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Increase $File::Glob::VERSION to 1.16
[perl5.git] / ext / File-Glob / Glob.pm
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1package File::Glob;
2
3use strict;
7f39e0ae 4our($VERSION, @ISA, @EXPORT_OK, @EXPORT_FAIL, %EXPORT_TAGS, $DEFAULT_FLAGS);
72b16652 5
da4061d3 6require XSLoader;
22bc907a 7use feature 'switch';
72b16652 8
72f7b9a1 9@ISA = qw(Exporter);
72b16652 10
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11# NOTE: The glob() export is only here for compatibility with 5.6.0.
12# csh_glob() should not be used directly, unless you know what you're doing.
13
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14%EXPORT_TAGS = (
15 'glob' => [ qw(
16 GLOB_ABEND
2d5e9e5d 17 GLOB_ALPHASORT
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18 GLOB_ALTDIRFUNC
19 GLOB_BRACE
220398a0 20 GLOB_CSH
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21 GLOB_ERR
22 GLOB_ERROR
b8ef571c 23 GLOB_LIMIT
72b16652 24 GLOB_MARK
220398a0 25 GLOB_NOCASE
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26 GLOB_NOCHECK
27 GLOB_NOMAGIC
28 GLOB_NOSORT
29 GLOB_NOSPACE
30 GLOB_QUOTE
31 GLOB_TILDE
00c80938 32 bsd_glob
f4cbf990 33 glob
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34 ) ],
35);
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36$EXPORT_TAGS{bsd_glob} = [@{$EXPORT_TAGS{glob}}];
37pop @{$EXPORT_TAGS{bsd_glob}}; # no "glob"
72b16652 38
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39@EXPORT_OK = (@{$EXPORT_TAGS{'glob'}}, 'csh_glob');
40
55f7e6c1 41$VERSION = '1.16';
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42
43sub import {
7d3fb230 44 require Exporter;
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45 local $Exporter::ExportLevel = $Exporter::ExportLevel + 1;
46 Exporter::import(grep {
47 my $passthrough;
48 given ($_) {
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49 $DEFAULT_FLAGS &= ~GLOB_NOCASE() when ':case';
50 $DEFAULT_FLAGS |= GLOB_NOCASE() when ':nocase';
51 when (':globally') {
52 no warnings 'redefine';
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53 *CORE::GLOBAL::glob = \&File::Glob::csh_glob;
54 }
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55 if ($_ eq ':bsd_glob') {
56 no strict; *{caller."::glob"} = \&bsd_glob_override;
57 }
df5a3819 58 $passthrough = 1;
220398a0 59 }
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60 $passthrough;
61 } @_);
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62}
63
da4061d3 64XSLoader::load();
72b16652 65
220398a0 66$DEFAULT_FLAGS = GLOB_CSH();
862f843b 67if ($^O =~ /^(?:MSWin32|VMS|os2|dos|riscos)$/) {
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68 $DEFAULT_FLAGS |= GLOB_NOCASE();
69}
70
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71# File::Glob::glob() is deprecated because its prototype is different from
72# CORE::glob() (use bsd_glob() instead)
73sub glob {
e0e8a4dc 74 splice @_, 1; # don't pass PL_glob_index as flags!
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75 goto &bsd_glob;
76}
77
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781;
79__END__
80
81=head1 NAME
82
83File::Glob - Perl extension for BSD glob routine
84
85=head1 SYNOPSIS
86
5144542d 87 use File::Glob ':bsd_glob';
9d70ac1b 88
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89 @list = bsd_glob('*.[ch]');
90 $homedir = bsd_glob('~gnat', GLOB_TILDE | GLOB_ERR);
9d70ac1b 91
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92 if (GLOB_ERROR) {
93 # an error occurred reading $homedir
94 }
95
00c80938 96 ## override the core glob (CORE::glob() does this automatically
11fe14b1 97 ## by default anyway, since v5.6.0)
220398a0 98 use File::Glob ':globally';
6bd08436 99 my @sources = <*.{c,h,y}>;
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100
101 ## override the core glob, forcing case sensitivity
102 use File::Glob qw(:globally :case);
6bd08436 103 my @sources = <*.{c,h,y}>;
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104
105 ## override the core glob forcing case insensitivity
106 use File::Glob qw(:globally :nocase);
6bd08436 107 my @sources = <*.{c,h,y}>;
9d70ac1b 108
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109 ## glob on all files in home directory
110 use File::Glob ':globally';
111 my @sources = <~gnat/*>;
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112
113=head1 DESCRIPTION
114
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115The glob angle-bracket operator C<< <> >> is a pathname generator that
116implements the rules for file name pattern matching used by Unix-like shells
117such as the Bourne shell or C shell.
6bd08436 118
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119File::Glob::bsd_glob() implements the FreeBSD glob(3) routine, which is
120a superset of the POSIX glob() (described in IEEE Std 1003.2 "POSIX.2").
121bsd_glob() takes a mandatory C<pattern> argument, and an optional
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122C<flags> argument, and returns a list of filenames matching the
123pattern, with interpretation of the pattern modified by the C<flags>
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124variable.
125
126Since v5.6.0, Perl's CORE::glob() is implemented in terms of bsd_glob().
127Note that they don't share the same prototype--CORE::glob() only accepts
128a single argument. Due to historical reasons, CORE::glob() will also
129split its argument on whitespace, treating it as multiple patterns,
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130whereas bsd_glob() considers them as one pattern. But see C<:bsd_glob>
131under L</EXPORTS>, below.
00c80938 132
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133=head2 META CHARACTERS
134
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135 \ Quote the next metacharacter
136 [] Character class
137 {} Multiple pattern
138 * Match any string of characters
139 ? Match any single character
140 ~ User name home directory
141
142The metanotation C<a{b,c,d}e> is a shorthand for C<abe ace ade>. Left to
143right order is preserved, with results of matches being sorted separately
d2a88f5f 144at a low level to preserve this order. As a special case C<{>, C<}>, and
9d70ac1b 145C<{}> are passed undisturbed.
6bd08436 146
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147=head2 EXPORTS
148
149The C<:bsd_glob> export tag exports bsd_glob() and the constants listed
150below. It also overrides glob() in the calling package with one that
151behaves like bsd_glob() with regard to spaces (the space is treated as part
152of a file name), but supports iteration in scalar context; i.e., it
153preserves the core function's feature of returning the next item each time
154it is called.
155
156The C<:glob> tag, now discouraged, is the old version of C<:bsd_glob>. It
157exports the same constants and functions, but its glob() override does not
158support iteration; it returns the last file name in scalar context. That
159means this will loop forever:
160
161 use File::Glob ':glob';
162 while (my $file = <* copy.txt>) {
163 ...
164 }
165
166The bsd_glob() function and the constants below can be exported
167individually.
168
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169The csh_glob() function can also be exported, but you should not use it
170directly unless you really know what you are doing. It splits the pattern
171into words and feeds each one to bsd_glob(). Perl's own glob() function
172uses this internally.
173
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174=head2 POSIX FLAGS
175
00c80938 176The POSIX defined flags for bsd_glob() are:
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177
178=over 4
179
180=item C<GLOB_ERR>
181
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182Force bsd_glob() to return an error when it encounters a directory it
183cannot open or read. Ordinarily bsd_glob() continues to find matches.
72b16652 184
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185=item C<GLOB_LIMIT>
186
187Make bsd_glob() return an error (GLOB_NOSPACE) when the pattern expands
188to a size bigger than the system constant C<ARG_MAX> (usually found in
189limits.h). If your system does not define this constant, bsd_glob() uses
190C<sysconf(_SC_ARG_MAX)> or C<_POSIX_ARG_MAX> where available (in that
191order). You can inspect these values using the standard C<POSIX>
192extension.
193
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194=item C<GLOB_MARK>
195
196Each pathname that is a directory that matches the pattern has a slash
197appended.
198
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199=item C<GLOB_NOCASE>
200
201By default, file names are assumed to be case sensitive; this flag
00c80938 202makes bsd_glob() treat case differences as not significant.
220398a0 203
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204=item C<GLOB_NOCHECK>
205
00c80938 206If the pattern does not match any pathname, then bsd_glob() returns a list
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207consisting of only the pattern. If C<GLOB_QUOTE> is set, its effect
208is present in the pattern returned.
209
210=item C<GLOB_NOSORT>
211
212By default, the pathnames are sorted in ascending ASCII order; this
00c80938 213flag prevents that sorting (speeding up bsd_glob()).
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214
215=back
216
217The FreeBSD extensions to the POSIX standard are the following flags:
218
219=over 4
220
221=item C<GLOB_BRACE>
222
a45bd81d 223Pre-process the string to expand C<{pat,pat,...}> strings like csh(1).
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224The pattern '{}' is left unexpanded for historical reasons (and csh(1)
225does the same thing to ease typing of find(1) patterns).
226
227=item C<GLOB_NOMAGIC>
228
229Same as C<GLOB_NOCHECK> but it only returns the pattern if it does not
230contain any of the special characters "*", "?" or "[". C<NOMAGIC> is
231provided to simplify implementing the historic csh(1) globbing
232behaviour and should probably not be used anywhere else.
233
234=item C<GLOB_QUOTE>
235
236Use the backslash ('\') character for quoting: every occurrence of a
237backslash followed by a character in the pattern is replaced by that
238character, avoiding any special interpretation of the character.
220398a0 239(But see below for exceptions on DOSISH systems).
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240
241=item C<GLOB_TILDE>
242
243Expand patterns that start with '~' to user name home directories.
244
245=item C<GLOB_CSH>
246
247For convenience, C<GLOB_CSH> is a synonym for
2d5e9e5d 248C<GLOB_BRACE | GLOB_NOMAGIC | GLOB_QUOTE | GLOB_TILDE | GLOB_ALPHASORT>.
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249
250=back
251
252The POSIX provided C<GLOB_APPEND>, C<GLOB_DOOFFS>, and the FreeBSD
253extensions C<GLOB_ALTDIRFUNC>, and C<GLOB_MAGCHAR> flags have not been
254implemented in the Perl version because they involve more complex
255interaction with the underlying C structures.
256
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257The following flag has been added in the Perl implementation for
258csh compatibility:
259
260=over 4
261
262=item C<GLOB_ALPHASORT>
263
264If C<GLOB_NOSORT> is not in effect, sort filenames is alphabetical
265order (case does not matter) rather than in ASCII order.
266
267=back
268
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269=head1 DIAGNOSTICS
270
00c80938 271bsd_glob() returns a list of matching paths, possibly zero length. If an
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272error occurred, &File::Glob::GLOB_ERROR will be non-zero and C<$!> will be
273set. &File::Glob::GLOB_ERROR is guaranteed to be zero if no error occurred,
274or one of the following values otherwise:
275
276=over 4
277
278=item C<GLOB_NOSPACE>
279
280An attempt to allocate memory failed.
281
282=item C<GLOB_ABEND>
283
284The glob was stopped because an error was encountered.
285
286=back
287
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288In the case where bsd_glob() has found some matching paths, but is
289interrupted by an error, it will return a list of filenames B<and>
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290set &File::Glob::ERROR.
291
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292Note that bsd_glob() deviates from POSIX and FreeBSD glob(3) behaviour
293by not considering C<ENOENT> and C<ENOTDIR> as errors - bsd_glob() will
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294continue processing despite those errors, unless the C<GLOB_ERR> flag is
295set.
296
297Be aware that all filenames returned from File::Glob are tainted.
298
299=head1 NOTES
300
301=over 4
302
303=item *
304
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305If you want to use multiple patterns, e.g. C<bsd_glob("a* b*")>, you should
306probably throw them in a set as in C<bsd_glob("{a*,b*}")>. This is because
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307the argument to bsd_glob() isn't subjected to parsing by the C shell.
308Remember that you can use a backslash to escape things.
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309
310=item *
311
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312On DOSISH systems, backslash is a valid directory separator character.
313In this case, use of backslash as a quoting character (via GLOB_QUOTE)
d2a88f5f 314interferes with the use of backslash as a directory separator. The
220398a0 315best (simplest, most portable) solution is to use forward slashes for
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316directory separators, and backslashes for quoting. However, this does
317not match "normal practice" on these systems. As a concession to user
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318expectation, therefore, backslashes (under GLOB_QUOTE) only quote the
319glob metacharacters '[', ']', '{', '}', '-', '~', and backslash itself.
320All other backslashes are passed through unchanged.
321
322=item *
323
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324Win32 users should use the real slash. If you really want to use
325backslashes, consider using Sarathy's File::DosGlob, which comes with
326the standard Perl distribution.
327
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328=back
329
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330=head1 SEE ALSO
331
332L<perlfunc/glob>, glob(3)
333
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334=head1 AUTHOR
335
0e950d83 336The Perl interface was written by Nathan Torkington E<lt>gnat@frii.comE<gt>,
72b16652 337and is released under the artistic license. Further modifications were
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338made by Greg Bacon E<lt>gbacon@cs.uah.eduE<gt>, Gurusamy Sarathy
339E<lt>gsar@activestate.comE<gt>, and Thomas Wegner
340E<lt>wegner_thomas@yahoo.comE<gt>. The C glob code has the
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341following copyright:
342
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343 Copyright (c) 1989, 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
344 All rights reserved.
3cb6de81 345
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346 This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
347 Guido van Rossum.
348
349 Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
350 modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
351 are met:
352
353 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
354 notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
355 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
356 notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
357 documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
358 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
359 may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
360 without specific prior written permission.
361
882ce583 362 THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
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363 ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
364 IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
365 ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
366 FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
367 DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
368 OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
369 HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
370 LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
371 OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
372 SUCH DAMAGE.
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373
374=cut