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pp_multiconcat: correctly honour stringify
[perl5.git] / pp_hot.c
CommitLineData
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LW
1/* pp_hot.c
2 *
1129b882
NC
3 * Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000,
4 * 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 by Larry Wall and others
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LW
5 *
6 * You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
7 * License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
8 *
9 */
10
11/*
12 * Then he heard Merry change the note, and up went the Horn-cry of Buckland,
13 * shaking the air.
14 *
4ac71550
TC
15 * Awake! Awake! Fear, Fire, Foes! Awake!
16 * Fire, Foes! Awake!
17 *
18 * [p.1007 of _The Lord of the Rings_, VI/viii: "The Scouring of the Shire"]
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LW
19 */
20
166f8a29
DM
21/* This file contains 'hot' pp ("push/pop") functions that
22 * execute the opcodes that make up a perl program. A typical pp function
23 * expects to find its arguments on the stack, and usually pushes its
24 * results onto the stack, hence the 'pp' terminology. Each OP structure
25 * contains a pointer to the relevant pp_foo() function.
26 *
27 * By 'hot', we mean common ops whose execution speed is critical.
28 * By gathering them together into a single file, we encourage
29 * CPU cache hits on hot code. Also it could be taken as a warning not to
30 * change any code in this file unless you're sure it won't affect
31 * performance.
32 */
33
a0d0e21e 34#include "EXTERN.h"
864dbfa3 35#define PERL_IN_PP_HOT_C
a0d0e21e
LW
36#include "perl.h"
37
38/* Hot code. */
39
40PP(pp_const)
41{
39644a26 42 dSP;
996c9baa 43 XPUSHs(cSVOP_sv);
a0d0e21e
LW
44 RETURN;
45}
46
47PP(pp_nextstate)
48{
533c011a 49 PL_curcop = (COP*)PL_op;
a0d0e21e 50 TAINT_NOT; /* Each statement is presumed innocent */
4ebe6e95 51 PL_stack_sp = PL_stack_base + CX_CUR()->blk_oldsp;
a0d0e21e 52 FREETMPS;
f410a211 53 PERL_ASYNC_CHECK();
a0d0e21e
LW
54 return NORMAL;
55}
56
57PP(pp_gvsv)
58{
39644a26 59 dSP;
924508f0 60 EXTEND(SP,1);
5d9574c1 61 if (UNLIKELY(PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO))
1d7c1841 62 PUSHs(save_scalar(cGVOP_gv));
a0d0e21e 63 else
c69033f2 64 PUSHs(GvSVn(cGVOP_gv));
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LW
65 RETURN;
66}
67
b1c05ba5
DM
68
69/* also used for: pp_lineseq() pp_regcmaybe() pp_scalar() pp_scope() */
70
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LW
71PP(pp_null)
72{
73 return NORMAL;
74}
75
3dd9d4e4
FC
76/* This is sometimes called directly by pp_coreargs, pp_grepstart and
77 amagic_call. */
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LW
78PP(pp_pushmark)
79{
3280af22 80 PUSHMARK(PL_stack_sp);
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LW
81 return NORMAL;
82}
83
84PP(pp_stringify)
85{
20b7effb 86 dSP; dTARGET;
4cc783ef
DD
87 SV * const sv = TOPs;
88 SETs(TARG);
89 sv_copypv(TARG, sv);
90 SvSETMAGIC(TARG);
91 /* no PUTBACK, SETs doesn't inc/dec SP */
92 return NORMAL;
a0d0e21e
LW
93}
94
95PP(pp_gv)
96{
20b7effb 97 dSP;
ad64d0ec 98 XPUSHs(MUTABLE_SV(cGVOP_gv));
a0d0e21e
LW
99 RETURN;
100}
101
b1c05ba5
DM
102
103/* also used for: pp_andassign() */
104
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LW
105PP(pp_and)
106{
f410a211 107 PERL_ASYNC_CHECK();
4cc783ef
DD
108 {
109 /* SP is not used to remove a variable that is saved across the
110 sv_2bool_flags call in SvTRUE_NN, if a RISC/CISC or low/high machine
111 register or load/store vs direct mem ops macro is introduced, this
112 should be a define block between direct PL_stack_sp and dSP operations,
113 presently, using PL_stack_sp is bias towards CISC cpus */
114 SV * const sv = *PL_stack_sp;
115 if (!SvTRUE_NN(sv))
116 return NORMAL;
117 else {
118 if (PL_op->op_type == OP_AND)
119 --PL_stack_sp;
120 return cLOGOP->op_other;
121 }
a0d0e21e
LW
122 }
123}
124
125PP(pp_sassign)
126{
20b7effb 127 dSP;
3e75a3c4
RU
128 /* sassign keeps its args in the optree traditionally backwards.
129 So we pop them differently.
130 */
131 SV *left = POPs; SV *right = TOPs;
748a9306 132
354eabfa 133 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpASSIGN_BACKWARDS) { /* {or,and,dor}assign */
0bd48802
AL
134 SV * const temp = left;
135 left = right; right = temp;
a0d0e21e 136 }
d48c660d
DM
137 assert(TAINTING_get || !TAINT_get);
138 if (UNLIKELY(TAINT_get) && !SvTAINTED(right))
a0d0e21e 139 TAINT_NOT;
5d9574c1
DM
140 if (UNLIKELY(PL_op->op_private & OPpASSIGN_CV_TO_GV)) {
141 /* *foo =\&bar */
3e75a3c4 142 SV * const cv = SvRV(right);
e26df76a 143 const U32 cv_type = SvTYPE(cv);
3e75a3c4 144 const bool is_gv = isGV_with_GP(left);
6136c704 145 const bool got_coderef = cv_type == SVt_PVCV || cv_type == SVt_PVFM;
e26df76a
NC
146
147 if (!got_coderef) {
148 assert(SvROK(cv));
149 }
150
3e75a3c4
RU
151 /* Can do the optimisation if left (LVALUE) is not a typeglob,
152 right (RVALUE) is a reference to something, and we're in void
e26df76a 153 context. */
13be902c 154 if (!got_coderef && !is_gv && GIMME_V == G_VOID) {
e26df76a 155 /* Is the target symbol table currently empty? */
3e75a3c4 156 GV * const gv = gv_fetchsv_nomg(left, GV_NOINIT, SVt_PVGV);
bb112e5a 157 if (SvTYPE(gv) != SVt_PVGV && !SvOK(gv)) {
e26df76a
NC
158 /* Good. Create a new proxy constant subroutine in the target.
159 The gv becomes a(nother) reference to the constant. */
160 SV *const value = SvRV(cv);
161
ad64d0ec 162 SvUPGRADE(MUTABLE_SV(gv), SVt_IV);
1ccdb730 163 SvPCS_IMPORTED_on(gv);
e26df76a 164 SvRV_set(gv, value);
b37c2d43 165 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void(value);
3e75a3c4 166 SETs(left);
e26df76a
NC
167 RETURN;
168 }
169 }
170
171 /* Need to fix things up. */
13be902c 172 if (!is_gv) {
e26df76a 173 /* Need to fix GV. */
3e75a3c4 174 left = MUTABLE_SV(gv_fetchsv_nomg(left,GV_ADD, SVt_PVGV));
e26df76a
NC
175 }
176
177 if (!got_coderef) {
178 /* We've been returned a constant rather than a full subroutine,
179 but they expect a subroutine reference to apply. */
53a42478 180 if (SvROK(cv)) {
d343c3ef 181 ENTER_with_name("sassign_coderef");
53a42478
NC
182 SvREFCNT_inc_void(SvRV(cv));
183 /* newCONSTSUB takes a reference count on the passed in SV
184 from us. We set the name to NULL, otherwise we get into
185 all sorts of fun as the reference to our new sub is
186 donated to the GV that we're about to assign to.
187 */
3e75a3c4 188 SvRV_set(right, MUTABLE_SV(newCONSTSUB(GvSTASH(left), NULL,
ad64d0ec 189 SvRV(cv))));
fc2b2dca 190 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(cv);
d343c3ef 191 LEAVE_with_name("sassign_coderef");
53a42478
NC
192 } else {
193 /* What can happen for the corner case *{"BONK"} = \&{"BONK"};
194 is that
195 First: ops for \&{"BONK"}; return us the constant in the
196 symbol table
197 Second: ops for *{"BONK"} cause that symbol table entry
198 (and our reference to it) to be upgraded from RV
199 to typeblob)
200 Thirdly: We get here. cv is actually PVGV now, and its
201 GvCV() is actually the subroutine we're looking for
202
203 So change the reference so that it points to the subroutine
204 of that typeglob, as that's what they were after all along.
205 */
159b6efe 206 GV *const upgraded = MUTABLE_GV(cv);
53a42478
NC
207 CV *const source = GvCV(upgraded);
208
209 assert(source);
210 assert(CvFLAGS(source) & CVf_CONST);
211
0ad694a7 212 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(source);
fc2b2dca 213 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(upgraded);
3e75a3c4 214 SvRV_set(right, MUTABLE_SV(source));
53a42478 215 }
e26df76a 216 }
53a42478 217
e26df76a 218 }
8fe85e3f 219 if (
5d9574c1 220 UNLIKELY(SvTEMP(left)) && !SvSMAGICAL(left) && SvREFCNT(left) == 1 &&
3e75a3c4 221 (!isGV_with_GP(left) || SvFAKE(left)) && ckWARN(WARN_MISC)
8fe85e3f
FC
222 )
223 Perl_warner(aTHX_
224 packWARN(WARN_MISC), "Useless assignment to a temporary"
225 );
3e75a3c4
RU
226 SvSetMagicSV(left, right);
227 SETs(left);
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228 RETURN;
229}
230
231PP(pp_cond_expr)
232{
20b7effb 233 dSP;
f4c975aa
DM
234 SV *sv;
235
f410a211 236 PERL_ASYNC_CHECK();
f4c975aa
DM
237 sv = POPs;
238 RETURNOP(SvTRUE_NN(sv) ? cLOGOP->op_other : cLOGOP->op_next);
a0d0e21e
LW
239}
240
241PP(pp_unstack)
242{
f5319de9 243 PERL_CONTEXT *cx;
8f3964af 244 PERL_ASYNC_CHECK();
a0d0e21e 245 TAINT_NOT; /* Each statement is presumed innocent */
4ebe6e95 246 cx = CX_CUR();
f5319de9 247 PL_stack_sp = PL_stack_base + cx->blk_oldsp;
a0d0e21e 248 FREETMPS;
eae48c89 249 if (!(PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL)) {
93661e56 250 assert(CxTYPE(cx) == CXt_BLOCK || CxTYPE_is_LOOP(cx));
dfe0f39b 251 CX_LEAVE_SCOPE(cx);
eae48c89 252 }
a0d0e21e
LW
253 return NORMAL;
254}
255
16fe3f8a
DM
256
257/* The main body of pp_concat, not including the magic/overload and
258 * stack handling.
259 * It does targ = left . right.
260 * Moved into a separate function so that pp_multiconcat() can use it
261 * too.
262 */
263
264PERL_STATIC_INLINE void
265S_do_concat(pTHX_ SV *left, SV *right, SV *targ, U8 targmy)
a0d0e21e 266{
8d6d96c1
HS
267 bool lbyte;
268 STRLEN rlen;
d4c19fe8 269 const char *rpv = NULL;
a6b599c7 270 bool rbyte = FALSE;
a9c4fd4e 271 bool rcopied = FALSE;
8d6d96c1 272
6f1401dc
DM
273 if (TARG == right && right != left) { /* $r = $l.$r */
274 rpv = SvPV_nomg_const(right, rlen);
c75ab21a 275 rbyte = !DO_UTF8(right);
59cd0e26 276 right = newSVpvn_flags(rpv, rlen, SVs_TEMP);
349d4f2f 277 rpv = SvPV_const(right, rlen); /* no point setting UTF-8 here */
db79b45b 278 rcopied = TRUE;
8d6d96c1 279 }
7889fe52 280
89734059 281 if (TARG != left) { /* not $l .= $r */
a9c4fd4e 282 STRLEN llen;
6f1401dc 283 const char* const lpv = SvPV_nomg_const(left, llen);
90f5826e 284 lbyte = !DO_UTF8(left);
8d6d96c1
HS
285 sv_setpvn(TARG, lpv, llen);
286 if (!lbyte)
287 SvUTF8_on(TARG);
288 else
289 SvUTF8_off(TARG);
290 }
18ea7bf2
SM
291 else { /* $l .= $r and left == TARG */
292 if (!SvOK(left)) {
51f69a24 293 if ((left == right /* $l .= $l */
16fe3f8a 294 || targmy) /* $l = $l . $r */
51f69a24
AC
295 && ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED)
296 )
297 report_uninit(left);
adf14ec6 298 SvPVCLEAR(left);
c75ab21a 299 }
18ea7bf2
SM
300 else {
301 SvPV_force_nomg_nolen(left);
302 }
583a5589 303 lbyte = !DO_UTF8(left);
90f5826e 304 if (IN_BYTES)
18ea7bf2 305 SvUTF8_off(left);
8d6d96c1 306 }
a12c0f56 307
c75ab21a 308 if (!rcopied) {
6f1401dc 309 rpv = SvPV_nomg_const(right, rlen);
c75ab21a
RH
310 rbyte = !DO_UTF8(right);
311 }
8d6d96c1
HS
312 if (lbyte != rbyte) {
313 if (lbyte)
314 sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg(TARG);
315 else {
db79b45b 316 if (!rcopied)
59cd0e26 317 right = newSVpvn_flags(rpv, rlen, SVs_TEMP);
8d6d96c1 318 sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg(right);
6f1401dc 319 rpv = SvPV_nomg_const(right, rlen);
69b47968 320 }
a0d0e21e 321 }
8d6d96c1 322 sv_catpvn_nomg(TARG, rpv, rlen);
16fe3f8a
DM
323 SvSETMAGIC(TARG);
324}
325
43ebc500 326
16fe3f8a
DM
327PP(pp_concat)
328{
329 dSP; dATARGET; tryAMAGICbin_MG(concat_amg, AMGf_assign);
330 {
331 dPOPTOPssrl;
332 S_do_concat(aTHX_ left, right, targ, PL_op->op_private & OPpTARGET_MY);
333 SETs(TARG);
a0d0e21e 334 RETURN;
748a9306 335 }
a0d0e21e
LW
336}
337
e839e6ed
DM
338
339/* pp_multiconcat()
340
341Concatenate one or more args, possibly interleaved with constant string
342segments. The result may be assigned to, or appended to, a variable or
343expression.
344
345Several op_flags and/or op_private bits indicate what the target is, and
346whether it's appended to. Valid permutations are:
347
348 - (PADTMP) = (A.B.C....)
349 OPpTARGET_MY $lex = (A.B.C....)
350 OPpTARGET_MY,OPpLVAL_INTRO my $lex = (A.B.C....)
351 OPpTARGET_MY,OPpMULTICONCAT_APPEND $lex .= (A.B.C....)
352 OPf_STACKED expr = (A.B.C....)
353 OPf_STACKED,OPpMULTICONCAT_APPEND expr .= (A.B.C....)
354
355Other combinations like (A.B).(C.D) are not optimised into a multiconcat
356op, as it's too hard to get the correct ordering of ties, overload etc.
357
358In addition:
359
360 OPpMULTICONCAT_FAKE: not a real concat, instead an optimised
361 sprintf "...%s...". Don't call '.'
362 overloading: only use '""' overloading.
363
55b62dee
DM
364 OPpMULTICONCAT_STRINGIFY: the RHS was of the form
365 "...$a...$b..." rather than
e839e6ed
DM
366 "..." . $a . "..." . $b . "..."
367
368An OP_MULTICONCAT is of type UNOP_AUX. The fixed slots of the aux array are
369defined with PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_FOO constants, where:
370
371
372 FOO index description
373 -------- ----- ----------------------------------
374 NARGS 0 number of arguments
375 PLAIN_PV 1 non-utf8 constant string
376 PLAIN_LEN 2 non-utf8 constant string length
377 UTF8_PV 3 utf8 constant string
378 UTF8_LEN 4 utf8 constant string length
379 LENGTHS 5 first of nargs+1 const segment lengths
380
381The idea is that a general string concatenation will have a fixed (known
382at compile time) number of variable args, interspersed with constant
383strings, e.g. "a=$a b=$b\n"
384
385All the constant string segments "a=", " b=" and "\n" are stored as a
386single string "a= b=\n", pointed to from the PLAIN_PV/UTF8_PV slot, along
387with a series of segment lengths: e.g. 2,3,1. In the case where the
388constant string is plain but has a different utf8 representation, both
389variants are stored, and two sets of (nargs+1) segments lengths are stored
390in the slots beginning at PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_LENGTHS.
391
392A segment length of -1 indicates that there is no constant string at that
393point; this distinguishes between e.g. ($a . $b) and ($a . "" . $b), which
394have differing overloading behaviour.
395
396*/
397
398PP(pp_multiconcat)
399{
400 dSP;
401 SV *targ; /* The SV to be assigned or appended to */
057ba76a 402 char *targ_pv; /* where within SvPVX(targ) we're writing to */
e839e6ed
DM
403 STRLEN targ_len; /* SvCUR(targ) */
404 SV **toparg; /* the highest arg position on the stack */
405 UNOP_AUX_item *aux; /* PL_op->op_aux buffer */
406 UNOP_AUX_item *const_lens; /* the segment length array part of aux */
407 const char *const_pv; /* the current segment of the const string buf */
ca84e88e
DM
408 SSize_t nargs; /* how many args were expected */
409 SSize_t stack_adj; /* how much to adjust SP on return */
057ba76a 410 STRLEN grow; /* final size of destination string (targ) */
e839e6ed
DM
411 UV targ_count; /* how many times targ has appeared on the RHS */
412 bool is_append; /* OPpMULTICONCAT_APPEND flag is set */
413 bool slow_concat; /* args too complex for quick concat */
414 U32 dst_utf8; /* the result will be utf8 (indicate this with
415 SVf_UTF8 in a U32, rather than using bool,
416 for ease of testing and setting) */
417 /* for each arg, holds the result of an SvPV() call */
418 struct multiconcat_svpv {
419 char *pv;
420 SSize_t len;
421 }
422 *targ_chain, /* chain of slots where targ has appeared on RHS */
423 *svpv_p, /* ptr for looping through svpv_buf */
424 *svpv_base, /* first slot (may be greater than svpv_buf), */
425 *svpv_end, /* and slot after highest result so far, of: */
426 svpv_buf[PERL_MULTICONCAT_MAXARG]; /* buf for storing SvPV() results */
427
428 aux = cUNOP_AUXx(PL_op)->op_aux;
ca84e88e 429 stack_adj = nargs = aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_NARGS].ssize;
e839e6ed
DM
430 is_append = cBOOL(PL_op->op_private & OPpMULTICONCAT_APPEND);
431
432 /* get targ from the stack or pad */
433
434 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_STACKED) {
435 if (is_append) {
436 /* for 'expr .= ...', expr is the bottom item on the stack */
437 targ = SP[-nargs];
438 stack_adj++;
439 }
440 else
441 /* for 'expr = ...', expr is the top item on the stack */
442 targ = POPs;
443 }
444 else {
445 SV **svp = &(PAD_SVl(PL_op->op_targ));
446 targ = *svp;
447 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO) {
448 assert(PL_op->op_private & OPpTARGET_MY);
449 save_clearsv(svp);
450 }
451 if (!nargs)
452 /* $lex .= "const" doesn't cause anything to be pushed */
453 EXTEND(SP,1);
454 }
455
456 toparg = SP;
457 SP -= (nargs - 1);
e839e6ed
DM
458 grow = 1; /* allow for '\0' at minimum */
459 targ_count = 0;
460 targ_chain = NULL;
461 targ_len = 0;
462 svpv_end = svpv_buf;
463 /* only utf8 variants of the const strings? */
464 dst_utf8 = aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV].pv ? 0 : SVf_UTF8;
465
466
467 /* --------------------------------------------------------------
468 * Phase 1:
469 *
470 * stringify (i.e. SvPV()) every arg and store the resultant pv/len/utf8
471 * triplets in svpv_buf[]. Also increment 'grow' by the args' lengths.
472 *
473 * utf8 is indicated by storing a negative length.
474 *
475 * Where an arg is actually targ, the stringification is deferred:
476 * the length is set to 0, and the slot is added to targ_chain.
477 *
af390142
DM
478 * If a magic, overloaded, or otherwise weird arg is found, which
479 * might have side effects when stringified, the loop is abandoned and
480 * we goto a code block where a more basic 'emulate calling
481 * pp_cpncat() on each arg in turn' is done.
e839e6ed
DM
482 */
483
484 for (; SP <= toparg; SP++, svpv_end++) {
e839e6ed
DM
485 U32 utf8;
486 STRLEN len;
487 SV *sv;
488
489 assert(svpv_end - svpv_buf < PERL_MULTICONCAT_MAXARG);
490
491 sv = *SP;
e839e6ed
DM
492
493 /* this if/else chain is arranged so that common/simple cases
494 * take few conditionals */
495
af390142
DM
496 if (LIKELY((SvFLAGS(sv) & (SVs_GMG|SVf_ROK|SVf_POK)) == SVf_POK)) {
497 /* common case: sv is a simple non-magical PV */
498 if (targ == sv) {
499 /* targ appears on RHS.
500 * Delay storing PV pointer; instead, add slot to targ_chain
501 * so it can be populated later, after targ has been grown and
502 * we know its final SvPVX() address.
503 */
504 targ_on_rhs:
505 svpv_end->len = 0; /* zerojng here means we can skip
506 updating later if targ_len == 0 */
507 svpv_end->pv = (char*)targ_chain;
508 targ_chain = svpv_end;
509 targ_count++;
510 continue;
511 }
512
e839e6ed 513 len = SvCUR(sv);
af390142 514 svpv_end->pv = SvPVX(sv);
e839e6ed 515 }
af390142
DM
516 else if (UNLIKELY(SvFLAGS(sv) & (SVs_GMG|SVf_ROK)))
517 /* may have side effects: tie, overload etc.
518 * Abandon 'stringify everything first' and handle
519 * args in strict order. Note that already-stringified args
520 * will be reprocessed, which is safe because the each first
521 * stringification would have been idempotent.
e839e6ed 522 */
af390142
DM
523 goto do_magical;
524 else if (SvNIOK(sv)) {
525 if (targ == sv)
526 goto targ_on_rhs;
527 /* stringify general valid scalar */
e839e6ed
DM
528 svpv_end->pv = sv_2pv_flags(sv, &len, 0);
529 }
af390142
DM
530 else if (!SvOK(sv)) {
531 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
532 /* an undef value in the presence of warnings may trigger
533 * side affects */
534 goto do_magical;
535 svpv_end->pv = (char*)"";
536 len = 0;
537 }
538 else
539 goto do_magical; /* something weird */
e839e6ed
DM
540
541 utf8 = (SvFLAGS(sv) & SVf_UTF8);
542 dst_utf8 |= utf8;
543 ASSUME(len < SSize_t_MAX);
544 svpv_end->len = utf8 ? -(SSize_t)len : (SSize_t)len;
545 grow += len;
546 }
547
548 /* --------------------------------------------------------------
549 * Phase 2:
550 *
551 * Stringify targ:
552 *
553 * if targ appears on the RHS or is appended to, force stringify it;
554 * otherwise set it to "". Then set targ_len.
555 */
556
557 if (is_append) {
af390142
DM
558 /* abandon quick route if using targ might have side effects */
559 if (UNLIKELY(SvFLAGS(targ) & (SVs_GMG|SVf_ROK)))
560 goto do_magical;
e839e6ed
DM
561
562 if (SvOK(targ)) {
563 U32 targ_utf8;
564 stringify_targ:
565 SvPV_force_nomg_nolen(targ);
566 targ_utf8 = SvFLAGS(targ) & SVf_UTF8;
567 if (UNLIKELY(dst_utf8 & ~targ_utf8)) {
568 if (LIKELY(!IN_BYTES))
569 sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg(targ);
570 }
571 else
572 dst_utf8 |= targ_utf8;
573
574 targ_len = SvCUR(targ);
575 grow += targ_len * (targ_count + is_append);
576 goto phase3;
577 }
af390142
DM
578 else if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
579 /* warning might have side effects */
580 goto do_magical;
581 /* the undef targ will be silently SvPVCLEAR()ed below */
e839e6ed
DM
582 }
583 else if (UNLIKELY(SvTYPE(targ) >= SVt_REGEXP)) {
584 /* Assigning to some weird LHS type. Don't force the LHS to be an
585 * empty string; instead, do things 'long hand' by using the
586 * overload code path, which concats to a TEMP sv and does
587 * sv_catsv() calls rather than COPY()s. This ensures that even
588 * bizarre code like this doesn't break or crash:
589 * *F = *F . *F.
590 * (which makes the 'F' typeglob an alias to the
591 * '*main::F*main::F' typeglob).
592 */
af390142 593 goto do_magical;
e839e6ed 594 }
af390142 595 else if (targ_chain)
e839e6ed 596 /* targ was found on RHS.
af390142
DM
597 * Force stringify it, using the same code as the append branch
598 * above, except that we don't need the magic/overload/undef
599 * checks as these will already have been done in the phase 1
600 * loop.
e839e6ed 601 */
e839e6ed 602 goto stringify_targ;
e839e6ed
DM
603
604 /* unrolled SvPVCLEAR() - mostly: no need to grow or set SvCUR() to 0;
605 * those will be done later. */
e839e6ed
DM
606 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(targ);
607 SvUPGRADE(targ, SVt_PV);
608 SvFLAGS(targ) &= ~(SVf_OK|SVf_IVisUV|SVf_UTF8);
609 SvFLAGS(targ) |= (SVf_POK|SVp_POK|dst_utf8);
610
611 phase3:
612
613 /* --------------------------------------------------------------
614 * Phase 3:
615 *
057ba76a 616 * UTF-8 tweaks and grow targ:
e839e6ed
DM
617 *
618 * Now that we know the length and utf8-ness of both the targ and
057ba76a 619 * args, grow targ to the size needed to accumulate all the args, based
e839e6ed
DM
620 * on whether targ appears on the RHS, whether we're appending, and
621 * whether any non-utf8 args expand in size if converted to utf8.
622 *
623 * For the latter, if dst_utf8 we scan non-utf8 args looking for
624 * variant chars, and adjust the svpv->len value of those args to the
625 * utf8 size and negate it to flag them. At the same time we un-negate
626 * the lens of any utf8 args since after this phase we no longer care
627 * whether an arg is utf8 or not.
628 *
629 * Finally, initialise const_lens and const_pv based on utf8ness.
630 * Note that there are 3 permutations:
631 *
632 * * If the constant string is invariant whether utf8 or not (e.g. "abc"),
633 * then aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV/LEN] are the same as
634 * aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_UTF8_PV/LEN] and there is one set of
635 * segment lengths.
636 *
637 * * If the string is fully utf8, e.g. "\x{100}", then
638 * aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV/LEN] == (NULL,0) and there is
639 * one set of segment lengths.
640 *
641 * * If the string has different plain and utf8 representations
642 * (e.g. "\x80"), then then aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV/LEN]]
643 * holds the plain rep, while aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_UTF8_PV/LEN]
644 * holds the utf8 rep, and there are 2 sets of segment lengths,
645 * with the utf8 set following after the plain set.
646 *
647 * On entry to this section the (pv,len) pairs in svpv_buf have the
648 * following meanings:
649 * (pv, len) a plain string
650 * (pv, -len) a utf8 string
651 * (NULL, 0) left-most targ \ linked together R-to-L
652 * (next, 0) other targ / in targ_chain
653 */
654
655 /* turn off utf8 handling if 'use bytes' is in scope */
656 if (UNLIKELY(dst_utf8 && IN_BYTES)) {
657 dst_utf8 = 0;
057ba76a 658 SvUTF8_off(targ);
e839e6ed
DM
659 /* undo all the negative lengths which flag utf8-ness */
660 for (svpv_p = svpv_buf; svpv_p < svpv_end; svpv_p++) {
661 SSize_t len = svpv_p->len;
662 if (len < 0)
663 svpv_p->len = -len;
664 }
665 }
666
667 /* grow += total of lengths of constant string segments */
668 {
669 SSize_t len;
670 len = aux[dst_utf8 ? PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_UTF8_LEN
b5bf9f73 671 : PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_LEN].ssize;
e839e6ed
DM
672 slow_concat = cBOOL(len);
673 grow += len;
674 }
675
676 const_lens = aux + PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_LENGTHS;
677
678 if (dst_utf8) {
679 const_pv = aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_UTF8_PV].pv;
680 if ( aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV].pv
681 && const_pv != aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV].pv)
682 /* separate sets of lengths for plain and utf8 */
683 const_lens += nargs + 1;
684
685 /* If the result is utf8 but some of the args aren't,
686 * calculate how much extra growth is needed for all the chars
687 * which will expand to two utf8 bytes.
688 * Also, if the growth is non-zero, negate the length to indicate
689 * that this this is a variant string. Conversely, un-negate the
690 * length on utf8 args (which was only needed to flag non-utf8
691 * args in this loop */
692 for (svpv_p = svpv_buf; svpv_p < svpv_end; svpv_p++) {
7d5ed5d0 693 SSize_t len, extra;
e839e6ed
DM
694
695 len = svpv_p->len;
696 if (len <= 0) {
697 svpv_p->len = -len;
698 continue;
699 }
700
7d5ed5d0
KW
701 extra = variant_under_utf8_count((U8 *) svpv_p->pv,
702 (U8 *) svpv_p->pv + len);
e839e6ed
DM
703 if (UNLIKELY(extra)) {
704 grow += extra;
705 /* -ve len indicates special handling */
706 svpv_p->len = -(len + extra);
707 slow_concat = TRUE;
708 }
709 }
710 }
711 else
712 const_pv = aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV].pv;
713
714 /* unrolled SvGROW(), except don't check for SVf_IsCOW, which should
715 * already have been dropped */
057ba76a
DM
716 assert(!SvIsCOW(targ));
717 targ_pv = (SvLEN(targ) < (grow) ? sv_grow(targ,grow) : SvPVX(targ));
e839e6ed
DM
718
719
720 /* --------------------------------------------------------------
721 * Phase 4:
722 *
057ba76a
DM
723 * Now that targ has been grown, we know the final address of the targ
724 * PVX, if needed. Preserve / move targ contents if appending or if
725 * targ appears on RHS.
e839e6ed
DM
726 *
727 * Also update svpv_buf slots in targ_chain.
728 *
729 * Don't bother with any of this if the target length is zero:
730 * targ_len is set to zero unless we're appending or targ appears on
731 * RHS. And even if it is, we can optimise by skipping this chunk of
732 * code for zero targ_len. In the latter case, we don't need to update
733 * the slots in targ_chain with the (zero length) target string, since
734 * we set the len in such slots to 0 earlier, and since the Copy() is
735 * skipped on zero length, it doesn't matter what svpv_p->pv contains.
736 *
737 * On entry to this section the (pv,len) pairs in svpv_buf have the
738 * following meanings:
739 * (pv, len) a pure-plain or utf8 string
740 * (pv, -(len+extra)) a plain string which will expand by 'extra'
741 * bytes when converted to utf8
742 * (NULL, 0) left-most targ \ linked together R-to-L
743 * (next, 0) other targ / in targ_chain
744 *
745 * On exit, the targ contents will have been moved to the
746 * earliest place they are needed (e.g. $x = "abc$x" will shift them
747 * 3 bytes, while $x .= ... will leave them at the beginning);
057ba76a 748 * and dst_pv will point to the location within SvPVX(targ) where the
e839e6ed
DM
749 * next arg should be copied.
750 */
751
752 svpv_base = svpv_buf;
753
754 if (targ_len) {
755 struct multiconcat_svpv *tc_stop;
057ba76a 756 char *targ_buf = targ_pv; /* ptr to original targ string */
e839e6ed 757
e839e6ed
DM
758 assert(is_append || targ_count);
759
760 if (is_append) {
057ba76a 761 targ_pv += targ_len;
e839e6ed
DM
762 tc_stop = NULL;
763 }
764 else {
765 /* The targ appears on RHS, e.g. '$t = $a . $t . $t'.
766 * Move the current contents of targ to the first
767 * position where it's needed, and use that as the src buffer
768 * for any further uses (such as the second RHS $t above).
769 * In calculating the first position, we need to sum the
770 * lengths of all consts and args before that.
771 */
772
773 UNOP_AUX_item *lens = const_lens;
774 /* length of first const string segment */
b5bf9f73 775 STRLEN offset = lens->ssize > 0 ? lens->ssize : 0;
e839e6ed
DM
776
777 assert(targ_chain);
778 svpv_p = svpv_base;
779
780 for (;;) {
781 SSize_t len;
782 if (!svpv_p->pv)
783 break; /* the first targ argument */
784 /* add lengths of the next arg and const string segment */
785 len = svpv_p->len;
786 if (len < 0) /* variant args have this */
787 len = -len;
788 offset += (STRLEN)len;
b5bf9f73 789 len = (++lens)->ssize;
e839e6ed
DM
790 offset += (len >= 0) ? (STRLEN)len : 0;
791 if (!offset) {
792 /* all args and consts so far are empty; update
793 * the start position for the concat later */
794 svpv_base++;
795 const_lens++;
796 }
797 svpv_p++;
798 assert(svpv_p < svpv_end);
799 }
800
801 if (offset) {
057ba76a
DM
802 targ_buf += offset;
803 Move(targ_pv, targ_buf, targ_len, char);
e839e6ed 804 /* a negative length implies don't Copy(), but do increment */
90b21a3e 805 svpv_p->len = -((SSize_t)targ_len);
e839e6ed
DM
806 slow_concat = TRUE;
807 }
808 else {
809 /* skip the first targ copy */
810 svpv_base++;
811 const_lens++;
057ba76a 812 targ_pv += targ_len;
e839e6ed
DM
813 }
814
815 /* Don't populate the first targ slot in the loop below; it's
816 * either not used because we advanced svpv_base beyond it, or
817 * we already stored the special -targ_len value in it
818 */
819 tc_stop = svpv_p;
820 }
821
822 /* populate slots in svpv_buf representing targ on RHS */
823 while (targ_chain != tc_stop) {
824 struct multiconcat_svpv *p = targ_chain;
825 targ_chain = (struct multiconcat_svpv *)(p->pv);
057ba76a 826 p->pv = targ_buf;
e839e6ed
DM
827 p->len = (SSize_t)targ_len;
828 }
829 }
830
831
832 /* --------------------------------------------------------------
833 * Phase 5:
834 *
057ba76a 835 * Append all the args in svpv_buf, plus the const strings, to targ.
e839e6ed
DM
836 *
837 * On entry to this section the (pv,len) pairs in svpv_buf have the
838 * following meanings:
839 * (pv, len) a pure-plain or utf8 string (which may be targ)
840 * (pv, -(len+extra)) a plain string which will expand by 'extra'
841 * bytes when converted to utf8
842 * (0, -len) left-most targ, whose content has already
057ba76a 843 * been copied. Just advance targ_pv by len.
e839e6ed
DM
844 */
845
846 /* If there are no constant strings and no special case args
847 * (svpv_p->len < 0), use a simpler, more efficient concat loop
848 */
849 if (!slow_concat) {
850 for (svpv_p = svpv_base; svpv_p < svpv_end; svpv_p++) {
851 SSize_t len = svpv_p->len;
852 if (!len)
853 continue;
057ba76a
DM
854 Copy(svpv_p->pv, targ_pv, len, char);
855 targ_pv += len;
e839e6ed
DM
856 }
857 const_lens += (svpv_end - svpv_base + 1);
858 }
859 else {
860 /* Note that we iterate the loop nargs+1 times: to append nargs
861 * arguments and nargs+1 constant strings. For example, "-$a-$b-"
862 */
863 svpv_p = svpv_base - 1;
864
865 for (;;) {
b5bf9f73 866 SSize_t len = (const_lens++)->ssize;
e839e6ed
DM
867
868 /* append next const string segment */
869 if (len > 0) {
057ba76a
DM
870 Copy(const_pv, targ_pv, len, char);
871 targ_pv += len;
e839e6ed
DM
872 const_pv += len;
873 }
874
875 if (++svpv_p == svpv_end)
876 break;
877
878 /* append next arg */
879 len = svpv_p->len;
880
881 if (LIKELY(len > 0)) {
057ba76a
DM
882 Copy(svpv_p->pv, targ_pv, len, char);
883 targ_pv += len;
e839e6ed
DM
884 }
885 else if (UNLIKELY(len < 0)) {
886 /* negative length indicates two special cases */
887 const char *p = svpv_p->pv;
888 len = -len;
889 if (UNLIKELY(p)) {
890 /* copy plain-but-variant pv to a utf8 targ */
057ba76a 891 char * end_pv = targ_pv + len;
e839e6ed 892 assert(dst_utf8);
057ba76a 893 while (targ_pv < end_pv) {
e839e6ed 894 U8 c = (U8) *p++;
057ba76a 895 append_utf8_from_native_byte(c, (U8**)&targ_pv);
e839e6ed
DM
896 }
897 }
898 else
899 /* arg is already-copied targ */
057ba76a 900 targ_pv += len;
e839e6ed
DM
901 }
902
903 }
904 }
905
057ba76a
DM
906 *targ_pv = '\0';
907 SvCUR_set(targ, targ_pv - SvPVX(targ));
908 assert(grow >= SvCUR(targ) + 1);
909 assert(SvLEN(targ) >= SvCUR(targ) + 1);
e839e6ed
DM
910
911 /* --------------------------------------------------------------
912 * Phase 6:
913 *
af390142 914 * return result
e839e6ed
DM
915 */
916
af390142
DM
917 SP -= stack_adj;
918 SvTAINT(targ);
919 SETTARG;
920 RETURN;
e839e6ed 921
af390142
DM
922 /* --------------------------------------------------------------
923 * Phase 7:
924 *
925 * We only get here if any of the args (or targ too in the case of
926 * append) have something which might cause side effects, such
927 * as magic, overload, or an undef value in the presence of warnings.
928 * In that case, any earlier attempt to stringify the args will have
929 * been abandoned, and we come here instead.
930 *
931 * Here, we concat each arg in turn the old-fashioned way: essentially
932 * emulating pp_concat() in a loop. This means that all the weird edge
933 * cases will be handled correctly, if not necessarily speedily.
934 *
935 * Note that some args may already have been stringified - those are
936 * processed again, which is safe, since only args without side-effects
937 * were stringified earlier.
938 */
939
940 do_magical:
941 {
942 SSize_t i, n;
943 SV *left = NULL;
944 SV *right;
945 SV* nexttarg;
946 bool nextappend;
947 U32 utf8 = 0;
948 SV **svp;
949 const char *cpv = aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_PLAIN_PV].pv;
950 UNOP_AUX_item *lens = aux + PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_LENGTHS;
55b62dee 951 Size_t arg_count = 0; /* how many args have been processed */
af390142
DM
952
953 if (!cpv) {
954 cpv = aux[PERL_MULTICONCAT_IX_UTF8_PV].pv;
955 utf8 = SVf_UTF8;
956 }
957
958 svp = toparg - nargs + 1;
959
960 /* iterate for:
961 * nargs arguments,
962 * plus possible nargs+1 consts,
963 * plus, if appending, a final targ in an extra last iteration
964 */
965
966 n = nargs *2 + 1;
55b62dee
DM
967 for (i = 0; i <= n; i++) {
968 SSize_t len;
969
970 /* if necessary, stringify the final RHS result in
971 * something like $targ .= "$a$b$c" - simulating
972 * pp_stringify
973 */
974 if ( i == n
975 && (PL_op->op_private &OPpMULTICONCAT_STRINGIFY)
976 && !(SvPOK(left))
977 /* extra conditions for backwards compatibility:
978 * probably incorrect, but keep the existing behaviour
979 * for now. The rules are:
980 * $x = "$ov" single arg: stringify;
981 * $x = "$ov$y" multiple args: don't stringify,
982 * $lex = "$ov$y$z" except TARGMY with at least 2 concats
983 */
984 && ( arg_count == 1
985 || ( arg_count >= 3
986 && !is_append
987 && (PL_op->op_private & OPpTARGET_MY)
988 && !(PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO)
989 )
990 )
991 )
992 {
993 SV *tmp = sv_newmortal();
994 sv_copypv(tmp, left);
995 SvSETMAGIC(tmp);
996 left = tmp;
997 }
998
999 /* do one extra iteration to handle $targ in $targ .= ... */
1000 if (i == n && !is_append)
1001 break;
1002
af390142 1003 /* get the next arg SV or regen the next const SV */
55b62dee 1004 len = lens[i >> 1].ssize;
af390142
DM
1005 if (i == n) {
1006 /* handle the final targ .= (....) */
1007 right = left;
1008 left = targ;
1009 }
1010 else if (i & 1)
1011 right = svp[(i >> 1)];
1012 else if (len < 0)
1013 continue; /* no const in this position */
1014 else {
1015 right = newSVpvn_flags(cpv, len, (utf8 | SVs_TEMP));
1016 cpv += len;
1017 }
e839e6ed 1018
55b62dee
DM
1019 arg_count++;
1020
1021 if (arg_count <= 1) {
af390142
DM
1022 left = right;
1023 continue; /* need at least two SVs to concat together */
1024 }
1025
55b62dee 1026 if (arg_count == 2 && i < n) {
af390142
DM
1027 /* for the first concat, create a mortal acting like the
1028 * padtmp from OP_CONST. In later iterations this will
1029 * be appended to */
1030 nexttarg = sv_newmortal();
1031 nextappend = FALSE;
af390142
DM
1032 }
1033 else {
1034 nexttarg = left;
1035 nextappend = TRUE;
1036 }
1037
1038 /* Handle possible overloading.
1039 * This is basically an unrolled
1040 * tryAMAGICbin_MG(concat_amg, AMGf_assign);
1041 * and
1042 * Perl_try_amagic_bin()
1043 * call, but using left and right rather than SP[-1], SP[0],
1044 * and not relying on OPf_STACKED implying .=
e839e6ed 1045 */
e839e6ed 1046
af390142
DM
1047 if ((SvFLAGS(left)|SvFLAGS(right)) & (SVf_ROK|SVs_GMG)) {
1048 SvGETMAGIC(left);
1049 if (left != right)
1050 SvGETMAGIC(right);
1051
1052 if ((SvAMAGIC(left) || SvAMAGIC(right))
1053 /* sprintf doesn't do concat overloading,
1054 * but allow for $x .= sprintf(...)
1055 */
1056 && ( !(PL_op->op_private & OPpMULTICONCAT_FAKE)
1057 || i == n)
e839e6ed 1058 )
af390142
DM
1059 {
1060 SV * const tmpsv = amagic_call(left, right, concat_amg,
1061 (nextappend ? AMGf_assign: 0));
1062 if (tmpsv) {
1063 /* NB: tryAMAGICbin_MG() includes an SvPADMY test
1064 * here, which isn;t needed as any implicit
1065 * assign does under OPpTARGET_MY is done after
1066 * this loop */
1067 if (nextappend) {
1068 sv_setsv(left, tmpsv);
1069 SvSETMAGIC(left);
e839e6ed 1070 }
af390142
DM
1071 else
1072 left = tmpsv;
1073 continue;
1074 }
1075 }
1076
1077 /* if both args are the same magical value, make one a copy */
1078 if (left == right && SvGMAGICAL(left)) {
1079 left = sv_newmortal();
1080 /* Print the uninitialized warning now, so it includes the
1081 * variable name. */
1082 if (!SvOK(right)) {
1083 if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
1084 report_uninit(right);
1085 sv_setsv_flags(left, &PL_sv_no, 0);
e839e6ed 1086 }
af390142
DM
1087 else
1088 sv_setsv_flags(left, right, 0);
1089 SvGETMAGIC(right);
e839e6ed
DM
1090 }
1091 }
e839e6ed 1092
af390142
DM
1093 /* nexttarg = left . right */
1094 S_do_concat(aTHX_ left, right, nexttarg, 0);
1095 left = nexttarg;
e839e6ed 1096 }
e839e6ed 1097
af390142 1098 SP = toparg - stack_adj + 1;
e839e6ed 1099
af390142
DM
1100 /* Assign result of all RHS concats (left) to LHS (targ).
1101 * If we are appending, targ will already have been appended to in
1102 * the loop */
1103 if (is_append)
1104 SvTAINT(targ);
1105 else {
1106 sv_setsv(targ, left);
1107 SvSETMAGIC(targ);
1108 }
1109 SETs(targ);
1110 RETURN;
1111 }
e839e6ed
DM
1112}
1113
1114
0b5aba47
DM
1115/* push the elements of av onto the stack.
1116 * Returns PL_op->op_next to allow tail-call optimisation of its callers */
d5524600 1117
0b5aba47 1118STATIC OP*
d5524600
DM
1119S_pushav(pTHX_ AV* const av)
1120{
1121 dSP;
c70927a6 1122 const SSize_t maxarg = AvFILL(av) + 1;
d5524600 1123 EXTEND(SP, maxarg);
5d9574c1 1124 if (UNLIKELY(SvRMAGICAL(av))) {
c70927a6
FC
1125 PADOFFSET i;
1126 for (i=0; i < (PADOFFSET)maxarg; i++) {
fd77b29b
FC
1127 SV ** const svp = av_fetch(av, i, FALSE);
1128 SP[i+1] = LIKELY(svp)
1129 ? *svp
1130 : UNLIKELY(PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD)
1f1dcfb5 1131 ? av_nonelem(av,i)
fd77b29b 1132 : &PL_sv_undef;
d5524600
DM
1133 }
1134 }
1135 else {
c70927a6
FC
1136 PADOFFSET i;
1137 for (i=0; i < (PADOFFSET)maxarg; i++) {
6661956a 1138 SV *sv = AvARRAY(av)[i];
fd77b29b
FC
1139 SP[i+1] = LIKELY(sv)
1140 ? sv
1141 : UNLIKELY(PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD)
1f1dcfb5 1142 ? av_nonelem(av,i)
fd77b29b 1143 : &PL_sv_undef;
ce0d59fd 1144 }
d5524600
DM
1145 }
1146 SP += maxarg;
1147 PUTBACK;
0b5aba47 1148 return NORMAL;
d5524600
DM
1149}
1150
1151
a7fd8ef6
DM
1152/* ($lex1,@lex2,...) or my ($lex1,@lex2,...) */
1153
1154PP(pp_padrange)
1155{
20b7effb 1156 dSP;
a7fd8ef6
DM
1157 PADOFFSET base = PL_op->op_targ;
1158 int count = (int)(PL_op->op_private) & OPpPADRANGE_COUNTMASK;
d5524600
DM
1159 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
1160 /* fake the RHS of my ($x,$y,..) = @_ */
1161 PUSHMARK(SP);
0b5aba47 1162 (void)S_pushav(aTHX_ GvAVn(PL_defgv));
d5524600
DM
1163 SPAGAIN;
1164 }
1165
a7fd8ef6
DM
1166 /* note, this is only skipped for compile-time-known void cxt */
1167 if ((PL_op->op_flags & OPf_WANT) != OPf_WANT_VOID) {
19742f39
AL
1168 int i;
1169
a7fd8ef6
DM
1170 EXTEND(SP, count);
1171 PUSHMARK(SP);
1172 for (i = 0; i <count; i++)
1173 *++SP = PAD_SV(base+i);
1174 }
1175 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO) {
4e09461c
DM
1176 SV **svp = &(PAD_SVl(base));
1177 const UV payload = (UV)(
1178 (base << (OPpPADRANGE_COUNTSHIFT + SAVE_TIGHT_SHIFT))
1179 | (count << SAVE_TIGHT_SHIFT)
1180 | SAVEt_CLEARPADRANGE);
19742f39
AL
1181 int i;
1182
6d59e610 1183 STATIC_ASSERT_STMT(OPpPADRANGE_COUNTMASK + 1 == (1 << OPpPADRANGE_COUNTSHIFT));
d081a355
DM
1184 assert((payload >> (OPpPADRANGE_COUNTSHIFT+SAVE_TIGHT_SHIFT))
1185 == (Size_t)base);
a3444cc5
DM
1186 {
1187 dSS_ADD;
1188 SS_ADD_UV(payload);
1189 SS_ADD_END(1);
1190 }
4e09461c 1191
a7fd8ef6 1192 for (i = 0; i <count; i++)
4e09461c 1193 SvPADSTALE_off(*svp++); /* mark lexical as active */
a7fd8ef6
DM
1194 }
1195 RETURN;
1196}
1197
1198
a0d0e21e
LW
1199PP(pp_padsv)
1200{
20b7effb 1201 dSP;
6c28b496
DD
1202 EXTEND(SP, 1);
1203 {
1204 OP * const op = PL_op;
1205 /* access PL_curpad once */
1206 SV ** const padentry = &(PAD_SVl(op->op_targ));
1207 {
1208 dTARG;
1209 TARG = *padentry;
1210 PUSHs(TARG);
1211 PUTBACK; /* no pop/push after this, TOPs ok */
8ec5e241 1212 }
6c28b496
DD
1213 if (op->op_flags & OPf_MOD) {
1214 if (op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO)
1215 if (!(op->op_private & OPpPAD_STATE))
1216 save_clearsv(padentry);
1217 if (op->op_private & OPpDEREF) {
8f90a16d
FC
1218 /* TOPs is equivalent to TARG here. Using TOPs (SP) rather
1219 than TARG reduces the scope of TARG, so it does not
1220 span the call to save_clearsv, resulting in smaller
1221 machine code. */
6c28b496
DD
1222 TOPs = vivify_ref(TOPs, op->op_private & OPpDEREF);
1223 }
1224 }
1225 return op->op_next;
4633a7c4 1226 }
a0d0e21e
LW
1227}
1228
1229PP(pp_readline)
1230{
30901a8a 1231 dSP;
12dc5f94
DM
1232 /* pp_coreargs pushes a NULL to indicate no args passed to
1233 * CORE::readline() */
30901a8a
FC
1234 if (TOPs) {
1235 SvGETMAGIC(TOPs);
fc99edcf 1236 tryAMAGICunTARGETlist(iter_amg, 0);
30901a8a
FC
1237 PL_last_in_gv = MUTABLE_GV(*PL_stack_sp--);
1238 }
1239 else PL_last_in_gv = PL_argvgv, PL_stack_sp--;
6e592b3a
BM
1240 if (!isGV_with_GP(PL_last_in_gv)) {
1241 if (SvROK(PL_last_in_gv) && isGV_with_GP(SvRV(PL_last_in_gv)))
159b6efe 1242 PL_last_in_gv = MUTABLE_GV(SvRV(PL_last_in_gv));
8efb3254 1243 else {
f5284f61 1244 dSP;
ad64d0ec 1245 XPUSHs(MUTABLE_SV(PL_last_in_gv));
f5284f61 1246 PUTBACK;
897d3989 1247 Perl_pp_rv2gv(aTHX);
159b6efe 1248 PL_last_in_gv = MUTABLE_GV(*PL_stack_sp--);
745e740c 1249 assert((SV*)PL_last_in_gv == &PL_sv_undef || isGV_with_GP(PL_last_in_gv));
f5284f61
IZ
1250 }
1251 }
a0d0e21e
LW
1252 return do_readline();
1253}
1254
1255PP(pp_eq)
1256{
20b7effb 1257 dSP;
33efebe6
DM
1258 SV *left, *right;
1259
a42d0242 1260 tryAMAGICbin_MG(eq_amg, AMGf_set|AMGf_numeric);
33efebe6
DM
1261 right = POPs;
1262 left = TOPs;
1263 SETs(boolSV(
1264 (SvIOK_notUV(left) && SvIOK_notUV(right))
1265 ? (SvIVX(left) == SvIVX(right))
1266 : ( do_ncmp(left, right) == 0)
1267 ));
1268 RETURN;
a0d0e21e
LW
1269}
1270
b1c05ba5 1271
4c2c3128 1272/* also used for: pp_i_preinc() */
b1c05ba5 1273
a0d0e21e
LW
1274PP(pp_preinc)
1275{
4c2c3128
DM
1276 SV *sv = *PL_stack_sp;
1277
1278 if (LIKELY(((sv->sv_flags &
1279 (SVf_THINKFIRST|SVs_GMG|SVf_IVisUV|
1280 SVf_IOK|SVf_NOK|SVf_POK|SVp_NOK|SVp_POK|SVf_ROK))
1281 == SVf_IOK))
1282 && SvIVX(sv) != IV_MAX)
1283 {
1284 SvIV_set(sv, SvIVX(sv) + 1);
1285 }
1286 else /* Do all the PERL_PRESERVE_IVUV and hard cases in sv_inc */
1287 sv_inc(sv);
1288 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
1289 return NORMAL;
1290}
1291
1292
1293/* also used for: pp_i_predec() */
1294
1295PP(pp_predec)
1296{
1297 SV *sv = *PL_stack_sp;
1298
1299 if (LIKELY(((sv->sv_flags &
1300 (SVf_THINKFIRST|SVs_GMG|SVf_IVisUV|
1301 SVf_IOK|SVf_NOK|SVf_POK|SVp_NOK|SVp_POK|SVf_ROK))
1302 == SVf_IOK))
1303 && SvIVX(sv) != IV_MIN)
55497cff 1304 {
4c2c3128 1305 SvIV_set(sv, SvIVX(sv) - 1);
748a9306 1306 }
4c2c3128
DM
1307 else /* Do all the PERL_PRESERVE_IVUV and hard cases in sv_dec */
1308 sv_dec(sv);
1309 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
a0d0e21e
LW
1310 return NORMAL;
1311}
1312
b1c05ba5
DM
1313
1314/* also used for: pp_orassign() */
1315
a0d0e21e
LW
1316PP(pp_or)
1317{
20b7effb 1318 dSP;
f4c975aa 1319 SV *sv;
f410a211 1320 PERL_ASYNC_CHECK();
f4c975aa
DM
1321 sv = TOPs;
1322 if (SvTRUE_NN(sv))
a0d0e21e
LW
1323 RETURN;
1324 else {
c960fc3b
SP
1325 if (PL_op->op_type == OP_OR)
1326 --SP;
a0d0e21e
LW
1327 RETURNOP(cLOGOP->op_other);
1328 }
1329}
1330
b1c05ba5
DM
1331
1332/* also used for: pp_dor() pp_dorassign() */
1333
25a55bd7 1334PP(pp_defined)
c963b151 1335{
20b7effb 1336 dSP;
eb578fdb 1337 SV* sv;
6136c704 1338 bool defined;
25a55bd7 1339 const int op_type = PL_op->op_type;
ea5195b7 1340 const bool is_dor = (op_type == OP_DOR || op_type == OP_DORASSIGN);
c963b151 1341
6136c704 1342 if (is_dor) {
f410a211 1343 PERL_ASYNC_CHECK();
25a55bd7 1344 sv = TOPs;
5d9574c1 1345 if (UNLIKELY(!sv || !SvANY(sv))) {
2bd49cfc
NC
1346 if (op_type == OP_DOR)
1347 --SP;
25a55bd7
SP
1348 RETURNOP(cLOGOP->op_other);
1349 }
b7c44293
RGS
1350 }
1351 else {
1352 /* OP_DEFINED */
25a55bd7 1353 sv = POPs;
5d9574c1 1354 if (UNLIKELY(!sv || !SvANY(sv)))
25a55bd7 1355 RETPUSHNO;
b7c44293 1356 }
25a55bd7 1357
6136c704 1358 defined = FALSE;
c963b151
BD
1359 switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
1360 case SVt_PVAV:
1361 if (AvMAX(sv) >= 0 || SvGMAGICAL(sv) || (SvRMAGICAL(sv) && mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_tied)))
25a55bd7 1362 defined = TRUE;
c963b151
BD
1363 break;
1364 case SVt_PVHV:
1365 if (HvARRAY(sv) || SvGMAGICAL(sv) || (SvRMAGICAL(sv) && mg_find(sv, PERL_MAGIC_tied)))
25a55bd7 1366 defined = TRUE;
c963b151
BD
1367 break;
1368 case SVt_PVCV:
1369 if (CvROOT(sv) || CvXSUB(sv))
25a55bd7 1370 defined = TRUE;
c963b151
BD
1371 break;
1372 default:
5b295bef 1373 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
c963b151 1374 if (SvOK(sv))
25a55bd7 1375 defined = TRUE;
6136c704 1376 break;
c963b151 1377 }
6136c704
AL
1378
1379 if (is_dor) {
c960fc3b
SP
1380 if(defined)
1381 RETURN;
1382 if(op_type == OP_DOR)
1383 --SP;
25a55bd7 1384 RETURNOP(cLOGOP->op_other);
25a55bd7 1385 }
d9aa96a4
SP
1386 /* assuming OP_DEFINED */
1387 if(defined)
1388 RETPUSHYES;
1389 RETPUSHNO;
c963b151
BD
1390}
1391
230ee21f
DM
1392
1393
a0d0e21e
LW
1394PP(pp_add)
1395{
20b7effb 1396 dSP; dATARGET; bool useleft; SV *svl, *svr;
230ee21f 1397
6f1401dc
DM
1398 tryAMAGICbin_MG(add_amg, AMGf_assign|AMGf_numeric);
1399 svr = TOPs;
1400 svl = TOPm1s;
1401
28e5dec8 1402#ifdef PERL_PRESERVE_IVUV
230ee21f
DM
1403
1404 /* special-case some simple common cases */
1405 if (!((svl->sv_flags|svr->sv_flags) & (SVf_IVisUV|SVs_GMG))) {
1406 IV il, ir;
1407 U32 flags = (svl->sv_flags & svr->sv_flags);
1408 if (flags & SVf_IOK) {
1409 /* both args are simple IVs */
1410 UV topl, topr;
1411 il = SvIVX(svl);
1412 ir = SvIVX(svr);
1413 do_iv:
1414 topl = ((UV)il) >> (UVSIZE * 8 - 2);
1415 topr = ((UV)ir) >> (UVSIZE * 8 - 2);
1416
1417 /* if both are in a range that can't under/overflow, do a
1418 * simple integer add: if the top of both numbers
1419 * are 00 or 11, then it's safe */
1420 if (!( ((topl+1) | (topr+1)) & 2)) {
1421 SP--;
1422 TARGi(il + ir, 0); /* args not GMG, so can't be tainted */
1423 SETs(TARG);
1424 RETURN;
1425 }
1426 goto generic;
1427 }
1428 else if (flags & SVf_NOK) {
1429 /* both args are NVs */
1430 NV nl = SvNVX(svl);
1431 NV nr = SvNVX(svr);
1432
3336af0b
DD
1433 if (
1434#if defined(NAN_COMPARE_BROKEN) && defined(Perl_isnan)
1435 !Perl_isnan(nl) && nl == (NV)(il = (IV)nl)
1436 && !Perl_isnan(nr) && nr == (NV)(ir = (IV)nr)
1437#else
1438 nl == (NV)(il = (IV)nl) && nr == (NV)(ir = (IV)nr)
1439#endif
1440 )
230ee21f
DM
1441 /* nothing was lost by converting to IVs */
1442 goto do_iv;
1443 SP--;
1444 TARGn(nl + nr, 0); /* args not GMG, so can't be tainted */
1445 SETs(TARG);
1446 RETURN;
1447 }
1448 }
1449
1450 generic:
1451
1452 useleft = USE_LEFT(svl);
28e5dec8
JH
1453 /* We must see if we can perform the addition with integers if possible,
1454 as the integer code detects overflow while the NV code doesn't.
1455 If either argument hasn't had a numeric conversion yet attempt to get
1456 the IV. It's important to do this now, rather than just assuming that
1457 it's not IOK as a PV of "9223372036854775806" may not take well to NV
1458 addition, and an SV which is NOK, NV=6.0 ought to be coerced to
1459 integer in case the second argument is IV=9223372036854775806
1460 We can (now) rely on sv_2iv to do the right thing, only setting the
1461 public IOK flag if the value in the NV (or PV) slot is truly integer.
1462
1463 A side effect is that this also aggressively prefers integer maths over
7dca457a
NC
1464 fp maths for integer values.
1465
a00b5bd3 1466 How to detect overflow?
7dca457a
NC
1467
1468 C 99 section 6.2.6.1 says
1469
1470 The range of nonnegative values of a signed integer type is a subrange
1471 of the corresponding unsigned integer type, and the representation of
1472 the same value in each type is the same. A computation involving
1473 unsigned operands can never overflow, because a result that cannot be
1474 represented by the resulting unsigned integer type is reduced modulo
1475 the number that is one greater than the largest value that can be
1476 represented by the resulting type.
1477
1478 (the 9th paragraph)
1479
1480 which I read as "unsigned ints wrap."
1481
1482 signed integer overflow seems to be classed as "exception condition"
1483
1484 If an exceptional condition occurs during the evaluation of an
1485 expression (that is, if the result is not mathematically defined or not
1486 in the range of representable values for its type), the behavior is
1487 undefined.
1488
1489 (6.5, the 5th paragraph)
1490
1491 I had assumed that on 2s complement machines signed arithmetic would
1492 wrap, hence coded pp_add and pp_subtract on the assumption that
1493 everything perl builds on would be happy. After much wailing and
1494 gnashing of teeth it would seem that irix64 knows its ANSI spec well,
1495 knows that it doesn't need to, and doesn't. Bah. Anyway, the all-
1496 unsigned code below is actually shorter than the old code. :-)
1497 */
1498
01f91bf2 1499 if (SvIV_please_nomg(svr)) {
28e5dec8
JH
1500 /* Unless the left argument is integer in range we are going to have to
1501 use NV maths. Hence only attempt to coerce the right argument if
1502 we know the left is integer. */
eb578fdb 1503 UV auv = 0;
9c5ffd7c 1504 bool auvok = FALSE;
7dca457a
NC
1505 bool a_valid = 0;
1506
28e5dec8 1507 if (!useleft) {
7dca457a
NC
1508 auv = 0;
1509 a_valid = auvok = 1;
1510 /* left operand is undef, treat as zero. + 0 is identity,
1511 Could SETi or SETu right now, but space optimise by not adding
1512 lots of code to speed up what is probably a rarish case. */
1513 } else {
1514 /* Left operand is defined, so is it IV? */
01f91bf2 1515 if (SvIV_please_nomg(svl)) {
800401ee
JH
1516 if ((auvok = SvUOK(svl)))
1517 auv = SvUVX(svl);
7dca457a 1518 else {
eb578fdb 1519 const IV aiv = SvIVX(svl);
7dca457a
NC
1520 if (aiv >= 0) {
1521 auv = aiv;
1522 auvok = 1; /* Now acting as a sign flag. */
53e2bfb7
DM
1523 } else {
1524 auv = (aiv == IV_MIN) ? (UV)aiv : (UV)(-aiv);
7dca457a
NC
1525 }
1526 }
1527 a_valid = 1;
28e5dec8
JH
1528 }
1529 }
7dca457a
NC
1530 if (a_valid) {
1531 bool result_good = 0;
1532 UV result;
eb578fdb 1533 UV buv;
800401ee 1534 bool buvok = SvUOK(svr);
a00b5bd3 1535
7dca457a 1536 if (buvok)
800401ee 1537 buv = SvUVX(svr);
7dca457a 1538 else {
eb578fdb 1539 const IV biv = SvIVX(svr);
7dca457a
NC
1540 if (biv >= 0) {
1541 buv = biv;
1542 buvok = 1;
1543 } else
53e2bfb7 1544 buv = (biv == IV_MIN) ? (UV)biv : (UV)(-biv);
7dca457a
NC
1545 }
1546 /* ?uvok if value is >= 0. basically, flagged as UV if it's +ve,
602f51c4 1547 else "IV" now, independent of how it came in.
7dca457a
NC
1548 if a, b represents positive, A, B negative, a maps to -A etc
1549 a + b => (a + b)
1550 A + b => -(a - b)
1551 a + B => (a - b)
1552 A + B => -(a + b)
1553 all UV maths. negate result if A negative.
1554 add if signs same, subtract if signs differ. */
1555
1556 if (auvok ^ buvok) {
1557 /* Signs differ. */
1558 if (auv >= buv) {
1559 result = auv - buv;
1560 /* Must get smaller */
1561 if (result <= auv)
1562 result_good = 1;
1563 } else {
1564 result = buv - auv;
1565 if (result <= buv) {
1566 /* result really should be -(auv-buv). as its negation
1567 of true value, need to swap our result flag */
1568 auvok = !auvok;
1569 result_good = 1;
28e5dec8
JH
1570 }
1571 }
7dca457a
NC
1572 } else {
1573 /* Signs same */
1574 result = auv + buv;
1575 if (result >= auv)
1576 result_good = 1;
1577 }
1578 if (result_good) {
1579 SP--;
1580 if (auvok)
28e5dec8 1581 SETu( result );
7dca457a
NC
1582 else {
1583 /* Negate result */
1584 if (result <= (UV)IV_MIN)
53e2bfb7
DM
1585 SETi(result == (UV)IV_MIN
1586 ? IV_MIN : -(IV)result);
7dca457a
NC
1587 else {
1588 /* result valid, but out of range for IV. */
1589 SETn( -(NV)result );
28e5dec8
JH
1590 }
1591 }
7dca457a
NC
1592 RETURN;
1593 } /* Overflow, drop through to NVs. */
28e5dec8
JH
1594 }
1595 }
230ee21f
DM
1596
1597#else
1598 useleft = USE_LEFT(svl);
28e5dec8 1599#endif
230ee21f 1600
a0d0e21e 1601 {
6f1401dc 1602 NV value = SvNV_nomg(svr);
4efa5a16 1603 (void)POPs;
28e5dec8
JH
1604 if (!useleft) {
1605 /* left operand is undef, treat as zero. + 0.0 is identity. */
1606 SETn(value);
1607 RETURN;
1608 }
6f1401dc 1609 SETn( value + SvNV_nomg(svl) );
28e5dec8 1610 RETURN;
a0d0e21e
LW
1611 }
1612}
1613
b1c05ba5
DM
1614
1615/* also used for: pp_aelemfast_lex() */
1616
a0d0e21e
LW
1617PP(pp_aelemfast)
1618{
20b7effb 1619 dSP;
93bad3fd 1620 AV * const av = PL_op->op_type == OP_AELEMFAST_LEX
8f878375 1621 ? MUTABLE_AV(PAD_SV(PL_op->op_targ)) : GvAVn(cGVOP_gv);
a3b680e6 1622 const U32 lval = PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD;
7e169e84
DM
1623 const I8 key = (I8)PL_op->op_private;
1624 SV** svp;
1625 SV *sv;
1626
1627 assert(SvTYPE(av) == SVt_PVAV);
1628
f4484b87
DM
1629 EXTEND(SP, 1);
1630
7e169e84
DM
1631 /* inlined av_fetch() for simple cases ... */
1632 if (!SvRMAGICAL(av) && key >= 0 && key <= AvFILLp(av)) {
1633 sv = AvARRAY(av)[key];
9fb994be 1634 if (sv) {
7e169e84
DM
1635 PUSHs(sv);
1636 RETURN;
1637 }
1638 }
1639
1640 /* ... else do it the hard way */
1641 svp = av_fetch(av, key, lval);
1642 sv = (svp ? *svp : &PL_sv_undef);
b024352e
DM
1643
1644 if (UNLIKELY(!svp && lval))
7e169e84 1645 DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_aelem, (int)key);
b024352e 1646
39cf747a 1647 if (!lval && SvRMAGICAL(av) && SvGMAGICAL(sv)) /* see note in pp_helem() */
fd69380d 1648 mg_get(sv);
be6c24e0 1649 PUSHs(sv);
a0d0e21e
LW
1650 RETURN;
1651}
1652
1653PP(pp_join)
1654{
20b7effb 1655 dSP; dMARK; dTARGET;
a0d0e21e
LW
1656 MARK++;
1657 do_join(TARG, *MARK, MARK, SP);
1658 SP = MARK;
1659 SETs(TARG);
1660 RETURN;
1661}
1662
a0d0e21e
LW
1663/* Oversized hot code. */
1664
b1c05ba5
DM
1665/* also used for: pp_say() */
1666
a0d0e21e
LW
1667PP(pp_print)
1668{
20b7effb 1669 dSP; dMARK; dORIGMARK;
eb578fdb 1670 PerlIO *fp;
236988e4 1671 MAGIC *mg;
159b6efe
NC
1672 GV * const gv
1673 = (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_STACKED) ? MUTABLE_GV(*++MARK) : PL_defoutgv;
9c9f25b8 1674 IO *io = GvIO(gv);
5b468f54 1675
9c9f25b8 1676 if (io
ad64d0ec 1677 && (mg = SvTIED_mg((const SV *)io, PERL_MAGIC_tiedscalar)))
5b468f54 1678 {
01bb7c6d 1679 had_magic:
68dc0745 1680 if (MARK == ORIGMARK) {
1c846c1f 1681 /* If using default handle then we need to make space to
a60c0954
NIS
1682 * pass object as 1st arg, so move other args up ...
1683 */
4352c267 1684 MEXTEND(SP, 1);
68dc0745
PP
1685 ++MARK;
1686 Move(MARK, MARK + 1, (SP - MARK) + 1, SV*);
1687 ++SP;
1688 }
3e0cb5de 1689 return Perl_tied_method(aTHX_ SV_CONST(PRINT), mark - 1, MUTABLE_SV(io),
94bc412f
NC
1690 mg,
1691 (G_SCALAR | TIED_METHOD_ARGUMENTS_ON_STACK
1692 | (PL_op->op_type == OP_SAY
1693 ? TIED_METHOD_SAY : 0)), sp - mark);
236988e4 1694 }
9c9f25b8 1695 if (!io) {
68b590d9 1696 if ( gv && GvEGVx(gv) && (io = GvIO(GvEGV(gv)))
ad64d0ec 1697 && (mg = SvTIED_mg((const SV *)io, PERL_MAGIC_tiedscalar)))
01bb7c6d 1698 goto had_magic;
51087808 1699 report_evil_fh(gv);
93189314 1700 SETERRNO(EBADF,RMS_IFI);
a0d0e21e
LW
1701 goto just_say_no;
1702 }
1703 else if (!(fp = IoOFP(io))) {
7716c5c5
NC
1704 if (IoIFP(io))
1705 report_wrongway_fh(gv, '<');
51087808 1706 else
7716c5c5 1707 report_evil_fh(gv);
93189314 1708 SETERRNO(EBADF,IoIFP(io)?RMS_FAC:RMS_IFI);
a0d0e21e
LW
1709 goto just_say_no;
1710 }
1711 else {
e23d9e2f 1712 SV * const ofs = GvSV(PL_ofsgv); /* $, */
a0d0e21e 1713 MARK++;
e23d9e2f 1714 if (ofs && (SvGMAGICAL(ofs) || SvOK(ofs))) {
a0d0e21e
LW
1715 while (MARK <= SP) {
1716 if (!do_print(*MARK, fp))
1717 break;
1718 MARK++;
1719 if (MARK <= SP) {
e23d9e2f
CS
1720 /* don't use 'ofs' here - it may be invalidated by magic callbacks */
1721 if (!do_print(GvSV(PL_ofsgv), fp)) {
a0d0e21e
LW
1722 MARK--;
1723 break;
1724 }
1725 }
1726 }
1727 }
1728 else {
1729 while (MARK <= SP) {
1730 if (!do_print(*MARK, fp))
1731 break;
1732 MARK++;
1733 }
1734 }
1735 if (MARK <= SP)
1736 goto just_say_no;
1737 else {
cfc4a7da
GA
1738 if (PL_op->op_type == OP_SAY) {
1739 if (PerlIO_write(fp, "\n", 1) == 0 || PerlIO_error(fp))
1740 goto just_say_no;
1741 }
1742 else if (PL_ors_sv && SvOK(PL_ors_sv))
7889fe52 1743 if (!do_print(PL_ors_sv, fp)) /* $\ */
a0d0e21e
LW
1744 goto just_say_no;
1745
1746 if (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_FLUSH)
760ac839 1747 if (PerlIO_flush(fp) == EOF)
a0d0e21e
LW
1748 goto just_say_no;
1749 }
1750 }
1751 SP = ORIGMARK;
e52fd6f4 1752 XPUSHs(&PL_sv_yes);
a0d0e21e
LW
1753 RETURN;
1754
1755 just_say_no:
1756 SP = ORIGMARK;
e52fd6f4 1757 XPUSHs(&PL_sv_undef);
a0d0e21e
LW
1758 RETURN;
1759}
1760
b1c05ba5 1761
aa36782f
DM
1762/* do the common parts of pp_padhv() and pp_rv2hv()
1763 * It assumes the caller has done EXTEND(SP, 1) or equivalent.
af3b1cba 1764 * 'is_keys' indicates the OPpPADHV_ISKEYS/OPpRV2HV_ISKEYS flag is set.
e84e4286
DM
1765 * 'has_targ' indicates that the op has a target - this should
1766 * be a compile-time constant so that the code can constant-folded as
1767 * appropriate
aa36782f
DM
1768 * */
1769
1770PERL_STATIC_INLINE OP*
e84e4286 1771S_padhv_rv2hv_common(pTHX_ HV *hv, U8 gimme, bool is_keys, bool has_targ)
aa36782f 1772{
e80717e7
DM
1773 bool is_tied;
1774 bool is_bool;
e1ad5d4c 1775 MAGIC *mg;
aa36782f 1776 dSP;
e80717e7
DM
1777 IV i;
1778 SV *sv;
aa36782f
DM
1779
1780 assert(PL_op->op_type == OP_PADHV || PL_op->op_type == OP_RV2HV);
1781
1782 if (gimme == G_ARRAY) {
8dc9003f 1783 hv_pushkv(hv, 3);
af3b1cba 1784 return NORMAL;
aa36782f
DM
1785 }
1786
1787 if (is_keys)
1788 /* 'keys %h' masquerading as '%h': reset iterator */
1789 (void)hv_iterinit(hv);
1790
6f2dc9a6
DM
1791 if (gimme == G_VOID)
1792 return NORMAL;
1793
e80717e7
DM
1794 is_bool = ( PL_op->op_private & OPpTRUEBOOL
1795 || ( PL_op->op_private & OPpMAYBE_TRUEBOOL
1796 && block_gimme() == G_VOID));
1797 is_tied = SvRMAGICAL(hv) && (mg = mg_find(MUTABLE_SV(hv), PERL_MAGIC_tied));
1798
1799 if (UNLIKELY(is_tied)) {
1800 if (is_keys && !is_bool) {
1801 i = 0;
1802 while (hv_iternext(hv))
1803 i++;
1804 goto push_i;
1805 }
1806 else {
1807 sv = magic_scalarpack(hv, mg);
1808 goto push_sv;
1809 }
3cd2c7d4 1810 }
e80717e7
DM
1811 else {
1812 i = HvUSEDKEYS(hv);
1813 if (is_bool) {
1814 sv = i ? &PL_sv_yes : &PL_sv_zero;
1815 push_sv:
1816 PUSHs(sv);
1817 }
1818 else {
1819 push_i:
e84e4286
DM
1820 if (has_targ) {
1821 dTARGET;
1822 PUSHi(i);
1823 }
1824 else
6f2dc9a6
DM
1825#ifdef PERL_OP_PARENT
1826 if (is_keys) {
1827 /* parent op should be an unused OP_KEYS whose targ we can
1828 * use */
1829 dTARG;
1830 OP *k;
1831
1832 assert(!OpHAS_SIBLING(PL_op));
1833 k = PL_op->op_sibparent;
1834 assert(k->op_type == OP_KEYS);
1835 TARG = PAD_SV(k->op_targ);
1836 PUSHi(i);
1837 }
1838 else
1839#endif
e84e4286 1840 mPUSHi(i);
aa36782f 1841 }
aa36782f
DM
1842 }
1843
1844 PUTBACK;
1845 return NORMAL;
1846}
1847
1848
e855b461
DM
1849/* This is also called directly by pp_lvavref. */
1850PP(pp_padav)
1851{
1852 dSP; dTARGET;
1853 U8 gimme;
1854 assert(SvTYPE(TARG) == SVt_PVAV);
1855 if (UNLIKELY( PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO ))
1856 if (LIKELY( !(PL_op->op_private & OPpPAD_STATE) ))
1857 SAVECLEARSV(PAD_SVl(PL_op->op_targ));
1858 EXTEND(SP, 1);
1859
1860 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF) {
1861 PUSHs(TARG);
1862 RETURN;
1863 }
1864 else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpMAYBE_LVSUB) {
1865 const I32 flags = is_lvalue_sub();
1866 if (flags && !(flags & OPpENTERSUB_INARGS)) {
1867 if (GIMME_V == G_SCALAR)
1868 /* diag_listed_as: Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context */
1869 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't return array to lvalue scalar context");
1870 PUSHs(TARG);
1871 RETURN;
1872 }
1873 }
1874
1875 gimme = GIMME_V;
0b5aba47
DM
1876 if (gimme == G_ARRAY)
1877 return S_pushav(aTHX_ (AV*)TARG);
327c9b9e
DM
1878
1879 if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
e855b461
DM
1880 const SSize_t maxarg = AvFILL(MUTABLE_AV(TARG)) + 1;
1881 if (!maxarg)
1882 PUSHs(&PL_sv_zero);
1883 else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpTRUEBOOL)
1884 PUSHs(&PL_sv_yes);
1885 else
1886 mPUSHi(maxarg);
1887 }
1888 RETURN;
1889}
1890
1891
1892PP(pp_padhv)
1893{
1894 dSP; dTARGET;
1895 U8 gimme;
e855b461
DM
1896
1897 assert(SvTYPE(TARG) == SVt_PVHV);
e855b461
DM
1898 if (UNLIKELY( PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO ))
1899 if (LIKELY( !(PL_op->op_private & OPpPAD_STATE) ))
1900 SAVECLEARSV(PAD_SVl(PL_op->op_targ));
1901
aa36782f
DM
1902 EXTEND(SP, 1);
1903
1904 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF) {
1905 PUSHs(TARG);
e855b461 1906 RETURN;
aa36782f 1907 }
e855b461
DM
1908 else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpMAYBE_LVSUB) {
1909 const I32 flags = is_lvalue_sub();
1910 if (flags && !(flags & OPpENTERSUB_INARGS)) {
1911 if (GIMME_V == G_SCALAR)
1912 /* diag_listed_as: Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context */
1913 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't return hash to lvalue scalar context");
aa36782f 1914 PUSHs(TARG);
e855b461
DM
1915 RETURN;
1916 }
1917 }
1918
1919 gimme = GIMME_V;
e855b461 1920
aa36782f 1921 return S_padhv_rv2hv_common(aTHX_ (HV*)TARG, gimme,
e84e4286
DM
1922 cBOOL(PL_op->op_private & OPpPADHV_ISKEYS),
1923 0 /* has_targ*/);
e855b461
DM
1924}
1925
1926
b1c05ba5 1927/* also used for: pp_rv2hv() */
bdaf10a5 1928/* also called directly by pp_lvavref */
b1c05ba5 1929
a0d0e21e
LW
1930PP(pp_rv2av)
1931{
20b7effb 1932 dSP; dTOPss;
1c23e2bd 1933 const U8 gimme = GIMME_V;
13c59d41
MH
1934 static const char an_array[] = "an ARRAY";
1935 static const char a_hash[] = "a HASH";
bdaf10a5
FC
1936 const bool is_pp_rv2av = PL_op->op_type == OP_RV2AV
1937 || PL_op->op_type == OP_LVAVREF;
d83b45b8 1938 const svtype type = is_pp_rv2av ? SVt_PVAV : SVt_PVHV;
a0d0e21e 1939
9026059d 1940 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
a0d0e21e 1941 if (SvROK(sv)) {
5d9574c1 1942 if (UNLIKELY(SvAMAGIC(sv))) {
93d7320b 1943 sv = amagic_deref_call(sv, is_pp_rv2av ? to_av_amg : to_hv_amg);
93d7320b 1944 }
17ab7946 1945 sv = SvRV(sv);
5d9574c1 1946 if (UNLIKELY(SvTYPE(sv) != type))
dcbac5bb 1947 /* diag_listed_as: Not an ARRAY reference */
13c59d41 1948 DIE(aTHX_ "Not %s reference", is_pp_rv2av ? an_array : a_hash);
5d9574c1
DM
1949 else if (UNLIKELY(PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD
1950 && PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO))
3da99855 1951 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s", PL_no_localize_ref);
a0d0e21e 1952 }
5d9574c1 1953 else if (UNLIKELY(SvTYPE(sv) != type)) {
67955e0c 1954 GV *gv;
1c846c1f 1955
6e592b3a 1956 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv)) {
13c59d41 1957 gv = Perl_softref2xv(aTHX_ sv, is_pp_rv2av ? an_array : a_hash,
dc3c76f8
NC
1958 type, &sp);
1959 if (!gv)
1960 RETURN;
35cd451c
GS
1961 }
1962 else {
159b6efe 1963 gv = MUTABLE_GV(sv);
a0d0e21e 1964 }
ad64d0ec 1965 sv = is_pp_rv2av ? MUTABLE_SV(GvAVn(gv)) : MUTABLE_SV(GvHVn(gv));
533c011a 1966 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO)
ad64d0ec 1967 sv = is_pp_rv2av ? MUTABLE_SV(save_ary(gv)) : MUTABLE_SV(save_hash(gv));
9f527363
FC
1968 }
1969 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF) {
17ab7946 1970 SETs(sv);
a0d0e21e 1971 RETURN;
9f527363 1972 }
5d9574c1 1973 else if (UNLIKELY(PL_op->op_private & OPpMAYBE_LVSUB)) {
40c94d11
FC
1974 const I32 flags = is_lvalue_sub();
1975 if (flags && !(flags & OPpENTERSUB_INARGS)) {
cde874ca 1976 if (gimme != G_ARRAY)
042560a6 1977 goto croak_cant_return;
17ab7946 1978 SETs(sv);
78f9721b 1979 RETURN;
40c94d11 1980 }
a0d0e21e
LW
1981 }
1982
17ab7946 1983 if (is_pp_rv2av) {
502c6561 1984 AV *const av = MUTABLE_AV(sv);
0b5aba47 1985
96913b52 1986 if (gimme == G_ARRAY) {
d5524600
DM
1987 SP--;
1988 PUTBACK;
0b5aba47 1989 return S_pushav(aTHX_ av);
1c846c1f 1990 }
0b5aba47
DM
1991
1992 if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
c70927a6 1993 const SSize_t maxarg = AvFILL(av) + 1;
7be75ccf
DM
1994 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpTRUEBOOL)
1995 SETs(maxarg ? &PL_sv_yes : &PL_sv_zero);
1996 else {
1997 dTARGET;
1998 SETi(maxarg);
1999 }
93965878 2000 }
7be75ccf
DM
2001 }
2002 else {
aa36782f
DM
2003 SP--; PUTBACK;
2004 return S_padhv_rv2hv_common(aTHX_ (HV*)sv, gimme,
e84e4286
DM
2005 cBOOL(PL_op->op_private & OPpRV2HV_ISKEYS),
2006 1 /* has_targ*/);
17ab7946 2007 }
be85d344 2008 RETURN;
042560a6
NC
2009
2010 croak_cant_return:
2011 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context",
2012 is_pp_rv2av ? "array" : "hash");
77e217c6 2013 RETURN;
a0d0e21e
LW
2014}
2015
10c8fecd 2016STATIC void
fb8f4cf8 2017S_do_oddball(pTHX_ SV **oddkey, SV **firstkey)
10c8fecd 2018{
7918f24d
NC
2019 PERL_ARGS_ASSERT_DO_ODDBALL;
2020
fb8f4cf8 2021 if (*oddkey) {
6d822dc4 2022 if (ckWARN(WARN_MISC)) {
a3b680e6 2023 const char *err;
fb8f4cf8
RZ
2024 if (oddkey == firstkey &&
2025 SvROK(*oddkey) &&
2026 (SvTYPE(SvRV(*oddkey)) == SVt_PVAV ||
2027 SvTYPE(SvRV(*oddkey)) == SVt_PVHV))
10c8fecd 2028 {
a3b680e6 2029 err = "Reference found where even-sized list expected";
10c8fecd
GS
2030 }
2031 else
a3b680e6 2032 err = "Odd number of elements in hash assignment";
f1f66076 2033 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_MISC), "%s", err);
10c8fecd 2034 }
6d822dc4 2035
10c8fecd
GS
2036 }
2037}
2038
a5f48505
DM
2039
2040/* Do a mark and sweep with the SVf_BREAK flag to detect elements which
2041 * are common to both the LHS and RHS of an aassign, and replace them
2042 * with copies. All these copies are made before the actual list assign is
2043 * done.
2044 *
2045 * For example in ($a,$b) = ($b,$a), assigning the value of the first RHS
2046 * element ($b) to the first LH element ($a), modifies $a; when the
2047 * second assignment is done, the second RH element now has the wrong
2048 * value. So we initially replace the RHS with ($b, mortalcopy($a)).
2049 * Note that we don't need to make a mortal copy of $b.
2050 *
2051 * The algorithm below works by, for every RHS element, mark the
2052 * corresponding LHS target element with SVf_BREAK. Then if the RHS
2053 * element is found with SVf_BREAK set, it means it would have been
2054 * modified, so make a copy.
2055 * Note that by scanning both LHS and RHS in lockstep, we avoid
2056 * unnecessary copies (like $b above) compared with a naive
2057 * "mark all LHS; copy all marked RHS; unmark all LHS".
2058 *
2059 * If the LHS element is a 'my' declaration' and has a refcount of 1, then
2060 * it can't be common and can be skipped.
ebc643ce
DM
2061 *
2062 * On DEBUGGING builds it takes an extra boolean, fake. If true, it means
2063 * that we thought we didn't need to call S_aassign_copy_common(), but we
2064 * have anyway for sanity checking. If we find we need to copy, then panic.
a5f48505
DM
2065 */
2066
2067PERL_STATIC_INLINE void
2068S_aassign_copy_common(pTHX_ SV **firstlelem, SV **lastlelem,
ebc643ce
DM
2069 SV **firstrelem, SV **lastrelem
2070#ifdef DEBUGGING
2071 , bool fake
2072#endif
2073)
a5f48505
DM
2074{
2075 dVAR;
2076 SV **relem;
2077 SV **lelem;
2078 SSize_t lcount = lastlelem - firstlelem + 1;
2079 bool marked = FALSE; /* have we marked any LHS with SVf_BREAK ? */
2080 bool const do_rc1 = cBOOL(PL_op->op_private & OPpASSIGN_COMMON_RC1);
beb08a1e 2081 bool copy_all = FALSE;
a5f48505
DM
2082
2083 assert(!PL_in_clean_all); /* SVf_BREAK not already in use */
2084 assert(firstlelem < lastlelem); /* at least 2 LH elements */
2085 assert(firstrelem < lastrelem); /* at least 2 RH elements */
2086
ebc643ce
DM
2087
2088 lelem = firstlelem;
a5f48505
DM
2089 /* we never have to copy the first RH element; it can't be corrupted
2090 * by assigning something to the corresponding first LH element.
2091 * So this scan does in a loop: mark LHS[N]; test RHS[N+1]
2092 */
ebc643ce 2093 relem = firstrelem + 1;
a5f48505
DM
2094
2095 for (; relem <= lastrelem; relem++) {
2096 SV *svr;
2097
2098 /* mark next LH element */
2099
2100 if (--lcount >= 0) {
2101 SV *svl = *lelem++;
2102
2103 if (UNLIKELY(!svl)) {/* skip AV alias marker */
2104 assert (lelem <= lastlelem);
2105 svl = *lelem++;
2106 lcount--;
2107 }
2108
2109 assert(svl);
beb08a1e
TC
2110 if (SvSMAGICAL(svl)) {
2111 copy_all = TRUE;
2112 }
a5f48505
DM
2113 if (SvTYPE(svl) == SVt_PVAV || SvTYPE(svl) == SVt_PVHV) {
2114 if (!marked)
2115 return;
2116 /* this LH element will consume all further args;
2117 * no need to mark any further LH elements (if any).
2118 * But we still need to scan any remaining RHS elements;
2119 * set lcount negative to distinguish from lcount == 0,
2120 * so the loop condition continues being true
2121 */
2122 lcount = -1;
2123 lelem--; /* no need to unmark this element */
2124 }
94a5f659 2125 else if (!(do_rc1 && SvREFCNT(svl) == 1) && !SvIMMORTAL(svl)) {
a5f48505
DM
2126 SvFLAGS(svl) |= SVf_BREAK;
2127 marked = TRUE;
2128 }
2129 else if (!marked) {
2130 /* don't check RH element if no SVf_BREAK flags set yet */
2131 if (!lcount)
2132 break;
2133 continue;
2134 }
2135 }
2136
2137 /* see if corresponding RH element needs copying */
2138
2139 assert(marked);
2140 svr = *relem;
2141 assert(svr);
2142
5c1db569 2143 if (UNLIKELY(SvFLAGS(svr) & (SVf_BREAK|SVs_GMG) || copy_all)) {
1050723f 2144 U32 brk = (SvFLAGS(svr) & SVf_BREAK);
a5f48505 2145
ebc643ce
DM
2146#ifdef DEBUGGING
2147 if (fake) {
9ae0115f 2148 /* op_dump(PL_op); */
ebc643ce
DM
2149 Perl_croak(aTHX_
2150 "panic: aassign skipped needed copy of common RH elem %"
2151 UVuf, (UV)(relem - firstrelem));
2152 }
2153#endif
2154
a5f48505
DM
2155 TAINT_NOT; /* Each item is independent */
2156
2157 /* Dear TODO test in t/op/sort.t, I love you.
2158 (It's relying on a panic, not a "semi-panic" from newSVsv()
2159 and then an assertion failure below.) */
2160 if (UNLIKELY(SvIS_FREED(svr))) {
2161 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: attempt to copy freed scalar %p",
2162 (void*)svr);
2163 }
2164 /* avoid break flag while copying; otherwise COW etc
2165 * disabled... */
2166 SvFLAGS(svr) &= ~SVf_BREAK;
2167 /* Not newSVsv(), as it does not allow copy-on-write,
8c1e192f
DM
2168 resulting in wasteful copies.
2169 Also, we use SV_NOSTEAL in case the SV is used more than
2170 once, e.g. (...) = (f())[0,0]
2171 Where the same SV appears twice on the RHS without a ref
2172 count bump. (Although I suspect that the SV won't be
2173 stealable here anyway - DAPM).
2174 */
a5f48505
DM
2175 *relem = sv_mortalcopy_flags(svr,
2176 SV_GMAGIC|SV_DO_COW_SVSETSV|SV_NOSTEAL);
2177 /* ... but restore afterwards in case it's needed again,
2178 * e.g. ($a,$b,$c) = (1,$a,$a)
2179 */
1050723f 2180 SvFLAGS(svr) |= brk;
a5f48505
DM
2181 }
2182
2183 if (!lcount)
2184 break;
2185 }
2186
2187 if (!marked)
2188 return;
2189
2190 /*unmark LHS */
2191
2192 while (lelem > firstlelem) {
2193 SV * const svl = *(--lelem);
2194 if (svl)
2195 SvFLAGS(svl) &= ~SVf_BREAK;
2196 }
2197}
2198
2199
2200
a0d0e21e
LW
2201PP(pp_aassign)
2202{
27da23d5 2203 dVAR; dSP;
3280af22
NIS
2204 SV **lastlelem = PL_stack_sp;
2205 SV **lastrelem = PL_stack_base + POPMARK;
2206 SV **firstrelem = PL_stack_base + POPMARK + 1;
a0d0e21e
LW
2207 SV **firstlelem = lastrelem + 1;
2208
eb578fdb
KW
2209 SV **relem;
2210 SV **lelem;
1c23e2bd 2211 U8 gimme;
a68090fe
DM
2212 /* PL_delaymagic is restored by JUMPENV_POP on dieing, so we
2213 * only need to save locally, not on the save stack */
2214 U16 old_delaymagic = PL_delaymagic;
ebc643ce
DM
2215#ifdef DEBUGGING
2216 bool fake = 0;
2217#endif
5637b936 2218
3280af22 2219 PL_delaymagic = DM_DELAY; /* catch simultaneous items */
a0d0e21e
LW
2220
2221 /* If there's a common identifier on both sides we have to take
2222 * special care that assigning the identifier on the left doesn't
2223 * clobber a value on the right that's used later in the list.
2224 */
acdea6f0 2225
beb08a1e
TC
2226 /* at least 2 LH and RH elements, or commonality isn't an issue */
2227 if (firstlelem < lastlelem && firstrelem < lastrelem) {
5c1db569
TC
2228 for (relem = firstrelem+1; relem <= lastrelem; relem++) {
2229 if (SvGMAGICAL(*relem))
2230 goto do_scan;
2231 }
beb08a1e
TC
2232 for (lelem = firstlelem; lelem <= lastlelem; lelem++) {
2233 if (*lelem && SvSMAGICAL(*lelem))
2234 goto do_scan;
a5f48505 2235 }
beb08a1e
TC
2236 if ( PL_op->op_private & (OPpASSIGN_COMMON_SCALAR|OPpASSIGN_COMMON_RC1) ) {
2237 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpASSIGN_COMMON_RC1) {
2238 /* skip the scan if all scalars have a ref count of 1 */
2239 for (lelem = firstlelem; lelem <= lastlelem; lelem++) {
8b0c3377 2240 SV *sv = *lelem;
beb08a1e
TC
2241 if (!sv || SvREFCNT(sv) == 1)
2242 continue;
2243 if (SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV && SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV)
2244 goto do_scan;
2245 break;
2246 }
2247 }
2248 else {
2249 do_scan:
2250 S_aassign_copy_common(aTHX_
2251 firstlelem, lastlelem, firstrelem, lastrelem
ebc643ce 2252#ifdef DEBUGGING
beb08a1e 2253 , fake
ebc643ce 2254#endif
beb08a1e
TC
2255 );
2256 }
a5f48505 2257 }
a0d0e21e 2258 }
ebc643ce
DM
2259#ifdef DEBUGGING
2260 else {
2261 /* on debugging builds, do the scan even if we've concluded we
2262 * don't need to, then panic if we find commonality. Note that the
2263 * scanner assumes at least 2 elements */
2264 if (firstlelem < lastlelem && firstrelem < lastrelem) {
2265 fake = 1;
2266 goto do_scan;
2267 }
2268 }
2269#endif
a0d0e21e 2270
a5f48505 2271 gimme = GIMME_V;
a0d0e21e
LW
2272 relem = firstrelem;
2273 lelem = firstlelem;
10c8fecd 2274
8b0c3377
DM
2275 if (relem > lastrelem)
2276 goto no_relems;
2277
2278 /* first lelem loop while there are still relems */
5d9574c1 2279 while (LIKELY(lelem <= lastlelem)) {
bdaf10a5 2280 bool alias = FALSE;
8b0c3377
DM
2281 SV *lsv = *lelem++;
2282
c73f612f
DM
2283 TAINT_NOT; /* Each item stands on its own, taintwise. */
2284
8b0c3377
DM
2285 assert(relem <= lastrelem);
2286 if (UNLIKELY(!lsv)) {
bdaf10a5 2287 alias = TRUE;
8b0c3377
DM
2288 lsv = *lelem++;
2289 ASSUME(SvTYPE(lsv) == SVt_PVAV);
bdaf10a5 2290 }
a5f48505 2291
8b0c3377
DM
2292 switch (SvTYPE(lsv)) {
2293 case SVt_PVAV: {
2294 SV **svp;
2295 SSize_t i;
2296 SSize_t tmps_base;
2297 SSize_t nelems = lastrelem - relem + 1;
b09ed995 2298 AV *ary = MUTABLE_AV(lsv);
8b0c3377
DM
2299
2300 /* Assigning to an aggregate is tricky. First there is the
2301 * issue of commonality, e.g. @a = ($a[0]). Since the
2302 * stack isn't refcounted, clearing @a prior to storing
2303 * elements will free $a[0]. Similarly with
2304 * sub FETCH { $status[$_[1]] } @status = @tied[0,1];
2305 *
2306 * The way to avoid these issues is to make the copy of each
2307 * SV (and we normally store a *copy* in the array) *before*
2308 * clearing the array. But this has a problem in that
2309 * if the code croaks during copying, the not-yet-stored copies
2310 * could leak. One way to avoid this is to make all the copies
2311 * mortal, but that's quite expensive.
2312 *
2313 * The current solution to these issues is to use a chunk
2314 * of the tmps stack as a temporary refcounted-stack. SVs
2315 * will be put on there during processing to avoid leaks,
2316 * but will be removed again before the end of this block,
2317 * so free_tmps() is never normally called. Also, the
2318 * sv_refcnt of the SVs doesn't have to be manipulated, since
2319 * the ownership of 1 reference count is transferred directly
2320 * from the tmps stack to the AV when the SV is stored.
2321 *
2322 * We disarm slots in the temps stack by storing PL_sv_undef
2323 * there: it doesn't matter if that SV's refcount is
2324 * repeatedly decremented during a croak. But usually this is
2325 * only an interim measure. By the end of this code block
2326 * we try where possible to not leave any PL_sv_undef's on the
2327 * tmps stack e.g. by shuffling newer entries down.
2328 *
2329 * There is one case where we don't copy: non-magical
2330 * SvTEMP(sv)'s with a ref count of 1. The only owner of these
2331 * is on the tmps stack, so its safe to directly steal the SV
2332 * rather than copying. This is common in things like function
2333 * returns, map etc, which all return a list of such SVs.
2334 *
2335 * Note however something like @a = (f())[0,0], where there is
2336 * a danger of the same SV being shared: this avoided because
2337 * when the SV is stored as $a[0], its ref count gets bumped,
2338 * so the RC==1 test fails and the second element is copied
2339 * instead.
2340 *
2341 * We also use one slot in the tmps stack to hold an extra
2342 * ref to the array, to ensure it doesn't get prematurely
2343 * freed. Again, this is removed before the end of this block.
2344 *
2345 * Note that OPpASSIGN_COMMON_AGG is used to flag a possible
2346 * @a = ($a[0]) case, but the current implementation uses the
2347 * same algorithm regardless, so ignores that flag. (It *is*
2348 * used in the hash branch below, however).
2349 */
2350
2351 /* Reserve slots for ary, plus the elems we're about to copy,
2352 * then protect ary and temporarily void the remaining slots
2353 * with &PL_sv_undef */
2354 EXTEND_MORTAL(nelems + 1);
2355 PL_tmps_stack[++PL_tmps_ix] = SvREFCNT_inc_simple_NN(ary);
2356 tmps_base = PL_tmps_ix + 1;
2357 for (i = 0; i < nelems; i++)
2358 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base + i] = &PL_sv_undef;
2359 PL_tmps_ix += nelems;
2360
2361 /* Make a copy of each RHS elem and save on the tmps_stack
2362 * (or pass through where we can optimise away the copy) */
2363
2364 if (UNLIKELY(alias)) {
2365 U32 lval = (gimme == G_ARRAY)
2366 ? (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD || LVRET) : 0;
a5f48505 2367 for (svp = relem; svp <= lastrelem; svp++) {
8b0c3377
DM
2368 SV *rsv = *svp;
2369
2370 SvGETMAGIC(rsv);
2371 if (!SvROK(rsv))
2372 DIE(aTHX_ "Assigned value is not a reference");
2373 if (SvTYPE(SvRV(rsv)) > SVt_PVLV)
2374 /* diag_listed_as: Assigned value is not %s reference */
2375 DIE(aTHX_
2376 "Assigned value is not a SCALAR reference");
2377 if (lval)
2378 *svp = rsv = sv_mortalcopy(rsv);
2379 /* XXX else check for weak refs? */
2380 rsv = SvREFCNT_inc_NN(SvRV(rsv));
2381 assert(tmps_base <= PL_tmps_max);
2382 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base++] = rsv;
a5f48505 2383 }
a5f48505 2384 }
8b0c3377
DM
2385 else {
2386 for (svp = relem; svp <= lastrelem; svp++) {
2387 SV *rsv = *svp;
a5f48505 2388
8b0c3377
DM
2389 if (SvTEMP(rsv) && !SvGMAGICAL(rsv) && SvREFCNT(rsv) == 1) {
2390 /* can skip the copy */
2391 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(rsv);
2392 SvTEMP_off(rsv);
2393 }
a5f48505 2394 else {
8b0c3377
DM
2395 SV *nsv;
2396 /* do get before newSV, in case it dies and leaks */
2397 SvGETMAGIC(rsv);
2398 nsv = newSV(0);
8c1e192f
DM
2399 /* see comment in S_aassign_copy_common about
2400 * SV_NOSTEAL */
8b0c3377
DM
2401 sv_setsv_flags(nsv, rsv,
2402 (SV_DO_COW_SVSETSV|SV_NOSTEAL));
2403 rsv = *svp = nsv;
a5f48505 2404 }
8b0c3377
DM
2405
2406 assert(tmps_base <= PL_tmps_max);
2407 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base++] = rsv;
2408 }
2409 }
2410
2411 if (SvRMAGICAL(ary) || AvFILLp(ary) >= 0) /* may be non-empty */
2412 av_clear(ary);
2413
2414 /* store in the array, the SVs that are in the tmps stack */
2415
2416 tmps_base -= nelems;
2417
80c1439f 2418 if (SvMAGICAL(ary) || SvREADONLY(ary) || !AvREAL(ary)) {
8b0c3377
DM
2419 /* for arrays we can't cheat with, use the official API */
2420 av_extend(ary, nelems - 1);
2421 for (i = 0; i < nelems; i++) {
2422 SV **svp = &(PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base + i]);
2423 SV *rsv = *svp;
2424 /* A tied store won't take ownership of rsv, so keep
2425 * the 1 refcnt on the tmps stack; otherwise disarm
2426 * the tmps stack entry */
2427 if (av_store(ary, i, rsv))
2428 *svp = &PL_sv_undef;
2429 /* av_store() may have added set magic to rsv */;
2430 SvSETMAGIC(rsv);
2431 }
2432 /* disarm ary refcount: see comments below about leak */
2433 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base - 1] = &PL_sv_undef;
2434 }
2435 else {
2436 /* directly access/set the guts of the AV */
2437 SSize_t fill = nelems - 1;
2438 if (fill > AvMAX(ary))
2439 av_extend_guts(ary, fill, &AvMAX(ary), &AvALLOC(ary),
2440 &AvARRAY(ary));
2441 AvFILLp(ary) = fill;
2442 Copy(&(PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base]), AvARRAY(ary), nelems, SV*);
2443 /* Quietly remove all the SVs from the tmps stack slots,
2444 * since ary has now taken ownership of the refcnt.
2445 * Also remove ary: which will now leak if we die before
2446 * the SvREFCNT_dec_NN(ary) below */
2447 if (UNLIKELY(PL_tmps_ix >= tmps_base + nelems))
2448 Move(&PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base + nelems],
2449 &PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base - 1],
2450 PL_tmps_ix - (tmps_base + nelems) + 1,
2451 SV*);
2452 PL_tmps_ix -= (nelems + 1);
2453 }
2454
5d9574c1 2455 if (UNLIKELY(PL_delaymagic & DM_ARRAY_ISA))
8b0c3377 2456 /* its assumed @ISA set magic can't die and leak ary */
ad64d0ec 2457 SvSETMAGIC(MUTABLE_SV(ary));
8b0c3377
DM
2458 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(ary);
2459
2460 relem = lastrelem + 1;
2461 goto no_relems;
a5f48505
DM
2462 }
2463
10c8fecd 2464 case SVt_PVHV: { /* normal hash */
8b0c3377
DM
2465
2466 SV **svp;
2467 bool dirty_tmps;
2468 SSize_t i;
2469 SSize_t tmps_base;
2470 SSize_t nelems = lastrelem - relem + 1;
b09ed995 2471 HV *hash = MUTABLE_HV(lsv);
8b0c3377
DM
2472
2473 if (UNLIKELY(nelems & 1)) {
2474 do_oddball(lastrelem, relem);
2475 /* we have firstlelem to reuse, it's not needed any more */
2476 *++lastrelem = &PL_sv_undef;
2477 nelems++;
2478 }
2479
2480 /* See the SVt_PVAV branch above for a long description of
2481 * how the following all works. The main difference for hashes
2482 * is that we treat keys and values separately (and have
2483 * separate loops for them): as for arrays, values are always
2484 * copied (except for the SvTEMP optimisation), since they
2485 * need to be stored in the hash; while keys are only
2486 * processed where they might get prematurely freed or
2487 * whatever. */
2488
2489 /* tmps stack slots:
2490 * * reserve a slot for the hash keepalive;
2491 * * reserve slots for the hash values we're about to copy;
2492 * * preallocate for the keys we'll possibly copy or refcount bump
2493 * later;
2494 * then protect hash and temporarily void the remaining
2495 * value slots with &PL_sv_undef */
2496 EXTEND_MORTAL(nelems + 1);
2497
2498 /* convert to number of key/value pairs */
2499 nelems >>= 1;
2500
2501 PL_tmps_stack[++PL_tmps_ix] = SvREFCNT_inc_simple_NN(hash);
2502 tmps_base = PL_tmps_ix + 1;
2503 for (i = 0; i < nelems; i++)
2504 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base + i] = &PL_sv_undef;
2505 PL_tmps_ix += nelems;
2506
2507 /* Make a copy of each RHS hash value and save on the tmps_stack
2508 * (or pass through where we can optimise away the copy) */
2509
2510 for (svp = relem + 1; svp <= lastrelem; svp += 2) {
2511 SV *rsv = *svp;
2512
2513 if (SvTEMP(rsv) && !SvGMAGICAL(rsv) && SvREFCNT(rsv) == 1) {
2514 /* can skip the copy */
2515 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(rsv);
2516 SvTEMP_off(rsv);
2517 }
2518 else {
2519 SV *nsv;
2520 /* do get before newSV, in case it dies and leaks */
2521 SvGETMAGIC(rsv);
2522 nsv = newSV(0);
2523 /* see comment in S_aassign_copy_common about
2524 * SV_NOSTEAL */
2525 sv_setsv_flags(nsv, rsv,
2526 (SV_DO_COW_SVSETSV|SV_NOSTEAL));
2527 rsv = *svp = nsv;
1c4ea384
RZ
2528 }
2529
8b0c3377
DM
2530 assert(tmps_base <= PL_tmps_max);
2531 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base++] = rsv;
2532 }
2533 tmps_base -= nelems;
a5f48505 2534
a5f48505 2535
8b0c3377
DM
2536 /* possibly protect keys */
2537
2538 if (UNLIKELY(gimme == G_ARRAY)) {
2539 /* handle e.g.
2540 * @a = ((%h = ($$r, 1)), $r = "x");
2541 * $_++ for %h = (1,2,3,4);
2542 */
2543 EXTEND_MORTAL(nelems);
2544 for (svp = relem; svp <= lastrelem; svp += 2)
2545 *svp = sv_mortalcopy_flags(*svp,
2546 SV_GMAGIC|SV_DO_COW_SVSETSV|SV_NOSTEAL);
2547 }
2548 else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpASSIGN_COMMON_AGG) {
2549 /* for possible commonality, e.g.
2550 * %h = ($h{a},1)
2551 * avoid premature freeing RHS keys by mortalising
2552 * them.
2553 * For a magic element, make a copy so that its magic is
2554 * called *before* the hash is emptied (which may affect
2555 * a tied value for example).
2556 * In theory we should check for magic keys in all
2557 * cases, not just under OPpASSIGN_COMMON_AGG, but in
2558 * practice, !OPpASSIGN_COMMON_AGG implies only
2559 * constants or padtmps on the RHS.
2560 */
2561 EXTEND_MORTAL(nelems);
2562 for (svp = relem; svp <= lastrelem; svp += 2) {
2563 SV *rsv = *svp;
2564 if (UNLIKELY(SvGMAGICAL(rsv))) {
2565 SSize_t n;
a5f48505
DM
2566 *svp = sv_mortalcopy_flags(*svp,
2567 SV_GMAGIC|SV_DO_COW_SVSETSV|SV_NOSTEAL);
8b0c3377
DM
2568 /* allow other branch to continue pushing
2569 * onto tmps stack without checking each time */
2570 n = (lastrelem - relem) >> 1;
2571 EXTEND_MORTAL(n);
a5f48505 2572 }
8b0c3377
DM
2573 else
2574 PL_tmps_stack[++PL_tmps_ix] =
2575 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_NN(rsv);
a5f48505 2576 }
8b0c3377 2577 }
a5f48505 2578
8b0c3377
DM
2579 if (SvRMAGICAL(hash) || HvUSEDKEYS(hash))
2580 hv_clear(hash);
a5f48505 2581
8b0c3377
DM
2582 /* now assign the keys and values to the hash */
2583
2584 dirty_tmps = FALSE;
2585
2586 if (UNLIKELY(gimme == G_ARRAY)) {
2587 /* @a = (%h = (...)) etc */
2588 SV **svp;
2589 SV **topelem = relem;
2590
2591 for (i = 0, svp = relem; svp <= lastrelem; i++, svp++) {
2592 SV *key = *svp++;
2593 SV *val = *svp;
2594 /* remove duplicates from list we return */
2595 if (!hv_exists_ent(hash, key, 0)) {
2596 /* copy key back: possibly to an earlier
2597 * stack location if we encountered dups earlier,
2598 * The values will be updated later
2599 */
2600 *topelem = key;
2601 topelem += 2;
632b9d6f 2602 }
8b0c3377
DM
2603 /* A tied store won't take ownership of val, so keep
2604 * the 1 refcnt on the tmps stack; otherwise disarm
2605 * the tmps stack entry */
2606 if (hv_store_ent(hash, key, val, 0))
2607 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base + i] = &PL_sv_undef;
2608 else
2609 dirty_tmps = TRUE;
2610 /* hv_store_ent() may have added set magic to val */;
2611 SvSETMAGIC(val);
2612 }
2613 if (topelem < svp) {
1c4ea384
RZ
2614 /* at this point we have removed the duplicate key/value
2615 * pairs from the stack, but the remaining values may be
2616 * wrong; i.e. with (a 1 a 2 b 3) on the stack we've removed
2617 * the (a 2), but the stack now probably contains
2618 * (a <freed> b 3), because { hv_save(a,1); hv_save(a,2) }
2619 * obliterates the earlier key. So refresh all values. */
8b0c3377
DM
2620 lastrelem = topelem - 1;
2621 while (relem < lastrelem) {
1c4ea384
RZ
2622 HE *he;
2623 he = hv_fetch_ent(hash, *relem++, 0, 0);
2624 *relem++ = (he ? HeVAL(he) : &PL_sv_undef);
2625 }
2626 }
8b0c3377
DM
2627 }
2628 else {
2629 SV **svp;
2630 for (i = 0, svp = relem; svp <= lastrelem; i++, svp++) {
2631 SV *key = *svp++;
2632 SV *val = *svp;
2633 if (hv_store_ent(hash, key, val, 0))
2634 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base + i] = &PL_sv_undef;
2635 else
2636 dirty_tmps = TRUE;
2637 /* hv_store_ent() may have added set magic to val */;
2638 SvSETMAGIC(val);
2639 }
2640 }
2641
2642 if (dirty_tmps) {
2643 /* there are still some 'live' recounts on the tmps stack
2644 * - usually caused by storing into a tied hash. So let
2645 * free_tmps() do the proper but slow job later.
2646 * Just disarm hash refcount: see comments below about leak
2647 */
2648 PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base - 1] = &PL_sv_undef;
2649 }
2650 else {
2651 /* Quietly remove all the SVs from the tmps stack slots,
2652 * since hash has now taken ownership of the refcnt.
2653 * Also remove hash: which will now leak if we die before
2654 * the SvREFCNT_dec_NN(hash) below */
2655 if (UNLIKELY(PL_tmps_ix >= tmps_base + nelems))
2656 Move(&PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base + nelems],
2657 &PL_tmps_stack[tmps_base - 1],
2658 PL_tmps_ix - (tmps_base + nelems) + 1,
2659 SV*);
2660 PL_tmps_ix -= (nelems + 1);
2661 }
2662
2663 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(hash);
2664
2665 relem = lastrelem + 1;
2666 goto no_relems;
2667 }
2668
a0d0e21e 2669 default:
8b0c3377 2670 if (!SvIMMORTAL(lsv)) {
d24e3eb1
DM
2671 SV *ref;
2672
8b0c3377
DM
2673 if (UNLIKELY(
2674 SvTEMP(lsv) && !SvSMAGICAL(lsv) && SvREFCNT(lsv) == 1 &&
2675 (!isGV_with_GP(lsv) || SvFAKE(lsv)) && ckWARN(WARN_MISC)
2676 ))
2677 Perl_warner(aTHX_
2678 packWARN(WARN_MISC),
2679 "Useless assignment to a temporary"
2680 );
d24e3eb1
DM
2681
2682 /* avoid freeing $$lsv if it might be needed for further
2683 * elements, e.g. ($ref, $foo) = (1, $$ref) */
2684 if ( SvROK(lsv)
2685 && ( ((ref = SvRV(lsv)), SvREFCNT(ref)) == 1)
2686 && lelem <= lastlelem
2687 ) {
2688 SSize_t ix;
2689 SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN(ref);
2690 /* an unrolled sv_2mortal */
2691 ix = ++PL_tmps_ix;
2692 if (UNLIKELY(ix >= PL_tmps_max))
2693 /* speculatively grow enough to cover other
2694 * possible refs */
67c3640a 2695 (void)tmps_grow_p(ix + (lastlelem - lelem));
d24e3eb1
DM
2696 PL_tmps_stack[ix] = ref;
2697 }
2698
8b0c3377
DM
2699 sv_setsv(lsv, *relem);
2700 *relem = lsv;
2701 SvSETMAGIC(lsv);
2702 }
2703 if (++relem > lastrelem)
2704 goto no_relems;
a0d0e21e 2705 break;
8b0c3377
DM
2706 } /* switch */
2707 } /* while */
2708
2709
2710 no_relems:
2711
2712 /* simplified lelem loop for when there are no relems left */
2713 while (LIKELY(lelem <= lastlelem)) {
2714 SV *lsv = *lelem++;
c73f612f
DM
2715
2716 TAINT_NOT; /* Each item stands on its own, taintwise. */
2717
8b0c3377
DM
2718 if (UNLIKELY(!lsv)) {
2719 lsv = *lelem++;
2720 ASSUME(SvTYPE(lsv) == SVt_PVAV);
a0d0e21e 2721 }
8b0c3377
DM
2722
2723 switch (SvTYPE(lsv)) {
2724 case SVt_PVAV:
b09ed995
DM
2725 if (SvRMAGICAL(lsv) || AvFILLp((SV*)lsv) >= 0) {
2726 av_clear((AV*)lsv);
8b0c3377 2727 if (UNLIKELY(PL_delaymagic & DM_ARRAY_ISA))
b09ed995 2728 SvSETMAGIC(lsv);
8b0c3377
DM
2729 }
2730 break;
2731
2732 case SVt_PVHV:
b09ed995
DM
2733 if (SvRMAGICAL(lsv) || HvUSEDKEYS((HV*)lsv))
2734 hv_clear((HV*)lsv);
8b0c3377
DM
2735 break;
2736
2737 default:
2738 if (!SvIMMORTAL(lsv)) {
e03e82a0 2739 sv_set_undef(lsv);
8b0c3377 2740 SvSETMAGIC(lsv);
b09ed995 2741 *relem++ = lsv;
8b0c3377
DM
2742 }
2743 break;
2744 } /* switch */
2745 } /* while */
2746
c73f612f
DM
2747 TAINT_NOT; /* result of list assign isn't tainted */
2748
5d9574c1 2749 if (UNLIKELY(PL_delaymagic & ~DM_DELAY)) {
985213f2 2750 /* Will be used to set PL_tainting below */
dfff4baf
BF
2751 Uid_t tmp_uid = PerlProc_getuid();
2752 Uid_t tmp_euid = PerlProc_geteuid();
2753 Gid_t tmp_gid = PerlProc_getgid();
2754 Gid_t tmp_egid = PerlProc_getegid();
985213f2 2755
b469f1e0 2756 /* XXX $> et al currently silently ignore failures */
3280af22 2757 if (PL_delaymagic & DM_UID) {
a0d0e21e 2758#ifdef HAS_SETRESUID
b469f1e0
JH
2759 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(
2760 setresuid((PL_delaymagic & DM_RUID) ? PL_delaymagic_uid : (Uid_t)-1,
2761 (PL_delaymagic & DM_EUID) ? PL_delaymagic_euid : (Uid_t)-1,
2762 (Uid_t)-1));
d1a21e44 2763#elif defined(HAS_SETREUID)
b469f1e0
JH
2764 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(
2765 setreuid((PL_delaymagic & DM_RUID) ? PL_delaymagic_uid : (Uid_t)-1,
2766 (PL_delaymagic & DM_EUID) ? PL_delaymagic_euid : (Uid_t)-1));
d1a21e44 2767#else
56febc5e 2768# ifdef HAS_SETRUID
b28d0864 2769 if ((PL_delaymagic & DM_UID) == DM_RUID) {
b469f1e0 2770 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(setruid(PL_delaymagic_uid));
b28d0864 2771 PL_delaymagic &= ~DM_RUID;
a0d0e21e 2772 }
56febc5e
AD
2773# endif /* HAS_SETRUID */
2774# ifdef HAS_SETEUID
b28d0864 2775 if ((PL_delaymagic & DM_UID) == DM_EUID) {
b469f1e0 2776 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(seteuid(PL_delaymagic_euid));
b28d0864 2777 PL_delaymagic &= ~DM_EUID;
a0d0e21e 2778 }
56febc5e 2779# endif /* HAS_SETEUID */
b28d0864 2780 if (PL_delaymagic & DM_UID) {
985213f2 2781 if (PL_delaymagic_uid != PL_delaymagic_euid)
cea2e8a9 2782 DIE(aTHX_ "No setreuid available");
b469f1e0 2783 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(PerlProc_setuid(PL_delaymagic_uid));
a0d0e21e 2784 }
56febc5e 2785#endif /* HAS_SETRESUID */
04783dc7 2786
985213f2
AB
2787 tmp_uid = PerlProc_getuid();
2788 tmp_euid = PerlProc_geteuid();
a0d0e21e 2789 }
b469f1e0 2790 /* XXX $> et al currently silently ignore failures */
3280af22 2791 if (PL_delaymagic & DM_GID) {
a0d0e21e 2792#ifdef HAS_SETRESGID
b469f1e0
JH
2793 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(
2794 setresgid((PL_delaymagic & DM_RGID) ? PL_delaymagic_gid : (Gid_t)-1,
2795 (PL_delaymagic & DM_EGID) ? PL_delaymagic_egid : (Gid_t)-1,
2796 (Gid_t)-1));
d1a21e44 2797#elif defined(HAS_SETREGID)
b469f1e0
JH
2798 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(
2799 setregid((PL_delaymagic & DM_RGID) ? PL_delaymagic_gid : (Gid_t)-1,
2800 (PL_delaymagic & DM_EGID) ? PL_delaymagic_egid : (Gid_t)-1));
d1a21e44 2801#else
56febc5e 2802# ifdef HAS_SETRGID
b28d0864 2803 if ((PL_delaymagic & DM_GID) == DM_RGID) {
b469f1e0 2804 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(setrgid(PL_delaymagic_gid));
b28d0864 2805 PL_delaymagic &= ~DM_RGID;
a0d0e21e 2806 }
56febc5e
AD
2807# endif /* HAS_SETRGID */
2808# ifdef HAS_SETEGID
b28d0864 2809 if ((PL_delaymagic & DM_GID) == DM_EGID) {
b469f1e0 2810 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(setegid(PL_delaymagic_egid));
b28d0864 2811 PL_delaymagic &= ~DM_EGID;
a0d0e21e 2812 }
56febc5e 2813# endif /* HAS_SETEGID */
b28d0864 2814 if (PL_delaymagic & DM_GID) {
985213f2 2815 if (PL_delaymagic_gid != PL_delaymagic_egid)
cea2e8a9 2816 DIE(aTHX_ "No setregid available");
b469f1e0 2817 PERL_UNUSED_RESULT(PerlProc_setgid(PL_delaymagic_gid));
a0d0e21e 2818 }
56febc5e 2819#endif /* HAS_SETRESGID */
04783dc7 2820
985213f2
AB
2821 tmp_gid = PerlProc_getgid();
2822 tmp_egid = PerlProc_getegid();
a0d0e21e 2823 }
284167a5 2824 TAINTING_set( TAINTING_get | (tmp_uid && (tmp_euid != tmp_uid || tmp_egid != tmp_gid)) );
9a9b5ec9
DM
2825#ifdef NO_TAINT_SUPPORT
2826 PERL_UNUSED_VAR(tmp_uid);
2827 PERL_UNUSED_VAR(tmp_euid);
2828 PERL_UNUSED_VAR(tmp_gid);
2829 PERL_UNUSED_VAR(tmp_egid);
2830#endif
a0d0e21e 2831 }
a68090fe 2832 PL_delaymagic = old_delaymagic;
54310121 2833
54310121
PP
2834 if (gimme == G_VOID)
2835 SP = firstrelem - 1;
2836 else if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
54310121 2837 SP = firstrelem;
b09ed995 2838 EXTEND(SP,1);
7b394f12
DM
2839 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpASSIGN_TRUEBOOL)
2840 SETs((firstlelem - firstrelem) ? &PL_sv_yes : &PL_sv_zero);
2841 else {
2842 dTARGET;
2843 SETi(firstlelem - firstrelem);
2844 }
54310121 2845 }
b09ed995
DM
2846 else
2847 SP = relem - 1;
08aeb9f7 2848
54310121 2849 RETURN;
a0d0e21e
LW
2850}
2851
8782bef2
GB
2852PP(pp_qr)
2853{
20b7effb 2854 dSP;
eb578fdb 2855 PMOP * const pm = cPMOP;
fe578d7f 2856 REGEXP * rx = PM_GETRE(pm);
196a02af
DM
2857 regexp *prog = ReANY(rx);
2858 SV * const pkg = RXp_ENGINE(prog)->qr_package(aTHX_ (rx));
c4420975 2859 SV * const rv = sv_newmortal();
d63c20f2
DM
2860 CV **cvp;
2861 CV *cv;
288b8c02
NC
2862
2863 SvUPGRADE(rv, SVt_IV);
c2123ae3
NC
2864 /* For a subroutine describing itself as "This is a hacky workaround" I'm
2865 loathe to use it here, but it seems to be the right fix. Or close.
2866 The key part appears to be that it's essential for pp_qr to return a new
2867 object (SV), which implies that there needs to be an effective way to
2868 generate a new SV from the existing SV that is pre-compiled in the
2869 optree. */
2870 SvRV_set(rv, MUTABLE_SV(reg_temp_copy(NULL, rx)));
288b8c02
NC
2871 SvROK_on(rv);
2872
8d919b0a 2873 cvp = &( ReANY((REGEXP *)SvRV(rv))->qr_anoncv);
5d9574c1 2874 if (UNLIKELY((cv = *cvp) && CvCLONE(*cvp))) {
d63c20f2 2875 *cvp = cv_clone(cv);
fc2b2dca 2876 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(cv);
d63c20f2
DM
2877 }
2878
288b8c02 2879 if (pkg) {
f815daf2 2880 HV *const stash = gv_stashsv(pkg, GV_ADD);
fc2b2dca 2881 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(pkg);
288b8c02
NC
2882 (void)sv_bless(rv, stash);
2883 }
2884
196a02af 2885 if (UNLIKELY(RXp_ISTAINTED(prog))) {
e08e52cf 2886 SvTAINTED_on(rv);
9274aefd
DM
2887 SvTAINTED_on(SvRV(rv));
2888 }
c8c13c22 2889 XPUSHs(rv);
2890 RETURN;
8782bef2
GB
2891}
2892
a0d0e21e
LW
2893PP(pp_match)
2894{
20b7effb 2895 dSP; dTARG;
eb578fdb 2896 PMOP *pm = cPMOP;
d65afb4b 2897 PMOP *dynpm = pm;
eb578fdb 2898 const char *s;
5c144d81 2899 const char *strend;
99a90e59 2900 SSize_t curpos = 0; /* initial pos() or current $+[0] */
a0d0e21e 2901 I32 global;
7fadf4a7 2902 U8 r_flags = 0;
5c144d81 2903 const char *truebase; /* Start of string */
eb578fdb 2904 REGEXP *rx = PM_GETRE(pm);
196a02af 2905 regexp *prog = ReANY(rx);
b3eb6a9b 2906 bool rxtainted;
1c23e2bd 2907 const U8 gimme = GIMME_V;
a0d0e21e 2908 STRLEN len;
a3b680e6 2909 const I32 oldsave = PL_savestack_ix;
e60df1fa 2910 I32 had_zerolen = 0;
b1422d62 2911 MAGIC *mg = NULL;
a0d0e21e 2912
533c011a 2913 if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_STACKED)
a0d0e21e
LW
2914 TARG = POPs;
2915 else {
9399c607
DM
2916 if (ARGTARG)
2917 GETTARGET;
2918 else {
2919 TARG = DEFSV;
2920 }
a0d0e21e
LW
2921 EXTEND(SP,1);
2922 }
d9f424b2 2923
c277df42 2924 PUTBACK; /* EVAL blocks need stack_sp. */
69dc4b30
FC
2925 /* Skip get-magic if this is a qr// clone, because regcomp has
2926 already done it. */
196a02af 2927 truebase = prog->mother_re
69dc4b30
FC
2928 ? SvPV_nomg_const(TARG, len)
2929 : SvPV_const(TARG, len);
f1d31338 2930 if (!truebase)
2269b42e 2931 DIE(aTHX_ "panic: pp_match");
f1d31338 2932 strend = truebase + len;
196a02af 2933 rxtainted = (RXp_ISTAINTED(prog) ||
284167a5 2934 (TAINT_get && (pm->op_pmflags & PMf_RETAINT)));
9212bbba 2935 TAINT_NOT;
a0d0e21e 2936
6c864ec2 2937 /* We need to know this in case we fail out early - pos() must be reset */
de0df3c0
MH
2938 global = dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_GLOBAL;
2939
d65afb4b 2940 /* PMdf_USED is set after a ?? matches once */
c737faaf
YO
2941 if (
2942#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
2943 SvREADONLY(PL_regex_pad[pm->op_pmoffset])
2944#else
2945 pm->op_pmflags & PMf_USED
2946#endif
2947 ) {
e5dc5375 2948 DEBUG_r(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "?? already matched once"));
de0df3c0 2949 goto nope;
a0d0e21e
LW
2950 }
2951
5585e758 2952 /* handle the empty pattern */
196a02af 2953 if (!RX_PRELEN(rx) && PL_curpm && !prog->mother_re) {
5585e758
YO
2954 if (PL_curpm == PL_reg_curpm) {
2955 if (PL_curpm_under) {
2956 if (PL_curpm_under == PL_reg_curpm) {
2957 Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Infinite recursion via empty pattern");
2958 } else {
2959 pm = PL_curpm_under;
2960 }
2961 }
2962 } else {
2963 pm = PL_curpm;
2964 }
2965 rx = PM_GETRE(pm);
196a02af 2966 prog = ReANY(rx);
a0d0e21e 2967 }
d65afb4b 2968
196a02af 2969 if (RXp_MINLEN(prog) >= 0 && (STRLEN)RXp_MINLEN(prog) > len) {
75d43e96 2970 DEBUG_r(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "String shorter than min possible regex match (%"
147e3846 2971 UVuf " < %" IVdf ")\n",
196a02af 2972 (UV)len, (IV)RXp_MINLEN(prog)));
de0df3c0 2973 goto nope;
e5dc5375 2974 }
c277df42 2975
8ef97b0e 2976 /* get pos() if //g */
de0df3c0 2977 if (global) {
b1422d62 2978 mg = mg_find_mglob(TARG);
8ef97b0e 2979 if (mg && mg->mg_len >= 0) {
25fdce4a 2980 curpos = MgBYTEPOS(mg, TARG, truebase, len);
8ef97b0e
DM
2981 /* last time pos() was set, it was zero-length match */
2982 if (mg->mg_flags & MGf_MINMATCH)
2983 had_zerolen = 1;
2984 }
a0d0e21e 2985 }
8ef97b0e 2986
6e240d0b 2987#ifdef PERL_SAWAMPERSAND
196a02af 2988 if ( RXp_NPARENS(prog)
6502e081 2989 || PL_sawampersand
196a02af 2990 || (RXp_EXTFLAGS(prog) & (RXf_EVAL_SEEN|RXf_PMf_KEEPCOPY))
5b0e71e9 2991 || (dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_KEEPCOPY)
6e240d0b
FC
2992 )
2993#endif
2994 {
6502e081
DM
2995 r_flags |= (REXEC_COPY_STR|REXEC_COPY_SKIP_PRE);
2996 /* in @a =~ /(.)/g, we iterate multiple times, but copy the buffer
2997 * only on the first iteration. Therefore we need to copy $' as well
2998 * as $&, to make the rest of the string available for captures in
2999 * subsequent iterations */
3000 if (! (global && gimme == G_ARRAY))
3001 r_flags |= REXEC_COPY_SKIP_POST;
3002 };
5b0e71e9
DM
3003#ifdef PERL_SAWAMPERSAND
3004 if (dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_KEEPCOPY)
3005 /* handle KEEPCOPY in pmop but not rx, eg $r=qr/a/; /$r/p */
3006 r_flags &= ~(REXEC_COPY_SKIP_PRE|REXEC_COPY_SKIP_POST);
3007#endif
22e551b9 3008
f1d31338
DM
3009 s = truebase;
3010
d7be1480 3011 play_it_again:
985afbc1 3012 if (global)
03c83e26 3013 s = truebase + curpos;
f722798b 3014
77da2310 3015 if (!CALLREGEXEC(rx, (char*)s, (char *)strend, (char*)truebase,
03c83e26 3016 had_zerolen, TARG, NULL, r_flags))
03b6c93d 3017 goto nope;
77da2310
NC
3018
3019 PL_curpm = pm;
985afbc1 3020 if (dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_ONCE)
c737faaf 3021#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
77da2310 3022 SvREADONLY_on(PL_regex_pad[dynpm->op_pmoffset]);
c737faaf 3023#else
77da2310 3024 dynpm->op_pmflags |= PMf_USED;
c737faaf 3025#endif
a0d0e21e 3026
72311751 3027 if (rxtainted)
196a02af
DM
3028 RXp_MATCH_TAINTED_on(prog);
3029 TAINT_IF(RXp_MATCH_TAINTED(prog));
35c2ccc3
DM
3030
3031 /* update pos */
3032
3033 if (global && (gimme != G_ARRAY || (dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_CONTINUE))) {
b1422d62 3034 if (!mg)
35c2ccc3 3035 mg = sv_magicext_mglob(TARG);
196a02af
DM
3036 MgBYTEPOS_set(mg, TARG, truebase, RXp_OFFS(prog)[0].end);
3037 if (RXp_ZERO_LEN(prog))
adf51885
DM
3038 mg->mg_flags |= MGf_MINMATCH;
3039 else
3040 mg->mg_flags &= ~MGf_MINMATCH;
35c2ccc3
DM
3041 }
3042
196a02af 3043 if ((!RXp_NPARENS(prog) && !global) || gimme != G_ARRAY) {
bf9dff51
DM
3044 LEAVE_SCOPE(oldsave);
3045 RETPUSHYES;
3046 }
3047
88ab22af
DM
3048 /* push captures on stack */
3049
bf9dff51 3050 {
196a02af 3051 const I32 nparens = RXp_NPARENS(prog);
a3b680e6 3052 I32 i = (global && !nparens) ? 1 : 0;
a0d0e21e 3053
c277df42 3054 SPAGAIN; /* EVAL blocks could move the stack. */
ffc61ed2
JH
3055 EXTEND(SP, nparens + i);
3056 EXTEND_MORTAL(nparens + i);
3057 for (i = !i; i <= nparens; i++) {
a0d0e21e 3058 PUSHs(sv_newmortal());
196a02af
DM
3059 if (LIKELY((RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].start != -1)
3060 && RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].end != -1 ))
5d9574c1 3061 {
196a02af
DM
3062 const I32 len = RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].end - RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].start;
3063 const char * const s = RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].start + truebase;
3064 if (UNLIKELY( RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].end < 0
3065 || RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].start < 0
3066 || len < 0
3067 || len > strend - s)
3068 )
5637ef5b 3069 DIE(aTHX_ "panic: pp_match start/end pointers, i=%ld, "
147e3846 3070 "start=%ld, end=%ld, s=%p, strend=%p, len=%" UVuf,
196a02af
DM
3071 (long) i, (long) RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].start,
3072 (long)RXp_OFFS(prog)[i].end, s, strend, (UV) len);
a0d0e21e 3073 sv_setpvn(*SP, s, len);
cce850e4 3074 if (DO_UTF8(TARG) && is_utf8_string((U8*)s, len))
a197cbdd 3075 SvUTF8_on(*SP);
a0d0e21e
LW
3076 }
3077 }
3078 if (global) {
196a02af
DM
3079 curpos = (UV)RXp_OFFS(prog)[0].end;
3080 had_zerolen = RXp_ZERO_LEN(prog);
c277df42 3081 PUTBACK; /* EVAL blocks may use stack */
cf93c79d 3082 r_flags |= REXEC_IGNOREPOS | REXEC_NOT_FIRST;
a0d0e21e
LW
3083 goto play_it_again;
3084 }
4633a7c4 3085 LEAVE_SCOPE(oldsave);
a0d0e21e
LW
3086 RETURN;
3087 }
e5964223 3088 NOT_REACHED; /* NOTREACHED */
a0d0e21e 3089
7b52d656 3090 nope:
d65afb4b 3091 if (global && !(dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_CONTINUE)) {
b1422d62
DM
3092 if (!mg)
3093 mg = mg_find_mglob(TARG);
3094 if (mg)
3095 mg->mg_len = -1;
a0d0e21e 3096 }
4633a7c4 3097 LEAVE_SCOPE(oldsave);
a0d0e21e
LW
3098 if (gimme == G_ARRAY)
3099 RETURN;
3100 RETPUSHNO;
3101}
3102
3103OP *
864dbfa3 3104Perl_do_readline(pTHX)
a0d0e21e 3105{
20b7effb 3106 dSP; dTARGETSTACKED;
eb578fdb 3107 SV *sv;
a0d0e21e
LW
3108 STRLEN tmplen = 0;
3109 STRLEN offset;
760ac839 3110 PerlIO *fp;
eb578fdb
KW
3111 IO * const io = GvIO(PL_last_in_gv);
3112 const I32 type = PL_op->op_type;
1c23e2bd 3113 const U8 gimme = GIMME_V;
a0d0e21e 3114
6136c704 3115 if (io) {
50db69d8 3116 const MAGIC *const mg = SvTIED_mg((const SV *)io, PERL_MAGIC_tiedscalar);
6136c704 3117 if (mg) {
3e0cb5de 3118 Perl_tied_method(aTHX_ SV_CONST(READLINE), SP, MUTABLE_SV(io), mg, gimme, 0);
6136c704 3119 if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
50db69d8
NC
3120 SPAGAIN;
3121 SvSetSV_nosteal(TARG, TOPs);
3122 SETTARG;
6136c704 3123 }
50db69d8 3124 return NORMAL;
0b7c7b4f 3125 }
e79b0511 3126 }
4608196e 3127 fp = NULL;
a0d0e21e
LW
3128 if (io) {
3129 fp = IoIFP(io);
3130 if (!fp) {
3131 if (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_ARGV) {
3132 if (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_START) {
a0d0e21e 3133 IoLINES(io) = 0;
b9f2b683 3134 if (av_tindex(GvAVn(PL_last_in_gv)) < 0) {
1d7c1841 3135 IoFLAGS(io) &= ~IOf_START;
d5eb9a46 3136 do_open6(PL_last_in_gv, "-", 1, NULL, NULL, 0);
4bac9ae4 3137 SvTAINTED_off(GvSVn(PL_last_in_gv)); /* previous tainting irrelevant */
76f68e9b 3138 sv_setpvs(GvSVn(PL_last_in_gv), "-");
3280af22 3139 SvSETMAGIC(GvSV(PL_last_in_gv));
a2008d6d
GS
3140 fp = IoIFP(io);
3141 goto have_fp;
a0d0e21e
LW
3142 }
3143 }
157fb5a1 3144 fp = nextargv(PL_last_in_gv, PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL);
a0d0e21e 3145 if (!fp) { /* Note: fp != IoIFP(io) */
3280af22 3146 (void)do_close(PL_last_in_gv, FALSE); /* now it does*/
a0d0e21e
LW
3147 }
3148 }
0d44d22b
NC
3149 else if (type == OP_GLOB)
3150 fp = Perl_start_glob(aTHX_ POPs, io);
a0d0e21e
LW
3151 }
3152 else if (type == OP_GLOB)
3153 SP--;
7716c5c5 3154 else if (IoTYPE(io) == IoTYPE_WRONLY) {
a5390457 3155 report_wrongway_fh(PL_last_in_gv, '>');
a00b5bd3 3156 }
a0d0e21e
LW
3157 }
3158 if (!fp) {
041457d9 3159 if ((!io || !(IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_START))
de7dabb6
TC
3160 && ckWARN(WARN_CLOSED)
3161 && type != OP_GLOB)
041457d9 3162 {
de7dabb6 3163 report_evil_fh(PL_last_in_gv);
3f4520fe 3164 }
54310121 3165 if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
79628082 3166 /* undef TARG, and push that undefined value */
ba92458f 3167 if (type != OP_RCATLINE) {
3773545d 3168 sv_set_undef(TARG);
ba92458f 3169 }
a0d0e21e
LW
3170 PUSHTARG;
3171 }
3172 RETURN;
3173 }
a2008d6d 3174 have_fp:
54310121 3175 if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
a0d0e21e 3176 sv = TARG;
0f722b55
RGS
3177 if (type == OP_RCATLINE && SvGMAGICAL(sv))
3178 mg_get(sv);
48de12d9
RGS
3179 if (SvROK(sv)) {
3180 if (type == OP_RCATLINE)
5668452f 3181 SvPV_force_nomg_nolen(sv);
48de12d9
RGS
3182 else
3183 sv_unref(sv);
3184 }
f7877b28 3185 else if (isGV_with_GP(sv)) {
5668452f 3186 SvPV_force_nomg_nolen(sv);
f7877b28 3187 }
862a34c6 3188 SvUPGRADE(sv, SVt_PV);
a0d0e21e 3189 tmplen = SvLEN(sv); /* remember if already alloced */
e3918bb7 3190 if (!tmplen && !SvREADONLY(sv) && !SvIsCOW(sv)) {
f72e8700
JJ
3191 /* try short-buffering it. Please update t/op/readline.t
3192 * if you change the growth length.
3193 */
3194 Sv_Grow(sv, 80);
3195 }
2b5e58c4
AMS
3196 offset = 0;
3197 if (type == OP_RCATLINE && SvOK(sv)) {
3198 if (!SvPOK(sv)) {
5668452f 3199 SvPV_force_nomg_nolen(sv);
2b5e58c4 3200 }
a0d0e21e 3201 offset = SvCUR(sv);
2b5e58c4 3202 }
a0d0e21e 3203 }
54310121 3204 else {
561b68a9 3205 sv = sv_2mortal(newSV(80));
54310121
PP
3206 offset = 0;
3207 }
fbad3eb5 3208
3887d568
AP
3209 /* This should not be marked tainted if the fp is marked clean */
3210#define MAYBE_TAINT_LINE(io, sv) \
3211 if (!(IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_UNTAINT)) { \
3212 TAINT; \
3213 SvTAINTED_on(sv); \
3214 }
3215
684bef36 3216/* delay EOF state for a snarfed empty file */
fbad3eb5 3217#define SNARF_EOF(gimme,rs,io,sv) \
684bef36 3218 (gimme != G_SCALAR || SvCUR(sv) \
b9fee9ba 3219 || (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_NOLINE) || !RsSNARF(rs))
fbad3eb5 3220
a0d0e21e 3221 for (;;) {
09e8efcc 3222 PUTBACK;
fbad3eb5 3223 if (!sv_gets(sv, fp, offset)
2d726892
TF
3224 && (type == OP_GLOB
3225 || SNARF_EOF(gimme, PL_rs, io, sv)
3226 || PerlIO_error(fp)))
fbad3eb5 3227 {
760ac839 3228 PerlIO_clearerr(fp);
a0d0e21e 3229 if (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_ARGV) {
157fb5a1 3230 fp = nextargv(PL_last_in_gv, PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL);
a0d0e21e
LW
3231 if (fp)
3232 continue;
3280af22 3233 (void)do_close(PL_last_in_gv, FALSE);
a0d0e21e
LW
3234 }
3235 else if (type == OP_GLOB) {
a2a5de95
NC
3236 if (!do_close(PL_last_in_gv, FALSE)) {
3237 Perl_ck_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_GLOB),
3238 "glob failed (child exited with status %d%s)",
3239 (int)(STATUS_CURRENT >> 8),
3240 (STATUS_CURRENT & 0x80) ? ", core dumped" : "");
4eb79ab5 3241 }
a0d0e21e 3242 }
54310121 3243 if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
ba92458f
AE
3244 if (type != OP_RCATLINE) {
3245 SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST_COW_DROP(TARG);
0c34ef67 3246 SvOK_off(TARG);
ba92458f 3247 }
09e8efcc 3248 SPAGAIN;
a0d0e21e
LW
3249 PUSHTARG;
3250 }
3887d568 3251 MAYBE_TAINT_LINE(io, sv);
a0d0e21e
LW
3252 RETURN;
3253 }
3887d568 3254 MAYBE_TAINT_LINE(io, sv);
a0d0e21e 3255 IoLINES(io)++;
b9fee9ba 3256 IoFLAGS(io) |= IOf_NOLINE;
71be2cbc 3257 SvSETMAGIC(sv);
09e8efcc 3258 SPAGAIN;
a0d0e21e 3259 XPUSHs(sv);
a0d0e21e 3260 if (type == OP_GLOB) {
349d4f2f 3261 const char *t1;
45a23732 3262 Stat_t statbuf;
a0d0e21e 3263
3280af22 3264 if (SvCUR(sv) > 0 && SvCUR(PL_rs) > 0) {
6136c704 3265 char * const tmps = SvEND(sv) - 1;
aa07b2f6 3266 if (*tmps == *SvPVX_const(PL_rs)) {
c07a80fd 3267 *tmps = '\0';
b162af07 3268 SvCUR_set(sv, SvCUR(sv) - 1);
c07a80fd
PP
3269 }
3270 }
349d4f2f 3271 for (t1 = SvPVX_const(sv); *t1; t1++)
b51c3e77
CB
3272#ifdef __VMS
3273 if (strchr("*%?", *t1))
3274#else
7ad1e72d 3275 if (strchr("$&*(){}[]'\";\\|?<>~`", *t1))
b51c3e77 3276#endif
a0d0e21e 3277 break;
45a23732 3278 if (*t1 && PerlLIO_lstat(SvPVX_const(sv), &statbuf) < 0) {
a0d0e21e
LW
3279 (void)POPs; /* Unmatched wildcard? Chuck it... */
3280 continue;
3281 }
2d79bf7f 3282 } else if (SvUTF8(sv)) { /* OP_READLINE, OP_RCATLINE */
d4c19fe8
AL
3283 if (ckWARN(WARN_UTF8)) {
3284 const U8 * const s = (const U8*)SvPVX_const(sv) + offset;
3285 const STRLEN len = SvCUR(sv) - offset;
3286 const U8 *f;
3287
3288 if (!is_utf8_string_loc(s, len, &f))
3289 /* Emulate :encoding(utf8) warning in the same case. */
3290 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8),
3291 "utf8 \"\\x%02X\" does not map to Unicode",
3292 f < (U8*)SvEND(sv) ? *f : 0);
3293 }
a0d0e21e 3294 }
54310121 3295 if (gimme == G_ARRAY) {
a0d0e21e 3296 if (SvLEN(sv) - SvCUR(sv) > 20) {
1da4ca5f 3297 SvPV_shrink_to_cur(sv);
a0d0e21e 3298 }
561b68a9 3299 sv = sv_2mortal(newSV(80));
a0d0e21e
LW
3300 continue;
3301 }
54310121 3302 else if (gimme == G_SCALAR && !tmplen && SvLEN(sv) - SvCUR(sv) > 80) {
a0d0e21e 3303 /* try to reclaim a bit of scalar space (only on 1st alloc) */
d5b5861b
NC
3304 const STRLEN new_len
3305 = SvCUR(sv) < 60 ? 80 : SvCUR(sv)+40; /* allow some slop */
1da4ca5f 3306 SvPV_renew(sv, new_len);
a0d0e21e
LW
3307 }
3308 RETURN;
3309 }
3310}
3311
a0d0e21e
LW
3312PP(pp_helem)
3313{
20b7effb 3314 dSP;
760ac839 3315 HE* he;
ae77835f 3316 SV **svp;
c445ea15 3317 SV * const keysv = POPs;
85fbaab2 3318 HV * const hv = MUTABLE_HV(POPs);
a3b680e6
AL
3319 const U32 lval = PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD || LVRET;
3320 const U32 defer = PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_DEFER;
be6c24e0 3321 SV *sv;
92970b93 3322 const bool localizing = PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO;
d30e492c 3323 bool preeminent = TRUE;
a0d0e21e 3324
6dfc73ea
SM
3325 if (SvTYPE(hv) != SVt_PVHV)
3326 RETPUSHUNDEF;
d4c19fe8 3327
92970b93 3328 if (localizing) {
d4c19fe8
AL
3329 MAGIC *mg;
3330 HV *stash;
d30e492c
VP
3331
3332 /* If we can determine whether the element exist,
3333 * Try to preserve the existenceness of a tied hash
3334 * element by using EXISTS and DELETE if possible.
3335 * Fallback to FETCH and STORE otherwise. */
2c5f48c2 3336 if (SvCANEXISTDELETE(hv))
d30e492c 3337 preeminent = hv_exists_ent(hv, keysv, 0);
d4c19fe8 3338 }
d30e492c 3339
5f9d7e2b 3340 he = hv_fetch_ent(hv, keysv, lval && !defer, 0);
d4c19fe8 3341 svp = he ? &HeVAL(he) : NULL;
a0d0e21e 3342 if (lval) {
746f6409 3343 if (!svp || !*svp || *svp == &PL_sv_undef) {
68dc0745
PP
3344 SV* lv;
3345 SV* key2;
2d8e6c8d 3346 if (!defer) {
be2597df 3347 DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_helem_sv, SVfARG(keysv));
2d8e6c8d 3348 }
68dc0745
PP
3349 lv = sv_newmortal();
3350 sv_upgrade(lv, SVt_PVLV);
3351 LvTYPE(lv) = 'y';
6136c704 3352 sv_magic(lv, key2 = newSVsv(keysv), PERL_MAGIC_defelem, NULL, 0);
fc2b2dca 3353 SvREFCNT_dec_NN(key2); /* sv_magic() increments refcount */
0ad694a7 3354 LvTARG(lv) = SvREFCNT_inc_simple_NN(hv);
68dc0745
PP
3355 LvTARGLEN(lv) = 1;
3356 PUSHs(lv);
3357 RETURN;
3358 }
92970b93 3359 if (localizing) {
6881372e 3360 if (HvNAME_get(hv) && isGV_or_RVCV(*svp))
159b6efe 3361 save_gp(MUTABLE_GV(*svp), !(PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL));
47cfc530
VP
3362 else if (preeminent)
3363 save_helem_flags(hv, keysv, svp,
3364 (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL) ? 0 : SAVEf_SETMAGIC);
3365 else
3366 SAVEHDELETE(hv, keysv);
5f05dabc 3367 }
9026059d
GG
3368 else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpDEREF) {
3369 PUSHs(vivify_ref(*svp, PL_op->op_private & OPpDEREF));
3370 RETURN;
3371 }
a0d0e21e 3372 }
746f6409 3373 sv = (svp && *svp ? *svp : &PL_sv_undef);
fd69380d
DM
3374 /* Originally this did a conditional C<sv = sv_mortalcopy(sv)>; this
3375 * was to make C<local $tied{foo} = $tied{foo}> possible.
3376 * However, it seems no longer to be needed for that purpose, and
3377 * introduced a new bug: stuff like C<while ($hash{taintedval} =~ /.../g>
3378 * would loop endlessly since the pos magic is getting set on the
3379 * mortal copy and lost. However, the copy has the effect of
3380 * triggering the get magic, and losing it altogether made things like
3381 * c<$tied{foo};> in void context no longer do get magic, which some
3382 * code relied on. Also, delayed triggering of magic on @+ and friends
3383 * meant the original regex may be out of scope by now. So as a
3384 * compromise, do the get magic here. (The MGf_GSKIP flag will stop it
3385 * being called too many times). */
39cf747a 3386 if (!lval && SvRMAGICAL(hv) && SvGMAGICAL(sv))
fd69380d 3387 mg_get(sv);
be6c24e0 3388 PUSHs(sv);
a0d0e21e
LW
3389 RETURN;
3390}
3391
fedf30e1
DM
3392
3393/* a stripped-down version of Perl_softref2xv() for use by
3394 * pp_multideref(), which doesn't use PL_op->op_flags */
3395
f9db5646 3396STATIC GV *
fedf30e1
DM
3397S_softref2xv_lite(pTHX_ SV *const sv, const char *const what,
3398 const svtype type)
3399{
3400 if (PL_op->op_private & HINT_STRICT_REFS) {
3401 if (SvOK(sv))
3402 Perl_die(aTHX_ PL_no_symref_sv, sv,
3403 (SvPOKp(sv) && SvCUR(sv)>32 ? "..." : ""), what);
3404 else
3405 Perl_die(aTHX_ PL_no_usym, what);
3406 }
3407 if (!SvOK(sv))
3408 Perl_die(aTHX_ PL_no_usym, what);
3409 return gv_fetchsv_nomg(sv, GV_ADD, type);
3410}
3411
3412
79815f56
DM
3413/* Handle one or more aggregate derefs and array/hash indexings, e.g.
3414 * $h->{foo} or $a[0]{$key}[$i] or f()->[1]
fedf30e1
DM
3415 *
3416 * op_aux points to an array of unions of UV / IV / SV* / PADOFFSET.
79815f56
DM
3417 * Each of these either contains a set of actions, or an argument, such as
3418 * an IV to use as an array index, or a lexical var to retrieve.
3419 * Several actions re stored per UV; we keep shifting new actions off the
3420 * one UV, and only reload when it becomes zero.
fedf30e1
DM
3421 */
3422
3423PP(pp_multideref)
3424{
3425 SV *sv = NULL; /* init to avoid spurious 'may be used uninitialized' */
3426 UNOP_AUX_item *items = cUNOP_AUXx(PL_op)->op_aux;
3427 UV actions = items->uv;
3428
3429 assert(actions);
3430 /* this tells find_uninit_var() where we're up to */
3431 PL_multideref_pc = items;
3432
3433 while (1) {
3434 /* there are three main classes of action; the first retrieve
3435 * the initial AV or HV from a variable or the stack; the second
3436 * does the equivalent of an unrolled (/DREFAV, rv2av, aelem),
3437 * the third an unrolled (/DREFHV, rv2hv, helem).
3438 */
3439 switch (actions & MDEREF_ACTION_MASK) {
3440
3441 case MDEREF_reload:
3442 actions = (++items)->uv;
3443 continue;
3444
3445 case MDEREF_AV_padav_aelem: /* $lex[...] */
3446 sv = PAD_SVl((++items)->pad_offset);
3447 goto do_AV_aelem;
3448
3449 case MDEREF_AV_gvav_aelem: /* $pkg[...] */
3450 sv = UNOP_AUX_item_sv(++items);
3451 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
3452 sv = (SV*)GvAVn((GV*)sv);
3453 goto do_AV_aelem;
3454
3455 case MDEREF_AV_pop_rv2av_aelem: /* expr->[...] */
3456 {
3457 dSP;
3458 sv = POPs;
3459 PUTBACK;
3460 goto do_AV_rv2av_aelem;
3461 }
3462
3463 case MDEREF_AV_gvsv_vivify_rv2av_aelem: /* $pkg->[...] */
3464 sv = UNOP_AUX_item_sv(++items);
3465 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
3466 sv = GvSVn((GV*)sv);
3467 goto do_AV_vivify_rv2av_aelem;
3468
3469 case MDEREF_AV_padsv_vivify_rv2av_aelem: /* $lex->[...] */
3470 sv = PAD_SVl((++items)->pad_offset);
3471 /* FALLTHROUGH */
3472
3473 do_AV_vivify_rv2av_aelem:
3474 case MDEREF_AV_vivify_rv2av_aelem: /* vivify, ->[...] */
3475 /* this is the OPpDEREF action normally found at the end of
3476 * ops like aelem, helem, rv2sv */
3477 sv = vivify_ref(sv, OPpDEREF_AV);
3478 /* FALLTHROUGH */
3479
3480 do_AV_rv2av_aelem:
3481 /* this is basically a copy of pp_rv2av when it just has the
3482 * sKR/1 flags */
3483 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
3484 if (LIKELY(SvROK(sv))) {
3485 if (UNLIKELY(SvAMAGIC(sv))) {
3486 sv = amagic_deref_call(sv, to_av_amg);
3487 }
3488 sv = SvRV(sv);
3489 if (UNLIKELY(SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV))
3490 DIE(aTHX_ "Not an ARRAY reference");
3491 }
3492 else if (SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVAV) {
3493 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv))
3494 sv = (SV*)S_softref2xv_lite(aTHX_ sv, "an ARRAY", SVt_PVAV);
3495 sv = MUTABLE_SV(GvAVn((GV*)sv));
3496 }
3497 /* FALLTHROUGH */
3498
3499 do_AV_aelem:
3500 {
3501 /* retrieve the key; this may be either a lexical or package
3502 * var (whose index/ptr is stored as an item) or a signed
3503 * integer constant stored as an item.
3504 */
3505 SV *elemsv;
3506 IV elem = 0; /* to shut up stupid compiler warnings */
3507
3508
3509 assert(SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVAV);
3510
3511 switch (actions & MDEREF_INDEX_MASK) {
3512 case MDEREF_INDEX_none:
3513 goto finish;
3514 case MDEREF_INDEX_const:
3515 elem = (++items)->iv;
3516 break;
3517 case MDEREF_INDEX_padsv:
3518 elemsv = PAD_SVl((++items)->pad_offset);
3519 goto check_elem;
3520 case MDEREF_INDEX_gvsv:
3521 elemsv = UNOP_AUX_item_sv(++items);
3522 assert(isGV_with_GP(elemsv));
3523 elemsv = GvSVn((GV*)elemsv);
3524 check_elem:
3525 if (UNLIKELY(SvROK(elemsv) && !SvGAMAGIC(elemsv)
3526 && ckWARN(WARN_MISC)))
3527 Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_MISC),
147e3846 3528 "Use of reference \"%" SVf "\" as array index",
fedf30e1
DM
3529 SVfARG(elemsv));
3530 /* the only time that S_find_uninit_var() needs this
3531 * is to determine which index value triggered the
3532 * undef warning. So just update it here. Note that
3533 * since we don't save and restore this var (e.g. for
3534 * tie or overload execution), its value will be
3535 * meaningless apart from just here */
3536 PL_multideref_pc = items;
3537 elem = SvIV(elemsv);
3538 break;
3539 }
3540
3541
3542 /* this is basically a copy of pp_aelem with OPpDEREF skipped */
3543
3544 if (!(actions & MDEREF_FLAG_last)) {
3545 SV** svp = av_fetch((AV*)sv, elem, 1);
3546 if (!svp || ! (sv=*svp))
3547 DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_aelem, elem);
3548 break;
3549 }
3550
3551 if (PL_op->op_private &
3552 (OPpMULTIDEREF_EXISTS|OPpMULTIDEREF_DELETE))
3553 {
3554 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpMULTIDEREF_EXISTS) {
3555 sv = av_exists((AV*)sv, elem) ? &PL_sv_yes : &PL_sv_no;
3556 }
3557 else {
3558 I32 discard = (GIMME_V == G_VOID) ? G_DISCARD : 0;
3559 sv = av_delete((AV*)sv, elem, discard);
3560 if (discard)
3561 return NORMAL;
3562 if (!sv)
3563 sv = &PL_sv_undef;
3564 }
3565 }
3566 else {
3567 const U32 lval = PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD || LVRET;
3568 const U32 defer = PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_DEFER;
3569 const bool localizing = PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO;
3570 bool preeminent = TRUE;
3571 AV *const av = (AV*)sv;
3572 SV** svp;
3573
3574 if (UNLIKELY(localizing)) {
3575 MAGIC *mg;
3576 HV *stash;
3577
3578 /* If we can determine whether the element exist,
3579 * Try to preserve the existenceness of a tied array
3580 * element by using EXISTS and DELETE if possible.
3581 * Fallback to FETCH and STORE otherwise. */
3582 if (SvCANEXISTDELETE(av))
3583 preeminent = av_exists(av, elem);
3584 }
3585
3586 svp = av_fetch(av, elem, lval && !defer);
3587
3588 if (lval) {
3589 if (!svp || !(sv = *svp)) {
3590 IV len;
3591 if (!defer)
3592 DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_aelem, elem);
3593 len = av_tindex(av);
9ef753fe
FC
3594 /* Resolve a negative index that falls within
3595 * the array. Leave it negative it if falls
3596 * outside the array. */
3597 if (elem < 0 && len + elem >= 0)
3598 elem = len + elem;
3599 if (elem >= 0 && elem <= len)
3600 /* Falls within the array. */
3601 sv = av_nonelem(av,elem);
3602 else
3603 /* Falls outside the array. If it is neg-
3604 ative, magic_setdefelem will use the
3605 index for error reporting. */
3606 sv = sv_2mortal(newSVavdefelem(av,elem,1));
fedf30e1
DM
3607 }
3608 else {
3609 if (UNLIKELY(localizing)) {
3610 if (preeminent) {
3611 save_aelem(av, elem, svp);
3612 sv = *svp; /* may have changed */
3613 }
3614 else
3615 SAVEADELETE(av, elem);
3616 }
3617 }
3618 }
3619 else {
3620 sv = (svp ? *svp : &PL_sv_undef);
3621 /* see note in pp_helem() */
3622 if (SvRMAGICAL(av) && SvGMAGICAL(sv))
3623 mg_get(sv);
3624 }
3625 }
3626
3627 }
3628 finish:
3629 {
3630 dSP;
3631 XPUSHs(sv);
3632 RETURN;
3633 }
3634 /* NOTREACHED */
3635
3636
3637
3638
3639 case MDEREF_HV_padhv_helem: /* $lex{...} */
3640 sv = PAD_SVl((++items)->pad_offset);
3641 goto do_HV_helem;
3642
3643 case MDEREF_HV_gvhv_helem: /* $pkg{...} */
3644 sv = UNOP_AUX_item_sv(++items);
3645 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
3646 sv = (SV*)GvHVn((GV*)sv);
3647 goto do_HV_helem;
3648
3649 case MDEREF_HV_pop_rv2hv_helem: /* expr->{...} */
3650 {
3651 dSP;
3652 sv = POPs;
3653 PUTBACK;
3654 goto do_HV_rv2hv_helem;
3655 }
3656
3657 case MDEREF_HV_gvsv_vivify_rv2hv_helem: /* $pkg->{...} */
3658 sv = UNOP_AUX_item_sv(++items);
3659 assert(isGV_with_GP(sv));
3660 sv = GvSVn((GV*)sv);
3661 goto do_HV_vivify_rv2hv_helem;
3662
3663 case MDEREF_HV_padsv_vivify_rv2hv_helem: /* $lex->{...} */
3664 sv = PAD_SVl((++items)->pad_offset);
3665 /* FALLTHROUGH */
3666
3667 do_HV_vivify_rv2hv_helem:
3668 case MDEREF_HV_vivify_rv2hv_helem: /* vivify, ->{...} */
3669 /* this is the OPpDEREF action normally found at the end of
3670 * ops like aelem, helem, rv2sv */
3671 sv = vivify_ref(sv, OPpDEREF_HV);
3672 /* FALLTHROUGH */
3673
3674 do_HV_rv2hv_helem:
3675 /* this is basically a copy of pp_rv2hv when it just has the
3676 * sKR/1 flags (and pp_rv2hv is aliased to pp_rv2av) */
3677
3678 SvGETMAGIC(sv);
3679 if (LIKELY(SvROK(sv))) {
3680 if (UNLIKELY(SvAMAGIC(sv))) {
3681 sv = amagic_deref_call(sv, to_hv_amg);
3682 }
3683 sv = SvRV(sv);
3684 if (UNLIKELY(SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVHV))
3685 DIE(aTHX_ "Not a HASH reference");
3686 }
3687 else if (SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVHV) {
3688 if (!isGV_with_GP(sv))
3689 sv = (SV*)S_softref2xv_lite(aTHX_ sv, "a HASH", SVt_PVHV);
3690 sv = MUTABLE_SV(GvHVn((GV*)sv));
3691 }
3692 /* FALLTHROUGH */
3693
3694 do_HV_helem:
3695 {
3696 /* retrieve the key; this may be either a lexical / package
3697 * var or a string constant, whose index/ptr is stored as an
3698 * item
3699 */
3700 SV *keysv = NULL; /* to shut up stupid compiler warnings */
3701
3702 assert(SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVHV);
3703
3704 switch (actions & MDEREF_INDEX_MASK) {
3705 case MDEREF_INDEX_none:
3706 goto finish;
3707
3708 case MDEREF_INDEX_const:
3709 keysv = UNOP_AUX_item_sv(++items);
3710 break;
3711
3712 case MDEREF_INDEX_padsv:
3713 keysv = PAD_SVl((++items)->pad_offset);
3714 break;
3715
3716 case MDEREF_INDEX_gvsv:
3717 keysv = UNOP_AUX_item_sv(++items);
3718 keysv = GvSVn((GV*)keysv);
3719 break;
3720 }
3721
3722 /* see comment above about setting this var */
3723 PL_multideref_pc = items;
3724
3725
3726 /* ensure that candidate CONSTs have been HEKified */
3727 assert( ((actions & MDEREF_INDEX_MASK) != MDEREF_INDEX_const)
3728 || SvTYPE(keysv) >= SVt_PVMG
3729 || !SvOK(keysv)
3730 || SvROK(keysv)
3731 || SvIsCOW_shared_hash(keysv));
3732
3733 /* this is basically a copy of pp_helem with OPpDEREF skipped */
3734
3735 if (!(actions & MDEREF_FLAG_last)) {
3736 HE *he = hv_fetch_ent((HV*)sv, keysv, 1, 0);
3737 if (!he || !(sv=HeVAL(he)) || sv == &PL_sv_undef)
3738 DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_helem_sv, SVfARG(keysv));
3739 break;
3740 }
3741
3742 if (PL_op->op_private &
3743 (OPpMULTIDEREF_EXISTS|OPpMULTIDEREF_DELETE))
3744 {
3745 if (PL_op->op_private & OPpMULTIDEREF_EXISTS) {
3746 sv = hv_exists_ent((HV*)sv, keysv, 0)
3747 ? &PL_sv_yes : &PL_sv_no;
3748 }
3749 else {
3750 I32 discard = (GIMME_V == G_VOID) ? G_DISCARD : 0;
3751 sv = hv_delete_ent((HV*)sv, keysv, discard, 0);
3752 if (discard)
3753 return NORMAL;
3754 if (!sv)
3755 sv = &PL_sv_undef;
3756 }
3757 }
3758 else {
3759 const U32 lval = PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD || LVRET;
3760 const U32 defer = PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_DEFER;
3761 const bool localizing = PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO;
3762 bool preeminent = TRUE;
3763 SV **svp;
3764 HV * const hv = (HV*)sv;
3765 HE* he;
3766
3767 if (UNLIKELY(localizing)) {
3768 MAGIC *mg;
3769<