This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
Note perl5-security-report@perl.org in INSTALL. Must remember to
[perl5.git] / README.aix
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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
4
5=head1 NAME
6
7README.aix - Perl version 5 on IBM Unix (AIX) systems
8
9=head1 DESCRIPTION
10
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11This document describes various features of IBM's Unix operating
12system (AIX) that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl)
13is compiled and/or runs.
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14
15=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on AIX
16
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17For information on compilers on older versions of AIX, see L<Compiling
18Perl 5 on older AIX>.
19
20When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship
21an ANSI compliant C-compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of
22gcc for AIX are widely available.
23
24=head2 Supported Compilers
25
26Currently all versions of IBM's "xlc", "xlc_r", "cc", "cc_r" or
27"vac" ANSI/C compiler will work for building perl if that compiler
28works on your system.
29
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30If you plan to link perl to any module that requires thread-support,
31like DBD::Oracle, it is better to use the _r version of the compiler.
32This will not build a threaded perl, but a thread-enabled perl. See
33also L<Threaded perl> later on.
34
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35As of writing (2008-11) only the IBM XL C for AIX or XL C/C++ for AIX
36compiler is supported by IBM on AIX 5L/6.1.
37
38The following compiler versions are supported by IBM:
39
40XL C and XL C/C++ V7, V8, V9, V10
41
42The XL C for AIX is integrated in the XL C/C++ for AIX compiler.
43
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44If you choose XL C/C++ V9 you need APAR IZ35785 installed
45otherwise the integrated SDBM_File do not compile correctly due
46to an optimization bug. You can circumvent this problem by
47adding -qipa to the optimization flags (-Doptimize='-O -qipa').
48The PTF for APAR IZ35785 which solves this problem will be available
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49in 1Q 2009. IBM does provide an emergency fix for this problem.
50
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51Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.
52The former is recommended, as not only it can compile Perl with no
53difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later
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54that require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
55
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56If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
57complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
58details. Please report any hoops you had to jump through to the
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59development team.
60
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61=head2 Perl 5.8.9 was successfully compiled and tested on:
62
63 AIX Level | Compiler Level | w th | w/o th
64 --------------------------+-------------------------+------+-------
65 5.1 TL9 32 bit | XL C/C++ V7 | OK | OK
66 5.1 TL9 32 bit | gcc 3.2.2 | OK | OK
67 5.1 TL9 64 bit | XL C/C++ V7 | OK | OK
68 5.2 TL10 32 bit | XL C/C++ V8 | OK | OK
69 5.2 TL10 64 bit | XL C/C++ V8 | OK | OK
70 5.3 TL7 32 bit | XL C/C++ V9 + IZ35785 | OK | OK
71 5.3 TL7 32 bit | gcc 4.2.4 | OK | OK
72 5.3 TL7 64 bit | XL C/C++ V9 + IZ35785 | OK | OK
73 6.1 TL1 32 bit | XL C/C++ V10 | OK | OK
74 6.1 TL1 64 bit + IZ39077 | XL C/C++ V10 | OK | OK
75
76 w th = with thread
77 w/o th = without thread
78
79Successfully tested means that all make test runs with an result of 100% OK.
80All tests were conducted with -Duseshrplib set.
81
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82=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX
83
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84Starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.x / 5.10.x) and AIX 4.3
85or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface in the so
86called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface that was
87used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases 4.2 and
88earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with compiled
89modules from earlier Perl releases. The change was made to make Perl
90more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are
91using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of
92C++ code with static constructors and destructors in Perl extensions,
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93which was not possible using the emulated interface.
94
95It is highly recommended to use the new interface.
96
97=head2 Using Large Files with Perl
98
99Should yield no problems.
100
101=head2 Threaded Perl
102
103Should yield no problems with AIX 5.2 / 5.3 and 6.1.
104
105IBM uses the AIX system Perl (V5.8.2 as of writing) for some AIX
106system scripts. If you switches the links in /usr/bin from the
107AIX system Perl (/usr/opt/perl5) to the newly build Perl then you
108get the same features as with the IBM AIX system Perl if the
109threaded options are used.
110
111=head2 64-bit Perl
112
113If your AIX system is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit
114configurations to work. If you want to use 64-bit Perl on AIX 6.1
115you need a APAR for a libc.a bug which affects (n)dbm_XXX functions.
116The APAR number for this problem is currently not yet available. If
117the fileset bos.rte.libc is at level 6.1.1.2 or lower then the problem
118is no fixed on your system.
119
120If you need more memory (larger data segment) for your Perl programs you
121can set:
122
123 /etc/security/limits
124 default: (or your user)
125 data = -1 (default is 262144 * 512 byte)
126
127With the default setting the size is limited to 128MB.
128The -1 removes this limit.
129
e1051f11 130=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1 (threaded/32-bit)
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131
132With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which
133passes all make tests in threaded 32-bit mode, which is the default
134configuration for the perl builds that AIX ships with.
135
136 rm config.sh
137 ./Configure \
138 -d \
139 -Dcc=cc_r \
140 -Duseshrplib \
141 -Dusethreads \
142 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
143
fe5460cc 144The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
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145IBM AIX system Perl installation.
146
147=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1 (32-bit)
148
fe5460cc 149With the following options you get a Perl version which passes
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150all make tests in 32-bit mode.
151
152 rm config.sh
153 ./Configure \
154 -d \
155 -Dcc=cc_r \
156 -Duseshrplib \
157 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
158
159The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
160IBM AIX system Perl installation.
161
e1051f11 162=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1 (threaded/64-bit)
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163
164With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which
165passes all make tests in 64-bit mode.
166
167 export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell)
168
169 rm config.sh
170 ./Configure \
171 -d \
172 -Dcc=cc_r \
173 -Duseshrplib \
174 -Dusethreads \
175 -Duse64bitall \
176 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
177
178=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1(64-bit)
179
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180With the following options you get a Perl version which passes all
181make tests in 64-bit mode.
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182
183 export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell)
fe5460cc 184
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185 rm config.sh
186 ./Configure \
187 -d \
188 -Dcc=cc_r \
189 -Duseshrplib \
190 -Duse64bitall \
191 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
192
fe5460cc 193The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
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194IBM AIX system Perl installation.
195
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196If you choose gcc to compile 64-bit Perl then you need to use the
197following options:
198
199 -Dcc='gcc -maix64'
200
201
202=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on older AIX versions up to 4.3.3
203
204Due to the fact that AIX 4.3.3 reached end-of-service in December 31,
2052003 this information is provided as is. The Perl versions prior to
206Perl 5.8.9 could be compiled on AIX up to 4.3.3 with the following
207settings (your mileage may vary):
7fabfece 208
d5d9880c 209When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship
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210an ANSI compliant C-compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of
211gcc for AIX are widely available.
212
213At the moment of writing, AIX supports two different native C compilers,
4951a6f9 214for which you have to pay: B<xlC> and B<vac>. If you decide to use either
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215of these two (which is quite a lot easier than using gcc), be sure to
216upgrade to the latest available patch level. Currently:
217
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218 xlC.C 3.1.4.10 or 3.6.6.0 or 4.0.2.2 or 5.0.2.9 or 6.0.0.3
219 vac.C 4.4.0.3 or 5.0.2.6 or 6.0.0.1
220
221note that xlC has the OS version in the name as of version 4.0.2.0, so
222you will find xlC.C for AIX-5.0 as package
223
224 xlC.aix50.rte 5.0.2.0 or 6.0.0.3
225
66a1b24b 226subversions are not the same "latest" on all OS versions. For example,
c67773d0 227the latest xlC-5 on aix41 is 5.0.2.9, while on aix43, it is 5.0.2.7.
20d11268 228
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229Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.
230The former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no
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231difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
232require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
233
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234The IBM's compiler patch levels 5.0.0.0 and 5.0.1.0 have compiler
235optimization bugs that affect compiling perl.c and regcomp.c,
236respectively. If Perl's configuration detects those compiler patch
237levels, optimization is turned off for the said source code files.
238Upgrading to at least 5.0.2.0 is recommended.
239
20d11268 240If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
eed1f4d3 241complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
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242details. Please report any hoops you had to jump through to the development
243team.
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244
245=head2 OS level
246
247Before installing the patches to the IBM C-compiler you need to know the
248level of patching for the Operating System. IBM's command 'oslevel' will
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249show the base, but is not always complete (in this example oslevel shows
2504.3.NULL, whereas the system might run most of 4.3.THREE):
1a3e4d88 251
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252 # oslevel
253 4.3.0.0
254 # lslpp -l | grep 'bos.rte '
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255 bos.rte 4.3.3.75 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime
256 bos.rte 4.3.2.0 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime
257 #
258
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259The same might happen to AIX 5.1 or other OS levels. As a side note, perl
260cannot be built without bos.adt.syscalls and bos.adt.libm installed
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261
262 # lslpp -l | egrep "syscalls|libm"
263 bos.adt.libm 5.1.0.25 COMMITTED Base Application Development
c67773d0 264 bos.adt.syscalls 5.1.0.36 COMMITTED System Calls Application
64cb7701 265 #
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266
267=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX
268
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269AIX supports dynamically loadable objects as well as shared libraries.
270Shared libraries by convention end with the suffix .a, which is a bit
271misleading, as an archive can contain static as well as dynamic members.
272For perl dynamically loaded objects we use the .so suffix also used on
273many other platforms.
274
275Note that starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.0) and AIX 4.3
276or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface in the so
277called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface that was
278used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases 4.2 and
279earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with compiled
280modules from earlier perl releases. The change was made to make Perl
efc3b6b5 281more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are
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282using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of C++
283code with static constructors and destructors in perl extensions, which
284was not possible using the emulated interface.
12f54d27 285
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286=head2 The IBM ANSI C Compiler
287
288All defaults for Configure can be used.
289
290If you've chosen to use vac 4, be sure to run 4.4.0.3. Older versions
4951a6f9 291will turn up nasty later on. For vac 5 be sure to run at least 5.0.1.0,
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292but vac 5.0.2.6 or up is highly recommended. Note that since IBM has
293removed vac 5.0.2.1 through 5.0.2.5 from the software depot, these
294versions should be considered obsolete.
20d11268 295
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296Here's a brief lead of how to upgrade the compiler to the latest
297level. Of course this is subject to changes. You can only upgrade
298versions from ftp-available updates if the first three digit groups
299are the same (in where you can skip intermediate unlike the patches
300in the developer snapshots of perl), or to one version up where the
66a1b24b 301"base" is available. In other words, the AIX compiler patches are
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302cumulative.
303
304 vac.C.4.4.0.1 => vac.C.4.4.0.3 is OK (vac.C.4.4.0.2 not needed)
305 xlC.C.3.1.3.3 => xlC.C.3.1.4.10 is NOT OK (xlC.C.3.1.4.0 is not available)
306
307 # ftp ftp.software.ibm.com
308 Connected to service.boulder.ibm.com.
309 : welcome message ...
310 Name (ftp.software.ibm.com:merijn): anonymous
311 331 Guest login ok, send your complete e-mail address as password.
312 Password:
313 ... accepted login stuff
314 ftp> cd /aix/fixes/v4/
315 ftp> dir other other.ll
316 output to local-file: other.ll? y
317 200 PORT command successful.
318 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
319 226 Transfer complete.
320 ftp> dir xlc xlc.ll
321 output to local-file: xlc.ll? y
322 200 PORT command successful.
323 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
324 226 Transfer complete.
325 ftp> bye
326 ... goodbye messages
327 # ls -l *.ll
328 -rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 1169432 Nov 2 17:29 other.ll
329 -rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 29170 Nov 2 17:29 xlc.ll
330
331On AIX 4.2 using xlC, we continue:
332
333 # lslpp -l | fgrep 'xlC.C '
334 xlC.C 3.1.4.9 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
335 xlC.C 3.1.4.0 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
336 # grep 'xlC.C.3.1.4.*.bff' xlc.ll
337 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6286336 Jul 22 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.1.bff
338 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6173696 Aug 24 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.10.bff
339 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6319104 Aug 14 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.2.bff
340 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6316032 Oct 21 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.3.bff
341 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6315008 Dec 20 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.4.bff
342 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6178816 Mar 28 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.5.bff
343 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6188032 May 22 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.6.bff
344 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6191104 Sep 5 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.7.bff
345 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6185984 Jan 13 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.8.bff
346 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6169600 May 27 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.9.bff
347 # wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/xlc/xlC.C.3.1.4.10.bff
348 #
349
350On AIX 4.3 using vac, we continue:
351
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352 # lslpp -l | grep 'vac.C '
353 vac.C 5.0.2.2 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
354 vac.C 5.0.2.0 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
355 # grep 'vac.C.5.0.2.*.bff' other.ll
356 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 13592576 Apr 16 2001 vac.C.5.0.2.0.bff
357 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14133248 Apr 9 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.3.bff
358 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14173184 May 20 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.4.bff
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359 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14192640 Nov 22 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff
360 # wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/other/vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff
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361 #
362
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363Likewise on all other OS levels. Then execute the following command, and
364fill in its choices
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365
366 # smit install_update
367 -> Install and Update from LATEST Available Software
c67773d0 368 * INPUT device / directory for software [ vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff ]
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369 [ OK ]
370 [ OK ]
371
372Follow the messages ... and you're done.
373
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374If you like a more web-like approach, a good start point can be
375http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/download/downloadaz.jsp and click
376"C for AIX", and follow the instructions.
377
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378=head2 The usenm option
379
380If linking miniperl
381
382 cc -o miniperl ... miniperlmain.o opmini.o perl.o ... -lm -lc ...
383
384causes error like this
385
386 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .aintl
387 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .copysignl
388 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .syscall
389 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .eaccess
390 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresuid
391 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresgid
392 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setproctitle
393 ld: 0711-345 Use the -bloadmap or -bnoquiet option to obtain more information.
394
395you could retry with
396
397 make realclean
398 rm config.sh
399 ./Configure -Dusenm ...
400
401which makes Configure to use the C<nm> tool when scanning for library
402symbols, which usually is not done in AIX.
403
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404Related to this, you probably should not use the C<-r> option of
405Configure in AIX, because that affects of how the C<nm> tool is used.
406
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407=head2 Using GNU's gcc for building perl
408
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409Using gcc-3.x (tested with 3.0.4, 3.1, and 3.2) now works out of the box,
410as do recent gcc-2.9 builds available directly from IBM as part of their
411Linux compatibility packages, available here:
818c4caa 412
4238f5a6 413 http://www.ibm.com/servers/aix/products/aixos/linux/
20d11268 414
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415=head2 Using Large Files with Perl
416
60ecc970 417Should yield no problems.
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418
419=head2 Threaded Perl
420
60ecc970 421Threads seem to work OK, though at the moment not all tests pass when
1d69df2b 422threads are used in combination with 64-bit configurations.
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424You may get a warning when doing a threaded build:
425
426 "pp_sys.c", line 4640.39: 1506-280 (W) Function argument assignment between types "unsigned char*" and "const void*" is not allowed.
427
428The exact line number may vary, but if the warning (W) comes from a line
429line this
430
431 hent = PerlSock_gethostbyaddr(addr, (Netdb_hlen_t) addrlen, addrtype);
432
433in the "pp_ghostent" function, you may ignore it safely. The warning
434is caused by the reentrant variant of gethostbyaddr() having a slightly
435different prototype than its non-reentrant variant, but the difference
436is not really significant here.
437
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438=head2 64-bit Perl
439
1d69df2b 440If your AIX is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit
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441configurations to work. In combination with threads some tests might
442still fail.
20d11268 443
12f54d27 444=head2 AIX 4.2 and extensions using C++ with statics
20d11268 445
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446In AIX 4.2 Perl extensions that use C++ functions that use statics
447may have problems in that the statics are not getting initialized.
448In newer AIX releases this has been solved by linking Perl with
449the libC_r library, but unfortunately in AIX 4.2 the said library
450has an obscure bug where the various functions related to time
451(such as time() and gettimeofday()) return broken values, and
452therefore in AIX 4.2 Perl is not linked against the libC_r.
20d11268 453
7fabfece 454=head1 AUTHORS
20d11268 455
3bd76f0a 456H.Merijn Brand <h.m.brand@xs4all.nl>
7fabfece 457Rainer Tammer <tammer@tammer.net>
20d11268 458
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459=head1 DATE
460
e1051f11 461Version 0.0.8: 01 Dec 2008
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462
463=cut