff truncated the resultant manpage at
395f5a0c 1394the first occurrence of 8 bit characters.
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1395
1396Not all shells will allow multiple C<-e> string arguments to perl to
eaf8b9b9 1397be concatenated together properly as recipes 0, 2, 4, 5, and 6 might
395f5a0c 1398seem to imply.
51b5cecb 1399
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1400=head1 SEE ALSO
1401
395f5a0c 1402L<perllocale>, L<perlfunc>, L<perlunicode>, L<utf8>.
b3b6085d 1403
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1404=head1 REFERENCES
1405
2bbc8d55 1406L<http://anubis.dkuug.dk/i18n/charmaps>
d396a558 1407
2bbc8d55 1408L<http://www.unicode.org/>
d396a558 1409
2bbc8d55 1410L<http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr16/>
d396a558 1411
08d7a6b2 1412L<http://www.wps.com/projects/codes/>
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1413B<ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Infiltration> Tom Jennings,
1414September 1999.
1415
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1416B<The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0> The Unicode Consortium, Lisa Moore ed.,
1417ISBN 0-201-61633-5, Addison Wesley Developers Press, February 2000.
51b5cecb 1418
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1419B<CDRA: IBM - Character Data Representation Architecture -
1420Reference and Registry>, IBM SC09-2190-00, December 1996.
d396a558 1421
eaf8b9b9 1422"Demystifying Character Sets", Andrea Vine, Multilingual Computing
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1423& Technology, B<#26 Vol. 10 Issue 4>, August/September 1999;
1424ISSN 1523-0309; Multilingual Computing Inc. Sandpoint ID, USA.
1425
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1426B<Codes, Ciphers, and Other Cryptic and Clandestine Communication>
1427Fred B. Wrixon, ISBN 1-57912-040-7, Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers,
14281998.
1429
2bbc8d55 1430L<http://www.bobbemer.com/P-BIT.HTM>
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1431B<IBM - EBCDIC and the P-bit; The biggest Computer Goof Ever> Robert Bemer.
1432
1433=head1 HISTORY
1434
143515 April 2001: added UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC to main table, pvhp.
1436
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1437=head1 AUTHOR
1438
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1439Peter Prymmer pvhp@best.com wrote this in 1999 and 2000
1440with CCSID 0819 and 0037 help from Chris Leach and
1441AndrE<eacute> Pirard A.Pirard@ulg.ac.be as well as POSIX-BC
b3b6085d 1442help from Thomas Dorner Thomas.Dorner@start.de.
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1443Thanks also to Vickie Cooper, Philip Newton, William Raffloer, and
1444Joe Smith. Trademarks, registered trademarks, service marks and
1445registered service marks used in this document are the property of
1e054b24 1446their respective owners.