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Benchmark.t: avoid ultra-lightweight code
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a0d0e21e 1/* sv.c
79072805 2 *
1129b882 3 * Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000,
83706693
RGS
4 * 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 by Larry Wall
5 * and others
79072805
LW
6 *
7 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
8 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
9 *
4ac71550
TC
10 */
11
12/*
13 * 'I wonder what the Entish is for "yes" and "no",' he thought.
14 * --Pippin
15 *
16 * [p.480 of _The Lord of the Rings_, III/iv: "Treebeard"]
17 */
18
19/*
645c22ef
DM
20 *
21 *
5e045b90
AMS
22 * This file contains the code that creates, manipulates and destroys
23 * scalar values (SVs). The other types (AV, HV, GV, etc.) reuse the
24 * structure of an SV, so their creation and destruction is handled
25 * here; higher-level functions are in av.c, hv.c, and so on. Opcode
26 * level functions (eg. substr, split, join) for each of the types are
27 * in the pp*.c files.
79072805
LW
28 */
29
30#include "EXTERN.h"
864dbfa3 31#define PERL_IN_SV_C
79072805 32#include "perl.h"
d2f185dc 33#include "regcomp.h"
79072805 34
07208e09 35#ifndef HAS_C99
4b2d6671 36# if __STDC_VERSION__ >= 199901L && !defined(VMS)
07208e09
CS
37# define HAS_C99 1
38# endif
39#endif
40#if HAS_C99
41# include <stdint.h>
42#endif
43
2f8ed50e
OS
44#ifdef __Lynx__
45/* Missing proto on LynxOS */
46 char *gconvert(double, int, int, char *);
47#endif
48
e23c8137 49#ifdef PERL_UTF8_CACHE_ASSERT
ab455f60 50/* if adding more checks watch out for the following tests:
e23c8137
JH
51 * t/op/index.t t/op/length.t t/op/pat.t t/op/substr.t
52 * lib/utf8.t lib/Unicode/Collate/t/index.t
53 * --jhi
54 */
6f207bd3 55# define ASSERT_UTF8_CACHE(cache) \
ab455f60
NC
56 STMT_START { if (cache) { assert((cache)[0] <= (cache)[1]); \
57 assert((cache)[2] <= (cache)[3]); \
58 assert((cache)[3] <= (cache)[1]);} \
59 } STMT_END
e23c8137 60#else
6f207bd3 61# define ASSERT_UTF8_CACHE(cache) NOOP
e23c8137
JH
62#endif
63
f8c7b90f 64#ifdef PERL_OLD_COPY_ON_WRITE
765f542d 65#define SV_COW_NEXT_SV(sv) INT2PTR(SV *,SvUVX(sv))
607fa7f2 66#define SV_COW_NEXT_SV_SET(current,next) SvUV_set(current, PTR2UV(next))
765f542d 67#endif
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68
69/* ============================================================================
70
71=head1 Allocation and deallocation of SVs.
72
d2a0f284
JC
73An SV (or AV, HV, etc.) is allocated in two parts: the head (struct
74sv, av, hv...) contains type and reference count information, and for
75many types, a pointer to the body (struct xrv, xpv, xpviv...), which
76contains fields specific to each type. Some types store all they need
77in the head, so don't have a body.
78
486ec47a 79In all but the most memory-paranoid configurations (ex: PURIFY), heads
d2a0f284
JC
80and bodies are allocated out of arenas, which by default are
81approximately 4K chunks of memory parcelled up into N heads or bodies.
93e68bfb
JC
82Sv-bodies are allocated by their sv-type, guaranteeing size
83consistency needed to allocate safely from arrays.
84
d2a0f284
JC
85For SV-heads, the first slot in each arena is reserved, and holds a
86link to the next arena, some flags, and a note of the number of slots.
87Snaked through each arena chain is a linked list of free items; when
88this becomes empty, an extra arena is allocated and divided up into N
89items which are threaded into the free list.
90
91SV-bodies are similar, but they use arena-sets by default, which
92separate the link and info from the arena itself, and reclaim the 1st
93slot in the arena. SV-bodies are further described later.
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94
95The following global variables are associated with arenas:
96
97 PL_sv_arenaroot pointer to list of SV arenas
98 PL_sv_root pointer to list of free SV structures
99
d2a0f284
JC
100 PL_body_arenas head of linked-list of body arenas
101 PL_body_roots[] array of pointers to list of free bodies of svtype
102 arrays are indexed by the svtype needed
93e68bfb 103
d2a0f284
JC
104A few special SV heads are not allocated from an arena, but are
105instead directly created in the interpreter structure, eg PL_sv_undef.
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JC
106The size of arenas can be changed from the default by setting
107PERL_ARENA_SIZE appropriately at compile time.
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108
109The SV arena serves the secondary purpose of allowing still-live SVs
110to be located and destroyed during final cleanup.
111
112At the lowest level, the macros new_SV() and del_SV() grab and free
113an SV head. (If debugging with -DD, del_SV() calls the function S_del_sv()
114to return the SV to the free list with error checking.) new_SV() calls
115more_sv() / sv_add_arena() to add an extra arena if the free list is empty.
116SVs in the free list have their SvTYPE field set to all ones.
117
ff276b08 118At the time of very final cleanup, sv_free_arenas() is called from
645c22ef 119perl_destruct() to physically free all the arenas allocated since the
6a93a7e5 120start of the interpreter.
645c22ef 121
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DM
122The function visit() scans the SV arenas list, and calls a specified
123function for each SV it finds which is still live - ie which has an SvTYPE
124other than all 1's, and a non-zero SvREFCNT. visit() is used by the
125following functions (specified as [function that calls visit()] / [function
126called by visit() for each SV]):
127
128 sv_report_used() / do_report_used()
f2524eef 129 dump all remaining SVs (debugging aid)
645c22ef 130
e4487e9b 131 sv_clean_objs() / do_clean_objs(),do_clean_named_objs(),
e76981f9 132 do_clean_named_io_objs(),do_curse()
645c22ef 133 Attempt to free all objects pointed to by RVs,
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FC
134 try to do the same for all objects indir-
135 ectly referenced by typeglobs too, and
136 then do a final sweep, cursing any
137 objects that remain. Called once from
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138 perl_destruct(), prior to calling sv_clean_all()
139 below.
140
141 sv_clean_all() / do_clean_all()
142 SvREFCNT_dec(sv) each remaining SV, possibly
143 triggering an sv_free(). It also sets the
144 SVf_BREAK flag on the SV to indicate that the
145 refcnt has been artificially lowered, and thus
146 stopping sv_free() from giving spurious warnings
147 about SVs which unexpectedly have a refcnt
148 of zero. called repeatedly from perl_destruct()
149 until there are no SVs left.
150
93e68bfb 151=head2 Arena allocator API Summary
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152
153Private API to rest of sv.c
154
155 new_SV(), del_SV(),
156
df0f0429 157 new_XPVNV(), del_XPVGV(),
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DM
158 etc
159
160Public API:
161
8cf8f3d1 162 sv_report_used(), sv_clean_objs(), sv_clean_all(), sv_free_arenas()
645c22ef 163
645c22ef
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164=cut
165
3e8320cc 166 * ========================================================================= */
645c22ef 167
4561caa4
CS
168/*
169 * "A time to plant, and a time to uproot what was planted..."
170 */
171
d7a2c63c
MHM
172#ifdef PERL_MEM_LOG
173# define MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(sv, file, line, func) \
174 Perl_mem_log_new_sv(sv, file, line, func)
175# define MEM_LOG_DEL_SV(sv, file, line, func) \
176 Perl_mem_log_del_sv(sv, file, line, func)
177#else
178# define MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(sv, file, line, func) NOOP
179# define MEM_LOG_DEL_SV(sv, file, line, func) NOOP
180#endif
181
fd0854ff 182#ifdef DEBUG_LEAKING_SCALARS
484e6108
FC
183# define FREE_SV_DEBUG_FILE(sv) STMT_START { \
184 if ((sv)->sv_debug_file) PerlMemShared_free((sv)->sv_debug_file); \
185 } STMT_END
d7a2c63c
MHM
186# define DEBUG_SV_SERIAL(sv) \
187 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf": (%05ld) del_SV\n", \
188 PTR2UV(sv), (long)(sv)->sv_debug_serial))
fd0854ff
DM
189#else
190# define FREE_SV_DEBUG_FILE(sv)
d7a2c63c 191# define DEBUG_SV_SERIAL(sv) NOOP
fd0854ff
DM
192#endif
193
48614a46
NC
194#ifdef PERL_POISON
195# define SvARENA_CHAIN(sv) ((sv)->sv_u.svu_rv)
daba3364 196# define SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv,val) (sv)->sv_u.svu_rv = MUTABLE_SV((val))
48614a46
NC
197/* Whilst I'd love to do this, it seems that things like to check on
198 unreferenced scalars
7e337ee0 199# define POSION_SV_HEAD(sv) PoisonNew(sv, 1, struct STRUCT_SV)
48614a46 200*/
7e337ee0
JH
201# define POSION_SV_HEAD(sv) PoisonNew(&SvANY(sv), 1, void *), \
202 PoisonNew(&SvREFCNT(sv), 1, U32)
48614a46
NC
203#else
204# define SvARENA_CHAIN(sv) SvANY(sv)
3eef1deb 205# define SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv,val) SvANY(sv) = (void *)(val)
48614a46
NC
206# define POSION_SV_HEAD(sv)
207#endif
208
990198f0
DM
209/* Mark an SV head as unused, and add to free list.
210 *
211 * If SVf_BREAK is set, skip adding it to the free list, as this SV had
212 * its refcount artificially decremented during global destruction, so
213 * there may be dangling pointers to it. The last thing we want in that
214 * case is for it to be reused. */
215
053fc874
GS
216#define plant_SV(p) \
217 STMT_START { \
990198f0 218 const U32 old_flags = SvFLAGS(p); \
d7a2c63c
MHM
219 MEM_LOG_DEL_SV(p, __FILE__, __LINE__, FUNCTION__); \
220 DEBUG_SV_SERIAL(p); \
fd0854ff 221 FREE_SV_DEBUG_FILE(p); \
48614a46 222 POSION_SV_HEAD(p); \
053fc874 223 SvFLAGS(p) = SVTYPEMASK; \
990198f0 224 if (!(old_flags & SVf_BREAK)) { \
3eef1deb 225 SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(p, PL_sv_root); \
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DM
226 PL_sv_root = (p); \
227 } \
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GS
228 --PL_sv_count; \
229 } STMT_END
a0d0e21e 230
053fc874
GS
231#define uproot_SV(p) \
232 STMT_START { \
233 (p) = PL_sv_root; \
daba3364 234 PL_sv_root = MUTABLE_SV(SvARENA_CHAIN(p)); \
053fc874
GS
235 ++PL_sv_count; \
236 } STMT_END
237
645c22ef 238
cac9b346
NC
239/* make some more SVs by adding another arena */
240
cac9b346
NC
241STATIC SV*
242S_more_sv(pTHX)
243{
97aff369 244 dVAR;
cac9b346 245 SV* sv;
9a87bd09
NC
246 char *chunk; /* must use New here to match call to */
247 Newx(chunk,PERL_ARENA_SIZE,char); /* Safefree() in sv_free_arenas() */
248 sv_add_arena(chunk, PERL_ARENA_SIZE, 0);
cac9b346
NC
249 uproot_SV(sv);
250 return sv;
251}
252
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DM
253/* new_SV(): return a new, empty SV head */
254
eba0f806
DM
255#ifdef DEBUG_LEAKING_SCALARS
256/* provide a real function for a debugger to play with */
257STATIC SV*
d7a2c63c 258S_new_SV(pTHX_ const char *file, int line, const char *func)
eba0f806
DM
259{
260 SV* sv;
261
eba0f806
DM
262 if (PL_sv_root)
263 uproot_SV(sv);
264 else
cac9b346 265 sv = S_more_sv(aTHX);
eba0f806
DM
266 SvANY(sv) = 0;
267 SvREFCNT(sv) = 1;
268 SvFLAGS(sv) = 0;
fd0854ff 269 sv->sv_debug_optype = PL_op ? PL_op->op_type : 0;
e385c3bf
DM
270 sv->sv_debug_line = (U16) (PL_parser && PL_parser->copline != NOLINE
271 ? PL_parser->copline
272 : PL_curcop
f24aceb1
DM
273 ? CopLINE(PL_curcop)
274 : 0
e385c3bf 275 );
fd0854ff 276 sv->sv_debug_inpad = 0;
cd676548 277 sv->sv_debug_parent = NULL;
484e6108 278 sv->sv_debug_file = PL_curcop ? savesharedpv(CopFILE(PL_curcop)): NULL;
d7a2c63c
MHM
279
280 sv->sv_debug_serial = PL_sv_serial++;
281
282 MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(sv, file, line, func);
283 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf": (%05ld) new_SV (from %s:%d [%s])\n",
284 PTR2UV(sv), (long)sv->sv_debug_serial, file, line, func));
285
eba0f806
DM
286 return sv;
287}
d7a2c63c 288# define new_SV(p) (p)=S_new_SV(aTHX_ __FILE__, __LINE__, FUNCTION__)
eba0f806
DM
289
290#else
291# define new_SV(p) \
053fc874 292 STMT_START { \
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GS
293 if (PL_sv_root) \
294 uproot_SV(p); \
295 else \
cac9b346 296 (p) = S_more_sv(aTHX); \
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GS
297 SvANY(p) = 0; \
298 SvREFCNT(p) = 1; \
299 SvFLAGS(p) = 0; \
d7a2c63c 300 MEM_LOG_NEW_SV(p, __FILE__, __LINE__, FUNCTION__); \
053fc874 301 } STMT_END
eba0f806 302#endif
463ee0b2 303
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DM
304
305/* del_SV(): return an empty SV head to the free list */
306
a0d0e21e 307#ifdef DEBUGGING
4561caa4 308
053fc874
GS
309#define del_SV(p) \
310 STMT_START { \
aea4f609 311 if (DEBUG_D_TEST) \
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GS
312 del_sv(p); \
313 else \
314 plant_SV(p); \
053fc874 315 } STMT_END
a0d0e21e 316
76e3520e 317STATIC void
cea2e8a9 318S_del_sv(pTHX_ SV *p)
463ee0b2 319{
97aff369 320 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
321
322 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_DEL_SV;
323
aea4f609 324 if (DEBUG_D_TEST) {
4633a7c4 325 SV* sva;
a3b680e6 326 bool ok = 0;
daba3364 327 for (sva = PL_sv_arenaroot; sva; sva = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(sva))) {
53c1dcc0
AL
328 const SV * const sv = sva + 1;
329 const SV * const svend = &sva[SvREFCNT(sva)];
c0ff570e 330 if (p >= sv && p < svend) {
a0d0e21e 331 ok = 1;
c0ff570e
NC
332 break;
333 }
a0d0e21e
LW
334 }
335 if (!ok) {
9b387841
NC
336 Perl_ck_warner_d(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_INTERNAL),
337 "Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%"UVxf
338 pTHX__FORMAT, PTR2UV(p) pTHX__VALUE);
a0d0e21e
LW
339 return;
340 }
341 }
4561caa4 342 plant_SV(p);
463ee0b2 343}
a0d0e21e 344
4561caa4
CS
345#else /* ! DEBUGGING */
346
347#define del_SV(p) plant_SV(p)
348
349#endif /* DEBUGGING */
463ee0b2 350
645c22ef
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351
352/*
ccfc67b7
JH
353=head1 SV Manipulation Functions
354
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355=for apidoc sv_add_arena
356
357Given a chunk of memory, link it to the head of the list of arenas,
358and split it into a list of free SVs.
359
360=cut
361*/
362
d2bd4e7f
NC
363static void
364S_sv_add_arena(pTHX_ char *const ptr, const U32 size, const U32 flags)
463ee0b2 365{
97aff369 366 dVAR;
daba3364 367 SV *const sva = MUTABLE_SV(ptr);
eb578fdb
KW
368 SV* sv;
369 SV* svend;
4633a7c4 370
7918f24d
NC
371 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_ADD_ARENA;
372
4633a7c4 373 /* The first SV in an arena isn't an SV. */
3280af22 374 SvANY(sva) = (void *) PL_sv_arenaroot; /* ptr to next arena */
4633a7c4
LW
375 SvREFCNT(sva) = size / sizeof(SV); /* number of SV slots */
376 SvFLAGS(sva) = flags; /* FAKE if not to be freed */
377
3280af22
NIS
378 PL_sv_arenaroot = sva;
379 PL_sv_root = sva + 1;
4633a7c4
LW
380
381 svend = &sva[SvREFCNT(sva) - 1];
382 sv = sva + 1;
463ee0b2 383 while (sv < svend) {
3eef1deb 384 SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv, (sv + 1));
03e36789 385#ifdef DEBUGGING
978b032e 386 SvREFCNT(sv) = 0;
03e36789 387#endif
4b69cbe3 388 /* Must always set typemask because it's always checked in on cleanup
03e36789 389 when the arenas are walked looking for objects. */
8990e307 390 SvFLAGS(sv) = SVTYPEMASK;
463ee0b2
LW
391 sv++;
392 }
3eef1deb 393 SvARENA_CHAIN_SET(sv, 0);
03e36789
NC
394#ifdef DEBUGGING
395 SvREFCNT(sv) = 0;
396#endif
4633a7c4
LW
397 SvFLAGS(sv) = SVTYPEMASK;
398}
399
055972dc
DM
400/* visit(): call the named function for each non-free SV in the arenas
401 * whose flags field matches the flags/mask args. */
645c22ef 402
5226ed68 403STATIC I32
de37a194 404S_visit(pTHX_ SVFUNC_t f, const U32 flags, const U32 mask)
8990e307 405{
97aff369 406 dVAR;
4633a7c4 407 SV* sva;
5226ed68 408 I32 visited = 0;
8990e307 409
7918f24d
NC
410 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_VISIT;
411
daba3364 412 for (sva = PL_sv_arenaroot; sva; sva = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(sva))) {
eb578fdb
KW
413 const SV * const svend = &sva[SvREFCNT(sva)];
414 SV* sv;
4561caa4 415 for (sv = sva + 1; sv < svend; ++sv) {
e4787c0c 416 if (SvTYPE(sv) != (svtype)SVTYPEMASK
055972dc
DM
417 && (sv->sv_flags & mask) == flags
418 && SvREFCNT(sv))
419 {
942481a7 420 (*f)(aTHX_ sv);
5226ed68
JH
421 ++visited;
422 }
8990e307
LW
423 }
424 }
5226ed68 425 return visited;
8990e307
LW
426}
427
758a08c3
JH
428#ifdef DEBUGGING
429
645c22ef
DM
430/* called by sv_report_used() for each live SV */
431
432static void
5fa45a31 433do_report_used(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
645c22ef 434{
e4787c0c 435 if (SvTYPE(sv) != (svtype)SVTYPEMASK) {
645c22ef
DM
436 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "****\n");
437 sv_dump(sv);
438 }
439}
758a08c3 440#endif
645c22ef
DM
441
442/*
443=for apidoc sv_report_used
444
fde67290 445Dump the contents of all SVs not yet freed (debugging aid).
645c22ef
DM
446
447=cut
448*/
449
8990e307 450void
864dbfa3 451Perl_sv_report_used(pTHX)
4561caa4 452{
ff270d3a 453#ifdef DEBUGGING
055972dc 454 visit(do_report_used, 0, 0);
96a5add6
AL
455#else
456 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
ff270d3a 457#endif
4561caa4
CS
458}
459
645c22ef
DM
460/* called by sv_clean_objs() for each live SV */
461
462static void
de37a194 463do_clean_objs(pTHX_ SV *const ref)
645c22ef 464{
97aff369 465 dVAR;
ea724faa
NC
466 assert (SvROK(ref));
467 {
823a54a3
AL
468 SV * const target = SvRV(ref);
469 if (SvOBJECT(target)) {
470 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Cleaning object ref:\n "), sv_dump(ref)));
471 if (SvWEAKREF(ref)) {
472 sv_del_backref(target, ref);
473 SvWEAKREF_off(ref);
474 SvRV_set(ref, NULL);
475 } else {
476 SvROK_off(ref);
477 SvRV_set(ref, NULL);
fc2b2dca 478 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(target);
823a54a3 479 }
645c22ef
DM
480 }
481 }
645c22ef
DM
482}
483
645c22ef 484
e4487e9b
DM
485/* clear any slots in a GV which hold objects - except IO;
486 * called by sv_clean_objs() for each live GV */
487
645c22ef 488static void
f30de749 489do_clean_named_objs(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
645c22ef 490{
97aff369 491 dVAR;
57ef47cc 492 SV *obj;
ea724faa 493 assert(SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVGV);
d011219a 494 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
57ef47cc
DM
495 if (!GvGP(sv))
496 return;
497
498 /* freeing GP entries may indirectly free the current GV;
499 * hold onto it while we mess with the GP slots */
500 SvREFCNT_inc(sv);
501
502 if ( ((obj = GvSV(sv) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
503 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
504 "Cleaning named glob SV object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
505 GvSV(sv) = NULL;
fc2b2dca 506 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(obj);
57ef47cc
DM
507 }
508 if ( ((obj = MUTABLE_SV(GvAV(sv)) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
509 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
510 "Cleaning named glob AV object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
511 GvAV(sv) = NULL;
fc2b2dca 512 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(obj);
57ef47cc
DM
513 }
514 if ( ((obj = MUTABLE_SV(GvHV(sv)) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
515 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
516 "Cleaning named glob HV object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
517 GvHV(sv) = NULL;
fc2b2dca 518 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(obj);
57ef47cc
DM
519 }
520 if ( ((obj = MUTABLE_SV(GvCV(sv)) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
521 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
522 "Cleaning named glob CV object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
c43ae56f 523 GvCV_set(sv, NULL);
fc2b2dca 524 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(obj);
57ef47cc 525 }
fc2b2dca 526 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(sv); /* undo the inc above */
e4487e9b
DM
527}
528
68b590d9 529/* clear any IO slots in a GV which hold objects (except stderr, defout);
e4487e9b
DM
530 * called by sv_clean_objs() for each live GV */
531
532static void
533do_clean_named_io_objs(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
534{
535 dVAR;
536 SV *obj;
537 assert(SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVGV);
538 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
68b590d9 539 if (!GvGP(sv) || sv == (SV*)PL_stderrgv || sv == (SV*)PL_defoutgv)
e4487e9b
DM
540 return;
541
542 SvREFCNT_inc(sv);
57ef47cc
DM
543 if ( ((obj = MUTABLE_SV(GvIO(sv)) )) && SvOBJECT(obj)) {
544 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
545 "Cleaning named glob IO object:\n "), sv_dump(obj)));
546 GvIOp(sv) = NULL;
fc2b2dca 547 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(obj);
645c22ef 548 }
fc2b2dca 549 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(sv); /* undo the inc above */
645c22ef 550}
645c22ef 551
4155e4fe
FC
552/* Void wrapper to pass to visit() */
553static void
554do_curse(pTHX_ SV * const sv) {
c2910e6c
FC
555 if ((PL_stderrgv && GvGP(PL_stderrgv) && (SV*)GvIO(PL_stderrgv) == sv)
556 || (PL_defoutgv && GvGP(PL_defoutgv) && (SV*)GvIO(PL_defoutgv) == sv))
4155e4fe
FC
557 return;
558 (void)curse(sv, 0);
559}
560
645c22ef
DM
561/*
562=for apidoc sv_clean_objs
563
fde67290 564Attempt to destroy all objects not yet freed.
645c22ef
DM
565
566=cut
567*/
568
4561caa4 569void
864dbfa3 570Perl_sv_clean_objs(pTHX)
4561caa4 571{
97aff369 572 dVAR;
68b590d9 573 GV *olddef, *olderr;
3280af22 574 PL_in_clean_objs = TRUE;
055972dc 575 visit(do_clean_objs, SVf_ROK, SVf_ROK);
e4487e9b
DM
576 /* Some barnacles may yet remain, clinging to typeglobs.
577 * Run the non-IO destructors first: they may want to output
578 * error messages, close files etc */
d011219a 579 visit(do_clean_named_objs, SVt_PVGV|SVpgv_GP, SVTYPEMASK|SVp_POK|SVpgv_GP);
e4487e9b 580 visit(do_clean_named_io_objs, SVt_PVGV|SVpgv_GP, SVTYPEMASK|SVp_POK|SVpgv_GP);
4155e4fe
FC
581 /* And if there are some very tenacious barnacles clinging to arrays,
582 closures, or what have you.... */
583 visit(do_curse, SVs_OBJECT, SVs_OBJECT);
68b590d9
DM
584 olddef = PL_defoutgv;
585 PL_defoutgv = NULL; /* disable skip of PL_defoutgv */
586 if (olddef && isGV_with_GP(olddef))
587 do_clean_named_io_objs(aTHX_ MUTABLE_SV(olddef));
588 olderr = PL_stderrgv;
589 PL_stderrgv = NULL; /* disable skip of PL_stderrgv */
590 if (olderr && isGV_with_GP(olderr))
591 do_clean_named_io_objs(aTHX_ MUTABLE_SV(olderr));
592 SvREFCNT_dec(olddef);
3280af22 593 PL_in_clean_objs = FALSE;
4561caa4
CS
594}
595
645c22ef
DM
596/* called by sv_clean_all() for each live SV */
597
598static void
de37a194 599do_clean_all(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
645c22ef 600{
97aff369 601 dVAR;
daba3364 602 if (sv == (const SV *) PL_fdpid || sv == (const SV *)PL_strtab) {
cddfcddc 603 /* don't clean pid table and strtab */
d17ea597 604 return;
cddfcddc 605 }
645c22ef
DM
606 DEBUG_D((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "Cleaning loops: SV at 0x%"UVxf"\n", PTR2UV(sv)) ));
607 SvFLAGS(sv) |= SVf_BREAK;
fc2b2dca 608 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(sv);
645c22ef
DM
609}
610
611/*
612=for apidoc sv_clean_all
613
614Decrement the refcnt of each remaining SV, possibly triggering a
fde67290 615cleanup. This function may have to be called multiple times to free
ff276b08 616SVs which are in complex self-referential hierarchies.
645c22ef
DM
617
618=cut
619*/
620
5226ed68 621I32
864dbfa3 622Perl_sv_clean_all(pTHX)
8990e307 623{
97aff369 624 dVAR;
5226ed68 625 I32 cleaned;
3280af22 626 PL_in_clean_all = TRUE;
055972dc 627 cleaned = visit(do_clean_all, 0,0);
5226ed68 628 return cleaned;
8990e307 629}
463ee0b2 630
5e258f8c
JC
631/*
632 ARENASETS: a meta-arena implementation which separates arena-info
633 into struct arena_set, which contains an array of struct
634 arena_descs, each holding info for a single arena. By separating
635 the meta-info from the arena, we recover the 1st slot, formerly
636 borrowed for list management. The arena_set is about the size of an
39244528 637 arena, avoiding the needless malloc overhead of a naive linked-list.
5e258f8c
JC
638
639 The cost is 1 arena-set malloc per ~320 arena-mallocs, + the unused
640 memory in the last arena-set (1/2 on average). In trade, we get
641 back the 1st slot in each arena (ie 1.7% of a CV-arena, less for
d2a0f284 642 smaller types). The recovery of the wasted space allows use of
e15dad31
JC
643 small arenas for large, rare body types, by changing array* fields
644 in body_details_by_type[] below.
5e258f8c 645*/
5e258f8c 646struct arena_desc {
398c677b
NC
647 char *arena; /* the raw storage, allocated aligned */
648 size_t size; /* its size ~4k typ */
e5973ed5 649 svtype utype; /* bodytype stored in arena */
5e258f8c
JC
650};
651
e6148039
NC
652struct arena_set;
653
654/* Get the maximum number of elements in set[] such that struct arena_set
e15dad31 655 will fit within PERL_ARENA_SIZE, which is probably just under 4K, and
e6148039
NC
656 therefore likely to be 1 aligned memory page. */
657
658#define ARENAS_PER_SET ((PERL_ARENA_SIZE - sizeof(struct arena_set*) \
659 - 2 * sizeof(int)) / sizeof (struct arena_desc))
5e258f8c
JC
660
661struct arena_set {
662 struct arena_set* next;
0a848332
NC
663 unsigned int set_size; /* ie ARENAS_PER_SET */
664 unsigned int curr; /* index of next available arena-desc */
5e258f8c
JC
665 struct arena_desc set[ARENAS_PER_SET];
666};
667
645c22ef
DM
668/*
669=for apidoc sv_free_arenas
670
fde67290 671Deallocate the memory used by all arenas. Note that all the individual SV
645c22ef
DM
672heads and bodies within the arenas must already have been freed.
673
674=cut
675*/
4633a7c4 676void
864dbfa3 677Perl_sv_free_arenas(pTHX)
4633a7c4 678{
97aff369 679 dVAR;
4633a7c4
LW
680 SV* sva;
681 SV* svanext;
0a848332 682 unsigned int i;
4633a7c4
LW
683
684 /* Free arenas here, but be careful about fake ones. (We assume
685 contiguity of the fake ones with the corresponding real ones.) */
686
3280af22 687 for (sva = PL_sv_arenaroot; sva; sva = svanext) {
daba3364 688 svanext = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(sva));
4633a7c4 689 while (svanext && SvFAKE(svanext))
daba3364 690 svanext = MUTABLE_SV(SvANY(svanext));
4633a7c4
LW
691
692 if (!SvFAKE(sva))
1df70142 693 Safefree(sva);
4633a7c4 694 }
93e68bfb 695
5e258f8c 696 {
0a848332
NC
697 struct arena_set *aroot = (struct arena_set*) PL_body_arenas;
698
699 while (aroot) {
700 struct arena_set *current = aroot;
701 i = aroot->curr;
702 while (i--) {
5e258f8c
JC
703 assert(aroot->set[i].arena);
704 Safefree(aroot->set[i].arena);
705 }
0a848332
NC
706 aroot = aroot->next;
707 Safefree(current);
5e258f8c
JC
708 }
709 }
dc8220bf 710 PL_body_arenas = 0;
fdda85ca 711
0a848332
NC
712 i = PERL_ARENA_ROOTS_SIZE;
713 while (i--)
93e68bfb 714 PL_body_roots[i] = 0;
93e68bfb 715
3280af22
NIS
716 PL_sv_arenaroot = 0;
717 PL_sv_root = 0;
4633a7c4
LW
718}
719
bd81e77b
NC
720/*
721 Here are mid-level routines that manage the allocation of bodies out
722 of the various arenas. There are 5 kinds of arenas:
29489e7c 723
bd81e77b
NC
724 1. SV-head arenas, which are discussed and handled above
725 2. regular body arenas
726 3. arenas for reduced-size bodies
727 4. Hash-Entry arenas
29489e7c 728
bd81e77b
NC
729 Arena types 2 & 3 are chained by body-type off an array of
730 arena-root pointers, which is indexed by svtype. Some of the
731 larger/less used body types are malloced singly, since a large
732 unused block of them is wasteful. Also, several svtypes dont have
733 bodies; the data fits into the sv-head itself. The arena-root
734 pointer thus has a few unused root-pointers (which may be hijacked
735 later for arena types 4,5)
29489e7c 736
bd81e77b
NC
737 3 differs from 2 as an optimization; some body types have several
738 unused fields in the front of the structure (which are kept in-place
739 for consistency). These bodies can be allocated in smaller chunks,
740 because the leading fields arent accessed. Pointers to such bodies
741 are decremented to point at the unused 'ghost' memory, knowing that
742 the pointers are used with offsets to the real memory.
29489e7c 743
d2a0f284
JC
744
745=head1 SV-Body Allocation
746
747Allocation of SV-bodies is similar to SV-heads, differing as follows;
748the allocation mechanism is used for many body types, so is somewhat
749more complicated, it uses arena-sets, and has no need for still-live
750SV detection.
751
752At the outermost level, (new|del)_X*V macros return bodies of the
753appropriate type. These macros call either (new|del)_body_type or
754(new|del)_body_allocated macro pairs, depending on specifics of the
755type. Most body types use the former pair, the latter pair is used to
756allocate body types with "ghost fields".
757
758"ghost fields" are fields that are unused in certain types, and
69ba284b 759consequently don't need to actually exist. They are declared because
d2a0f284
JC
760they're part of a "base type", which allows use of functions as
761methods. The simplest examples are AVs and HVs, 2 aggregate types
762which don't use the fields which support SCALAR semantics.
763
69ba284b 764For these types, the arenas are carved up into appropriately sized
d2a0f284
JC
765chunks, we thus avoid wasted memory for those unaccessed members.
766When bodies are allocated, we adjust the pointer back in memory by the
69ba284b 767size of the part not allocated, so it's as if we allocated the full
d2a0f284
JC
768structure. (But things will all go boom if you write to the part that
769is "not there", because you'll be overwriting the last members of the
770preceding structure in memory.)
771
69ba284b
NC
772We calculate the correction using the STRUCT_OFFSET macro on the first
773member present. If the allocated structure is smaller (no initial NV
774actually allocated) then the net effect is to subtract the size of the NV
775from the pointer, to return a new pointer as if an initial NV were actually
776allocated. (We were using structures named *_allocated for this, but
777this turned out to be a subtle bug, because a structure without an NV
778could have a lower alignment constraint, but the compiler is allowed to
779optimised accesses based on the alignment constraint of the actual pointer
780to the full structure, for example, using a single 64 bit load instruction
781because it "knows" that two adjacent 32 bit members will be 8-byte aligned.)
d2a0f284
JC
782
783This is the same trick as was used for NV and IV bodies. Ironically it
784doesn't need to be used for NV bodies any more, because NV is now at
785the start of the structure. IV bodies don't need it either, because
786they are no longer allocated.
787
788In turn, the new_body_* allocators call S_new_body(), which invokes
789new_body_inline macro, which takes a lock, and takes a body off the
1e30fcd5 790linked list at PL_body_roots[sv_type], calling Perl_more_bodies() if
d2a0f284
JC
791necessary to refresh an empty list. Then the lock is released, and
792the body is returned.
793
99816f8d 794Perl_more_bodies allocates a new arena, and carves it up into an array of N
d2a0f284
JC
795bodies, which it strings into a linked list. It looks up arena-size
796and body-size from the body_details table described below, thus
797supporting the multiple body-types.
798
799If PURIFY is defined, or PERL_ARENA_SIZE=0, arenas are not used, and
800the (new|del)_X*V macros are mapped directly to malloc/free.
801
d2a0f284
JC
802For each sv-type, struct body_details bodies_by_type[] carries
803parameters which control these aspects of SV handling:
804
805Arena_size determines whether arenas are used for this body type, and if
806so, how big they are. PURIFY or PERL_ARENA_SIZE=0 set this field to
807zero, forcing individual mallocs and frees.
808
809Body_size determines how big a body is, and therefore how many fit into
810each arena. Offset carries the body-pointer adjustment needed for
69ba284b 811"ghost fields", and is used in *_allocated macros.
d2a0f284
JC
812
813But its main purpose is to parameterize info needed in
814Perl_sv_upgrade(). The info here dramatically simplifies the function
69ba284b 815vs the implementation in 5.8.8, making it table-driven. All fields
d2a0f284
JC
816are used for this, except for arena_size.
817
818For the sv-types that have no bodies, arenas are not used, so those
819PL_body_roots[sv_type] are unused, and can be overloaded. In
820something of a special case, SVt_NULL is borrowed for HE arenas;
c6f8b1d0 821PL_body_roots[HE_SVSLOT=SVt_NULL] is filled by S_more_he, but the
d2a0f284 822bodies_by_type[SVt_NULL] slot is not used, as the table is not
c6f8b1d0 823available in hv.c.
d2a0f284 824
29489e7c
DM
825*/
826
bd81e77b 827struct body_details {
0fb58b32 828 U8 body_size; /* Size to allocate */
10666ae3 829 U8 copy; /* Size of structure to copy (may be shorter) */
0fb58b32 830 U8 offset;
10666ae3
NC
831 unsigned int type : 4; /* We have space for a sanity check. */
832 unsigned int cant_upgrade : 1; /* Cannot upgrade this type */
833 unsigned int zero_nv : 1; /* zero the NV when upgrading from this */
834 unsigned int arena : 1; /* Allocated from an arena */
835 size_t arena_size; /* Size of arena to allocate */
bd81e77b 836};
29489e7c 837
bd81e77b
NC
838#define HADNV FALSE
839#define NONV TRUE
29489e7c 840
d2a0f284 841
bd81e77b
NC
842#ifdef PURIFY
843/* With -DPURFIY we allocate everything directly, and don't use arenas.
844 This seems a rather elegant way to simplify some of the code below. */
845#define HASARENA FALSE
846#else
847#define HASARENA TRUE
848#endif
849#define NOARENA FALSE
29489e7c 850
d2a0f284
JC
851/* Size the arenas to exactly fit a given number of bodies. A count
852 of 0 fits the max number bodies into a PERL_ARENA_SIZE.block,
853 simplifying the default. If count > 0, the arena is sized to fit
854 only that many bodies, allowing arenas to be used for large, rare
855 bodies (XPVFM, XPVIO) without undue waste. The arena size is
856 limited by PERL_ARENA_SIZE, so we can safely oversize the
857 declarations.
858 */
95db5f15
MB
859#define FIT_ARENA0(body_size) \
860 ((size_t)(PERL_ARENA_SIZE / body_size) * body_size)
861#define FIT_ARENAn(count,body_size) \
862 ( count * body_size <= PERL_ARENA_SIZE) \
863 ? count * body_size \
864 : FIT_ARENA0 (body_size)
865#define FIT_ARENA(count,body_size) \
866 count \
867 ? FIT_ARENAn (count, body_size) \
868 : FIT_ARENA0 (body_size)
d2a0f284 869
bd81e77b
NC
870/* Calculate the length to copy. Specifically work out the length less any
871 final padding the compiler needed to add. See the comment in sv_upgrade
872 for why copying the padding proved to be a bug. */
29489e7c 873
bd81e77b
NC
874#define copy_length(type, last_member) \
875 STRUCT_OFFSET(type, last_member) \
daba3364 876 + sizeof (((type*)SvANY((const SV *)0))->last_member)
29489e7c 877
bd81e77b 878static const struct body_details bodies_by_type[] = {
829cd18a
NC
879 /* HEs use this offset for their arena. */
880 { 0, 0, 0, SVt_NULL, FALSE, NONV, NOARENA, 0 },
d2a0f284 881
db93c0c4
NC
882 /* IVs are in the head, so the allocation size is 0. */
883 { 0,
d2a0f284 884 sizeof(IV), /* This is used to copy out the IV body. */
10666ae3 885 STRUCT_OFFSET(XPVIV, xiv_iv), SVt_IV, FALSE, NONV,
db93c0c4 886 NOARENA /* IVS don't need an arena */, 0
d2a0f284
JC
887 },
888
6e128786
NC
889 { sizeof(NV), sizeof(NV),
890 STRUCT_OFFSET(XPVNV, xnv_u),
891 SVt_NV, FALSE, HADNV, HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(NV)) },
d2a0f284 892
bc337e5c 893 { sizeof(XPV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
889d28b2
NC
894 copy_length(XPV, xpv_len) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
895 + STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
69ba284b 896 SVt_PV, FALSE, NONV, HASARENA,
889d28b2 897 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur)) },
d2a0f284 898
d361b004
KW
899 { sizeof(XINVLIST) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
900 copy_length(XINVLIST, is_offset) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
901 + STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
902 SVt_INVLIST, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
903 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XINVLIST) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur)) },
e94d9b54 904
bc337e5c 905 { sizeof(XPVIV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
889d28b2
NC
906 copy_length(XPVIV, xiv_u) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
907 + STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
908 SVt_PVIV, FALSE, NONV, HASARENA,
909 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVIV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur)) },
d2a0f284 910
bc337e5c 911 { sizeof(XPVNV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
889d28b2
NC
912 copy_length(XPVNV, xnv_u) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
913 + STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur),
914 SVt_PVNV, FALSE, HADNV, HASARENA,
915 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVNV) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPV, xpv_cur)) },
d2a0f284 916
6e128786 917 { sizeof(XPVMG), copy_length(XPVMG, xnv_u), 0, SVt_PVMG, FALSE, HADNV,
d2a0f284 918 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVMG)) },
4df7f6af 919
601dfd0a
NC
920 { sizeof(regexp),
921 sizeof(regexp),
922 0,
ecff11eb 923 SVt_REGEXP, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
eaeb1e7f 924 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(regexp))
5c35adbb 925 },
4df7f6af 926
10666ae3 927 { sizeof(XPVGV), sizeof(XPVGV), 0, SVt_PVGV, TRUE, HADNV,
d2a0f284
JC
928 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVGV)) },
929
10666ae3 930 { sizeof(XPVLV), sizeof(XPVLV), 0, SVt_PVLV, TRUE, HADNV,
d2a0f284
JC
931 HASARENA, FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVLV)) },
932
601dfd0a 933 { sizeof(XPVAV),
4f7003f5 934 copy_length(XPVAV, xav_alloc),
601dfd0a 935 0,
69ba284b 936 SVt_PVAV, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 937 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVAV)) },
d2a0f284 938
601dfd0a 939 { sizeof(XPVHV),
359164a0 940 copy_length(XPVHV, xhv_max),
601dfd0a 941 0,
69ba284b 942 SVt_PVHV, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 943 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVHV)) },
d2a0f284 944
601dfd0a
NC
945 { sizeof(XPVCV),
946 sizeof(XPVCV),
947 0,
69ba284b 948 SVt_PVCV, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 949 FIT_ARENA(0, sizeof(XPVCV)) },
69ba284b 950
601dfd0a
NC
951 { sizeof(XPVFM),
952 sizeof(XPVFM),
953 0,
69ba284b 954 SVt_PVFM, TRUE, NONV, NOARENA,
601dfd0a 955 FIT_ARENA(20, sizeof(XPVFM)) },
d2a0f284 956
601dfd0a
NC
957 { sizeof(XPVIO),
958 sizeof(XPVIO),
959 0,
b6f60916 960 SVt_PVIO, TRUE, NONV, HASARENA,
601dfd0a 961 FIT_ARENA(24, sizeof(XPVIO)) },
bd81e77b 962};
29489e7c 963
bd81e77b 964#define new_body_allocated(sv_type) \
d2a0f284 965 (void *)((char *)S_new_body(aTHX_ sv_type) \
bd81e77b 966 - bodies_by_type[sv_type].offset)
29489e7c 967
26359cfa
NC
968/* return a thing to the free list */
969
970#define del_body(thing, root) \
971 STMT_START { \
972 void ** const thing_copy = (void **)thing; \
973 *thing_copy = *root; \
974 *root = (void*)thing_copy; \
975 } STMT_END
29489e7c 976
bd81e77b 977#ifdef PURIFY
29489e7c 978
beeec492
NC
979#define new_XNV() safemalloc(sizeof(XPVNV))
980#define new_XPVNV() safemalloc(sizeof(XPVNV))
981#define new_XPVMG() safemalloc(sizeof(XPVMG))
29489e7c 982
beeec492 983#define del_XPVGV(p) safefree(p)
29489e7c 984
bd81e77b 985#else /* !PURIFY */
29489e7c 986
65ac1738 987#define new_XNV() new_body_allocated(SVt_NV)
65ac1738 988#define new_XPVNV() new_body_allocated(SVt_PVNV)
65ac1738 989#define new_XPVMG() new_body_allocated(SVt_PVMG)
645c22ef 990
26359cfa
NC
991#define del_XPVGV(p) del_body(p + bodies_by_type[SVt_PVGV].offset, \
992 &PL_body_roots[SVt_PVGV])
1d7c1841 993
bd81e77b 994#endif /* PURIFY */
93e68bfb 995
bd81e77b 996/* no arena for you! */
93e68bfb 997
bd81e77b 998#define new_NOARENA(details) \
beeec492 999 safemalloc((details)->body_size + (details)->offset)
bd81e77b 1000#define new_NOARENAZ(details) \
beeec492 1001 safecalloc((details)->body_size + (details)->offset, 1)
d2a0f284 1002
1e30fcd5
NC
1003void *
1004Perl_more_bodies (pTHX_ const svtype sv_type, const size_t body_size,
1005 const size_t arena_size)
d2a0f284
JC
1006{
1007 dVAR;
1008 void ** const root = &PL_body_roots[sv_type];
99816f8d
NC
1009 struct arena_desc *adesc;
1010 struct arena_set *aroot = (struct arena_set *) PL_body_arenas;
1011 unsigned int curr;
d2a0f284
JC
1012 char *start;
1013 const char *end;
02982131 1014 const size_t good_arena_size = Perl_malloc_good_size(arena_size);
0b2d3faa 1015#if defined(DEBUGGING) && !defined(PERL_GLOBAL_STRUCT_PRIVATE)
23e9d66c
NC
1016 static bool done_sanity_check;
1017
0b2d3faa
JH
1018 /* PERL_GLOBAL_STRUCT_PRIVATE cannot coexist with global
1019 * variables like done_sanity_check. */
10666ae3 1020 if (!done_sanity_check) {
ea471437 1021 unsigned int i = SVt_LAST;
10666ae3
NC
1022
1023 done_sanity_check = TRUE;
1024
1025 while (i--)
1026 assert (bodies_by_type[i].type == i);
1027 }
1028#endif
1029
02982131 1030 assert(arena_size);
23e9d66c 1031
99816f8d
NC
1032 /* may need new arena-set to hold new arena */
1033 if (!aroot || aroot->curr >= aroot->set_size) {
1034 struct arena_set *newroot;
1035 Newxz(newroot, 1, struct arena_set);
1036 newroot->set_size = ARENAS_PER_SET;
1037 newroot->next = aroot;
1038 aroot = newroot;
1039 PL_body_arenas = (void *) newroot;
1040 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "new arenaset %p\n", (void*)aroot));
1041 }
1042
1043 /* ok, now have arena-set with at least 1 empty/available arena-desc */
1044 curr = aroot->curr++;
1045 adesc = &(aroot->set[curr]);
1046 assert(!adesc->arena);
1047
1048 Newx(adesc->arena, good_arena_size, char);
1049 adesc->size = good_arena_size;
1050 adesc->utype = sv_type;
1051 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "arena %d added: %p size %"UVuf"\n",
1052 curr, (void*)adesc->arena, (UV)good_arena_size));
1053
1054 start = (char *) adesc->arena;
d2a0f284 1055
29657bb6
NC
1056 /* Get the address of the byte after the end of the last body we can fit.
1057 Remember, this is integer division: */
02982131 1058 end = start + good_arena_size / body_size * body_size;
d2a0f284 1059
486ec47a 1060 /* computed count doesn't reflect the 1st slot reservation */
d8fca402
NC
1061#if defined(MYMALLOC) || defined(HAS_MALLOC_GOOD_SIZE)
1062 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1063 "arena %p end %p arena-size %d (from %d) type %d "
1064 "size %d ct %d\n",
02982131
NC
1065 (void*)start, (void*)end, (int)good_arena_size,
1066 (int)arena_size, sv_type, (int)body_size,
1067 (int)good_arena_size / (int)body_size));
d8fca402 1068#else
d2a0f284
JC
1069 DEBUG_m(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
1070 "arena %p end %p arena-size %d type %d size %d ct %d\n",
6c9570dc 1071 (void*)start, (void*)end,
02982131
NC
1072 (int)arena_size, sv_type, (int)body_size,
1073 (int)good_arena_size / (int)body_size));
d8fca402 1074#endif
d2a0f284
JC
1075 *root = (void *)start;
1076
29657bb6
NC
1077 while (1) {
1078 /* Where the next body would start: */
d2a0f284 1079 char * const next = start + body_size;
29657bb6
NC
1080
1081 if (next >= end) {
1082 /* This is the last body: */
1083 assert(next == end);
1084
1085 *(void **)start = 0;
1086 return *root;
1087 }
1088
d2a0f284
JC
1089 *(void**) start = (void *)next;
1090 start = next;
1091 }
d2a0f284
JC
1092}
1093
1094/* grab a new thing from the free list, allocating more if necessary.
1095 The inline version is used for speed in hot routines, and the
1096 function using it serves the rest (unless PURIFY).
1097*/
1098#define new_body_inline(xpv, sv_type) \
1099 STMT_START { \
1100 void ** const r3wt = &PL_body_roots[sv_type]; \
11b79775 1101 xpv = (PTR_TBL_ENT_t*) (*((void **)(r3wt)) \
1e30fcd5 1102 ? *((void **)(r3wt)) : Perl_more_bodies(aTHX_ sv_type, \
02982131
NC
1103 bodies_by_type[sv_type].body_size,\
1104 bodies_by_type[sv_type].arena_size)); \
d2a0f284 1105 *(r3wt) = *(void**)(xpv); \
d2a0f284
JC
1106 } STMT_END
1107
1108#ifndef PURIFY
1109
1110STATIC void *
de37a194 1111S_new_body(pTHX_ const svtype sv_type)
d2a0f284
JC
1112{
1113 dVAR;
1114 void *xpv;
1115 new_body_inline(xpv, sv_type);
1116 return xpv;
1117}
1118
1119#endif
93e68bfb 1120
238b27b3
NC
1121static const struct body_details fake_rv =
1122 { 0, 0, 0, SVt_IV, FALSE, NONV, NOARENA, 0 };
1123
bd81e77b
NC
1124/*
1125=for apidoc sv_upgrade
93e68bfb 1126
bd81e77b
NC
1127Upgrade an SV to a more complex form. Generally adds a new body type to the
1128SV, then copies across as much information as possible from the old body.
9521ca61
FC
1129It croaks if the SV is already in a more complex form than requested. You
1130generally want to use the C<SvUPGRADE> macro wrapper, which checks the type
1131before calling C<sv_upgrade>, and hence does not croak. See also
1132C<svtype>.
93e68bfb 1133
bd81e77b 1134=cut
93e68bfb 1135*/
93e68bfb 1136
bd81e77b 1137void
5aaab254 1138Perl_sv_upgrade(pTHX_ SV *const sv, svtype new_type)
cac9b346 1139{
97aff369 1140 dVAR;
bd81e77b
NC
1141 void* old_body;
1142 void* new_body;
42d0e0b7 1143 const svtype old_type = SvTYPE(sv);
d2a0f284 1144 const struct body_details *new_type_details;
238b27b3 1145 const struct body_details *old_type_details
bd81e77b 1146 = bodies_by_type + old_type;
4df7f6af 1147 SV *referant = NULL;
cac9b346 1148
7918f24d
NC
1149 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UPGRADE;
1150
1776cbe8
NC
1151 if (old_type == new_type)
1152 return;
1153
1154 /* This clause was purposefully added ahead of the early return above to
1155 the shared string hackery for (sort {$a <=> $b} keys %hash), with the
1156 inference by Nick I-S that it would fix other troublesome cases. See
1157 changes 7162, 7163 (f130fd4589cf5fbb24149cd4db4137c8326f49c1 and parent)
1158
1159 Given that shared hash key scalars are no longer PVIV, but PV, there is
1160 no longer need to unshare so as to free up the IVX slot for its proper
1161 purpose. So it's safe to move the early return earlier. */
1162
093085a8 1163 if (new_type > SVt_PVMG && SvIsCOW(sv)) {
bd81e77b
NC
1164 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
1165 }
cac9b346 1166
bd81e77b 1167 old_body = SvANY(sv);
de042e1d 1168
bd81e77b
NC
1169 /* Copying structures onto other structures that have been neatly zeroed
1170 has a subtle gotcha. Consider XPVMG
cac9b346 1171
bd81e77b
NC
1172 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+
1173 | NV | CUR | LEN | IV | MAGIC | STASH |
1174 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+
1175 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28
645c22ef 1176
bd81e77b
NC
1177 where NVs are aligned to 8 bytes, so that sizeof that structure is
1178 actually 32 bytes long, with 4 bytes of padding at the end:
08742458 1179
bd81e77b
NC
1180 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+
1181 | NV | CUR | LEN | IV | MAGIC | STASH | ??? |
1182 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+
1183 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32
08742458 1184
bd81e77b 1185 so what happens if you allocate memory for this structure:
30f9da9e 1186
bd81e77b
NC
1187 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+------+...
1188 | NV | CUR | LEN | IV | MAGIC | STASH | GP | NAME |
1189 +------+------+------+------+------+-------+-------+------+------+...
1190 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36
bfc44f79 1191
bd81e77b
NC
1192 zero it, then copy sizeof(XPVMG) bytes on top of it? Not quite what you
1193 expect, because you copy the area marked ??? onto GP. Now, ??? may have
1194 started out as zero once, but it's quite possible that it isn't. So now,
1195 rather than a nicely zeroed GP, you have it pointing somewhere random.
1196 Bugs ensue.
bfc44f79 1197
bd81e77b
NC
1198 (In fact, GP ends up pointing at a previous GP structure, because the
1199 principle cause of the padding in XPVMG getting garbage is a copy of
6c9e42f7
NC
1200 sizeof(XPVMG) bytes from a XPVGV structure in sv_unglob. Right now
1201 this happens to be moot because XPVGV has been re-ordered, with GP
1202 no longer after STASH)
30f9da9e 1203
bd81e77b
NC
1204 So we are careful and work out the size of used parts of all the
1205 structures. */
bfc44f79 1206
bd81e77b
NC
1207 switch (old_type) {
1208 case SVt_NULL:
1209 break;
1210 case SVt_IV:
4df7f6af
NC
1211 if (SvROK(sv)) {
1212 referant = SvRV(sv);
238b27b3
NC
1213 old_type_details = &fake_rv;
1214 if (new_type == SVt_NV)
1215 new_type = SVt_PVNV;
4df7f6af
NC
1216 } else {
1217 if (new_type < SVt_PVIV) {
1218 new_type = (new_type == SVt_NV)
1219 ? SVt_PVNV : SVt_PVIV;
1220 }
bd81e77b
NC
1221 }
1222 break;
1223 case SVt_NV:
1224 if (new_type < SVt_PVNV) {
1225 new_type = SVt_PVNV;
bd81e77b
NC
1226 }
1227 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1228 case SVt_PV:
1229 assert(new_type > SVt_PV);
1230 assert(SVt_IV < SVt_PV);
1231 assert(SVt_NV < SVt_PV);
1232 break;
1233 case SVt_PVIV:
1234 break;
1235 case SVt_PVNV:
1236 break;
1237 case SVt_PVMG:
1238 /* Because the XPVMG of PL_mess_sv isn't allocated from the arena,
1239 there's no way that it can be safely upgraded, because perl.c
1240 expects to Safefree(SvANY(PL_mess_sv)) */
1241 assert(sv != PL_mess_sv);
1242 /* This flag bit is used to mean other things in other scalar types.
1243 Given that it only has meaning inside the pad, it shouldn't be set
1244 on anything that can get upgraded. */
00b1698f 1245 assert(!SvPAD_TYPED(sv));
bd81e77b
NC
1246 break;
1247 default:
2439e033 1248 if (UNLIKELY(old_type_details->cant_upgrade))
c81225bc
NC
1249 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't upgrade %s (%" UVuf ") to %" UVuf,
1250 sv_reftype(sv, 0), (UV) old_type, (UV) new_type);
bd81e77b 1251 }
3376de98 1252
2439e033 1253 if (UNLIKELY(old_type > new_type))
3376de98
NC
1254 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "sv_upgrade from type %d down to type %d",
1255 (int)old_type, (int)new_type);
1256
2fa1109b 1257 new_type_details = bodies_by_type + new_type;
645c22ef 1258
bd81e77b
NC
1259 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~SVTYPEMASK;
1260 SvFLAGS(sv) |= new_type;
932e9ff9 1261
ab4416c0
NC
1262 /* This can't happen, as SVt_NULL is <= all values of new_type, so one of
1263 the return statements above will have triggered. */
1264 assert (new_type != SVt_NULL);
bd81e77b 1265 switch (new_type) {
bd81e77b
NC
1266 case SVt_IV:
1267 assert(old_type == SVt_NULL);
1268 SvANY(sv) = (XPVIV*)((char*)&(sv->sv_u.svu_iv) - STRUCT_OFFSET(XPVIV, xiv_iv));
1269 SvIV_set(sv, 0);
1270 return;
1271 case SVt_NV:
1272 assert(old_type == SVt_NULL);
1273 SvANY(sv) = new_XNV();
1274 SvNV_set(sv, 0);
1275 return;
bd81e77b 1276 case SVt_PVHV:
bd81e77b 1277 case SVt_PVAV:
d2a0f284 1278 assert(new_type_details->body_size);
c1ae03ae
NC
1279
1280#ifndef PURIFY
1281 assert(new_type_details->arena);
d2a0f284 1282 assert(new_type_details->arena_size);
c1ae03ae 1283 /* This points to the start of the allocated area. */
d2a0f284
JC
1284 new_body_inline(new_body, new_type);
1285 Zero(new_body, new_type_details->body_size, char);
c1ae03ae
NC
1286 new_body = ((char *)new_body) - new_type_details->offset;
1287#else
1288 /* We always allocated the full length item with PURIFY. To do this
1289 we fake things so that arena is false for all 16 types.. */
1290 new_body = new_NOARENAZ(new_type_details);
1291#endif
1292 SvANY(sv) = new_body;
1293 if (new_type == SVt_PVAV) {
1294 AvMAX(sv) = -1;
1295 AvFILLp(sv) = -1;
1296 AvREAL_only(sv);
64484faa 1297 if (old_type_details->body_size) {
ac572bf4
NC
1298 AvALLOC(sv) = 0;
1299 } else {
1300 /* It will have been zeroed when the new body was allocated.
1301 Lets not write to it, in case it confuses a write-back
1302 cache. */
1303 }
78ac7dd9
NC
1304 } else {
1305 assert(!SvOK(sv));
1306 SvOK_off(sv);
1307#ifndef NODEFAULT_SHAREKEYS
1308 HvSHAREKEYS_on(sv); /* key-sharing on by default */
1309#endif
586fc6a3
SM
1310 /* start with PERL_HASH_DEFAULT_HvMAX+1 buckets: */
1311 HvMAX(sv) = PERL_HASH_DEFAULT_HvMAX;
c1ae03ae 1312 }
aeb18a1e 1313
bd81e77b
NC
1314 /* SVt_NULL isn't the only thing upgraded to AV or HV.
1315 The target created by newSVrv also is, and it can have magic.
1316 However, it never has SvPVX set.
1317 */
4df7f6af
NC
1318 if (old_type == SVt_IV) {
1319 assert(!SvROK(sv));
1320 } else if (old_type >= SVt_PV) {
bd81e77b
NC
1321 assert(SvPVX_const(sv) == 0);
1322 }
aeb18a1e 1323
bd81e77b 1324 if (old_type >= SVt_PVMG) {
e736a858 1325 SvMAGIC_set(sv, ((XPVMG*)old_body)->xmg_u.xmg_magic);
bd81e77b 1326 SvSTASH_set(sv, ((XPVMG*)old_body)->xmg_stash);
797c7171
NC
1327 } else {
1328 sv->sv_u.svu_array = NULL; /* or svu_hash */
bd81e77b
NC
1329 }
1330 break;
93e68bfb 1331
bd81e77b
NC
1332 case SVt_PVIV:
1333 /* XXX Is this still needed? Was it ever needed? Surely as there is
1334 no route from NV to PVIV, NOK can never be true */
1335 assert(!SvNOKp(sv));
1336 assert(!SvNOK(sv));
1337 case SVt_PVIO:
1338 case SVt_PVFM:
bd81e77b
NC
1339 case SVt_PVGV:
1340 case SVt_PVCV:
1341 case SVt_PVLV:
d361b004 1342 case SVt_INVLIST:
12c45b25 1343 case SVt_REGEXP:
bd81e77b
NC
1344 case SVt_PVMG:
1345 case SVt_PVNV:
1346 case SVt_PV:
93e68bfb 1347
d2a0f284 1348 assert(new_type_details->body_size);
bd81e77b
NC
1349 /* We always allocated the full length item with PURIFY. To do this
1350 we fake things so that arena is false for all 16 types.. */
1351 if(new_type_details->arena) {
1352 /* This points to the start of the allocated area. */
d2a0f284
JC
1353 new_body_inline(new_body, new_type);
1354 Zero(new_body, new_type_details->body_size, char);
bd81e77b
NC
1355 new_body = ((char *)new_body) - new_type_details->offset;
1356 } else {
1357 new_body = new_NOARENAZ(new_type_details);
1358 }
1359 SvANY(sv) = new_body;
5e2fc214 1360
bd81e77b 1361 if (old_type_details->copy) {
f9ba3d20
NC
1362 /* There is now the potential for an upgrade from something without
1363 an offset (PVNV or PVMG) to something with one (PVCV, PVFM) */
1364 int offset = old_type_details->offset;
1365 int length = old_type_details->copy;
1366
1367 if (new_type_details->offset > old_type_details->offset) {
d4c19fe8 1368 const int difference
f9ba3d20
NC
1369 = new_type_details->offset - old_type_details->offset;
1370 offset += difference;
1371 length -= difference;
1372 }
1373 assert (length >= 0);
1374
1375 Copy((char *)old_body + offset, (char *)new_body + offset, length,
1376 char);
bd81e77b
NC
1377 }
1378
1379#ifndef NV_ZERO_IS_ALLBITS_ZERO
f2524eef 1380 /* If NV 0.0 is stores as all bits 0 then Zero() already creates a
e5ce394c
NC
1381 * correct 0.0 for us. Otherwise, if the old body didn't have an
1382 * NV slot, but the new one does, then we need to initialise the
1383 * freshly created NV slot with whatever the correct bit pattern is
1384 * for 0.0 */
e22a937e
NC
1385 if (old_type_details->zero_nv && !new_type_details->zero_nv
1386 && !isGV_with_GP(sv))
bd81e77b 1387 SvNV_set(sv, 0);
82048762 1388#endif
5e2fc214 1389
2439e033 1390 if (UNLIKELY(new_type == SVt_PVIO)) {
85dca89a 1391 IO * const io = MUTABLE_IO(sv);
d963bf01 1392 GV *iogv = gv_fetchpvs("IO::File::", GV_ADD, SVt_PVHV);
85dca89a
NC
1393
1394 SvOBJECT_on(io);
1395 /* Clear the stashcache because a new IO could overrule a package
1396 name */
103f5a36 1397 DEBUG_o(Perl_deb(aTHX_ "sv_upgrade clearing PL_stashcache\n"));
85dca89a
NC
1398 hv_clear(PL_stashcache);
1399
85dca89a 1400 SvSTASH_set(io, MUTABLE_HV(SvREFCNT_inc(GvHV(iogv))));
f2524eef 1401 IoPAGE_LEN(sv) = 60;
85dca89a 1402 }
2439e033 1403 if (UNLIKELY(new_type == SVt_REGEXP))
8d919b0a
FC
1404 sv->sv_u.svu_rx = (regexp *)new_body;
1405 else if (old_type < SVt_PV) {
4df7f6af
NC
1406 /* referant will be NULL unless the old type was SVt_IV emulating
1407 SVt_RV */
1408 sv->sv_u.svu_rv = referant;
1409 }
bd81e77b
NC
1410 break;
1411 default:
afd78fd5
JH
1412 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: sv_upgrade to unknown type %lu",
1413 (unsigned long)new_type);
bd81e77b 1414 }
73171d91 1415
db93c0c4 1416 if (old_type > SVt_IV) {
bd81e77b 1417#ifdef PURIFY
beeec492 1418 safefree(old_body);
bd81e77b 1419#else
bc786448
GG
1420 /* Note that there is an assumption that all bodies of types that
1421 can be upgraded came from arenas. Only the more complex non-
1422 upgradable types are allowed to be directly malloc()ed. */
1423 assert(old_type_details->arena);
bd81e77b
NC
1424 del_body((void*)((char*)old_body + old_type_details->offset),
1425 &PL_body_roots[old_type]);
1426#endif
1427 }
1428}
73171d91 1429
bd81e77b
NC
1430/*
1431=for apidoc sv_backoff
73171d91 1432
fde67290 1433Remove any string offset. You should normally use the C<SvOOK_off> macro
bd81e77b 1434wrapper instead.
73171d91 1435
bd81e77b 1436=cut
73171d91
NC
1437*/
1438
bd81e77b 1439int
5aaab254 1440Perl_sv_backoff(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
bd81e77b 1441{
69240efd 1442 STRLEN delta;
7a4bba22 1443 const char * const s = SvPVX_const(sv);
7918f24d
NC
1444
1445 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_BACKOFF;
96a5add6 1446 PERL_UNUSED_CONTEXT;
7918f24d 1447
bd81e77b
NC
1448 assert(SvOOK(sv));
1449 assert(SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVHV);
1450 assert(SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV);
7a4bba22 1451
69240efd
NC
1452 SvOOK_offset(sv, delta);
1453
7a4bba22
NC
1454 SvLEN_set(sv, SvLEN(sv) + delta);
1455 SvPV_set(sv, SvPVX(sv) - delta);
1456 Move(s, SvPVX(sv), SvCUR(sv)+1, char);
bd81e77b
NC
1457 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~SVf_OOK;
1458 return 0;
1459}
73171d91 1460
bd81e77b
NC
1461/*
1462=for apidoc sv_grow
73171d91 1463
bd81e77b
NC
1464Expands the character buffer in the SV. If necessary, uses C<sv_unref> and
1465upgrades the SV to C<SVt_PV>. Returns a pointer to the character buffer.
1466Use the C<SvGROW> wrapper instead.
93e68bfb 1467
bd81e77b
NC
1468=cut
1469*/
93e68bfb 1470
e0060e30
FC
1471static void S_sv_uncow(pTHX_ SV * const sv, const U32 flags);
1472
bd81e77b 1473char *
5aaab254 1474Perl_sv_grow(pTHX_ SV *const sv, STRLEN newlen)
bd81e77b 1475{
eb578fdb 1476 char *s;
93e68bfb 1477
7918f24d
NC
1478 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_GROW;
1479
bd81e77b
NC
1480 if (SvROK(sv))
1481 sv_unref(sv);
1482 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PV) {
1483 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PV);
1484 s = SvPVX_mutable(sv);
1485 }
1486 else if (SvOOK(sv)) { /* pv is offset? */
1487 sv_backoff(sv);
1488 s = SvPVX_mutable(sv);
1489 if (newlen > SvLEN(sv))
1490 newlen += 10 * (newlen - SvCUR(sv)); /* avoid copy each time */
bd81e77b
NC
1491 }
1492 else
db2c6cb3 1493 {
e0060e30 1494 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) S_sv_uncow(aTHX_ sv, 0);
bd81e77b 1495 s = SvPVX_mutable(sv);
db2c6cb3 1496 }
aeb18a1e 1497
cbcb2a16
DM
1498#ifdef PERL_NEW_COPY_ON_WRITE
1499 /* the new COW scheme uses SvPVX(sv)[SvLEN(sv)-1] (if spare)
1500 * to store the COW count. So in general, allocate one more byte than
1501 * asked for, to make it likely this byte is always spare: and thus
1502 * make more strings COW-able.
1503 * If the new size is a big power of two, don't bother: we assume the
1504 * caller wanted a nice 2^N sized block and will be annoyed at getting
1505 * 2^N+1 */
1506 if (newlen & 0xff)
1507 newlen++;
1508#endif
1509
bd81e77b 1510 if (newlen > SvLEN(sv)) { /* need more room? */
f1200559
WH
1511 STRLEN minlen = SvCUR(sv);
1512 minlen += (minlen >> PERL_STRLEN_EXPAND_SHIFT) + 10;
1513 if (newlen < minlen)
1514 newlen = minlen;
aedff202 1515#ifndef Perl_safesysmalloc_size
bd81e77b 1516 newlen = PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP(newlen);
bd81e77b 1517#endif
98653f18 1518 if (SvLEN(sv) && s) {
10edeb5d 1519 s = (char*)saferealloc(s, newlen);
bd81e77b
NC
1520 }
1521 else {
10edeb5d 1522 s = (char*)safemalloc(newlen);
bd81e77b
NC
1523 if (SvPVX_const(sv) && SvCUR(sv)) {
1524 Move(SvPVX_const(sv), s, (newlen < SvCUR(sv)) ? newlen : SvCUR(sv), char);
1525 }
1526 }
1527 SvPV_set(sv, s);
ca7c1a29 1528#ifdef Perl_safesysmalloc_size
98653f18
NC
1529 /* Do this here, do it once, do it right, and then we will never get
1530 called back into sv_grow() unless there really is some growing
1531 needed. */
ca7c1a29 1532 SvLEN_set(sv, Perl_safesysmalloc_size(s));
98653f18 1533#else
bd81e77b 1534 SvLEN_set(sv, newlen);
98653f18 1535#endif
bd81e77b
NC
1536 }
1537 return s;
1538}
aeb18a1e 1539
bd81e77b
NC
1540/*
1541=for apidoc sv_setiv
932e9ff9 1542
bd81e77b
NC
1543Copies an integer into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.
1544Does not handle 'set' magic. See also C<sv_setiv_mg>.
463ee0b2 1545
bd81e77b
NC
1546=cut
1547*/
463ee0b2 1548
bd81e77b 1549void
5aaab254 1550Perl_sv_setiv(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const IV i)
bd81e77b 1551{
97aff369 1552 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1553
1554 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETIV;
1555
bd81e77b
NC
1556 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(sv);
1557 switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
1558 case SVt_NULL:
bd81e77b 1559 case SVt_NV:
3376de98 1560 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_IV);
bd81e77b 1561 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1562 case SVt_PV:
1563 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
1564 break;
463ee0b2 1565
bd81e77b 1566 case SVt_PVGV:
6e592b3a
BM
1567 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv))
1568 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1569 case SVt_PVAV:
1570 case SVt_PVHV:
1571 case SVt_PVCV:
1572 case SVt_PVFM:
1573 case SVt_PVIO:
22e74366 1574 /* diag_listed_as: Can't coerce %s to %s in %s */
bd81e77b
NC
1575 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't coerce %s to integer in %s", sv_reftype(sv,0),
1576 OP_DESC(PL_op));
42d0e0b7 1577 default: NOOP;
bd81e77b
NC
1578 }
1579 (void)SvIOK_only(sv); /* validate number */
1580 SvIV_set(sv, i);
1581 SvTAINT(sv);
1582}
932e9ff9 1583
bd81e77b
NC
1584/*
1585=for apidoc sv_setiv_mg
d33b2eba 1586
bd81e77b 1587Like C<sv_setiv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
1c846c1f 1588
bd81e77b
NC
1589=cut
1590*/
d33b2eba 1591
bd81e77b 1592void
5aaab254 1593Perl_sv_setiv_mg(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const IV i)
bd81e77b 1594{
7918f24d
NC
1595 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETIV_MG;
1596
bd81e77b
NC
1597 sv_setiv(sv,i);
1598 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
1599}
727879eb 1600
bd81e77b
NC
1601/*
1602=for apidoc sv_setuv
d33b2eba 1603
bd81e77b
NC
1604Copies an unsigned integer into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.
1605Does not handle 'set' magic. See also C<sv_setuv_mg>.
9b94d1dd 1606
bd81e77b
NC
1607=cut
1608*/
d33b2eba 1609
bd81e77b 1610void
5aaab254 1611Perl_sv_setuv(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const UV u)
bd81e77b 1612{
7918f24d
NC
1613 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETUV;
1614
013abb9b
NC
1615 /* With the if statement to ensure that integers are stored as IVs whenever
1616 possible:
bd81e77b 1617 u=1.49 s=0.52 cu=72.49 cs=10.64 scripts=270 tests=20865
d33b2eba 1618
bd81e77b
NC
1619 without
1620 u=1.35 s=0.47 cu=73.45 cs=11.43 scripts=270 tests=20865
1c846c1f 1621
013abb9b
NC
1622 If you wish to remove the following if statement, so that this routine
1623 (and its callers) always return UVs, please benchmark to see what the
1624 effect is. Modern CPUs may be different. Or may not :-)
bd81e77b
NC
1625 */
1626 if (u <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
1627 sv_setiv(sv, (IV)u);
1628 return;
1629 }
1630 sv_setiv(sv, 0);
1631 SvIsUV_on(sv);
1632 SvUV_set(sv, u);
1633}
d33b2eba 1634
bd81e77b
NC
1635/*
1636=for apidoc sv_setuv_mg
727879eb 1637
bd81e77b 1638Like C<sv_setuv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
9b94d1dd 1639
bd81e77b
NC
1640=cut
1641*/
5e2fc214 1642
bd81e77b 1643void
5aaab254 1644Perl_sv_setuv_mg(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const UV u)
bd81e77b 1645{
7918f24d
NC
1646 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETUV_MG;
1647
bd81e77b
NC
1648 sv_setuv(sv,u);
1649 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
1650}
5e2fc214 1651
954c1994 1652/*
bd81e77b 1653=for apidoc sv_setnv
954c1994 1654
bd81e77b
NC
1655Copies a double into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.
1656Does not handle 'set' magic. See also C<sv_setnv_mg>.
954c1994
GS
1657
1658=cut
1659*/
1660
63f97190 1661void
5aaab254 1662Perl_sv_setnv(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const NV num)
79072805 1663{
97aff369 1664 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1665
1666 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETNV;
1667
bd81e77b
NC
1668 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(sv);
1669 switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
79072805 1670 case SVt_NULL:
79072805 1671 case SVt_IV:
bd81e77b 1672 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_NV);
79072805
LW
1673 break;
1674 case SVt_PV:
79072805 1675 case SVt_PVIV:
bd81e77b 1676 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
79072805 1677 break;
bd4b1eb5 1678
bd4b1eb5 1679 case SVt_PVGV:
6e592b3a
BM
1680 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv))
1681 break;
bd81e77b
NC
1682 case SVt_PVAV:
1683 case SVt_PVHV:
79072805 1684 case SVt_PVCV:
bd81e77b
NC
1685 case SVt_PVFM:
1686 case SVt_PVIO:
22e74366 1687 /* diag_listed_as: Can't coerce %s to %s in %s */
bd81e77b 1688 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't coerce %s to number in %s", sv_reftype(sv,0),
94bbb3f4 1689 OP_DESC(PL_op));
42d0e0b7 1690 default: NOOP;
2068cd4d 1691 }
bd81e77b
NC
1692 SvNV_set(sv, num);
1693 (void)SvNOK_only(sv); /* validate number */
1694 SvTAINT(sv);
79072805
LW
1695}
1696
645c22ef 1697/*
bd81e77b 1698=for apidoc sv_setnv_mg
645c22ef 1699
bd81e77b 1700Like C<sv_setnv>, but also handles 'set' magic.
645c22ef
DM
1701
1702=cut
1703*/
1704
bd81e77b 1705void
5aaab254 1706Perl_sv_setnv_mg(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const NV num)
79072805 1707{
7918f24d
NC
1708 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_SETNV_MG;
1709
bd81e77b
NC
1710 sv_setnv(sv,num);
1711 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
79072805
LW
1712}
1713
8140a7a8
TC
1714/* Return a cleaned-up, printable version of sv, for non-numeric, or
1715 * not incrementable warning display.
1716 * Originally part of S_not_a_number().
1717 * The return value may be != tmpbuf.
bd81e77b 1718 */
954c1994 1719
8140a7a8
TC
1720STATIC const char *
1721S_sv_display(pTHX_ SV *const sv, char *tmpbuf, STRLEN tmpbuf_size) {
1722 const char *pv;
94463019 1723
8140a7a8 1724 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_DISPLAY;
7918f24d 1725
94463019 1726 if (DO_UTF8(sv)) {
8140a7a8 1727 SV *dsv = newSVpvs_flags("", SVs_TEMP);
472394e4 1728 pv = sv_uni_display(dsv, sv, 10, UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT);
94463019
JH
1729 } else {
1730 char *d = tmpbuf;
8140a7a8 1731 const char * const limit = tmpbuf + tmpbuf_size - 8;
94463019
JH
1732 /* each *s can expand to 4 chars + "...\0",
1733 i.e. need room for 8 chars */
ecdeb87c 1734
00b6aa41
AL
1735 const char *s = SvPVX_const(sv);
1736 const char * const end = s + SvCUR(sv);
1737 for ( ; s < end && d < limit; s++ ) {
94463019 1738 int ch = *s & 0xFF;
bd27cf70 1739 if (! isASCII(ch) && !isPRINT_LC(ch)) {
94463019
JH
1740 *d++ = 'M';
1741 *d++ = '-';
bd27cf70
KW
1742
1743 /* Map to ASCII "equivalent" of Latin1 */
1744 ch = LATIN1_TO_NATIVE(NATIVE_TO_LATIN1(ch) & 127);
94463019
JH
1745 }
1746 if (ch == '\n') {
1747 *d++ = '\\';
1748 *d++ = 'n';
1749 }
1750 else if (ch == '\r') {
1751 *d++ = '\\';
1752 *d++ = 'r';
1753 }
1754 else if (ch == '\f') {
1755 *d++ = '\\';
1756 *d++ = 'f';
1757 }
1758 else if (ch == '\\') {
1759 *d++ = '\\';
1760 *d++ = '\\';
1761 }
1762 else if (ch == '\0') {
1763 *d++ = '\\';
1764 *d++ = '0';
1765 }
1766 else if (isPRINT_LC(ch))
1767 *d++ = ch;
1768 else {
1769 *d++ = '^';
1770 *d++ = toCTRL(ch);
1771 }
1772 }
1773 if (s < end) {
1774 *d++ = '.';
1775 *d++ = '.';
1776 *d++ = '.';
1777 }
1778 *d = '\0';
1779 pv = tmpbuf;
a0d0e21e 1780 }
a0d0e21e 1781
8140a7a8
TC
1782 return pv;
1783}
1784
1785/* Print an "isn't numeric" warning, using a cleaned-up,
1786 * printable version of the offending string
1787 */
1788
1789STATIC void
1790S_not_a_number(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
1791{
1792 dVAR;
1793 char tmpbuf[64];
1794 const char *pv;
1795
1796 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_NOT_A_NUMBER;
1797
1798 pv = sv_display(sv, tmpbuf, sizeof(tmpbuf));
1799
533c011a 1800 if (PL_op)
9014280d 1801 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NUMERIC),
734856a2 1802 /* diag_listed_as: Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s */
94463019
JH
1803 "Argument \"%s\" isn't numeric in %s", pv,
1804 OP_DESC(PL_op));
a0d0e21e 1805 else
9014280d 1806 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NUMERIC),
734856a2 1807 /* diag_listed_as: Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s */
94463019 1808 "Argument \"%s\" isn't numeric", pv);
a0d0e21e
LW
1809}
1810
8140a7a8
TC
1811STATIC void
1812S_not_incrementable(pTHX_ SV *const sv) {
1813 dVAR;
1814 char tmpbuf[64];
1815 const char *pv;
1816
1817 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_NOT_INCREMENTABLE;
1818
1819 pv = sv_display(sv, tmpbuf, sizeof(tmpbuf));
1820
1821 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NUMERIC),
1822 "Argument \"%s\" treated as 0 in increment (++)", pv);
1823}
1824
c2988b20
NC
1825/*
1826=for apidoc looks_like_number
1827
645c22ef
DM
1828Test if the content of an SV looks like a number (or is a number).
1829C<Inf> and C<Infinity> are treated as numbers (so will not issue a
f52e41ad
FC
1830non-numeric warning), even if your atof() doesn't grok them. Get-magic is
1831ignored.
c2988b20
NC
1832
1833=cut
1834*/
1835
1836I32
aad570aa 1837Perl_looks_like_number(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
c2988b20 1838{
eb578fdb 1839 const char *sbegin;
c2988b20
NC
1840 STRLEN len;
1841
7918f24d
NC
1842 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_LOOKS_LIKE_NUMBER;
1843
f52e41ad
FC
1844 if (SvPOK(sv) || SvPOKp(sv)) {
1845 sbegin = SvPV_nomg_const(sv, len);
c2988b20 1846 }
c2988b20 1847 else
e0ab1c0e 1848 return SvFLAGS(sv) & (SVf_NOK|SVp_NOK|SVf_IOK|SVp_IOK);
c2988b20
NC
1849 return grok_number(sbegin, len, NULL);
1850}
25da4f38 1851
19f6321d
NC
1852STATIC bool
1853S_glob_2number(pTHX_ GV * const gv)
180488f8 1854{
7918f24d
NC
1855 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_GLOB_2NUMBER;
1856
675c862f
AL
1857 /* We know that all GVs stringify to something that is not-a-number,
1858 so no need to test that. */
1859 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
8e629ff4
FC
1860 {
1861 SV *const buffer = sv_newmortal();
1862 gv_efullname3(buffer, gv, "*");
675c862f 1863 not_a_number(buffer);
8e629ff4 1864 }
675c862f
AL
1865 /* We just want something true to return, so that S_sv_2iuv_common
1866 can tail call us and return true. */
19f6321d 1867 return TRUE;
675c862f
AL
1868}
1869
25da4f38
IZ
1870/* Actually, ISO C leaves conversion of UV to IV undefined, but
1871 until proven guilty, assume that things are not that bad... */
1872
645c22ef
DM
1873/*
1874 NV_PRESERVES_UV:
1875
1876 As 64 bit platforms often have an NV that doesn't preserve all bits of
28e5dec8
JH
1877 an IV (an assumption perl has been based on to date) it becomes necessary
1878 to remove the assumption that the NV always carries enough precision to
1879 recreate the IV whenever needed, and that the NV is the canonical form.
1880 Instead, IV/UV and NV need to be given equal rights. So as to not lose
645c22ef 1881 precision as a side effect of conversion (which would lead to insanity
28e5dec8
JH
1882 and the dragon(s) in t/op/numconvert.t getting very angry) the intent is
1883 1) to distinguish between IV/UV/NV slots that have cached a valid
1884 conversion where precision was lost and IV/UV/NV slots that have a
1885 valid conversion which has lost no precision
645c22ef 1886 2) to ensure that if a numeric conversion to one form is requested that
28e5dec8
JH
1887 would lose precision, the precise conversion (or differently
1888 imprecise conversion) is also performed and cached, to prevent
1889 requests for different numeric formats on the same SV causing
1890 lossy conversion chains. (lossless conversion chains are perfectly
1891 acceptable (still))
1892
1893
1894 flags are used:
1895 SvIOKp is true if the IV slot contains a valid value
1896 SvIOK is true only if the IV value is accurate (UV if SvIOK_UV true)
1897 SvNOKp is true if the NV slot contains a valid value
1898 SvNOK is true only if the NV value is accurate
1899
1900 so
645c22ef 1901 while converting from PV to NV, check to see if converting that NV to an
28e5dec8
JH
1902 IV(or UV) would lose accuracy over a direct conversion from PV to
1903 IV(or UV). If it would, cache both conversions, return NV, but mark
1904 SV as IOK NOKp (ie not NOK).
1905
645c22ef 1906 While converting from PV to IV, check to see if converting that IV to an
28e5dec8
JH
1907 NV would lose accuracy over a direct conversion from PV to NV. If it
1908 would, cache both conversions, flag similarly.
1909
1910 Before, the SV value "3.2" could become NV=3.2 IV=3 NOK, IOK quite
1911 correctly because if IV & NV were set NV *always* overruled.
645c22ef
DM
1912 Now, "3.2" will become NV=3.2 IV=3 NOK, IOKp, because the flag's meaning
1913 changes - now IV and NV together means that the two are interchangeable:
28e5dec8 1914 SvIVX == (IV) SvNVX && SvNVX == (NV) SvIVX;
d460ef45 1915
645c22ef
DM
1916 The benefit of this is that operations such as pp_add know that if
1917 SvIOK is true for both left and right operands, then integer addition
1918 can be used instead of floating point (for cases where the result won't
1919 overflow). Before, floating point was always used, which could lead to
28e5dec8
JH
1920 loss of precision compared with integer addition.
1921
1922 * making IV and NV equal status should make maths accurate on 64 bit
1923 platforms
1924 * may speed up maths somewhat if pp_add and friends start to use
645c22ef 1925 integers when possible instead of fp. (Hopefully the overhead in
28e5dec8
JH
1926 looking for SvIOK and checking for overflow will not outweigh the
1927 fp to integer speedup)
1928 * will slow down integer operations (callers of SvIV) on "inaccurate"
1929 values, as the change from SvIOK to SvIOKp will cause a call into
1930 sv_2iv each time rather than a macro access direct to the IV slot
1931 * should speed up number->string conversion on integers as IV is
645c22ef 1932 favoured when IV and NV are equally accurate
28e5dec8
JH
1933
1934 ####################################################################
645c22ef
DM
1935 You had better be using SvIOK_notUV if you want an IV for arithmetic:
1936 SvIOK is true if (IV or UV), so you might be getting (IV)SvUV.
1937 On the other hand, SvUOK is true iff UV.
28e5dec8
JH
1938 ####################################################################
1939
645c22ef 1940 Your mileage will vary depending your CPU's relative fp to integer
28e5dec8
JH
1941 performance ratio.
1942*/
1943
1944#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
645c22ef
DM
1945# define IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_IV 1
1946# define IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_UV 2
1947# define IS_NUMBER_IV_AND_UV 2
1948# define IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_IV 4
1949# define IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_UV 5
1950
1951/* sv_2iuv_non_preserve(): private routine for use by sv_2iv() and sv_2uv() */
28e5dec8
JH
1952
1953/* For sv_2nv these three cases are "SvNOK and don't bother casting" */
1954STATIC int
5aaab254 1955S_sv_2iuv_non_preserve(pTHX_ SV *const sv
47031da6
NC
1956# ifdef DEBUGGING
1957 , I32 numtype
1958# endif
1959 )
28e5dec8 1960{
97aff369 1961 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
1962
1963 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2IUV_NON_PRESERVE;
1964
3f7c398e 1965 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,"sv_2iuv_non '%s', IV=0x%"UVxf" NV=%"NVgf" inttype=%"UVXf"\n", SvPVX_const(sv), SvIVX(sv), SvNVX(sv), (UV)numtype));
28e5dec8
JH
1966 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MIN) {
1967 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
1968 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
45977657 1969 SvIV_set(sv, IV_MIN);
28e5dec8
JH
1970 return IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_IV;
1971 }
1972 if (SvNVX(sv) > (NV)UV_MAX) {
1973 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
1974 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
1975 SvIsUV_on(sv);
607fa7f2 1976 SvUV_set(sv, UV_MAX);
28e5dec8
JH
1977 return IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_UV;
1978 }
c2988b20
NC
1979 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
1980 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
1981 /* Can't use strtol etc to convert this string. (See truth table in
1982 sv_2iv */
1983 if (SvNVX(sv) <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
45977657 1984 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
c2988b20
NC
1985 if ((NV)(SvIVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
1986 SvIOK_on(sv); /* Integer is precise. NOK, IOK */
1987 } else {
1988 /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp */
1989 }
1990 return SvNVX(sv) < 0 ? IS_NUMBER_UNDERFLOW_UV : IS_NUMBER_IV_AND_UV;
1991 }
1992 SvIsUV_on(sv);
607fa7f2 1993 SvUV_set(sv, U_V(SvNVX(sv)));
c2988b20
NC
1994 if ((NV)(SvUVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
1995 if (SvUVX(sv) == UV_MAX) {
1996 /* As we know that NVs don't preserve UVs, UV_MAX cannot
1997 possibly be preserved by NV. Hence, it must be overflow.
1998 NOK, IOKp */
1999 return IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_UV;
2000 }
2001 SvIOK_on(sv); /* Integer is precise. NOK, UOK */
2002 } else {
2003 /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp */
28e5dec8 2004 }
c2988b20 2005 return IS_NUMBER_OVERFLOW_IV;
28e5dec8 2006}
645c22ef
DM
2007#endif /* !NV_PRESERVES_UV*/
2008
af359546 2009STATIC bool
7918f24d
NC
2010S_sv_2iuv_common(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
2011{
97aff369 2012 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
2013
2014 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2IUV_COMMON;
2015
af359546 2016 if (SvNOKp(sv)) {
28e5dec8
JH
2017 /* erm. not sure. *should* never get NOKp (without NOK) from sv_2nv
2018 * without also getting a cached IV/UV from it at the same time
2019 * (ie PV->NV conversion should detect loss of accuracy and cache
af359546
NC
2020 * IV or UV at same time to avoid this. */
2021 /* IV-over-UV optimisation - choose to cache IV if possible */
25da4f38
IZ
2022
2023 if (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_NV)
2024 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
2025
28e5dec8
JH
2026 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv); /* Must do this first, to clear any SvOOK */
2027 /* < not <= as for NV doesn't preserve UV, ((NV)IV_MAX+1) will almost
2028 certainly cast into the IV range at IV_MAX, whereas the correct
2029 answer is the UV IV_MAX +1. Hence < ensures that dodgy boundary
2030 cases go to UV */
cab190d4
JD
2031#if defined(NAN_COMPARE_BROKEN) && defined(Perl_isnan)
2032 if (Perl_isnan(SvNVX(sv))) {
2033 SvUV_set(sv, 0);
2034 SvIsUV_on(sv);
fdbe6d7c 2035 return FALSE;
cab190d4 2036 }
cab190d4 2037#endif
28e5dec8 2038 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MAX + 0.5) {
45977657 2039 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
28e5dec8
JH
2040 if (SvNVX(sv) == (NV) SvIVX(sv)
2041#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
2042 && (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) >
2043 (UV)(SvIVX(sv) > 0 ? SvIVX(sv) : -SvIVX(sv)))
2044 /* Don't flag it as "accurately an integer" if the number
2045 came from a (by definition imprecise) NV operation, and
2046 we're outside the range of NV integer precision */
2047#endif
2048 ) {
a43d94f2
NC
2049 if (SvNOK(sv))
2050 SvIOK_on(sv); /* Can this go wrong with rounding? NWC */
2051 else {
2052 /* scalar has trailing garbage, eg "42a" */
2053 }
28e5dec8 2054 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
7234c960 2055 "0x%"UVxf" iv(%"NVgf" => %"IVdf") (precise)\n",
28e5dec8
JH
2056 PTR2UV(sv),
2057 SvNVX(sv),
2058 SvIVX(sv)));
2059
2060 } else {
2061 /* IV not precise. No need to convert from PV, as NV
2062 conversion would already have cached IV if it detected
2063 that PV->IV would be better than PV->NV->IV
2064 flags already correct - don't set public IOK. */
2065 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
7234c960 2066 "0x%"UVxf" iv(%"NVgf" => %"IVdf") (imprecise)\n",
28e5dec8
JH
2067 PTR2UV(sv),
2068 SvNVX(sv),
2069 SvIVX(sv)));
2070 }
2071 /* Can the above go wrong if SvIVX == IV_MIN and SvNVX < IV_MIN,
2072 but the cast (NV)IV_MIN rounds to a the value less (more
2073 negative) than IV_MIN which happens to be equal to SvNVX ??
2074 Analogous to 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF rounding up to NV (2**64) and
2075 NV rounding back to 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF, so UVX == UV(NVX) and
2076 (NV)UVX == NVX are both true, but the values differ. :-(
2077 Hopefully for 2s complement IV_MIN is something like
2078 0x8000000000000000 which will be exact. NWC */
d460ef45 2079 }
25da4f38 2080 else {
607fa7f2 2081 SvUV_set(sv, U_V(SvNVX(sv)));
28e5dec8
JH
2082 if (
2083 (SvNVX(sv) == (NV) SvUVX(sv))
2084#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
2085 /* Make sure it's not 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF */
2086 /*&& (SvUVX(sv) != UV_MAX) irrelevant with code below */
2087 && (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) > SvUVX(sv))
2088 /* Don't flag it as "accurately an integer" if the number
2089 came from a (by definition imprecise) NV operation, and
2090 we're outside the range of NV integer precision */
2091#endif
a43d94f2 2092 && SvNOK(sv)
28e5dec8
JH
2093 )
2094 SvIOK_on(sv);
25da4f38 2095 SvIsUV_on(sv);
1c846c1f 2096 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
57def98f 2097 "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%"UVuf" => %"IVdf") (as unsigned)\n",
56431972 2098 PTR2UV(sv),
57def98f
JH
2099 SvUVX(sv),
2100 SvUVX(sv)));
25da4f38 2101 }
748a9306 2102 }
cd84013a 2103 else if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
c2988b20 2104 UV value;
504618e9 2105 const int numtype = grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), &value);
af359546 2106 /* We want to avoid a possible problem when we cache an IV/ a UV which
25da4f38 2107 may be later translated to an NV, and the resulting NV is not
c2988b20
NC
2108 the same as the direct translation of the initial string
2109 (eg 123.456 can shortcut to the IV 123 with atol(), but we must
2110 be careful to ensure that the value with the .456 is around if the
2111 NV value is requested in the future).
1c846c1f 2112
af359546 2113 This means that if we cache such an IV/a UV, we need to cache the
25da4f38 2114 NV as well. Moreover, we trade speed for space, and do not
28e5dec8 2115 cache the NV if we are sure it's not needed.
25da4f38 2116 */
16b7a9a4 2117
c2988b20
NC
2118 /* SVt_PVNV is one higher than SVt_PVIV, hence this order */
2119 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2120 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
5e045b90 2121 /* It's definitely an integer, only upgrade to PVIV */
28e5dec8
JH
2122 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVIV)
2123 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
f7bbb42a 2124 (void)SvIOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2125 } else if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2126 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
28e5dec8 2127
f2524eef 2128 /* If NVs preserve UVs then we only use the UV value if we know that
c2988b20
NC
2129 we aren't going to call atof() below. If NVs don't preserve UVs
2130 then the value returned may have more precision than atof() will
2131 return, even though value isn't perfectly accurate. */
2132 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV
2133#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
2134 | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT
2135#endif
2136 )) == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2137 /* This won't turn off the public IOK flag if it was set above */
2138 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2139
2140 if (!(numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG)) {
2141 /* positive */;
2142 if (value <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
45977657 2143 SvIV_set(sv, (IV)value);
c2988b20 2144 } else {
af359546 2145 /* it didn't overflow, and it was positive. */
607fa7f2 2146 SvUV_set(sv, value);
c2988b20
NC
2147 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2148 }
2149 } else {
2150 /* 2s complement assumption */
2151 if (value <= (UV)IV_MIN) {
45977657 2152 SvIV_set(sv, -(IV)value);
c2988b20
NC
2153 } else {
2154 /* Too negative for an IV. This is a double upgrade, but
d1be9408 2155 I'm assuming it will be rare. */
c2988b20
NC
2156 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2157 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
2158 SvNOK_on(sv);
2159 SvIOK_off(sv);
2160 SvIOKp_on(sv);
9d6ce603 2161 SvNV_set(sv, -(NV)value);
45977657 2162 SvIV_set(sv, IV_MIN);
c2988b20
NC
2163 }
2164 }
2165 }
2166 /* For !NV_PRESERVES_UV and IS_NUMBER_IN_UV and IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT we
2167 will be in the previous block to set the IV slot, and the next
2168 block to set the NV slot. So no else here. */
2169
2170 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2171 != IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2172 /* It wasn't an (integer that doesn't overflow the UV). */
3f7c398e 2173 SvNV_set(sv, Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
28e5dec8 2174
c2988b20
NC
2175 if (! numtype && ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
2176 not_a_number(sv);
28e5dec8 2177
65202027 2178#if defined(USE_LONG_DOUBLE)
c2988b20
NC
2179 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%" PERL_PRIgldbl ")\n",
2180 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv)));
65202027 2181#else
1779d84d 2182 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%"NVgf")\n",
c2988b20 2183 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv)));
65202027 2184#endif
28e5dec8 2185
28e5dec8 2186#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
af359546
NC
2187 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2188 (void)SvNOK_on(sv);
2189 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MAX + 0.5) {
2190 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
2191 if ((NV)(SvIVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
2192 SvIOK_on(sv);
2193 } else {
6f207bd3 2194 NOOP; /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp */
af359546
NC
2195 }
2196 /* UV will not work better than IV */
2197 } else {
2198 if (SvNVX(sv) > (NV)UV_MAX) {
2199 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2200 /* Integer is inaccurate. NOK, IOKp, is UV */
2201 SvUV_set(sv, UV_MAX);
af359546
NC
2202 } else {
2203 SvUV_set(sv, U_V(SvNVX(sv)));
2204 /* 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF not an issue in here, NVs
2205 NV preservse UV so can do correct comparison. */
2206 if ((NV)(SvUVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv)) {
2207 SvIOK_on(sv);
af359546 2208 } else {
6f207bd3 2209 NOOP; /* Integer is imprecise. NOK, IOKp, is UV */
af359546
NC
2210 }
2211 }
4b0c9573 2212 SvIsUV_on(sv);
af359546 2213 }
28e5dec8 2214#else /* NV_PRESERVES_UV */
c2988b20
NC
2215 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2216 == (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT)) {
af359546 2217 /* The IV/UV slot will have been set from value returned by
c2988b20
NC
2218 grok_number above. The NV slot has just been set using
2219 Atof. */
560b0c46 2220 SvNOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2221 assert (SvIOKp(sv));
2222 } else {
2223 if (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) >
2224 U_V(SvNVX(sv) > 0 ? SvNVX(sv) : -SvNVX(sv))) {
2225 /* Small enough to preserve all bits. */
2226 (void)SvIOKp_on(sv);
2227 SvNOK_on(sv);
45977657 2228 SvIV_set(sv, I_V(SvNVX(sv)));
c2988b20
NC
2229 if ((NV)(SvIVX(sv)) == SvNVX(sv))
2230 SvIOK_on(sv);
2231 /* Assumption: first non-preserved integer is < IV_MAX,
2232 this NV is in the preserved range, therefore: */
2233 if (!(U_V(SvNVX(sv) > 0 ? SvNVX(sv) : -SvNVX(sv))
2234 < (UV)IV_MAX)) {
32fdb065 2235 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "sv_2iv assumed (U_V(fabs((double)SvNVX(sv))) < (UV)IV_MAX) but SvNVX(sv)=%"NVgf" U_V is 0x%"UVxf", IV_MAX is 0x%"UVxf"\n", SvNVX(sv), U_V(SvNVX(sv)), (UV)IV_MAX);
c2988b20
NC
2236 }
2237 } else {
2238 /* IN_UV NOT_INT
2239 0 0 already failed to read UV.
2240 0 1 already failed to read UV.
2241 1 0 you won't get here in this case. IV/UV
2242 slot set, public IOK, Atof() unneeded.
2243 1 1 already read UV.
2244 so there's no point in sv_2iuv_non_preserve() attempting
2245 to use atol, strtol, strtoul etc. */
47031da6 2246# ifdef DEBUGGING
40a17c4c 2247 sv_2iuv_non_preserve (sv, numtype);
47031da6
NC
2248# else
2249 sv_2iuv_non_preserve (sv);
2250# endif
c2988b20
NC
2251 }
2252 }
28e5dec8 2253#endif /* NV_PRESERVES_UV */
a43d94f2
NC
2254 /* It might be more code efficient to go through the entire logic above
2255 and conditionally set with SvIOKp_on() rather than SvIOK(), but it
2256 gets complex and potentially buggy, so more programmer efficient
2257 to do it this way, by turning off the public flags: */
2258 if (!numtype)
2259 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~(SVf_IOK|SVf_NOK);
25da4f38 2260 }
af359546
NC
2261 }
2262 else {
675c862f 2263 if (isGV_with_GP(sv))
159b6efe 2264 return glob_2number(MUTABLE_GV(sv));
180488f8 2265
4f62cd62 2266 if (!PL_localizing && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
af359546 2267 report_uninit(sv);
25da4f38
IZ
2268 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_IV)
2269 /* Typically the caller expects that sv_any is not NULL now. */
2270 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_IV);
af359546
NC
2271 /* Return 0 from the caller. */
2272 return TRUE;
2273 }
2274 return FALSE;
2275}
2276
2277/*
2278=for apidoc sv_2iv_flags
2279
2280Return the integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string
2281conversion. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first.
2282Normally used via the C<SvIV(sv)> and C<SvIVx(sv)> macros.
2283
2284=cut
2285*/
2286
2287IV
5aaab254 2288Perl_sv_2iv_flags(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
af359546 2289{
97aff369 2290 dVAR;
4bac9ae4 2291
af359546 2292 if (!sv)
a0d0e21e 2293 return 0;
4bac9ae4 2294
217f6fa3
FC
2295 assert (SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV && SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVHV
2296 && SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVFM);
2297
4bac9ae4
CS
2298 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) && (flags & SV_GMAGIC))
2299 mg_get(sv);
2300
2301 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2302 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
2303 SV * tmpstr;
2304 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2305 return 0;
2306 tmpstr = AMG_CALLunary(sv, numer_amg);
2307 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2308 return SvIV(tmpstr);
2309 }
2310 }
2311 return PTR2IV(SvRV(sv));
2312 }
2313
8d919b0a 2314 if (SvVALID(sv) || isREGEXP(sv)) {
2b2b6d6d
NC
2315 /* FBMs use the space for SvIVX and SvNVX for other purposes, and use
2316 the same flag bit as SVf_IVisUV, so must not let them cache IVs.
2317 In practice they are extremely unlikely to actually get anywhere
2318 accessible by user Perl code - the only way that I'm aware of is when
2319 a constant subroutine which is used as the second argument to index.
cd84013a
FC
2320
2321 Regexps have no SvIVX and SvNVX fields.
2b2b6d6d 2322 */
8d919b0a 2323 assert(isREGEXP(sv) || SvPOKp(sv));
e20b6c3b 2324 {
71c558c3 2325 UV value;
8d919b0a
FC
2326 const char * const ptr =
2327 isREGEXP(sv) ? RX_WRAPPED((REGEXP*)sv) : SvPVX_const(sv);
71c558c3 2328 const int numtype
8d919b0a 2329 = grok_number(ptr, SvCUR(sv), &value);
71c558c3
NC
2330
2331 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2332 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2333 /* It's definitely an integer */
2334 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) {
2335 if (value < (UV)IV_MIN)
2336 return -(IV)value;
2337 } else {
2338 if (value < (UV)IV_MAX)
2339 return (IV)value;
2340 }
2341 }
2342 if (!numtype) {
2343 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
2344 not_a_number(sv);
2345 }
8d919b0a 2346 return I_V(Atof(ptr));
e20b6c3b 2347 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2348 }
2349
2350 if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
73381561 2351#ifdef PERL_OLD_COPY_ON_WRITE
af359546
NC
2352 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
2353 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
2354 }
73381561 2355#endif
af359546
NC
2356 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
2357 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
2358 report_uninit(sv);
2359 return 0;
2360 }
2361 }
4bac9ae4 2362
af359546
NC
2363 if (!SvIOKp(sv)) {
2364 if (S_sv_2iuv_common(aTHX_ sv))
2365 return 0;
79072805 2366 }
4bac9ae4 2367
1d7c1841
GS
2368 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2iv(%"IVdf")\n",
2369 PTR2UV(sv),SvIVX(sv)));
25da4f38 2370 return SvIsUV(sv) ? (IV)SvUVX(sv) : SvIVX(sv);
79072805
LW
2371}
2372
645c22ef 2373/*
891f9566 2374=for apidoc sv_2uv_flags
645c22ef
DM
2375
2376Return the unsigned integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string
891f9566
YST
2377conversion. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first.
2378Normally used via the C<SvUV(sv)> and C<SvUVx(sv)> macros.
645c22ef
DM
2379
2380=cut
2381*/
2382
ff68c719 2383UV
5aaab254 2384Perl_sv_2uv_flags(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
ff68c719 2385{
97aff369 2386 dVAR;
4bac9ae4 2387
ff68c719
PP
2388 if (!sv)
2389 return 0;
4bac9ae4
CS
2390
2391 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) && (flags & SV_GMAGIC))
2392 mg_get(sv);
2393
2394 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2395 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
2396 SV *tmpstr;
2397 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2398 return 0;
2399 tmpstr = AMG_CALLunary(sv, numer_amg);
2400 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2401 return SvUV(tmpstr);
2402 }
2403 }
2404 return PTR2UV(SvRV(sv));
2405 }
2406
8d919b0a 2407 if (SvVALID(sv) || isREGEXP(sv)) {
2b2b6d6d 2408 /* FBMs use the space for SvIVX and SvNVX for other purposes, and use
cd84013a
FC
2409 the same flag bit as SVf_IVisUV, so must not let them cache IVs.
2410 Regexps have no SvIVX and SvNVX fields. */
8d919b0a 2411 assert(isREGEXP(sv) || SvPOKp(sv));
e20b6c3b 2412 {
71c558c3 2413 UV value;
8d919b0a
FC
2414 const char * const ptr =
2415 isREGEXP(sv) ? RX_WRAPPED((REGEXP*)sv) : SvPVX_const(sv);
71c558c3 2416 const int numtype
8d919b0a 2417 = grok_number(ptr, SvCUR(sv), &value);
71c558c3
NC
2418
2419 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2420 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
2421 /* It's definitely an integer */
2422 if (!(numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG))
2423 return value;
2424 }
2425 if (!numtype) {
2426 if (ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
2427 not_a_number(sv);
2428 }
8d919b0a 2429 return U_V(Atof(ptr));
e20b6c3b 2430 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2431 }
2432
2433 if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
73381561 2434#ifdef PERL_OLD_COPY_ON_WRITE
765f542d
NC
2435 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
2436 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
8a818333 2437 }
73381561 2438#endif
0336b60e 2439 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
0336b60e 2440 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2441 report_uninit(sv);
ff68c719
PP
2442 return 0;
2443 }
2444 }
4bac9ae4 2445
af359546
NC
2446 if (!SvIOKp(sv)) {
2447 if (S_sv_2iuv_common(aTHX_ sv))
2448 return 0;
ff68c719 2449 }
25da4f38 2450
1d7c1841
GS
2451 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2uv(%"UVuf")\n",
2452 PTR2UV(sv),SvUVX(sv)));
25da4f38 2453 return SvIsUV(sv) ? SvUVX(sv) : (UV)SvIVX(sv);
ff68c719
PP
2454}
2455
645c22ef 2456/*
196007d1 2457=for apidoc sv_2nv_flags
645c22ef
DM
2458
2459Return the num value of an SV, doing any necessary string or integer
fde67290 2460conversion. If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first.
39d5de13 2461Normally used via the C<SvNV(sv)> and C<SvNVx(sv)> macros.
645c22ef
DM
2462
2463=cut
2464*/
2465
65202027 2466NV
5aaab254 2467Perl_sv_2nv_flags(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
79072805 2468{
97aff369 2469 dVAR;
79072805
LW
2470 if (!sv)
2471 return 0.0;
217f6fa3
FC
2472 assert (SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV && SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVHV
2473 && SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVFM);
8d919b0a 2474 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) || SvVALID(sv) || isREGEXP(sv)) {
2b2b6d6d 2475 /* FBMs use the space for SvIVX and SvNVX for other purposes, and use
cd84013a
FC
2476 the same flag bit as SVf_IVisUV, so must not let them cache NVs.
2477 Regexps have no SvIVX and SvNVX fields. */
8d919b0a 2478 const char *ptr;
39d5de13
DM
2479 if (flags & SV_GMAGIC)
2480 mg_get(sv);
463ee0b2
LW
2481 if (SvNOKp(sv))
2482 return SvNVX(sv);
cd84013a 2483 if (SvPOKp(sv) && !SvIOKp(sv)) {
8d919b0a
FC
2484 ptr = SvPVX_const(sv);
2485 grokpv:
041457d9 2486 if (!SvIOKp(sv) && ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC) &&
8d919b0a 2487 !grok_number(ptr, SvCUR(sv), NULL))
a0d0e21e 2488 not_a_number(sv);
8d919b0a 2489 return Atof(ptr);
a0d0e21e 2490 }
25da4f38 2491 if (SvIOKp(sv)) {
1c846c1f 2492 if (SvIsUV(sv))
65202027 2493 return (NV)SvUVX(sv);
25da4f38 2494 else
65202027 2495 return (NV)SvIVX(sv);
47a72cb8
NC
2496 }
2497 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2498 goto return_rok;
2499 }
8d919b0a
FC
2500 if (isREGEXP(sv)) {
2501 ptr = RX_WRAPPED((REGEXP *)sv);
2502 goto grokpv;
2503 }
47a72cb8
NC
2504 assert(SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG);
2505 /* This falls through to the report_uninit near the end of the
2506 function. */
2507 } else if (SvTHINKFIRST(sv)) {
a0d0e21e 2508 if (SvROK(sv)) {
47a72cb8 2509 return_rok:
deb46114 2510 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
aee036bb
DM
2511 SV *tmpstr;
2512 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2513 return 0;
31d632c3 2514 tmpstr = AMG_CALLunary(sv, numer_amg);
deb46114
NC
2515 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2516 return SvNV(tmpstr);
2517 }
2518 }
2519 return PTR2NV(SvRV(sv));
a0d0e21e 2520 }
73381561 2521#ifdef PERL_OLD_COPY_ON_WRITE
765f542d
NC
2522 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
2523 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
8a818333 2524 }
73381561 2525#endif
0336b60e 2526 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvOK(sv)) {
599cee73 2527 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2528 report_uninit(sv);
ed6116ce
LW
2529 return 0.0;
2530 }
79072805
LW
2531 }
2532 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_NV) {
7e25a7e9
NC
2533 /* The logic to use SVt_PVNV if necessary is in sv_upgrade. */
2534 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_NV);
906f284f 2535#ifdef USE_LONG_DOUBLE
097ee67d 2536 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2537 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1d7c1841
GS
2538 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
2539 "0x%"UVxf" num(%" PERL_PRIgldbl ")\n",
2540 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
572bbb43
GS
2541 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2542 });
65202027 2543#else
572bbb43 2544 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2545 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1779d84d 2546 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" num(%"NVgf")\n",
1d7c1841 2547 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
097ee67d
JH
2548 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2549 });
572bbb43 2550#endif
79072805
LW
2551 }
2552 else if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2553 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
59d8ce62
NC
2554 if (SvNOKp(sv)) {
2555 return SvNVX(sv);
61604483 2556 }
59d8ce62 2557 if (SvIOKp(sv)) {
9d6ce603 2558 SvNV_set(sv, SvIsUV(sv) ? (NV)SvUVX(sv) : (NV)SvIVX(sv));
28e5dec8 2559#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
a43d94f2
NC
2560 if (SvIOK(sv))
2561 SvNOK_on(sv);
2562 else
2563 SvNOKp_on(sv);
28e5dec8
JH
2564#else
2565 /* Only set the public NV OK flag if this NV preserves the IV */
2566 /* Check it's not 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF */
a43d94f2
NC
2567 if (SvIOK(sv) &&
2568 SvIsUV(sv) ? ((SvUVX(sv) != UV_MAX)&&(SvUVX(sv) == U_V(SvNVX(sv))))
28e5dec8
JH
2569 : (SvIVX(sv) == I_V(SvNVX(sv))))
2570 SvNOK_on(sv);
2571 else
2572 SvNOKp_on(sv);
2573#endif
93a17b20 2574 }
cd84013a 2575 else if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
c2988b20 2576 UV value;
3f7c398e 2577 const int numtype = grok_number(SvPVX_const(sv), SvCUR(sv), &value);
041457d9 2578 if (!SvIOKp(sv) && !numtype && ckWARN(WARN_NUMERIC))
a0d0e21e 2579 not_a_number(sv);
28e5dec8 2580#ifdef NV_PRESERVES_UV
c2988b20
NC
2581 if ((numtype & (IS_NUMBER_IN_UV | IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT))
2582 == IS_NUMBER_IN_UV) {
5e045b90 2583 /* It's definitely an integer */
9d6ce603 2584 SvNV_set(sv, (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) ? -(NV)value : (NV)value);
c2988b20 2585 } else
3f7c398e 2586 SvNV_set(sv, Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
a43d94f2
NC
2587 if (numtype)
2588 SvNOK_on(sv);
2589 else
2590 SvNOKp_on(sv);
28e5dec8 2591#else
3f7c398e 2592 SvNV_set(sv, Atof(SvPVX_const(sv)));
28e5dec8
JH
2593 /* Only set the public NV OK flag if this NV preserves the value in
2594 the PV at least as well as an IV/UV would.
2595 Not sure how to do this 100% reliably. */
2596 /* if that shift count is out of range then Configure's test is
2597 wonky. We shouldn't be in here with NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS ==
2598 UV_BITS */
2599 if (((UV)1 << NV_PRESERVES_UV_BITS) >
c2988b20 2600 U_V(SvNVX(sv) > 0 ? SvNVX(sv) : -SvNVX(sv))) {
28e5dec8 2601 SvNOK_on(sv); /* Definitely small enough to preserve all bits */
c2988b20
NC
2602 } else if (!(numtype & IS_NUMBER_IN_UV)) {
2603 /* Can't use strtol etc to convert this string, so don't try.
2604 sv_2iv and sv_2uv will use the NV to convert, not the PV. */
2605 SvNOK_on(sv);
2606 } else {
2607 /* value has been set. It may not be precise. */
2608 if ((numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) && (value > (UV)IV_MIN)) {
2609 /* 2s complement assumption for (UV)IV_MIN */
2610 SvNOK_on(sv); /* Integer is too negative. */
2611 } else {
2612 SvNOKp_on(sv);
2613 SvIOKp_on(sv);
6fa402ec 2614
c2988b20 2615 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NEG) {
45977657 2616 SvIV_set(sv, -(IV)value);
c2988b20 2617 } else if (value <= (UV)IV_MAX) {
45977657 2618 SvIV_set(sv, (IV)value);
c2988b20 2619 } else {
607fa7f2 2620 SvUV_set(sv, value);
c2988b20
NC
2621 SvIsUV_on(sv);
2622 }
2623
2624 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT) {
2625 /* I believe that even if the original PV had decimals,
2626 they are lost beyond the limit of the FP precision.
2627 However, neither is canonical, so both only get p
2628 flags. NWC, 2000/11/25 */
2629 /* Both already have p flags, so do nothing */
2630 } else {
66a1b24b 2631 const NV nv = SvNVX(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2632 if (SvNVX(sv) < (NV)IV_MAX + 0.5) {
2633 if (SvIVX(sv) == I_V(nv)) {
2634 SvNOK_on(sv);
c2988b20 2635 } else {
c2988b20
NC
2636 /* It had no "." so it must be integer. */
2637 }
00b6aa41 2638 SvIOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2639 } else {
2640 /* between IV_MAX and NV(UV_MAX).
2641 Could be slightly > UV_MAX */
6fa402ec 2642
c2988b20
NC
2643 if (numtype & IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT) {
2644 /* UV and NV both imprecise. */
2645 } else {
66a1b24b 2646 const UV nv_as_uv = U_V(nv);
c2988b20
NC
2647
2648 if (value == nv_as_uv && SvUVX(sv) != UV_MAX) {
2649 SvNOK_on(sv);
c2988b20 2650 }
00b6aa41 2651 SvIOK_on(sv);
c2988b20
NC
2652 }
2653 }
2654 }
2655 }
2656 }
a43d94f2
NC
2657 /* It might be more code efficient to go through the entire logic above
2658 and conditionally set with SvNOKp_on() rather than SvNOK(), but it
2659 gets complex and potentially buggy, so more programmer efficient
2660 to do it this way, by turning off the public flags: */
2661 if (!numtype)
2662 SvFLAGS(sv) &= ~(SVf_IOK|SVf_NOK);
28e5dec8 2663#endif /* NV_PRESERVES_UV */
93a17b20 2664 }
79072805 2665 else {
f7877b28 2666 if (isGV_with_GP(sv)) {
159b6efe 2667 glob_2number(MUTABLE_GV(sv));
180488f8
NC
2668 return 0.0;
2669 }
2670
4f62cd62 2671 if (!PL_localizing && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
29489e7c 2672 report_uninit(sv);
7e25a7e9
NC
2673 assert (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_NV);
2674 /* Typically the caller expects that sv_any is not NULL now. */
2675 /* XXX Ilya implies that this is a bug in callers that assume this
2676 and ideally should be fixed. */
a0d0e21e 2677 return 0.0;
79072805 2678 }
572bbb43 2679#if defined(USE_LONG_DOUBLE)
097ee67d 2680 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2681 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1d7c1841
GS
2682 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2nv(%" PERL_PRIgldbl ")\n",
2683 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
572bbb43
GS
2684 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2685 });
65202027 2686#else
572bbb43 2687 DEBUG_c({
f93f4e46 2688 STORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL_SET_STANDARD();
1779d84d 2689 PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 1nv(%"NVgf")\n",
1d7c1841 2690 PTR2UV(sv), SvNVX(sv));
097ee67d
JH
2691 RESTORE_NUMERIC_LOCAL();
2692 });
572bbb43 2693#endif
463ee0b2 2694 return SvNVX(sv);
79072805
LW
2695}
2696
800401ee
JH
2697/*
2698=for apidoc sv_2num
2699
2700Return an SV with the numeric value of the source SV, doing any necessary
a196a5fa
JH
2701reference or overload conversion. You must use the C<SvNUM(sv)> macro to
2702access this function.
800401ee
JH
2703
2704=cut
2705*/
2706
2707SV *
5aaab254 2708Perl_sv_2num(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
800401ee 2709{
7918f24d
NC
2710 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2NUM;
2711
b9ee0594
RGS
2712 if (!SvROK(sv))
2713 return sv;
800401ee 2714 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
31d632c3 2715 SV * const tmpsv = AMG_CALLunary(sv, numer_amg);
a02ec77a 2716 TAINT_IF(tmpsv && SvTAINTED(tmpsv));
800401ee
JH
2717 if (tmpsv && (!SvROK(tmpsv) || (SvRV(tmpsv) != SvRV(sv))))
2718 return sv_2num(tmpsv);
2719 }
2720 return sv_2mortal(newSVuv(PTR2UV(SvRV(sv))));
2721}
2722
645c22ef
DM
2723/* uiv_2buf(): private routine for use by sv_2pv_flags(): print an IV or
2724 * UV as a string towards the end of buf, and return pointers to start and
2725 * end of it.
2726 *
2727 * We assume that buf is at least TYPE_CHARS(UV) long.
2728 */
2729
864dbfa3 2730static char *
5de3775c 2731S_uiv_2buf(char *const buf, const IV iv, UV uv, const int is_uv, char **const peob)
25da4f38 2732{
25da4f38 2733 char *ptr = buf + TYPE_CHARS(UV);
823a54a3 2734 char * const ebuf = ptr;
25da4f38 2735 int sign;
25da4f38 2736
7918f24d
NC
2737 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_UIV_2BUF;
2738
25da4f38
IZ
2739 if (is_uv)
2740 sign = 0;
2741 else if (iv >= 0) {
2742 uv = iv;
2743 sign = 0;
2744 } else {
2745 uv = -iv;
2746 sign = 1;
2747 }
2748 do {
eb160463 2749 *--ptr = '0' + (char)(uv % 10);
25da4f38
IZ
2750 } while (uv /= 10);
2751 if (sign)
2752 *--ptr = '-';
2753 *peob = ebuf;
2754 return ptr;
2755}
2756
645c22ef
DM
2757/*
2758=for apidoc sv_2pv_flags
2759
ff276b08 2760Returns a pointer to the string value of an SV, and sets *lp to its length.
fde67290
FC
2761If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first. Coerces sv to a
2762string if necessary. Normally invoked via the C<SvPV_flags> macro.
2763C<sv_2pv()> and C<sv_2pv_nomg> usually end up here too.
645c22ef
DM
2764
2765=cut
2766*/
2767
8d6d96c1 2768char *
5aaab254 2769Perl_sv_2pv_flags(pTHX_ SV *const sv, STRLEN *const lp, const I32 flags)
8d6d96c1 2770{
97aff369 2771 dVAR;
eb578fdb 2772 char *s;
79072805 2773
463ee0b2 2774 if (!sv) {
cdb061a3
NC
2775 if (lp)
2776 *lp = 0;
73d840c0 2777 return (char *)"";
463ee0b2 2778 }
217f6fa3
FC
2779 assert (SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV && SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVHV
2780 && SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVFM);
4bac9ae4
CS
2781 if (SvGMAGICAL(sv) && (flags & SV_GMAGIC))
2782 mg_get(sv);
2783 if (SvROK(sv)) {
2784 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
2785 SV *tmpstr;
2786 if (flags & SV_SKIP_OVERLOAD)
2787 return NULL;
2788 tmpstr = AMG_CALLunary(sv, string_amg);
2789 TAINT_IF(tmpstr && SvTAINTED(tmpstr));
2790 if (tmpstr && (!SvROK(tmpstr) || (SvRV(tmpstr) != SvRV(sv)))) {
2791 /* Unwrap this: */
2792 /* char *pv = lp ? SvPV(tmpstr, *lp) : SvPV_nolen(tmpstr);
2793 */
75dfc8ec 2794
4bac9ae4
CS
2795 char *pv;
2796 if ((SvFLAGS(tmpstr) & (SVf_POK)) == SVf_POK) {
2797 if (flags & SV_CONST_RETURN) {
2798 pv = (char *) SvPVX_const(tmpstr);
50adf7d2 2799 } else {
4bac9ae4
CS
2800 pv = (flags & SV_MUTABLE_RETURN)
2801 ? SvPVX_mutable(tmpstr) : SvPVX(tmpstr);
50adf7d2 2802 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2803 if (lp)
2804 *lp = SvCUR(tmpstr);
2805 } else {
2806 pv = sv_2pv_flags(tmpstr, lp, flags);
50adf7d2 2807 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2808 if (SvUTF8(tmpstr))
2809 SvUTF8_on(sv);
2810 else
2811 SvUTF8_off(sv);
2812 return pv;
deb46114 2813 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2814 }
2815 {
2816 STRLEN len;
2817 char *retval;
2818 char *buffer;
2819 SV *const referent = SvRV(sv);
2820
2821 if (!referent) {
2822 len = 7;
2823 retval = buffer = savepvn("NULLREF", len);
2824 } else if (SvTYPE(referent) == SVt_REGEXP &&
2825 (!(PL_curcop->cop_hints & HINT_NO_AMAGIC) ||
2826 amagic_is_enabled(string_amg))) {
2827 REGEXP * const re = (REGEXP *)MUTABLE_PTR(referent);
2828
2829 assert(re);
67d2d14d 2830
4bac9ae4
CS
2831 /* If the regex is UTF-8 we want the containing scalar to
2832 have an UTF-8 flag too */
2833 if (RX_UTF8(re))
2834 SvUTF8_on(sv);
2835 else
2836 SvUTF8_off(sv);
67d2d14d 2837
4bac9ae4
CS
2838 if (lp)
2839 *lp = RX_WRAPLEN(re);
67d2d14d 2840
4bac9ae4
CS
2841 return RX_WRAPPED(re);
2842 } else {
2843 const char *const typestr = sv_reftype(referent, 0);
2844 const STRLEN typelen = strlen(typestr);
2845 UV addr = PTR2UV(referent);
2846 const char *stashname = NULL;
2847 STRLEN stashnamelen = 0; /* hush, gcc */
2848 const char *buffer_end;
2849
2850 if (SvOBJECT(referent)) {
2851 const HEK *const name = HvNAME_HEK(SvSTASH(referent));
2852
2853 if (name) {
2854 stashname = HEK_KEY(name);
2855 stashnamelen = HEK_LEN(name);
2856
2857 if (HEK_UTF8(name)) {
2858 SvUTF8_on(sv);
fafee734 2859 } else {
4bac9ae4 2860 SvUTF8_off(sv);
fafee734 2861 }
fafee734 2862 } else {
4bac9ae4
CS
2863 stashname = "__ANON__";
2864 stashnamelen = 8;
fafee734 2865 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2866 len = stashnamelen + 1 /* = */ + typelen + 3 /* (0x */
2867 + 2 * sizeof(UV) + 2 /* )\0 */;
2868 } else {
2869 len = typelen + 3 /* (0x */
2870 + 2 * sizeof(UV) + 2 /* )\0 */;
2871 }
fafee734 2872
4bac9ae4
CS
2873 Newx(buffer, len, char);
2874 buffer_end = retval = buffer + len;
2875
2876 /* Working backwards */
2877 *--retval = '\0';
2878 *--retval = ')';
2879 do {
2880 *--retval = PL_hexdigit[addr & 15];
2881 } while (addr >>= 4);
2882 *--retval = 'x';
2883 *--retval = '0';
2884 *--retval = '(';
2885
2886 retval -= typelen;
2887 memcpy(retval, typestr, typelen);
2888
2889 if (stashname) {
2890 *--retval = '=';
2891 retval -= stashnamelen;
2892 memcpy(retval, stashname, stashnamelen);
c080367d 2893 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2894 /* retval may not necessarily have reached the start of the
2895 buffer here. */
2896 assert (retval >= buffer);
2897
2898 len = buffer_end - retval - 1; /* -1 for that \0 */
463ee0b2 2899 }
cdb061a3 2900 if (lp)
4bac9ae4
CS
2901 *lp = len;
2902 SAVEFREEPV(buffer);
2903 return retval;
79072805 2904 }
79072805 2905 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2906
2907 if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
2908 if (lp)
2909 *lp = SvCUR(sv);
2910 if (flags & SV_MUTABLE_RETURN)
2911 return SvPVX_mutable(sv);
2912 if (flags & SV_CONST_RETURN)
2913 return (char *)SvPVX_const(sv);
2914 return SvPVX(sv);
2915 }
2916
2917 if (SvIOK(sv)) {
28e5dec8
JH
2918 /* I'm assuming that if both IV and NV are equally valid then
2919 converting the IV is going to be more efficient */
e1ec3a88 2920 const U32 isUIOK = SvIsUV(sv);
28e5dec8
JH
2921 char buf[TYPE_CHARS(UV)];
2922 char *ebuf, *ptr;
97a130b8 2923 STRLEN len;
28e5dec8
JH
2924
2925 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVIV)
2926 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVIV);
4ea1d550 2927 ptr = uiv_2buf(buf, SvIVX(sv), SvUVX(sv), isUIOK, &ebuf);
97a130b8 2928 len = ebuf - ptr;
5902b6a9 2929 /* inlined from sv_setpvn */
97a130b8
NC
2930 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, len + 1);
2931 Move(ptr, s, len, char);
2932 s += len;
28e5dec8 2933 *s = '\0';
b127e37e 2934 SvPOK_on(sv);
28e5dec8 2935 }
4bac9ae4 2936 else if (SvNOK(sv)) {
79072805
LW
2937 if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PVNV)
2938 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVNV);
29912d93
NC
2939 if (SvNVX(sv) == 0.0) {
2940 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, 2);
2941 *s++ = '0';
2942 *s = '\0';
2943 } else {
2944 dSAVE_ERRNO;
2945 /* The +20 is pure guesswork. Configure test needed. --jhi */
2946 s = SvGROW_mutable(sv, NV_DIG + 20);
2947 /* some Xenix systems wipe out errno here */
b127e37e 2948
b127e37e 2949#ifndef USE_LOCALE_NUMERIC
68e8f474 2950 Gconvert(SvNVX(sv), NV_DIG, 0, s);
b127e37e 2951 SvPOK_on(sv);
68e8f474
KW
2952#else
2953 /* Gconvert always uses the current locale. That's the right thing
2954 * to do if we're supposed to be using locales. But otherwise, we
2955 * want the result to be based on the C locale, so we need to
2956 * change to the C locale during the Gconvert and then change back.
2957 * But if we're already in the C locale (PL_numeric_standard is
2958 * TRUE in that case), no need to do any changing */
7187d38e 2959 if (PL_numeric_standard || IN_SOME_LOCALE_FORM_RUNTIME) {
68e8f474 2960 Gconvert(SvNVX(sv), NV_DIG, 0, s);
28acfe03
KW
2961
2962 /* If the radix character is UTF-8, and actually is in the
2963 * output, turn on the UTF-8 flag for the scalar */
2964 if (! PL_numeric_standard
2965 && PL_numeric_radix_sv && SvUTF8(PL_numeric_radix_sv)
2966 && instr(s, SvPVX_const(PL_numeric_radix_sv)))
2967 {
2968 SvUTF8_on(sv);
2969 }
68e8f474
KW
2970 }
2971 else {
2972 char *loc = savepv(setlocale(LC_NUMERIC, NULL));
2973 setlocale(LC_NUMERIC, "C");
2974 Gconvert(SvNVX(sv), NV_DIG, 0, s);
2975 setlocale(LC_NUMERIC, loc);
2976 Safefree(loc);
28acfe03 2977
68e8f474
KW
2978 }
2979
2980 /* We don't call SvPOK_on(), because it may come to pass that the
2981 * locale changes so that the stringification we just did is no
2982 * longer correct. We will have to re-stringify every time it is
2983 * needed */
b127e37e 2984#endif
29912d93
NC
2985 RESTORE_ERRNO;
2986 while (*s) s++;
bbce6d69 2987 }
79072805 2988 }
4bac9ae4
CS
2989 else if (isGV_with_GP(sv)) {
2990 GV *const gv = MUTABLE_GV(sv);
2991 SV *const buffer = sv_newmortal();
8d1c3e26 2992
4bac9ae4 2993 gv_efullname3(buffer, gv, "*");
180488f8 2994
4bac9ae4
CS
2995 assert(SvPOK(buffer));
2996 if (SvUTF8(buffer))
2997 SvUTF8_on(sv);
2998 if (lp)
2999 *lp = SvCUR(buffer);
3000 return SvPVX(buffer);
3001 }
8d919b0a
FC
3002 else if (isREGEXP(sv)) {
3003 if (lp) *lp = RX_WRAPLEN((REGEXP *)sv);
3004 return RX_WRAPPED((REGEXP *)sv);
3005 }
4bac9ae4 3006 else {
cdb061a3 3007 if (lp)
00b6aa41 3008 *lp = 0;
9f621bb0
NC
3009 if (flags & SV_UNDEF_RETURNS_NULL)
3010 return NULL;
4f62cd62 3011 if (!PL_localizing && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
9f621bb0 3012 report_uninit(sv);
4bac9ae4
CS
3013 /* Typically the caller expects that sv_any is not NULL now. */
3014 if (!SvREADONLY(sv) && SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_PV)
25da4f38 3015 sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PV);
73d840c0 3016 return (char *)"";
79072805 3017 }
4bac9ae4 3018
cdb061a3 3019 {
823a54a3 3020 const STRLEN len = s - SvPVX_const(sv);
cdb061a3
NC
3021 if (lp)
3022 *lp = len;
3023 SvCUR_set(sv, len);
3024 }
1d7c1841 3025 DEBUG_c(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "0x%"UVxf" 2pv(%s)\n",
3f7c398e 3026 PTR2UV(sv),SvPVX_const(sv)));
4d84ee25
NC
3027 if (flags & SV_CONST_RETURN)
3028 return (char *)SvPVX_const(sv);
10516c54
NC
3029 if (flags & SV_MUTABLE_RETURN)
3030 return SvPVX_mutable(sv);
463ee0b2
LW
3031 return SvPVX(sv);
3032}
3033
645c22ef 3034/*
6050d10e
JP
3035=for apidoc sv_copypv
3036
3037Copies a stringified representation of the source SV into the
3038destination SV. Automatically performs any necessary mg_get and
54f0641b 3039coercion of numeric values into strings. Guaranteed to preserve
2575c402 3040UTF8 flag even from overloaded objects. Similar in nature to
54f0641b
NIS
3041sv_2pv[_flags] but operates directly on an SV instead of just the
3042string. Mostly uses sv_2pv_flags to do its work, except when that
6050d10e
JP
3043would lose the UTF-8'ness of the PV.
3044
4bac9ae4
CS
3045=for apidoc sv_copypv_nomg
3046
3047Like sv_copypv, but doesn't invoke get magic first.
3048
3049=for apidoc sv_copypv_flags
3050
3051Implementation of sv_copypv and sv_copypv_nomg. Calls get magic iff flags
3052include SV_GMAGIC.
3053
6050d10e
JP
3054=cut
3055*/
3056
3057void
5aaab254 3058Perl_sv_copypv(pTHX_ SV *const dsv, SV *const ssv)
6050d10e 3059{
4bac9ae4
CS
3060 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_COPYPV;
3061
3062 sv_copypv_flags(dsv, ssv, 0);
3063}
3064
3065void
5aaab254 3066Perl_sv_copypv_flags(pTHX_ SV *const dsv, SV *const ssv, const I32 flags)
4bac9ae4 3067{
446eaa42 3068 STRLEN len;
4bac9ae4 3069 const char *s;
7918f24d 3070
4bac9ae4 3071 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_COPYPV_FLAGS;
7918f24d 3072
4bac9ae4
CS
3073 if ((flags & SV_GMAGIC) && SvGMAGICAL(ssv))
3074 mg_get(ssv);
3075 s = SvPV_nomg_const(ssv,len);
cb50f42d 3076 sv_setpvn(dsv,s,len);
446eaa42 3077 if (SvUTF8(ssv))
cb50f42d 3078 SvUTF8_on(dsv);
446eaa42 3079 else
cb50f42d 3080 SvUTF8_off(dsv);
6050d10e
JP
3081}
3082
3083/*
645c22ef
DM
3084=for apidoc sv_2pvbyte
3085
3086Return a pointer to the byte-encoded representation of the SV, and set *lp
1e54db1a 3087to its length. May cause the SV to be downgraded from UTF-8 as a
645c22ef
DM
3088side-effect.
3089
3090Usually accessed via the C<SvPVbyte> macro.
3091
3092=cut
3093*/
3094
7340a771 3095char *
5aaab254 3096Perl_sv_2pvbyte(pTHX_ SV *sv, STRLEN *const lp)
7340a771 3097{
7918f24d
NC
3098 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2PVBYTE;
3099
48120f8f 3100 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
4499db73
FC
3101 if (((SvREADONLY(sv) || SvFAKE(sv)) && !SvIsCOW(sv))
3102 || isGV_with_GP(sv) || SvROK(sv)) {
a901b181 3103 SV *sv2 = sv_newmortal();
48120f8f 3104 sv_copypv_nomg(sv2,sv);
a901b181
FC
3105 sv = sv2;
3106 }
0875d2fe 3107 sv_utf8_downgrade(sv,0);
71eb6d8c 3108 return lp ? SvPV_nomg(sv,*lp) : SvPV_nomg_nolen(sv);
7340a771
GS
3109}
3110
645c22ef 3111/*
035cbb0e
RGS
3112=for apidoc sv_2pvutf8
3113
3114Return a pointer to the UTF-8-encoded representation of the SV, and set *lp
3115to its length. May cause the SV to be upgraded to UTF-8 as a side-effect.
3116
3117Usually accessed via the C<SvPVutf8> macro.
3118
3119=cut
3120*/
645c22ef 3121
7340a771 3122char *
5aaab254 3123Perl_sv_2pvutf8(pTHX_ SV *sv, STRLEN *const lp)
7340a771 3124{
7918f24d
NC
3125 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2PVUTF8;
3126
4499db73
FC
3127 if (((SvREADONLY(sv) || SvFAKE(sv)) && !SvIsCOW(sv))
3128 || isGV_with_GP(sv) || SvROK(sv))
fe46cbda 3129 sv = sv_mortalcopy(sv);
4bac9ae4
CS
3130 else
3131 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
3132 sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg(sv);
c3ec315f 3133 return lp ? SvPV_nomg(sv,*lp) : SvPV_nomg_nolen(sv);
7340a771 3134}
1c846c1f 3135
7ee2227d 3136
645c22ef
DM
3137/*
3138=for apidoc sv_2bool
3139
06c841cf
FC
3140This macro is only used by sv_true() or its macro equivalent, and only if
3141the latter's argument is neither SvPOK, SvIOK nor SvNOK.
3142It calls sv_2bool_flags with the SV_GMAGIC flag.
3143
3144=for apidoc sv_2bool_flags
3145
3146This function is only used by sv_true() and friends, and only if
fde67290 3147the latter's argument is neither SvPOK, SvIOK nor SvNOK. If the flags
06c841cf
FC
3148contain SV_GMAGIC, then it does an mg_get() first.
3149
645c22ef
DM
3150
3151=cut
3152*/
3153
463ee0b2 3154bool
5aaab254 3155Perl_sv_2bool_flags(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const I32 flags)
463ee0b2 3156{
97aff369 3157 dVAR;
7918f24d 3158
06c841cf 3159 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_2BOOL_FLAGS;
7918f24d 3160
06c841cf 3161 if(flags & SV_GMAGIC) SvGETMAGIC(sv);
463ee0b2 3162
a0d0e21e
LW
3163 if (!SvOK(sv))
3164 return 0;
3165 if (SvROK(sv)) {
fabdb6c0 3166 if (SvAMAGIC(sv)) {
31d632c3 3167 SV * const tmpsv = AMG_CALLunary(sv, bool__amg);
fabdb6c0 3168 if (tmpsv && (!SvROK(tmpsv) || (SvRV(tmpsv) != SvRV(sv))))
f2338a2e 3169 return cBOOL(SvTRUE(tmpsv));
fabdb6c0
AL
3170 }
3171 return SvRV(sv) != 0;
a0d0e21e 3172 }
85b7d9b3
FC
3173 if (isREGEXP(sv))
3174 return
3175 RX_WRAPLEN(sv) > 1 || (RX_WRAPLEN(sv) && *RX_WRAPPED(sv) != '0');
4bac9ae4 3176 return SvTRUE_common(sv, isGV_with_GP(sv) ? 1 : 0);
79072805
LW
3177}
3178
c461cf8f
JH
3179/*
3180=for apidoc sv_utf8_upgrade
3181
78ea37eb 3182Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.
645c22ef 3183Forces the SV to string form if it is not already.
2bbc8d55 3184Will C<mg_get> on C<sv> if appropriate.
4411f3b6 3185Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future validity checks even
2bbc8d55
SP
3186if the whole string is the same in UTF-8 as not.
3187Returns the number of bytes in the converted string
c461cf8f 3188
0efd0472 3189This is not a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode interface:
13a6c0e0
JH
3190use the Encode extension for that.
3191
fe749c9a
KW
3192=for apidoc sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg
3193
fde67290 3194Like sv_utf8_upgrade, but doesn't do magic on C<sv>.
fe749c9a 3195
8d6d96c1
HS
3196=for apidoc sv_utf8_upgrade_flags
3197
78ea37eb 3198Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.
645c22ef 3199Forces the SV to string form if it is not already.
8d6d96c1 3200Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future validity checks even
960b0271
FC
3201if all the bytes are invariant in UTF-8.
3202If C<flags> has C<SV_GMAGIC> bit set,
2bbc8d55
SP
3203will C<mg_get> on C<sv> if appropriate, else not.
3204Returns the number of bytes in the converted string
3205C<sv_utf8_upgrade> and
8d6d96c1
HS
3206C<sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg> are implemented in terms of this function.
3207
0efd0472 3208This is not a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode interface:
13a6c0e0
JH
3209use the Encode extension for that.
3210
8d6d96c1 3211=cut
b3ab6785
KW
3212
3213The grow version is currently not externally documented. It adds a parameter,
3214extra, which is the number of unused bytes the string of 'sv' is guaranteed to
3215have free after it upon return. This allows the caller to reserve extra space
3216that it intends to fill, to avoid extra grows.
3217
3218Also externally undocumented for the moment is the flag SV_FORCE_UTF8_UPGRADE,
3219which can be used to tell this function to not first check to see if there are
3220any characters that are different in UTF-8 (variant characters) which would
3221force it to allocate a new string to sv, but to assume there are. Typically
3222this flag is used by a routine that has already parsed the string to find that
3223there are such characters, and passes this information on so that the work
3224doesn't have to be repeated.
3225
3226(One might think that the calling routine could pass in the position of the
3227first such variant, so it wouldn't have to be found again. But that is not the
3228case, because typically when the caller is likely to use this flag, it won't be
3229calling this routine unless it finds something that won't fit into a byte.
3230Otherwise it tries to not upgrade and just use bytes. But some things that
3231do fit into a byte are variants in utf8, and the caller may not have been
3232keeping track of these.)
3233
3234If the routine itself changes the string, it adds a trailing NUL. Such a NUL
3235isn't guaranteed due to having other routines do the work in some input cases,
3236or if the input is already flagged as being in utf8.
3237
3238The speed of this could perhaps be improved for many cases if someone wanted to
3239write a fast function that counts the number of variant characters in a string,
3240especially if it could return the position of the first one.
3241
8d6d96c1
HS
3242*/
3243
3244STRLEN
5aaab254 3245Perl_sv_utf8_upgrade_flags_grow(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const I32 flags, STRLEN extra)
8d6d96c1 3246{
97aff369 3247 dVAR;
7918f24d 3248
b3ab6785 3249 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UTF8_UPGRADE_FLAGS_GROW;
7918f24d 3250
808c356f
RGS
3251 if (sv == &PL_sv_undef)
3252 return 0;
892f9127 3253 if (!SvPOK_nog(sv)) {
e0e62c2a 3254 STRLEN len = 0;
d52b7888
NC
3255 if (SvREADONLY(sv) && (SvPOKp(sv) || SvIOKp(sv) || SvNOKp(sv))) {
3256 (void) sv_2pv_flags(sv,&len, flags);
b3ab6785
KW
3257 if (SvUTF8(sv)) {
3258 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, SvCUR(sv) + extra);
d52b7888 3259 return len;
b3ab6785 3260 }
d52b7888 3261 } else {
33fb6f35 3262 (void) SvPV_force_flags(sv,len,flags & SV_GMAGIC);
d52b7888 3263 }
e0e62c2a 3264 }
4411f3b6 3265
f5cee72b 3266 if (SvUTF8(sv)) {
b3ab6785 3267 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, SvCUR(sv) + extra);
5fec3b1d 3268 return SvCUR(sv);
f5cee72b 3269 }
5fec3b1d 3270
765f542d 3271 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
c56ed9f6 3272 S_sv_uncow(aTHX_ sv, 0);
db42d148
NIS
3273 }
3274
b3ab6785 3275 if (PL_encoding && !(flags & SV_UTF8_NO_ENCODING)) {
799ef3cb 3276 sv_recode_to_utf8(sv, PL_encoding);
b3ab6785
KW
3277 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, SvCUR(sv) + extra);
3278 return SvCUR(sv);
3279 }
3280
4e93345f
KW
3281 if (SvCUR(sv) == 0) {
3282 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, extra);
3283 } else { /* Assume Latin-1/EBCDIC */
c4e7c712 3284 /* This function could be much more efficient if we
2bbc8d55 3285 * had a FLAG in SVs to signal if there are any variant
c4e7c712 3286 * chars in the PV. Given that there isn't such a flag
b3ab6785
KW
3287 * make the loop as fast as possible (although there are certainly ways
3288 * to speed this up, eg. through vectorization) */
3289 U8 * s = (U8 *) SvPVX_const(sv);
3290 U8 * e = (U8 *) SvEND(sv);
3291 U8 *t = s;
3292 STRLEN two_byte_count = 0;
c4e7c712 3293
b3ab6785
KW
3294 if (flags & SV_FORCE_UTF8_UPGRADE) goto must_be_utf8;
3295
3296 /* See if really will need to convert to utf8. We mustn't rely on our
3297 * incoming SV being well formed and having a trailing '\0', as certain
3298 * code in pp_formline can send us partially built SVs. */
3299
c4e7c712 3300 while (t < e) {
53c1dcc0 3301 const U8 ch = *t++;
6f2d5cbc 3302 if (NATIVE_BYTE_IS_INVARIANT(ch)) continue;
b3ab6785
KW
3303
3304 t--; /* t already incremented; re-point to first variant */
3305 two_byte_count = 1;
3306 goto must_be_utf8;
c4e7c712 3307 }
b3ab6785
KW
3308
3309 /* utf8 conversion not needed because all are invariants. Mark as
3310 * UTF-8 even if no variant - saves scanning loop */
c4e7c712 3311 SvUTF8_on(sv);
7f0bfbea 3312 if (extra) SvGROW(sv, SvCUR(sv) + extra);
b3ab6785
KW
3313 return SvCUR(sv);
3314
3315must_be_utf8:
3316
3317 /* Here, the string should be converted to utf8, either because of an
3318 * input flag (two_byte_count = 0), or because a character that
3319 * requires 2 bytes was found (two_byte_count = 1). t points either to
3320 * the beginning of the string (if we didn't examine anything), or to
3321 * the first variant. In either case, everything from s to t - 1 will
3322 * occupy only 1 byte each on output.
3323 *
3324 * There are two main ways to convert. One is to create a new string
3325 * and go through the input starting from the beginning, appending each
3326 * converted value onto the new string as we go along. It's probably
3327 * best to allocate enough space in the string for the worst possible
3328 * case rather than possibly running out of space and having to
3329 * reallocate and then copy what we've done so far. Since everything
3330 * from s to t - 1 is invariant, the destination can be initialized
3331 * with these using a fast memory copy
3332 *
3333 * The other way is to figure out exactly how big the string should be
3334 * by parsing the entire input. Then you don't have to make it big
3335 * enough to handle the worst possible case, and more importantly, if
3336 * the string you already have is large enough, you don't have to
3337 * allocate a new string, you can copy the last character in the input
3338 * string to the final position(s) that will be occupied by the
3339 * converted string and go backwards, stopping at t, since everything
3340 * before that is invariant.
3341 *
3342 * There are advantages and disadvantages to each method.
3343 *
3344 * In the first method, we can allocate a new string, do the memory
3345 * copy from the s to t - 1, and then proceed through the rest of the
3346 * string byte-by-byte.
3347 *
3348 * In the second method, we proceed through the rest of the input
3349 * string just calculating how big the converted string will be. Then
3350 * there are two cases:
3351 * 1) if the string has enough extra space to handle the converted
3352 * value. We go backwards through the string, converting until we
3353 * get to the position we are at now, and then stop. If this
3354 * position is far enough along in the string, this method is
3355 * faster than the other method. If the memory copy were the same
3356 * speed as the byte-by-byte loop, that position would be about
3357 * half-way, as at the half-way mark, parsing to the end and back
3358 * is one complete string's parse, the same amount as starting
3359 * over and going all the way through. Actually, it would be
3360 * somewhat less than half-way, as it's faster to just count bytes
3361 * than to also copy, and we don't have the overhead of allocating
3362 * a new string, changing the scalar to use it, and freeing the
3363 * existing one. But if the memory copy is fast, the break-even
3364 * point is somewhere after half way. The counting loop could be
3365 * sped up by vectorization, etc, to move the break-even point
3366 * further towards the beginning.
3367 * 2) if the string doesn't have enough space to handle the converted
3368 * value. A new string will have to be allocated, and one might
3369 * as well, given that, start from the beginning doing the first
3370 * method. We've spent extra time parsing the string and in
3371 * exchange all we've gotten is that we know precisely how big to
3372 * make the new one. Perl is more optimized for time than space,
3373 * so this case is a loser.
3374 * So what I've decided to do is not use the 2nd method unless it is
3375 * guaranteed that a new string won't have to be allocated, assuming
3376 * the worst case. I also decided not to put any more conditions on it
3377 * than this, for now. It seems likely that, since the worst case is
3378 * twice as big as the unknown portion of the string (plus 1), we won't
3379 * be guaranteed enough space, causing us to go to the first method,
3380 * unless the string is short, or the first variant character is near
3381 * the end of it. In either of these cases, it seems best to use the
3382 * 2nd method. The only circumstance I can think of where this would
3383 * be really slower is if the string had once had much more data in it
3384 * than it does now, but there is still a substantial amount in it */
3385
3386 {
3387 STRLEN invariant_head = t - s;
3388 STRLEN size = invariant_head + (e - t) * 2 + 1 + extra;
3389 if (SvLEN(sv) < size) {
3390
3391 /* Here, have decided to allocate a new string */
3392
3393 U8 *dst;
3394 U8 *d;
3395
3396 Newx(dst, size, U8);
3397
3398 /* If no known invariants at the beginning of the input string,
3399 * set so starts from there. Otherwise, can use memory copy to
3400 * get up to where we are now, and then start from here */
3401
3402 if (invariant_head <= 0) {
3403 d = dst;
3404 } else {
3405 Copy(s, dst, invariant_head, char);
3406 d = dst + invariant_head;
3407 }
3408
3409 while (t < e) {
55d09dc8
KW
3410 append_utf8_from_native_byte(*t, &d);
3411 t++;
b3ab6785
KW
3412 }
3413 *d = '\0';
3414 SvPV_free(sv); /* No longer using pre-existing string */
3415 SvPV_set(sv, (char*)dst);
3416 SvCUR_set(sv, d - dst);
3417 SvLEN_set(sv, size);
3418 } else {
3419
3420 /* Here, have decided to get the exact size of the string.
3421 * Currently this happens only when we know that there is
3422 * guaranteed enough space to fit the converted string, so
3423 * don't have to worry about growing. If two_byte_count is 0,
3424 * then t points to the first byte of the string which hasn't
3425 * been examined yet. Otherwise two_byte_count is 1, and t
3426 * points to the first byte in the string that will expand to
3427 * two. Depending on this, start examining at t or 1 after t.
3428 * */
3429
3430 U8 *d = t + two_byte_count;
3431
3432
3433 /* Count up the remaining bytes that expand to two */
3434
3435 while (d < e) {
3436 const U8 chr = *d++;
6f2d5cbc 3437 if (! NATIVE_BYTE_IS_INVARIANT(chr)) two_byte_count++;
b3ab6785
KW
3438 }
3439
3440 /* The string will expand by just the number of bytes that
3441 * occupy two positions. But we are one afterwards because of
3442 * the increment just above. This is the place to put the
3443 * trailing NUL, and to set the length before we decrement */
3444
3445 d += two_byte_count;
3446 SvCUR_set(sv, d - s);
3447 *d-- = '\0';
3448
3449
3450 /* Having decremented d, it points to the position to put the
3451 * very last byte of the expanded string. Go backwards through
3452 * the string, copying and expanding as we go, stopping when we
3453 * get to the part that is invariant the rest of the way down */
3454
3455 e--;
3456 while (e >= t) {
6f2d5cbc 3457 if (NATIVE_BYTE_IS_INVARIANT(*e)) {
9ff651ce 3458 *d-- = *e;
b3ab6785 3459 } else {
9ff651ce
KW
3460 *d-- = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_LO(*e);
3461 *d-- = UTF8_EIGHT_BIT_HI(*e);
b3ab6785 3462 }
9ff651ce 3463 e--;
b3ab6785
KW
3464 }
3465 }
75da9d4c
DM
3466
3467 if (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG && SvMAGIC(sv)) {
3468 /* Update pos. We do it at the end rather than during
3469 * the upgrade, to avoid slowing down the common case
25fdce4a
FC
3470 * (upgrade without pos).
3471 * pos can be stored as either bytes or characters. Since
3472 * this was previously a byte string we can just turn off
3473 * the bytes flag. */
75da9d4c
DM
3474 MAGIC * mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_regex_global);
3475 if (mg) {
25fdce4a 3476 mg->mg_flags &= ~MGf_BYTES;
75da9d4c
DM
3477 }
3478 if ((mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_utf8)))
3479 magic_setutf8(sv,mg); /* clear UTF8 cache */
3480 }
b3ab6785 3481 }
560a288e 3482 }
b3ab6785
KW
3483
3484 /* Mark as UTF-8 even if no variant - saves scanning loop */
3485 SvUTF8_on(sv);
4411f3b6 3486 return SvCUR(sv);
560a288e
GS
3487}
3488
c461cf8f
JH
3489/*
3490=for apidoc sv_utf8_downgrade
3491
78ea37eb 3492Attempts to convert the PV of an SV from characters to bytes.
2bbc8d55
SP
3493If the PV contains a character that cannot fit
3494in a byte, this conversion will fail;
78ea37eb 3495in this case, either returns false or, if C<fail_ok> is not
c461cf8f
JH
3496true, croaks.
3497
0efd0472 3498This is not a general purpose Unicode to byte encoding interface:
13a6c0e0
JH
3499use the Encode extension for that.
3500
c461cf8f
JH
3501=cut
3502*/
3503
560a288e 3504bool
5aaab254 3505Perl_sv_utf8_downgrade(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const bool fail_ok)
560a288e 3506{
97aff369 3507 dVAR;
7918f24d
NC
3508
3509 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UTF8_DOWNGRADE;
3510
78ea37eb 3511 if (SvPOKp(sv) && SvUTF8(sv)) {
fa301091 3512 if (SvCUR(sv)) {
03cfe0ae 3513 U8 *s;
652088fc 3514 STRLEN len;
75da9d4c 3515 int mg_flags = SV_GMAGIC;
fa301091 3516
765f542d 3517 if (SvIsCOW(sv)) {
c56ed9f6 3518 S_sv_uncow(aTHX_ sv, 0);
765f542d 3519 }
75da9d4c
DM
3520 if (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PVMG && SvMAGIC(sv)) {
3521 /* update pos */
3522 MAGIC * mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_regex_global);
25fdce4a
FC
3523 if (mg && mg->mg_len > 0 && mg->mg_flags & MGf_BYTES) {
3524 mg->mg_len = sv_pos_b2u_flags(sv, mg->mg_len,
3525 SV_GMAGIC|SV_CONST_RETURN);
75da9d4c 3526 mg_flags = 0; /* sv_pos_b2u does get magic */
75da9d4c
DM
3527 }
3528 if ((mg = mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_utf8)))
3529 magic_setutf8(sv,mg); /* clear UTF8 cache */
3530
3531 }
3532 s = (U8 *) SvPV_flags(sv, len, mg_flags);
3533
03cfe0ae 3534 if (!utf8_to_bytes(s, &len)) {
fa301091
JH
3535 if (fail_ok)
3536 return FALSE;
3537 else {
3538 if (PL_op)
3539 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Wide character in %s",
53e06cf0 3540 OP_DESC(PL_op));
fa301091
JH
3541 else
3542 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Wide character");
3543 }
4b3603a4 3544 }
b162af07 3545 SvCUR_set(sv, len);
67e989fb 3546 }
560a288e 3547 }
ffebcc3e 3548 SvUTF8_off(sv);
560a288e
GS
3549 return TRUE;
3550}
3551
c461cf8f
JH
3552/*
3553=for apidoc sv_utf8_encode
3554
78ea37eb
ST
3555Converts the PV of an SV to UTF-8, but then turns the C<SvUTF8>
3556flag off so that it looks like octets again.
c461cf8f
JH
3557
3558=cut
3559*/
3560
560a288e 3561void
5aaab254 3562Perl_sv_utf8_encode(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
560a288e 3563{
7918f24d
NC
3564 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UTF8_ENCODE;
3565
4c94c214 3566 if (SvREADONLY(sv)) {
654c723f 3567 sv_force_normal_flags(sv, 0);
4c94c214 3568 }
a5f5288a 3569 (void) sv_utf8_upgrade(sv);
560a288e
GS
3570 SvUTF8_off(sv);
3571}
3572
4411f3b6
NIS
3573/*
3574=for apidoc sv_utf8_decode
3575
78ea37eb
ST
3576If the PV of the SV is an octet sequence in UTF-8
3577and contains a multiple-byte character, the C<SvUTF8> flag is turned on
fde67290 3578so that it looks like a character. If the PV contains only single-byte
694cf0d2 3579characters, the C<SvUTF8> flag stays off.
78ea37eb 3580Scans PV for validity and returns false if the PV is invalid UTF-8.
4411f3b6
NIS
3581
3582=cut
3583*/
3584
560a288e 3585bool
5aaab254 3586Perl_sv_utf8_decode(pTHX_ SV *const sv)
560a288e 3587{
7918f24d
NC
3588 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_SV_UTF8_DECODE;
3589
78ea37eb 3590 if (SvPOKp(sv)) {
75da9d4c 3591 const U8 *start, *c;
93524f2b 3592 const U8 *e;
9cbac4c7 3593
645c22ef
DM
3594 /* The octets may have got themselves encoded - get them back as
3595 * bytes
3596 */
3597 if (!sv_utf8_downgrade(sv, TRUE))
560a288e
GS
3598 return FALSE;
3599
3600 /* it is actually just a matter of turning the utf8 flag on, but
3601 * we want to make sure everything inside is valid utf8 first.
3602 */
75da9d4c 3603 c = start = (const U8 *) SvPVX_const(sv);
f9cf141a 3604 if (!is_utf8_string(c, SvCUR(sv)))
67e989fb 3605 return FALSE;
93524f2b 3606 e = (const U8 *) SvEND(sv);