This is a live mirror of the Perl 5 development currently hosted at https://github.com/perl/perl5
Correct one spelling error.
[perl5.git] / INSTALL
CommitLineData
f1300be0
YST
1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
4
8e07c86e
AD
5=head1 NAME
6
cb8c159f 7INSTALL - Build and Installation guide for perl 5.
8e07c86e
AD
8
9=head1 SYNOPSIS
10
7df75831 11First, make sure you have an up-to-date version of Perl. If you
ce80d64e
AD
12didn't get your Perl source from CPAN, check the latest version at
13http://www.cpan.org/src/. Perl uses a version scheme where even-numbered
08854360 14subreleases (like 5.8.x and 5.10.x) are stable maintenance releases and
ce80d64e
AD
15odd-numbered subreleases (like 5.7.x and 5.9.x) are unstable
16development releases. Development releases should not be used in
17production environments. Fixes and new features are first carefully
18tested in development releases and only if they prove themselves to be
19worthy will they be migrated to the maintenance releases.
3ce0d271 20
7df75831 21The basic steps to build and install perl 5 on a Unix system with all
dd3196cd 22the defaults are to run, from a freshly unpacked source tree:
8e07c86e 23
491517e0 24 sh Configure -de
8e07c86e
AD
25 make
26 make test
27 make install
36477c24 28
8e07c86e
AD
29Each of these is explained in further detail below.
30
cc65bb49
AD
31The above commands will install Perl to /usr/local (or some other
32platform-specific directory -- see the appropriate file in hints/.)
7df75831 33If that's not okay with you, you can run Configure interactively, by
ff52061e
RGS
34just typing "sh Configure" (without the -de args). You can also specify
35any prefix location by adding "-Dprefix='/some/dir'" to Configure's args.
36To explicitly name the perl binary, use the command
37"make install PERLNAME=myperl".
491517e0 38
668cbedd 39Building perl from source requires an ANSI compliant C compiler.
51eec7ec
MB
40A minimum of C89 is required. Some features available in C99 will
41be probed for and used when found. The perl build process does not
42rely on anything more than C89.
43
ff52061e 44These options, and many more, are explained in further detail below.
7f678428 45
e0ddbfb2
RS
46If you're building perl from a git repository, you should also consult
47the documentation in pod/perlgit.pod for information on that special
48circumstance.
49
8d74ce1c 50If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
ff52061e 51L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
8d74ce1c 52
7beaa944 53For information on what's new in this release, see the
37ee6528 54pod/perldelta.pod file. For more information about how to find more
9519d2ec 55specific detail about changes, see the Changes file.
c3edaffb 56
1ec51d55 57=head1 DESCRIPTION
edb1cbcb 58
c3edaffb
PP
59This document is written in pod format as an easy way to indicate its
60structure. The pod format is described in pod/perlpod.pod, but you can
1ec51d55
CS
61read it as is with any pager or editor. Headings and items are marked
62by lines beginning with '='. The other mark-up used is
63
64 B<text> embolden text, used for switches, programs or commands
65 C<code> literal code
66 L<name> A link (cross reference) to name
ce80d64e 67 F<file> A filename
1ec51d55 68
c42e3e15 69Although most of the defaults are probably fine for most users,
ce80d64e 70you should probably at least skim through this document before
1ec51d55 71proceeding.
c3edaffb 72
ce80d64e
AD
73In addition to this file, check if there is a README file specific to
74your operating system, since it may provide additional or different
75instructions for building Perl. If there is a hint file for your
dd3196cd
RGS
76system (in the hints/ directory) you might also want to read it
77for even more information.
c42e3e15 78
ce80d64e
AD
79For additional information about porting Perl, see the section on
80L<"Porting information"> below, and look at the files in the Porting/
81directory.
d56c5707 82
ce80d64e 83=head1 PRELIMINARIES
c42e3e15 84
ce80d64e 85=head2 Changes and Incompatibilities
c42e3e15 86
37ee6528 87Please see pod/perldelta.pod for a description of the changes and
ce80d64e
AD
88potential incompatibilities introduced with this release. A few of
89the most important issues are listed below, but you should refer
37ee6528 90to pod/perldelta.pod for more detailed information.
c42e3e15 91
ab97e755
MB
92B<WARNING:> This version is not binary compatible with earlier versions
93of Perl. If you have built extensions (i.e. modules that include C code)
64fa5b0b
DM
94using an earlier version of Perl, you will need to rebuild and reinstall
95those extensions.
1b1c1ae2
GS
96
97Pure perl modules without XS or C code should continue to work fine
dd3196cd 98without reinstallation. See the discussion below on
7df75831 99L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5"> for more details.
693762b4
AD
100
101The standard extensions supplied with Perl will be handled automatically.
102
ce80d64e
AD
103On a related issue, old modules may possibly be affected by the changes
104in the Perl language in the current release. Please see
37ee6528 105pod/perldelta.pod for a description of what's changed. See your
ce80d64e 106installed copy of the perllocal.pod file for a (possibly incomplete)
c75cfcf0
FC
107list of locally installed modules. Also see the L<CPAN> module's
108C<autobundle> function for one way to make a "bundle" of your currently
109installed modules.
16dc217a 110
aa689395 111=head1 Run Configure
8e07c86e
AD
112
113Configure will figure out various things about your system. Some
114things Configure will figure out for itself, other things it will ask
d6baa268
JH
115you about. To accept the default, just press RETURN. The default is
116almost always okay. It is normal for some things to be "NOT found",
117since Configure often searches for many different ways of performing
118the same function.
119
ce80d64e 120At any Configure prompt, you can type &-d and Configure will use the
d6baa268 121defaults from then on.
8e07c86e
AD
122
123After it runs, Configure will perform variable substitution on all the
1ec51d55 124*.SH files and offer to run make depend.
8e07c86e 125
dd3196cd
RGS
126The results of a Configure run are stored in the config.sh and Policy.sh
127files.
128
ce80d64e 129=head2 Common Configure options
844fc9f4 130
ce80d64e 131Configure supports a number of useful options. Run
844fc9f4 132
ce80d64e 133 Configure -h
d6baa268 134
ce80d64e 135to get a listing. See the Porting/Glossary file for a complete list of
fb73857a
PP
136Configure variables you can set and their definitions.
137
d6baa268
JH
138=over 4
139
08854360 140=item C compiler
d6baa268 141
08854360
RGS
142To compile with gcc, if it's not the default compiler on your
143system, you should run
8e07c86e
AD
144
145 sh Configure -Dcc=gcc
146
08854360 147This is the preferred way to specify gcc (or any another alternative
8e07c86e
AD
148compiler) so that the hints files can set appropriate defaults.
149
d6baa268 150=item Installation prefix
4633a7c4 151
8e07c86e 152By default, for most systems, perl will be installed in
8d74ce1c 153/usr/local/{bin, lib, man}. (See L<"Installation Directories">
7df75831 154and L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5"> below for
8d74ce1c
AD
155further details.)
156
157You can specify a different 'prefix' for the default installation
ce80d64e 158directory when Configure prompts you, or by using the Configure command
8d74ce1c 159line option -Dprefix='/some/directory', e.g.
8e07c86e 160
25f94b33 161 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl
4633a7c4 162
d6baa268
JH
163If your prefix contains the string "perl", then the suggested
164directory structure is simplified. For example, if you use
165prefix=/opt/perl, then Configure will suggest /opt/perl/lib instead of
166/opt/perl/lib/perl5/. Again, see L<"Installation Directories"> below
bc70e9ec
JH
167for more details. Do not include a trailing slash, (i.e. /opt/perl/)
168or you may experience odd test failures.
8e07c86e 169
8d74ce1c
AD
170NOTE: You must not specify an installation directory that is the same
171as or below your perl source directory. If you do, installperl will
172attempt infinite recursion.
84902520 173
d6baa268
JH
174=item /usr/bin/perl
175
176It may seem obvious, but Perl is useful only when users can easily
177find it. It's often a good idea to have both /usr/bin/perl and
dd64f1c3 178/usr/local/bin/perl be symlinks to the actual binary. Be especially
d6baa268 179careful, however, not to overwrite a version of perl supplied by your
b66c6cec
AD
180vendor unless you are sure you know what you are doing. If you insist
181on replacing your vendor's perl, useful information on how it was
182configured may be found with
183
184 perl -V:config_args
185
186(Check the output carefully, however, since this doesn't preserve
ce80d64e
AD
187spaces in arguments to Configure. For that, you have to look carefully
188at config_arg1, config_arg2, etc.)
d6baa268 189
ce80d64e
AD
190By default, Configure will not try to link /usr/bin/perl to the current
191version of perl. You can turn on that behavior by running
d6baa268 192
7d56c962 193 Configure -Dinstallusrbinperl
d6baa268 194
7d56c962 195or by answering 'yes' to the appropriate Configure prompt.
d6baa268 196
ce80d64e
AD
197In any case, system administrators are strongly encouraged to put
198(symlinks to) perl and its accompanying utilities, such as perldoc,
4682965a
MB
199into a directory typically found along a user's PATH, or in another
200obvious and convenient place.
201
71c4561b 202=item Building a development release
04d420f9 203
ce80d64e
AD
204For development releases (odd subreleases, like 5.9.x) if you want to
205use Configure -d, you will also need to supply -Dusedevel to Configure,
206because the default answer to the question "do you really want to
207Configure a development version?" is "no". The -Dusedevel skips that
208sanity check.
d6baa268
JH
209
210=back
8e07c86e 211
203c3eec
AD
212If you are willing to accept all the defaults, and you want terse
213output, you can run
214
215 sh Configure -des
216
dd3196cd 217=head2 Altering Configure variables for C compiler switches etc.
46bb10fb 218
ce80d64e
AD
219For most users, most of the Configure defaults are fine, or can easily
220be set on the Configure command line. However, if Configure doesn't
221have an option to do what you want, you can change Configure variables
222after the platform hints have been run by using Configure's -A switch.
223For example, here's how to add a couple of extra flags to C compiler
224invocations:
46bb10fb 225
08854360 226 sh Configure -Accflags="-DPERL_EXTERNAL_GLOB -DNO_HASH_SEED"
46bb10fb 227
5247441a 228To clarify, those ccflags values are not Configure options; if passed to
dd3196cd
RGS
229Configure directly, they won't do anything useful (they will define a
230variable in config.sh, but without taking any action based upon it).
231But when passed to the compiler, those flags will activate #ifdefd code.
5247441a 232
ce80d64e 233For more help on Configure switches, run
46bb10fb 234
ce80d64e 235 sh Configure -h
46bb10fb 236
ce80d64e 237=head2 Major Configure-time Build Options
46bb10fb 238
ce80d64e
AD
239There are several different ways to Configure and build perl for your
240system. For most users, the defaults are sensible and will work.
241Some users, however, may wish to further customize perl. Here are
242some of the main things you can change.
46bb10fb 243
ce80d64e 244=head3 Threads
cc65bb49 245
ce80d64e
AD
246On some platforms, perl can be compiled with support for threads. To
247enable this, run
4633a7c4 248
ce80d64e 249 sh Configure -Dusethreads
4633a7c4 250
ce80d64e 251The default is to compile without thread support.
cc65bb49 252
ab97e755
MB
253Perl used to have two different internal threads implementations. The
254current model (available internally since 5.6, and as a user-level module
255since 5.8) is called interpreter-based implementation (ithreads), with
256one interpreter per thread, and explicit sharing of data. The (deprecated)
2575.005 version (5005threads) was removed for release 5.10.
d6baa268 258
ce80d64e 259The 'threads' module is for use with the ithreads implementation. The
ab97e755
MB
260'Thread' module emulates the old 5005threads interface on top of the
261current ithreads model.
d6baa268 262
ce80d64e
AD
263When using threads, perl uses a dynamically-sized buffer for some of
264the thread-safe library calls, such as those in the getpw*() family.
265This buffer starts small, but it will keep growing until the result
266fits. To get a fixed upper limit, you should compile Perl with
267PERL_REENTRANT_MAXSIZE defined to be the number of bytes you want. One
268way to do this is to run Configure with
08854360 269C<-Accflags=-DPERL_REENTRANT_MAXSIZE=65536>.
d6baa268 270
08854360 271=head3 Large file support
b367e8b0 272
ce80d64e
AD
273Since Perl 5.6.0, Perl has supported large files (files larger than
2742 gigabytes), and in many common platforms like Linux or Solaris this
275support is on by default.
d6baa268 276
ce80d64e 277This is both good and bad. It is good in that you can use large files,
ab97e755
MB
278seek(), stat(), and -s them. It is bad in that if you are interfacing
279Perl using some extension, the components you are connecting to must also
ce80d64e
AD
280be large file aware: if Perl thinks files can be large but the other
281parts of the software puzzle do not understand the concept, bad things
08854360 282will happen.
d6baa268 283
ce80d64e
AD
284There's also one known limitation with the current large files
285implementation: unless you also have 64-bit integers (see the next
286section), you cannot use the printf/sprintf non-decimal integer formats
287like C<%x> to print filesizes. You can use C<%d>, though.
d6baa268 288
71c4561b
RGS
289If you want to compile perl without large file support, use
290
291 sh Configure -Uuselargefiles
292
08854360 293=head3 64 bit support
d6baa268 294
08854360
RGS
295If your platform does not run natively at 64 bits, but can simulate
296them with compiler flags and/or C<long long> or C<int64_t>,
ce80d64e 297you can build a perl that uses 64 bits.
d6baa268 298
ce80d64e
AD
299There are actually two modes of 64-bitness: the first one is achieved
300using Configure -Duse64bitint and the second one using Configure
301-Duse64bitall. The difference is that the first one is minimal and
302the second one maximal. The first works in more places than the second.
d6baa268 303
ce80d64e
AD
304The C<use64bitint> option does only as much as is required to get
30564-bit integers into Perl (this may mean, for example, using "long
306longs") while your memory may still be limited to 2 gigabytes (because
307your pointers could still be 32-bit). Note that the name C<64bitint>
308does not imply that your C compiler will be using 64-bit C<int>s (it
309might, but it doesn't have to). The C<use64bitint> simply means that
310you will be able to have 64 bit-wide scalar values.
d6baa268 311
ce80d64e
AD
312The C<use64bitall> option goes all the way by attempting to switch
313integers (if it can), longs (and pointers) to being 64-bit. This may
314create an even more binary incompatible Perl than -Duse64bitint: the
315resulting executable may not run at all in a 32-bit box, or you may
316have to reboot/reconfigure/rebuild your operating system to be 64-bit
317aware.
d6baa268 318
08854360 319Natively 64-bit systems need neither -Duse64bitint nor -Duse64bitall.
0e78eb44
MB
320On these systems, it might be the default compilation mode, and there
321is currently no guarantee that passing no use64bitall option to the
322Configure process will build a 32bit perl. Implementing -Duse32bit*
1ed7425e 323options is planned for a future release of perl.
d6baa268 324
ce80d64e 325=head3 Long doubles
d6baa268 326
ce80d64e
AD
327In some systems you may be able to use long doubles to enhance the
328range and precision of your double precision floating point numbers
329(that is, Perl's numbers). Use Configure -Duselongdouble to enable
330this support (if it is available).
d6baa268 331
aacf4ea2
JH
332Note that the exact format and range of long doubles varies:
333the most common is the x86 80-bit (64 bits of mantissa) format,
334but there are others, with different mantissa and exponent ranges.
335
ce80d64e 336=head3 "more bits"
b367e8b0 337
ce80d64e
AD
338You can "Configure -Dusemorebits" to turn on both the 64-bit support
339and the long double support.
b367e8b0 340
257c99f5
JH
341=head3 quadmath
342
b7ce25dd 343One option for more precision is that gcc 4.6 and later have a library
257c99f5
JH
344called quadmath, which implements the IEEE 754 quadruple precision
345(128-bit, 113 bits of mantissa) floating point numbers. The library
346works at least on x86 and ia64 platforms. It may be part of your gcc
347installation, or you may need to install it separately.
348
79f6e7a5
JH
349With "Configure -Dusequadmath" you can try enabling its use, but note
350the compiler dependency, you may need to also add "-Dcc=...".
84e6cb05 351At C level the type is called C<__float128> (note, not "long double"),
b7ce25dd 352but Perl source knows it as NV. (This is not "long doubles".)
257c99f5 353
ce80d64e 354=head3 Algorithmic Complexity Attacks on Hashes
504f80c1 355
e6b54db6
YO
356Perl 5.18 reworked the measures used to secure its hash function
357from algorithmic complexity attacks. By default it will build with
358all of these measures enabled along with support for controlling and
359disabling them via environment variables.
360
361You can override various aspects of this feature by defining various
362symbols during configure. An example might be:
363
364 Configure -Accflags=-DPERL_HASH_FUNC_SIPHASH
365
366B<Unless stated otherwise these options are considered experimental or
367insecure and are not recommended for production use.>
368
369Perl 5.18 includes support for multiple hash functions, and changed
370the default (to ONE_AT_A_TIME_HARD), you can choose a different
371algorithm by defining one of the following symbols. Note that as of
372Perl 5.18 we can only recommend use of the default or SIPHASH. All
373the others are known to have security issues and are for research
374purposes only.
375
376 PERL_HASH_FUNC_SIPHASH
377 PERL_HASH_FUNC_SDBM
378 PERL_HASH_FUNC_DJB2
379 PERL_HASH_FUNC_SUPERFAST
380 PERL_HASH_FUNC_MURMUR3
381 PERL_HASH_FUNC_ONE_AT_A_TIME
382 PERL_HASH_FUNC_ONE_AT_A_TIME_HARD
383 PERL_HASH_FUNC_ONE_AT_A_TIME_OLD
384
385Perl 5.18 randomizes the order returned by keys(), values(), and each(),
386and allows controlling this behavior by using of the PERL_PERTURB_KEYS
387option. You can disable this option entirely with the define:
388
389 PERL_PERTURB_KEYS_DISABLED
390
391You can disable the environment variable checks and specify the type of
392key traversal randomization to be used by defining one of these:
393
394 PERL_PERTURB_KEYS_RANDOM
395 PERL_PERTURB_KEYS_DETERMINISTIC
396
397In Perl 5.18 the seed used for the hash function is randomly selected
eb717850 398at process start which can be overridden by specifying a seed by setting
e6b54db6
YO
399the PERL_HASH_SEED environment variable.
400
401You can change this behavior by building perl with the
402
403 USE_HASH_SEED_EXPLICIT
404
405define, in which case one has to explicitly set the PERL_HASH_SEED
406environment variable to enable the security feature or by adding
407
408 NO_HASH_SEED
409
410to the compilation flags to completely disable the randomisation feature.
411Note these modes are poorly tested, insecure and not recommended.
504f80c1 412
3debabd9 413B<Perl has never guaranteed any ordering of the hash keys>, and the
86358043
NC
414ordering has already changed several times during the lifetime of Perl
4155. Also, the ordering of hash keys has always been, and continues to
08854360 416be, affected by the insertion order. Note that because of this
86358043 417randomisation for example the Data::Dumper results will be different
08854360 418between different runs of Perl, since Data::Dumper by default dumps
86358043
NC
419hashes "unordered". The use of the Data::Dumper C<Sortkeys> option is
420recommended.
504f80c1 421
ab97e755
MB
422See L<perlrun/PERL_HASH_SEED> and L<perlrun/PERL_PERTURB_KEYS> for
423details on the environment variables, and L<perlsec/Algorithmic
424Complexity Attacks> for further security details.
e6b54db6 425
ce80d64e 426=head3 SOCKS
1b9c9cf5
DH
427
428Perl can be configured to be 'socksified', that is, to use the SOCKS
429TCP/IP proxy protocol library. SOCKS is used to give applications
430access to transport layer network proxies. Perl supports only SOCKS
71c4561b
RGS
431Version 5. The corresponding Configure option is -Dusesocks.
432You can find more about SOCKS from wikipedia at
433L<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SOCKS>.
1b9c9cf5 434
ce80d64e 435=head3 Dynamic Loading
d6baa268 436
71c4561b
RGS
437By default, Configure will compile perl to use dynamic loading.
438If you want to force perl to be compiled completely
d6baa268
JH
439statically, you can either choose this when Configure prompts you or
440you can use the Configure command line option -Uusedl.
7df75831
RGS
441With this option, you won't be able to use any new extension
442(XS) module without recompiling perl itself.
d6baa268 443
ce80d64e 444=head3 Building a shared Perl library
c3edaffb
PP
445
446Currently, for most systems, the main perl executable is built by
447linking the "perl library" libperl.a with perlmain.o, your static
8ba4bff0 448extensions, and various extra libraries, such as -lm.
c3edaffb 449
08854360 450On systems that support dynamic loading, it may be possible to
9d67150a 451replace libperl.a with a shared libperl.so. If you anticipate building
c3edaffb
PP
452several different perl binaries (e.g. by embedding libperl into
453different programs, or by using the optional compiler extension), then
9d67150a 454you might wish to build a shared libperl.so so that all your binaries
c3edaffb
PP
455can share the same library.
456
457The disadvantages are that there may be a significant performance
9d67150a 458penalty associated with the shared libperl.so, and that the overall
aa689395 459mechanism is still rather fragile with respect to different versions
c3edaffb
PP
460and upgrades.
461
462In terms of performance, on my test system (Solaris 2.5_x86) the perl
9d67150a 463test suite took roughly 15% longer to run with the shared libperl.so.
c3edaffb
PP
464Your system and typical applications may well give quite different
465results.
466
467The default name for the shared library is typically something like
08854360 468libperl.so.5.8.8 (for Perl 5.8.8), or libperl.so.588, or simply
9d67150a 469libperl.so. Configure tries to guess a sensible naming convention
c3edaffb
PP
470based on your C library name. Since the library gets installed in a
471version-specific architecture-dependent directory, the exact name
472isn't very important anyway, as long as your linker is happy.
473
c3edaffb
PP
474You can elect to build a shared libperl by
475
ce80d64e
AD
476 sh Configure -Duseshrplib
477
478To build a shared libperl, the environment variable controlling shared
479library search (LD_LIBRARY_PATH in most systems, DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH for
f05550c0 480Darwin, LD_LIBRARY_PATH/SHLIB_PATH
ce80d64e
AD
481for HP-UX, LIBPATH for AIX, PATH for Cygwin) must be set up to include
482the Perl build directory because that's where the shared libperl will
483be created. Configure arranges makefile to have the correct shared
484library search settings. You can find the name of the environment
485variable Perl thinks works in your your system by
486
487 grep ldlibpthname config.sh
488
489However, there are some special cases where manually setting the
490shared library path might be required. For example, if you want to run
491something like the following with the newly-built but not-yet-installed
492./perl:
493
04bd6448 494 ./perl -MTestInit t/misc/failing_test.t
08854360 495
ce80d64e 496or
08854360 497
ce80d64e
AD
498 ./perl -Ilib ~/my_mission_critical_test
499
500then you need to set up the shared library path explicitly.
501You can do this with
502
503 LD_LIBRARY_PATH=`pwd`:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
504
505for Bourne-style shells, or
506
507 setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH `pwd`
508
509for Csh-style shells. (This procedure may also be needed if for some
510unexpected reason Configure fails to set up makefile correctly.) (And
511again, it may be something other than LD_LIBRARY_PATH for you, see above.)
512
513You can often recognize failures to build/use a shared libperl from error
514messages complaining about a missing libperl.so (or libperl.sl in HP-UX),
515for example:
08854360
RGS
516
517 18126:./miniperl: /sbin/loader: Fatal Error: cannot map libperl.so
ce80d64e
AD
518
519There is also an potential problem with the shared perl library if you
520want to have more than one "flavor" of the same version of perl (e.g.
521with and without -DDEBUGGING). For example, suppose you build and
08854360
RGS
522install a standard Perl 5.10.0 with a shared library. Then, suppose you
523try to build Perl 5.10.0 with -DDEBUGGING enabled, but everything else
ce80d64e
AD
524the same, including all the installation directories. How can you
525ensure that your newly built perl will link with your newly built
526libperl.so.8 rather with the installed libperl.so.8? The answer is
527that you might not be able to. The installation directory is encoded
528in the perl binary with the LD_RUN_PATH environment variable (or
529equivalent ld command-line option). On Solaris, you can override that
530with LD_LIBRARY_PATH; on Linux, you can only override at runtime via
531LD_PRELOAD, specifying the exact filename you wish to be used; and on
532Digital Unix, you can override LD_LIBRARY_PATH by setting the
533_RLD_ROOT environment variable to point to the perl build directory.
534
535In other words, it is generally not a good idea to try to build a perl
536with a shared library if $archlib/CORE/$libperl already exists from a
537previous build.
538
539A good workaround is to specify a different directory for the
540architecture-dependent library for your -DDEBUGGING version of perl.
541You can do this by changing all the *archlib* variables in config.sh to
542point to your new architecture-dependent library.
543
575e1338
NC
544=head3 Environment access
545
ab97e755
MB
546Perl often needs to write to the program's environment, such as when
547C<%ENV> is assigned to. Many implementations of the C library function
548C<putenv()> leak memory, so where possible perl will manipulate the
549environment directly to avoid these leaks. The default is now to perform
550direct manipulation whenever perl is running as a stand alone interpreter,
551and to call the safe but potentially leaky C<putenv()> function when the
552perl interpreter is embedded in another application. You can force perl
553to always use C<putenv()> by compiling with
554C<-Accflags="-DPERL_USE_SAFE_PUTENV">, see section L</"Altering Configure
555variables for C compiler switches etc.">. You can force an embedded perl
556to use direct manipulation by setting C<PL_use_safe_putenv = 0;> after
557the C<perl_construct()> call.
575e1338 558
ce80d64e
AD
559=head2 Installation Directories
560
561The installation directories can all be changed by answering the
be8498a1
RGS
562appropriate questions in Configure. For convenience, all the installation
563questions are near the beginning of Configure. Do not include trailing
564slashes on directory names. At any point during the Configure process,
565you can answer a question with &-d and Configure will use the defaults
566from then on. Alternatively, you can
ce80d64e
AD
567
568 grep '^install' config.sh
569
570after Configure has run to verify the installation paths.
571
572The defaults are intended to be reasonable and sensible for most
573people building from sources. Those who build and distribute binary
574distributions or who export perl to a range of systems will probably
575need to alter them. If you are content to just accept the defaults,
576you can safely skip the next section.
577
578The directories set up by Configure fall into three broad categories.
579
580=over 4
581
582=item Directories for the perl distribution
583
23cf469f 584By default, Configure will use the following directories for 5.25.8.
ce80d64e 585$version is the full perl version number, including subversion, e.g.
8891dd8d 5865.12.3, and $archname is a string like sun4-sunos,
ce80d64e
AD
587determined by Configure. The full definitions of all Configure
588variables are in the file Porting/Glossary.
589
590 Configure variable Default value
591 $prefixexp /usr/local
592 $binexp $prefixexp/bin
593 $scriptdirexp $prefixexp/bin
594 $privlibexp $prefixexp/lib/perl5/$version
595 $archlibexp $prefixexp/lib/perl5/$version/$archname
596 $man1direxp $prefixexp/man/man1
597 $man3direxp $prefixexp/man/man3
598 $html1direxp (none)
599 $html3direxp (none)
600
ab97e755
MB
601$prefixexp is generated from $prefix, with ~ expansion done to convert
602home directories into absolute paths. Similarly for the other variables
603listed. As file system calls do not do this, you should always reference
604the ...exp variables, to support users who build perl in their home
605directory.
ce80d64e
AD
606
607Actually, Configure recognizes the SVR3-style
608/usr/local/man/l_man/man1 directories, if present, and uses those
609instead. Also, if $prefix contains the string "perl", the library
610directories are simplified as described below. For simplicity, only
611the common style is shown here.
612
613=item Directories for site-specific add-on files
614
615After perl is installed, you may later wish to add modules (e.g. from
616CPAN) or scripts. Configure will set up the following directories to
617be used for installing those add-on modules and scripts.
618
979b4168
KW
619 Configure Default
620 variable value
621 $siteprefixexp $prefixexp
622 $sitebinexp $siteprefixexp/bin
623 $sitescriptexp $siteprefixexp/bin
624 $sitelibexp $siteprefixexp/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version
625 $sitearchexp
626 $siteprefixexp/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version/$archname
627 $siteman1direxp $siteprefixexp/man/man1
628 $siteman3direxp $siteprefixexp/man/man3
629 $sitehtml1direxp (none)
630 $sitehtml3direxp (none)
ce80d64e
AD
631
632By default, ExtUtils::MakeMaker will install architecture-independent
633modules into $sitelib and architecture-dependent modules into $sitearch.
634
635=item Directories for vendor-supplied add-on files
636
637Lastly, if you are building a binary distribution of perl for
638distribution, Configure can optionally set up the following directories
639for you to use to distribute add-on modules.
640
979b4168
KW
641 Configure Default
642 variable value
643 $vendorprefixexp (none)
644
645 (The next ones are set only if vendorprefix is set.)
646
647 $vendorbinexp $vendorprefixexp/bin
648 $vendorscriptexp $vendorprefixexp/bin
649 $vendorlibexp $vendorprefixexp/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version
650 $vendorarchexp
651 $vendorprefixexp/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version/$archname
652 $vendorman1direxp $vendorprefixexp/man/man1
653 $vendorman3direxp $vendorprefixexp/man/man3
654 $vendorhtml1direxp (none)
655 $vendorhtml3direxp (none)
ce80d64e
AD
656
657These are normally empty, but may be set as needed. For example,
658a vendor might choose the following settings:
659
979b4168
KW
660 $prefix /usr
661 $siteprefix /usr/local
662 $vendorprefix /usr
ce80d64e
AD
663
664This would have the effect of setting the following:
665
979b4168
KW
666 $binexp /usr/bin
667 $scriptdirexp /usr/bin
668 $privlibexp /usr/lib/perl5/$version
669 $archlibexp /usr/lib/perl5/$version/$archname
670 $man1direxp /usr/man/man1
671 $man3direxp /usr/man/man3
672
673 $sitebinexp /usr/local/bin
674 $sitescriptexp /usr/local/bin
675 $sitelibexp /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version
676 $sitearchexp /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/$version/$archname
677 $siteman1direxp /usr/local/man/man1
678 $siteman3direxp /usr/local/man/man3
679
680 $vendorbinexp /usr/bin
681 $vendorscriptexp /usr/bin
682 $vendorlibexp /usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version
683 $vendorarchexp /usr/lib/perl5/vendor_perl/$version/$archname
684 $vendorman1direxp /usr/man/man1
685 $vendorman3direxp /usr/man/man3
ce80d64e
AD
686
687Note how in this example, the vendor-supplied directories are in the
668cbedd 688/usr hierarchy, while the directories reserved for the end user are in
ce80d64e
AD
689the /usr/local hierarchy.
690
691The entire installed library hierarchy is installed in locations with
692version numbers, keeping the installations of different versions distinct.
ab97e755
MB
693However, later installations of Perl can still be configured to search
694the installed libraries corresponding to compatible earlier versions.
695See L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5"> below for more
696details on how Perl can be made to search older version directories.
ce80d64e
AD
697
698Of course you may use these directories however you see fit. For
699example, you may wish to use $siteprefix for site-specific files that
700are stored locally on your own disk and use $vendorprefix for
701site-specific files that are stored elsewhere on your organization's
702network. One way to do that would be something like
703
979b4168 704 sh Configure -Dsiteprefix=/usr/local -Dvendorprefix=/usr/share/perl
ce80d64e
AD
705
706=item otherlibdirs
707
708As a final catch-all, Configure also offers an $otherlibdirs
709variable. This variable contains a colon-separated list of additional
710directories to add to @INC. By default, it will be empty.
711Perl will search these directories (including architecture and
712version-specific subdirectories) for add-on modules and extensions.
713
714For example, if you have a bundle of perl libraries from a previous
715installation, perhaps in a strange place:
716
717 Configure -Dotherlibdirs=/usr/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.1
718
719=item APPLLIB_EXP
720
721There is one other way of adding paths to @INC at perl build time, and
722that is by setting the APPLLIB_EXP C pre-processor token to a colon-
723separated list of directories, like this
724
725 sh Configure -Accflags='-DAPPLLIB_EXP=\"/usr/libperl\"'
726
727The directories defined by APPLLIB_EXP get added to @INC I<first>,
728ahead of any others, and so provide a way to override the standard perl
729modules should you, for example, want to distribute fixes without
730touching the perl distribution proper. And, like otherlib dirs,
731version and architecture specific subdirectories are also searched, if
732present, at run time. Of course, you can still search other @INC
733directories ahead of those in APPLLIB_EXP by using any of the standard
734run-time methods: $PERLLIB, $PERL5LIB, -I, use lib, etc.
735
785aa5e3 736=item usesitecustomize
20ef40cf
GA
737
738Run-time customization of @INC can be enabled with:
739
36de116d 740 sh Configure -Dusesitecustomize
20ef40cf 741
785aa5e3
RGS
742which will define USE_SITECUSTOMIZE and $Config{usesitecustomize}.
743When enabled, this makes perl run F<$sitelibexp/sitecustomize.pl> before
20ef40cf
GA
744anything else. This script can then be set up to add additional
745entries to @INC.
746
ce80d64e
AD
747=item Man Pages
748
be8498a1
RGS
749By default, man pages will be installed in $man1dir and $man3dir, which
750are normally /usr/local/man/man1 and /usr/local/man/man3. If you
751want to use a .3pm suffix for perl man pages, you can do that with
ce80d64e
AD
752
753 sh Configure -Dman3ext=3pm
754
ce80d64e
AD
755=item HTML pages
756
757Currently, the standard perl installation does not do anything with
758HTML documentation, but that may change in the future. Further, some
759add-on modules may wish to install HTML documents. The html Configure
760variables listed above are provided if you wish to specify where such
761documents should be placed. The default is "none", but will likely
762eventually change to something useful based on user feedback.
763
764=back
765
766Some users prefer to append a "/share" to $privlib and $sitelib
767to emphasize that those directories can be shared among different
768architectures.
769
770Note that these are just the defaults. You can actually structure the
771directories any way you like. They don't even have to be on the same
772filesystem.
c3edaffb 773
ce80d64e
AD
774Further details about the installation directories, maintenance and
775development subversions, and about supporting multiple versions are
7df75831 776discussed in L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5"> below.
10c7e831 777
ce80d64e
AD
778If you specify a prefix that contains the string "perl", then the
779library directory structure is slightly simplified. Instead of
780suggesting $prefix/lib/perl5/, Configure will suggest $prefix/lib.
2bf2710f 781
ce80d64e
AD
782Thus, for example, if you Configure with
783-Dprefix=/opt/perl, then the default library directories for 5.9.0 are
2bf2710f 784
ce80d64e
AD
785 Configure variable Default value
786 $privlib /opt/perl/lib/5.9.0
787 $archlib /opt/perl/lib/5.9.0/$archname
788 $sitelib /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.9.0
789 $sitearch /opt/perl/lib/site_perl/5.9.0/$archname
2bf2710f 790
ce80d64e 791=head2 Changing the installation directory
c3edaffb 792
ce80d64e 793Configure distinguishes between the directory in which perl (and its
7df75831 794associated files) should be installed, and the directory in which it
ce80d64e
AD
795will eventually reside. For most sites, these two are the same; for
796sites that use AFS, this distinction is handled automatically.
7df75831
RGS
797However, sites that use package management software such as rpm or
798dpkg, or users building binary packages for distribution may also
799wish to install perl into a different directory before moving perl
800to its final destination. There are two ways to do that:
801
802=over 4
803
804=item installprefix
c3edaffb 805
be8498a1
RGS
806To install perl under the /tmp/perl5 directory, use the following
807command line:
c3edaffb 808
7df75831 809 sh Configure -Dinstallprefix=/tmp/perl5
c3edaffb 810
ce80d64e 811(replace /tmp/perl5 by a directory of your choice).
2bf2710f 812
ce80d64e
AD
813Beware, though, that if you go to try to install new add-on
814modules, they too will get installed in under '/tmp/perl5' if you
7df75831
RGS
815follow this example. That's why it's usually better to use DESTDIR,
816as shown in the next section.
c3edaffb 817
7df75831 818=item DESTDIR
9d67150a 819
ce80d64e
AD
820If you need to install perl on many identical systems, it is convenient
821to compile it once and create an archive that can be installed on
822multiple systems. Suppose, for example, that you want to create an
823archive that can be installed in /opt/perl. One way to do that is by
824using the DESTDIR variable during C<make install>. The DESTDIR is
825automatically prepended to all the installation paths. Thus you
826simply do:
830717a7 827
ce80d64e
AD
828 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl -des
829 make
830 make test
831 make install DESTDIR=/tmp/perl5
832 cd /tmp/perl5/opt/perl
833 tar cvf /tmp/perl5-archive.tar .
9d67150a 834
7df75831
RGS
835=back
836
32878f30 837=head2 Relocatable @INC
838
839To create a relocatable perl tree, use the following command line:
840
841 sh Configure -Duserelocatableinc
842
843Then the paths in @INC (and everything else in %Config) can be
844optionally located via the path of the perl executable.
845
846That means that, if the string ".../" is found at the start of any
847path, it's substituted with the directory of $^X. So, the relocation
848can be configured on a per-directory basis, although the default with
849"-Duserelocatableinc" is that everything is relocated. The initial
850install is done to the original configured prefix.
851
79f7885c
RGS
852This option is not compatible with the building of a shared libperl
853("-Duseshrplib"), because in that case perl is linked with an hard-coded
854rpath that points at the libperl.so, that cannot be relocated.
855
ce80d64e 856=head2 Site-wide Policy settings
55479bb6 857
ce80d64e 858After Configure runs, it stores a number of common site-wide "policy"
7df75831
RGS
859answers (such as installation directories) in the Policy.sh file.
860If you want to build perl on another system using the same policy
861defaults, simply copy the Policy.sh file to the new system's perl build
862directory, and Configure will use it. This will work even if Policy.sh was
a0a8d9d3 863generated for another version of Perl, or on a system with a
da1b4322 864different architecture and/or operating system. However, in such cases,
a0a8d9d3
DD
865you should review the contents of the file before using it: for
866example, your new target may not keep its man pages in the same place
867as the system on which the file was generated.
55479bb6 868
ce80d64e
AD
869Alternatively, if you wish to change some or all of those policy
870answers, you should
c3edaffb 871
ce80d64e 872 rm -f Policy.sh
aa689395 873
ce80d64e 874to ensure that Configure doesn't re-use them.
2ae324a7 875
ce80d64e 876Further information is in the Policy_sh.SH file itself.
aa689395 877
ce80d64e
AD
878If the generated Policy.sh file is unsuitable, you may freely edit it
879to contain any valid shell commands. It will be run just after the
880platform-specific hints files.
aa689395 881
ce80d64e 882=head2 Disabling older versions of Perl
aa689395 883
ce80d64e 884Configure will search for binary compatible versions of previously
7df75831
RGS
885installed perl binaries in the tree that is specified as target tree,
886and these will be used as locations to search for modules by the perl
887being built. The list of perl versions found will be put in the Configure
888variable inc_version_list.
86058a2d 889
ab97e755
MB
890To disable this use of older perl modules, even completely valid pure
891perl modules, you can specify to not include the paths found:
b2a6d19e 892
ce80d64e 893 sh Configure -Dinc_version_list=none ...
d6baa268 894
ab97e755
MB
895If you do want to use modules from some previous perl versions, the
896variable must contain a space separated list of directories under the
897site_perl directory, and has to include architecture-dependent
898directories separately, eg.
274ca399 899
4683a5d7 900 sh Configure -Dinc_version_list="5.16.0/x86_64-linux 5.16.0" ...
274ca399 901
ce80d64e 902When using the newer perl, you can add these paths again in the
668cbedd 903PERL5LIB environment variable or with perl's -I runtime option.
86058a2d 904
ce80d64e 905=head2 Building Perl outside of the source directory
86058a2d 906
ce80d64e
AD
907Sometimes it is desirable to build Perl in a directory different from
908where the sources are, for example if you want to keep your sources
909read-only, or if you want to share the sources between different binary
910architectures. You can do this (if your file system supports symbolic
911links) by
06c896bb 912
ce80d64e
AD
913 mkdir /tmp/perl/build/directory
914 cd /tmp/perl/build/directory
915 sh /path/to/perl/source/Configure -Dmksymlinks ...
06c896bb 916
ce80d64e
AD
917This will create in /tmp/perl/build/directory a tree of symbolic links
918pointing to files in /path/to/perl/source. The original files are left
919unaffected. After Configure has finished you can just say
06c896bb 920
ce80d64e 921 make
7df75831
RGS
922 make test
923 make install
06c896bb 924
ce80d64e 925as usual, and Perl will be built in /tmp/perl/build/directory.
aa689395 926
3bf462b8
CS
927=head2 Building a debugging perl
928
929You can run perl scripts under the perl debugger at any time with
3fe9a6f1 930B<perl -d your_script>. If, however, you want to debug perl itself,
eaf812ae
MB
931you probably want to have support for perl internal debugging code
932(activated by adding -DDEBUGGING to ccflags), and/or support for the
f075db89 933system debugger by adding -g to the optimisation flags.
eaf812ae 934
f075db89
DM
935A perl compiled with the DEBUGGING C preprocessor macro will support the
936C<-D> perl command-line switch, have assertions enabled, and have many
937extra checks compiled into the code; but will execute much more slowly
938(typically 2-3x) and the binary will be much larger (typically 2-3x).
08854360 939
f075db89
DM
940As a convenience, debugging code (-DDEBUGGING) and debugging symbols (-g)
941can be enabled jointly or separately using a Configure switch, also
942(somewhat confusingly) named -DDEBUGGING. For a more eye appealing call,
943-DEBUGGING is defined to be an alias for -DDEBUGGING. For both, the -U
944calls are also supported, in order to be able to overrule the hints or
945Policy.sh settings.
eaf812ae 946
7df75831 947Here are the DEBUGGING modes:
3bf462b8 948
7df75831 949=over 4
3bf462b8 950
f075db89 951=item Configure -DDEBUGGING
eaf812ae 952
f075db89 953=item Configure -DEBUGGING
eaf812ae 954
f075db89 955=item Configure -DEBUGGING=both
eaf812ae 956
7df75831
RGS
957Sets both -DDEBUGGING in the ccflags, and adds -g to optimize.
958
959You can actually specify -g and -DDEBUGGING independently (see below),
960but usually it's convenient to have both.
eaf812ae 961
f075db89 962=item Configure -DEBUGGING=-g
eaf812ae 963
f075db89 964=item Configure -Doptimize=-g
7df75831 965
eaf812ae
MB
966Adds -g to optimize, but does not set -DDEBUGGING.
967
7df75831
RGS
968(Note: Your system may actually require something like cc -g2.
969Check your man pages for cc(1) and also any hint file for your system.)
970
f075db89 971=item Configure -DEBUGGING=none
eaf812ae 972
f075db89 973=item Configure -UDEBUGGING
7df75831 974
eaf812ae
MB
975Removes -g from optimize, and -DDEBUGGING from ccflags.
976
977=back
978
3bf462b8 979If you are using a shared libperl, see the warnings about multiple
a522f097 980versions of perl under L<Building a shared Perl library>.
3bf462b8 981
def5f8a5
DM
982Note that a perl built with -DDEBUGGING will be much bigger and will run
983much, much more slowly than a standard perl.
1db12997
DM
984
985=head2 DTrace support
986
979b4168 987On platforms where DTrace is available, it may be enabled by
ab97e755
MB
988using the -Dusedtrace option to Configure. DTrace probes are available
989for subroutine entry (sub-entry) and subroutine exit (sub-exit). Here's a
1db12997
DM
990simple D script that uses them:
991
992 perl$target:::sub-entry, perl$target:::sub-return {
993 printf("%s %s (%s:%d)\n", probename == "sub-entry" ? "->" : "<-",
994 copyinstr(arg0), copyinstr(arg1), arg2);
995 }
996
997
8d74ce1c
AD
998=head2 Extensions
999
80c1f5de
AD
1000Perl ships with a number of standard extensions. These are contained
1001in the ext/ subdirectory.
1002
8d74ce1c
AD
1003By default, Configure will offer to build every extension which appears
1004to be supported. For example, Configure will offer to build GDBM_File
7df75831 1005only if it is able to find the gdbm library.
ce80d64e
AD
1006
1007To disable certain extensions so that they are not built, use the
1008-Dnoextensions=... and -Donlyextensions=... options. They both accept
47bd56ab
DM
1009a space-separated list of extensions, such as C<IPC/SysV>. The extensions
1010listed in
ce80d64e
AD
1011C<noextensions> are removed from the list of extensions to build, while
1012the C<onlyextensions> is rather more severe and builds only the listed
1013extensions. The latter should be used with extreme caution since
1014certain extensions are used by many other extensions and modules:
1015examples of such modules include Fcntl and IO. The order of processing
1016these options is first C<only> (if present), then C<no> (if present).
8d74ce1c
AD
1017
1018Of course, you may always run Configure interactively and select only
1019the extensions you want.
1020
7df75831
RGS
1021If you unpack any additional extensions in the ext/ directory before
1022running Configure, then Configure will offer to build those additional
1023extensions as well. Most users probably shouldn't have to do this --
1024it is usually easier to build additional extensions later after perl
1025has been installed. However, if you wish to have those additional
1026extensions statically linked into the perl binary, then this offers a
1027convenient way to do that in one step. (It is not necessary, however;
1028you can build and install extensions just fine even if you don't have
1029dynamic loading. See lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm for more details.)
1030Another way of specifying extra modules is described in
1031L<"Adding extra modules to the build"> below.
8d74ce1c 1032
dd3196cd 1033If you re-use an old config.sh but change your system (e.g. by
8d74ce1c
AD
1034adding libgdbm) Configure will still offer your old choices of extensions
1035for the default answer, but it will also point out the discrepancy to
1036you.
1037
8d74ce1c
AD
1038=head2 Including locally-installed libraries
1039
7df75831
RGS
1040Perl comes with interfaces to number of libraries, including threads,
1041dbm, ndbm, gdbm, and Berkeley db. For the *db* extension, if
8d74ce1c 1042Configure can find the appropriate header files and libraries, it will
7df75831 1043automatically include that extension. The threading extension needs
27021420 1044to be specified explicitly (see L</Threads>).
7df75831
RGS
1045
1046Those libraries are not distributed with perl. If your header (.h) files
1047for those libraries are not in a directory normally searched by your C
1048compiler, then you will need to include the appropriate -I/your/directory
1049option when prompted by Configure. If your libraries are not in a
1050directory normally searched by your C compiler and linker, then you will
1051need to include the appropriate -L/your/directory option when prompted
1052by Configure. See the examples below.
8d74ce1c 1053
ce80d64e 1054=head3 Examples
8d74ce1c
AD
1055
1056=over 4
1057
1058=item gdbm in /usr/local
1059
1060Suppose you have gdbm and want Configure to find it and build the
d6baa268 1061GDBM_File extension. This example assumes you have gdbm.h
8d74ce1c
AD
1062installed in /usr/local/include/gdbm.h and libgdbm.a installed in
1063/usr/local/lib/libgdbm.a. Configure should figure all the
1064necessary steps out automatically.
1065
1066Specifically, when Configure prompts you for flags for
7df75831
RGS
1067your C compiler, you should include -I/usr/local/include, if it's
1068not here yet. Similarly, when Configure prompts you for linker flags,
1069you should include -L/usr/local/lib.
8d74ce1c
AD
1070
1071If you are using dynamic loading, then when Configure prompts you for
1072linker flags for dynamic loading, you should again include
1073-L/usr/local/lib.
1074
d6baa268
JH
1075Again, this should all happen automatically. This should also work if
1076you have gdbm installed in any of (/usr/local, /opt/local, /usr/gnu,
1077/opt/gnu, /usr/GNU, or /opt/GNU).
8d74ce1c 1078
e8b9ce60
AD
1079=item BerkeleyDB in /usr/local/BerkeleyDB
1080
668cbedd 1081The version of BerkeleyDB distributed by Oracle installs in a
e8b9ce60
AD
1082version-specific directory by default, typically something like
1083/usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7. To have Configure find that, you need to add
ab97e755
MB
1084-I/usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7/include to cc flags, as in the previous
1085example, and you will also have to take extra steps to help Configure
1086find -ldb. Specifically, when Configure prompts you for library
1087directories, add /usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7/lib to the list. Also, you
1088will need to add appropriate linker flags to tell the runtime linker
1089where to find the BerkeleyDB shared libraries.
e8b9ce60
AD
1090
1091It is possible to specify this from the command line (all on one
8d74ce1c
AD
1092line):
1093
979b4168
KW
1094 sh Configure -de \
1095 -Dlocincpth='/usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7/include \
1096 /usr/local/include' \
1097 -Dloclibpth='/usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7/lib /usr/local/lib' \
1098 -Aldflags='-R/usr/local/BerkeleyDB.4.7/lib'
8d74ce1c
AD
1099
1100locincpth is a space-separated list of include directories to search.
1101Configure will automatically add the appropriate -I directives.
1102
1103loclibpth is a space-separated list of library directories to search.
e8b9ce60 1104Configure will automatically add the appropriate -L directives.
8d74ce1c 1105
e8b9ce60
AD
1106The addition to ldflags is so that the dynamic linker knows where to find
1107the BerkeleyDB libraries. For Linux and Solaris, the -R option does that.
1108Other systems may use different flags. Use the appropriate flag for your
1109system.
8d74ce1c
AD
1110
1111=back
1112
b76ca5cc
BF
1113=head2 Specifying a logical root directory
1114
1115If you are cross-compiling, or are using a compiler which has it's own
1116headers and libraries in a nonstandard location, and your compiler
ab97e755
MB
1117understands the C<--sysroot> option, you can use the C<-Dsysroot> option
1118to specify the logical root directory under which all libraries and
1119headers are searched for. This patch adjusts Configure to search under
1120$sysroot, instead of /.
1121
b76ca5cc
BF
1122--sysroot is added to ccflags and friends so that make in
1123ExtUtils::MakeMaker, and other extensions, will use it.
1124
ce80d64e
AD
1125=head2 Overriding an old config.sh
1126
dd3196cd
RGS
1127If you want to use an old config.sh produced by a previous run of
1128Configure, but override some of the items with command line options, you
1129need to use B<Configure -O>.
ce80d64e
AD
1130
1131=head2 GNU-style configure
1132
1133If you prefer the GNU-style configure command line interface, you can
1134use the supplied configure.gnu command, e.g.
1135
1136 CC=gcc ./configure.gnu
1137
1138The configure.gnu script emulates a few of the more common configure
1139options. Try
1140
1141 ./configure.gnu --help
1142
1143for a listing.
1144
1145(The file is called configure.gnu to avoid problems on systems
1146that would not distinguish the files "Configure" and "configure".)
1147
ce80d64e
AD
1148=head2 Malloc Issues
1149
1150Perl relies heavily on malloc(3) to grow data structures as needed,
1151so perl's performance can be noticeably affected by the performance of
1152the malloc function on your system. The perl source is shipped with a
1153version of malloc that has been optimized for the typical requests from
1154perl, so there's a chance that it may be both faster and use less memory
1155than your system malloc.
1156
1157However, if your system already has an excellent malloc, or if you are
1158experiencing difficulties with extensions that use third-party libraries
1159that call malloc, then you should probably use your system's malloc.
1160(Or, you might wish to explore the malloc flags discussed below.)
1161
1162=over 4
1163
1164=item Using the system malloc
1165
1166To build without perl's malloc, you can use the Configure command
1167
1168 sh Configure -Uusemymalloc
1169
1170or you can answer 'n' at the appropriate interactive Configure prompt.
1171
73d6d1b0
RGS
1172Note that Perl's malloc isn't always used by default; that actually
1173depends on your system. For example, on Linux and FreeBSD (and many more
1174systems), Configure chooses to use the system's malloc by default.
1175See the appropriate file in the F<hints/> directory to see how the
1176default is set.
1177
ce80d64e
AD
1178=item -DPERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC
1179
1180NOTE: This flag is enabled automatically on some platforms if you just
7df75831 1181run Configure to accept all the defaults.
ce80d64e
AD
1182
1183Perl's malloc family of functions are normally called Perl_malloc(),
1184Perl_realloc(), Perl_calloc() and Perl_mfree().
1185These names do not clash with the system versions of these functions.
1186
1187If this flag is enabled, however, Perl's malloc family of functions
1188will have the same names as the system versions. This may be required
1189sometimes if you have libraries that like to free() data that may have
1190been allocated by Perl_malloc() and vice versa.
1191
1192Note that enabling this option may sometimes lead to duplicate symbols
1193from the linker for malloc et al. In such cases, the system probably
1194does not allow its malloc functions to be fully replaced with custom
1195versions.
1196
1197=item -DPERL_DEBUGGING_MSTATS
1198
1199This flag enables debugging mstats, which is required to use the
1200Devel::Peek::mstat() function. You cannot enable this unless you are
1201using Perl's malloc, so a typical Configure command would be
1202
7df75831 1203 sh Configure -Accflags=-DPERL_DEBUGGING_MSTATS -Dusemymalloc
ce80d64e
AD
1204
1205to enable this option.
1206
1207=back
1208
8e07c86e
AD
1209=head2 What if it doesn't work?
1210
8d74ce1c 1211If you run into problems, try some of the following ideas.
ff52061e 1212If none of them help, then see L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
8d74ce1c 1213
8e07c86e
AD
1214=over 4
1215
25f94b33
AD
1216=item Running Configure Interactively
1217
1218If Configure runs into trouble, remember that you can always run
1219Configure interactively so that you can check (and correct) its
1220guesses.
1221
1222All the installation questions have been moved to the top, so you don't
aa689395 1223have to wait for them. Once you've handled them (and your C compiler and
1ec51d55 1224flags) you can type &-d at the next Configure prompt and Configure
25f94b33
AD
1225will use the defaults from then on.
1226
1227If you find yourself trying obscure command line incantations and
1228config.over tricks, I recommend you run Configure interactively
1229instead. You'll probably save yourself time in the long run.
1230
aa689395 1231=item Hint files
8e07c86e 1232
a0a8d9d3
DD
1233Hint files tell Configure about a number of things:
1234
1235=over 4
1236
1237=item o
1238
1239The peculiarities or conventions of particular platforms -- non-standard
1240library locations and names, default installation locations for binaries,
1241and so on.
1242
1243=item o
1244
1245The deficiencies of the platform -- for example, library functions that,
1246although present, are too badly broken to be usable; or limits on
1247resources that are generously available on most platforms.
1248
1249=item o
1250
ab97e755
MB
1251How best to optimize for the platform, both in terms of binary size
1252and/or speed, and for Perl feature support. Because of wide variations in
1253the implementation of shared libraries and of threading, for example,
1254Configure often needs hints in order to be able to use these features.
a0a8d9d3
DD
1255
1256=back
1257
1258The perl distribution includes many system-specific hints files
1259in the hints/ directory. If one of them matches your system, Configure
1260will offer to use that hint file. Unless you have a very good reason
1261not to, you should accept its offer.
8e07c86e
AD
1262
1263Several of the hint files contain additional important information.
ab97e755
MB
1264If you have any problems, it is a good idea to read the relevant hint
1265file for further information. See hints/solaris_2.sh for an extensive
1266example. More information about writing good hints is in the
1267hints/README.hints file, which also explains hint files known as
1268callback-units.
a0a8d9d3
DD
1269
1270Note that any hint file is read before any Policy file, meaning that
1271Policy overrides hints -- see L</Site-wide Policy settings>.
8e07c86e 1272
73d6d1b0 1273=item WHOA THERE!!!
edb1cbcb 1274
ab97e755
MB
1275If you are re-using an old config.sh, it's possible that Configure
1276detects different values from the ones specified in this file. You will
1277almost always want to keep the previous value, unless you have changed
1278something on your system.
edb1cbcb
PP
1279
1280For example, suppose you have added libgdbm.a to your system
1281and you decide to reconfigure perl to use GDBM_File. When you run
1282Configure again, you will need to add -lgdbm to the list of libraries.
bfb7748a
AD
1283Now, Configure will find your gdbm include file and library and will
1284issue a message:
edb1cbcb
PP
1285
1286 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
1287 The previous value for $i_gdbm on this machine was "undef"!
1288 Keep the previous value? [y]
1289
1ec51d55 1290In this case, you do not want to keep the previous value, so you
c3edaffb 1291should answer 'n'. (You'll also have to manually add GDBM_File to
edb1cbcb
PP
1292the list of dynamic extensions to build.)
1293
8e07c86e
AD
1294=item Changing Compilers
1295
1296If you change compilers or make other significant changes, you should
1ec51d55 1297probably not re-use your old config.sh. Simply remove it or
dd3196cd 1298rename it, then rerun Configure with the options you want to use.
8e07c86e 1299
c3edaffb 1300=item Propagating your changes to config.sh
8e07c86e 1301
1ec51d55
CS
1302If you make any changes to config.sh, you should propagate
1303them to all the .SH files by running
1304
1305 sh Configure -S
1306
1307You will then have to rebuild by running
9d67150a
PP
1308
1309 make depend
1310 make
8e07c86e 1311
48370efc
JH
1312=item config.over and config.arch
1313
668cbedd 1314You can also supply a shell script config.over to override
48370efc
JH
1315Configure's guesses. It will get loaded up at the very end, just
1316before config.sh is created. You have to be careful with this,
1317however, as Configure does no checking that your changes make sense.
1318This file is usually good for site-specific customizations.
1319
1320There is also another file that, if it exists, is loaded before the
1321config.over, called config.arch. This file is intended to be per
1322architecture, not per site, and usually it's the architecture-specific
1323hints file that creates the config.arch.
8e07c86e
AD
1324
1325=item config.h
1326
1ec51d55
CS
1327Many of the system dependencies are contained in config.h.
1328Configure builds config.h by running the config_h.SH script.
1329The values for the variables are taken from config.sh.
8e07c86e 1330
1ec51d55
CS
1331If there are any problems, you can edit config.h directly. Beware,
1332though, that the next time you run Configure, your changes will be
8e07c86e
AD
1333lost.
1334
1335=item cflags
1336
1337If you have any additional changes to make to the C compiler command
1ec51d55 1338line, they can be made in cflags.SH. For instance, to turn off the
5729ffdd
NC
1339optimizer on toke.c, find the switch structure marked 'or customize here',
1340and add a line for toke.c ahead of the catch-all *) so that it now reads:
1341
1342 : or customize here
1343
1344 case "$file" in
1345 toke) optimize='-g' ;;
1346 *) ;;
1347
ab97e755
MB
1348You should not edit the generated file cflags directly, as your changes
1349will be lost the next time you run Configure, or if you edit config.sh.
8e07c86e 1350
f5b3b617
AD
1351To explore various ways of changing ccflags from within a hint file,
1352see the file hints/README.hints.
1353
1354To change the C flags for all the files, edit config.sh and change either
1355$ccflags or $optimize, and then re-run
1ec51d55
CS
1356
1357 sh Configure -S
1358 make depend
8e07c86e 1359
aa689395 1360=item No sh
8e07c86e 1361
c42e3e15
GS
1362If you don't have sh, you'll have to copy the sample file
1363Porting/config.sh to config.sh and edit your config.sh to reflect your
1364system's peculiarities. See Porting/pumpkin.pod for more information.
8e07c86e
AD
1365You'll probably also have to extensively modify the extension building
1366mechanism.
1367
c3edaffb
PP
1368=item Porting information
1369
e6f03d26 1370Specific information for the OS/2, Plan 9, VMS and Win32 ports is in the
1ec51d55
CS
1371corresponding README files and subdirectories. Additional information,
1372including a glossary of all those config.sh variables, is in the Porting
ce80d64e 1373subdirectory. Porting/Glossary should especially come in handy.
c3edaffb 1374
7f678428 1375Ports for other systems may also be available. You should check out
468f45d5 1376http://www.cpan.org/ports for current information on ports to
7f678428
PP
1377various other operating systems.
1378
ce80d64e 1379If you plan to port Perl to a new architecture, study carefully the
491517e0 1380section titled "Philosophical Issues in Patching and Porting Perl"
c222ef46 1381in the file Porting/pumpkin.pod and the file pod/perlgit.pod.
491517e0
JA
1382Study also how other non-UNIX ports have solved problems.
1383
8e07c86e
AD
1384=back
1385
ce80d64e 1386=head2 Adding extra modules to the build
fadf0ef5
JH
1387
1388You can specify extra modules or module bundles to be fetched from the
1389CPAN and installed as part of the Perl build. Either use the -Dextras=...
1390command line parameter to Configure, for example like this:
1391
d3df0cfd 1392 Configure -Dextras="Bundle::LWP DBI"
fadf0ef5
JH
1393
1394or answer first 'y' to the question 'Install any extra modules?' and
d3df0cfd 1395then answer "Bundle::LWP DBI" to the 'Extras?' question.
ab97e755
MB
1396The module or the bundle names are as for the CPAN module 'install'
1397command. This will only work if those modules are to be built as dynamic
a522f097
AD
1398extensions. If you wish to include those extra modules as static
1399extensions, see L<"Extensions"> above.
fadf0ef5
JH
1400
1401Notice that because the CPAN module will be used to fetch the extra
1402modules, you will need access to the CPAN, either via the Internet,
1403or via a local copy such as a CD-ROM or a local CPAN mirror. If you
1404do not, using the extra modules option will die horribly.
1405
1406Also notice that you yourself are responsible for satisfying any extra
ab97e755
MB
1407dependencies such as external headers or libraries BEFORE trying the
1408build. For example: you will need to have the Foo database specific
fadf0ef5
JH
1409headers and libraries installed for the DBD::Foo module. The Configure
1410process or the Perl build process will not help you with these.
1411
ce80d64e 1412=head2 suidperl
03739d21 1413
172dd959
JV
1414suidperl was an optional component of earlier releases of perl. It is no
1415longer available. Instead, use a tool specifically designed to handle
1416changes in privileges, such as B<sudo>.
03739d21 1417
8e07c86e
AD
1418=head1 make depend
1419
bfb7748a
AD
1420This will look for all the includes. The output is stored in makefile.
1421The only difference between Makefile and makefile is the dependencies at
1422the bottom of makefile. If you have to make any changes, you should edit
ce80d64e 1423makefile, not Makefile, since the Unix make command reads makefile first.
bfb7748a
AD
1424(On non-Unix systems, the output may be stored in a different file.
1425Check the value of $firstmakefile in your config.sh if in doubt.)
8e07c86e
AD
1426
1427Configure will offer to do this step for you, so it isn't listed
1428explicitly above.
1429
1430=head1 make
1431
1432This will attempt to make perl in the current directory.
1433
8d410bc4
YST
1434=head2 Expected errors
1435
f5b5f377 1436These error reports are normal, and can be ignored:
8d410bc4
YST
1437
1438 ...
1439 make: [extra.pods] Error 1 (ignored)
1440 ...
1441 make: [extras.make] Error 1 (ignored)
1442
8d74ce1c
AD
1443=head2 What if it doesn't work?
1444
8e07c86e 1445If you can't compile successfully, try some of the following ideas.
7f678428 1446If none of them help, and careful reading of the error message and
8d74ce1c 1447the relevant manual pages on your system doesn't help,
ff52061e 1448then see L<"Reporting Problems"> below.
8e07c86e
AD
1449
1450=over 4
1451
1ec51d55 1452=item hints
8e07c86e
AD
1453
1454If you used a hint file, try reading the comments in the hint file
1455for further tips and information.
1456
1ec51d55 1457=item extensions
8e07c86e 1458
1ec51d55 1459If you can successfully build miniperl, but the process crashes
ce80d64e 1460during the building of extensions, run
c3edaffb 1461
3a6175e1 1462 make minitest
c3edaffb
PP
1463
1464to test your version of miniperl.
1465
e57fd563
PP
1466=item locale
1467
bfb7748a
AD
1468If you have any locale-related environment variables set, try unsetting
1469them. I have some reports that some versions of IRIX hang while
1470running B<./miniperl configpm> with locales other than the C locale.
1471See the discussion under L<"make test"> below about locales and the
ab97e755
MB
1472whole L<perllocale/"LOCALE PROBLEMS"> section in the file
1473pod/perllocale.pod. The latter is especially useful if you see something
1474like this
3e6e419a
JH
1475
1476 perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
1477 perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
1478 LC_ALL = "En_US",
1479 LANG = (unset)
1480 are supported and installed on your system.
1481 perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").
1482
1483at Perl startup.
e57fd563 1484
06aa495b
DM
1485=item other environment variables
1486
1487Configure does not check for environment variables that can sometimes
1488have a major influence on how perl is built or tested. For example,
1489OBJECT_MODE on AIX determines the way the compiler and linker deal with
1490their objects, but this is a variable that only influences build-time
1491behaviour, and should not affect the perl scripts that are eventually
1492executed by the perl binary. Other variables, like PERL_UNICODE,
adbb55c0 1493PERL5LIB, and PERL5OPT will influence the behaviour of the test suite.
06aa495b
DM
1494So if you are getting strange test failures, you may want to try
1495retesting with the various PERL variables unset.
1496
7f678428 1497=item varargs
c3edaffb
PP
1498
1499If you get varargs problems with gcc, be sure that gcc is installed
bfb7748a
AD
1500correctly and that you are not passing -I/usr/include to gcc. When using
1501gcc, you should probably have i_stdarg='define' and i_varargs='undef'
ce80d64e 1502in config.sh. The problem is usually solved by installing gcc
bfb7748a
AD
1503correctly. If you do change config.sh, don't forget to propagate
1504your changes (see L<"Propagating your changes to config.sh"> below).
7f678428 1505See also the L<"vsprintf"> item below.
c3edaffb 1506
bfb7748a 1507=item util.c
c3edaffb
PP
1508
1509If you get error messages such as the following (the exact line
bfb7748a 1510numbers and function name may vary in different versions of perl):
c3edaffb 1511
19f4563d 1512 util.c: In function 'Perl_form':
bfb7748a
AD
1513 util.c:1107: number of arguments doesn't match prototype
1514 proto.h:125: prototype declaration
c3edaffb
PP
1515
1516it might well be a symptom of the gcc "varargs problem". See the
7f678428 1517previous L<"varargs"> item.
c3edaffb 1518
1ec51d55 1519=item LD_LIBRARY_PATH
c3edaffb
PP
1520
1521If you run into dynamic loading problems, check your setting of
aa689395
PP
1522the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable. If you're creating a static
1523Perl library (libperl.a rather than libperl.so) it should build
c3edaffb 1524fine with LD_LIBRARY_PATH unset, though that may depend on details
668cbedd 1525of your local setup.
c3edaffb 1526
aa689395 1527=item nm extraction
c3edaffb
PP
1528
1529If Configure seems to be having trouble finding library functions,
1530try not using nm extraction. You can do this from the command line
1531with
1532
1533 sh Configure -Uusenm
1534
1535or by answering the nm extraction question interactively.
1ec51d55 1536If you have previously run Configure, you should not reuse your old
c3edaffb
PP
1537config.sh.
1538
bfb7748a
AD
1539=item umask not found
1540
1541If the build processes encounters errors relating to umask(), the problem
1542is probably that Configure couldn't find your umask() system call.
1543Check your config.sh. You should have d_umask='define'. If you don't,
1544this is probably the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above. Also,
1545try reading the hints file for your system for further information.
1546
7f678428 1547=item vsprintf
c3edaffb
PP
1548
1549If you run into problems with vsprintf in compiling util.c, the
1550problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
1551version of vsprintf(). Check whether your system has vprintf().
1552(Virtually all modern Unix systems do.) Then, check the variable
1553d_vprintf in config.sh. If your system has vprintf, it should be:
1554
1555 d_vprintf='define'
1556
1557If Configure guessed wrong, it is likely that Configure guessed wrong
bfb7748a
AD
1558on a number of other common functions too. This is probably
1559the L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
c3edaffb 1560
3fe9a6f1
PP
1561=item do_aspawn
1562
1563If you run into problems relating to do_aspawn or do_spawn, the
1564problem is probably that Configure failed to detect your system's
bfb7748a
AD
1565fork() function. Follow the procedure in the previous item
1566on L<"nm extraction">.
3fe9a6f1 1567
84902520
TB
1568=item __inet_* errors
1569
1570If you receive unresolved symbol errors during Perl build and/or test
1571referring to __inet_* symbols, check to see whether BIND 8.1 is
1572installed. It installs a /usr/local/include/arpa/inet.h that refers to
1573these symbols. Versions of BIND later than 8.1 do not install inet.h
1574in that location and avoid the errors. You should probably update to a
6d240721 1575newer version of BIND (and remove the files the old one left behind).
ab97e755
MB
1576If you can't, you can either link with the updated resolver library
1577provided with BIND 8.1 or rename /usr/local/bin/arpa/inet.h during the
1578Perl build and test process to avoid the problem.
6d240721 1579
73d6d1b0 1580=item .*_r() prototype NOT found
6d240721
JH
1581
1582On a related note, if you see a bunch of complaints like the above about
ab97e755
MB
1583reentrant functions -- specifically networking-related ones -- being
1584present but without prototypes available, check to see if BIND 8.1 (or
1585possibly other BIND 8 versions) is (or has been) installed. They install
1586header files such as netdb.h into places such as /usr/local/include (or
1587into another directory as specified at build/install time), at least
1588optionally. Remove them or put them in someplace that isn't in the C
1589preprocessor's header file include search path (determined by -I options
1590plus defaults, normally /usr/include).
84902520 1591
d6baa268
JH
1592=item #error "No DATAMODEL_NATIVE specified"
1593
1594This is a common error when trying to build perl on Solaris 2.6 with a
1595gcc installation from Solaris 2.5 or 2.5.1. The Solaris header files
1596changed, so you need to update your gcc installation. You can either
1597rerun the fixincludes script from gcc or take the opportunity to
1598update your gcc installation.
1599
aa689395 1600=item Optimizer
c3edaffb 1601
9d67150a 1602If you can't compile successfully, try turning off your compiler's
aa689395 1603optimizer. Edit config.sh and change the line
9d67150a
PP
1604
1605 optimize='-O'
1606
bfb7748a 1607to
9d67150a
PP
1608
1609 optimize=' '
1610
1611then propagate your changes with B<sh Configure -S> and rebuild
1612with B<make depend; make>.
1613
4bbc1586 1614=item Missing functions and Undefined symbols
9d67150a 1615
4bbc1586
AD
1616If the build of miniperl fails with a long list of missing functions or
1617undefined symbols, check the libs variable in the config.sh file. It
1618should look something like
1619
1620 libs='-lsocket -lnsl -ldl -lm -lc'
1621
1622The exact libraries will vary from system to system, but you typically
1623need to include at least the math library -lm. Normally, Configure
1624will suggest the correct defaults. If the libs variable is empty, you
1625need to start all over again. Run
1626
1627 make distclean
1628
1629and start from the very beginning. This time, unless you are sure of
1630what you are doing, accept the default list of libraries suggested by
1631Configure.
1632
0ff780f4
MB
1633If the libs variable is missing -lm, there is a chance that libm.so.1
1634is available, but the required (symbolic) link to libm.so is missing.
1635(same could be the case for other libraries like libcrypt.so). You
1636should check your installation for packages that create that link, and
1637if no package is installed that supplies that link or you cannot install
1638them, make the symbolic link yourself e.g.:
1639
c7121961
FC
1640 $ rpm -qf /usr/lib64/libm.so
1641 glibc-devel-2.15-22.17.1.x86_64
1642 $ ls -lgo /usr/lib64/libm.so
1643 lrwxrwxrwx 1 16 Jan 7 2013 /usr/lib64/libm.so -> /lib64/libm.so.6
0ff780f4 1644
c7121961 1645 or
0ff780f4 1646
c7121961 1647 $ sudo ln -s /lib64/libm.so.6 /lib64/libm.so
0ff780f4 1648
4bbc1586
AD
1649If the libs variable looks correct, you might have the
1650L<"nm extraction"> problem discussed above.
1651
668cbedd 1652If you still have missing routines or undefined symbols, you probably
0ff780f4
MB
1653need to add some library or other, make a symbolic link like described
1654above, or you need to undefine some feature that Configure thought was
1655there but is defective or incomplete. If you used a hint file, see if
1656it has any relevant advice. You can also look through through config.h
1657for likely suspects.
8e07c86e 1658
1ec51d55 1659=item toke.c
8e07c86e 1660
1ec51d55
CS
1661Some compilers will not compile or optimize the larger files (such as
1662toke.c) without some extra switches to use larger jump offsets or
1663allocate larger internal tables. You can customize the switches for
ab97e755
MB
1664each file in cflags.SH. It's okay to insert rules for specific files
1665into makefile since a default rule only takes effect in the absence of a
8e07c86e
AD
1666specific rule.
1667
7f678428 1668=item Missing dbmclose
8e07c86e 1669
c3edaffb
PP
1670SCO prior to 3.2.4 may be missing dbmclose(). An upgrade to 3.2.4
1671that includes libdbm.nfs (which includes dbmclose()) may be available.
8e07c86e 1672
1bb125e2
MB
1673=item error: too few arguments to function 'dbmclose'
1674
1675Building ODBM_File on some (Open)SUSE distributions might run into this
1676error, as the header file is broken. There are two ways to deal with this
1677
1678 1. Disable the use of ODBM_FILE
1679
1680 Configure ... -Dnoextensions=ODBM_File
1681
1682 2. Fix the header file, somewhat like this:
1683
1684 --- a/usr/include/dbm.h 2010-03-24 08:54:59.000000000 +0100
1685 +++ b/usr/include/dbm.h 2010-03-24 08:55:15.000000000 +0100
1686 @@ -59,4 +59,4 @@ extern datum firstkey __P((void));
1687
1688 extern datum nextkey __P((datum key));
1689
1690 -extern int dbmclose __P((DBM *));
1691 +extern int dbmclose __P((void));
1692
44666fef 1693=item Warning (mostly harmless): No library found for -lsomething
7f678428
PP
1694
1695If you see such a message during the building of an extension, but
1696the extension passes its tests anyway (see L<"make test"> below),
1697then don't worry about the warning message. The extension
1698Makefile.PL goes looking for various libraries needed on various
aa689395 1699systems; few systems will need all the possible libraries listed.
74b7c41f 1700Most users will see warnings for the ones they don't have. The
44666fef 1701phrase 'mostly harmless' is intended to reassure you that nothing
74b7c41f 1702unusual is happening, and the build process is continuing.
7f678428
PP
1703
1704On the other hand, if you are building GDBM_File and you get the
1705message
1706
44666fef 1707 Warning (mostly harmless): No library found for -lgdbm
7f678428
PP
1708
1709then it's likely you're going to run into trouble somewhere along
1710the line, since it's hard to see how you can use the GDBM_File
1711extension without the -lgdbm library.
1712
1713It is true that, in principle, Configure could have figured all of
1714this out, but Configure and the extension building process are not
1715quite that tightly coordinated.
1716
aa689395
PP
1717=item sh: ar: not found
1718
1719This is a message from your shell telling you that the command 'ar'
1720was not found. You need to check your PATH environment variable to
1721make sure that it includes the directory with the 'ar' command. This
1ec51d55 1722is a common problem on Solaris, where 'ar' is in the /usr/ccs/bin
aa689395
PP
1723directory.
1724
1725=item db-recno failure on tests 51, 53 and 55
1726
1727Old versions of the DB library (including the DB library which comes
1728with FreeBSD 2.1) had broken handling of recno databases with modified
1729bval settings. Upgrade your DB library or OS.
1730
6087ac44
JH
1731=item Bad arg length for semctl, is XX, should be ZZZ
1732
c935ba53 1733If you get this error message from the F<cpan/IPC-SysV/t/sem.t> test, your
ab97e755 1734System V IPC may be broken. The XX typically is 20, and that is what ZZZ
6087ac44
JH
1735also should be. Consider upgrading your OS, or reconfiguring your OS
1736to include the System V semaphores.
1737
c935ba53 1738=item cpan/IPC-SysV/t/sem........semget: No space left on device
220f3621
GS
1739
1740Either your account or the whole system has run out of semaphores. Or
1741both. Either list the semaphores with "ipcs" and remove the unneeded
1742ones (which ones these are depends on your system and applications)
1743with "ipcrm -s SEMAPHORE_ID_HERE" or configure more semaphores to your
1744system.
1745
d6baa268
JH
1746=item GNU binutils
1747
1748If you mix GNU binutils (nm, ld, ar) with equivalent vendor-supplied
1749tools you may be in for some trouble. For example creating archives
1750with an old GNU 'ar' and then using a new current vendor-supplied 'ld'
1751may lead into linking problems. Either recompile your GNU binutils
1752under your current operating system release, or modify your PATH not
1753to include the GNU utils before running Configure, or specify the
1754vendor-supplied utilities explicitly to Configure, for example by
1755Configure -Dar=/bin/ar.
1756
16dc217a
GS
1757=item THIS PACKAGE SEEMS TO BE INCOMPLETE
1758
1759The F<Configure> program has not been able to find all the files which
1760make up the complete Perl distribution. You may have a damaged source
1761archive file (in which case you may also have seen messages such as
1762C<gzip: stdin: unexpected end of file> and C<tar: Unexpected EOF on
1763archive file>), or you may have obtained a structurally-sound but
1764incomplete archive. In either case, try downloading again from the
1765official site named at the start of this document. If you do find
1766that any site is carrying a corrupted or incomplete source code
1767archive, please report it to the site's maintainer.
1768
16dc217a
GS
1769=item invalid token: ##
1770
ce80d64e
AD
1771You are using a non-ANSI-compliant C compiler. To compile Perl, you
1772need to use a compiler that supports ANSI C. If there is a README
1773file for your system, it may have further details on your compiler
1774options.
16dc217a 1775
1ec51d55 1776=item Miscellaneous
8e07c86e 1777
7df75831 1778Some additional things that have been reported:
8e07c86e
AD
1779
1780Genix may need to use libc rather than libc_s, or #undef VARARGS.
1781
1782NCR Tower 32 (OS 2.01.01) may need -W2,-Sl,2000 and #undef MKDIR.
1783
668cbedd 1784UTS may need one or more of -K or -g, and #undef LSTAT.
8e07c86e 1785
c935ba53 1786FreeBSD can fail the F<cpan/IPC-SysV/t/sem.t> test if SysV IPC has not been
5cda700b 1787configured in the kernel. Perl tries to detect this, though, and
ce80d64e 1788you will get a message telling you what to do.
6087ac44 1789
6c8d78fb
HS
1790Building Perl on a system that has also BIND (headers and libraries)
1791installed may run into troubles because BIND installs its own netdb.h
1792and socket.h, which may not agree with the operating system's ideas of
1793the same files. Similarly, including -lbind may conflict with libc's
1794view of the world. You may have to tweak -Dlocincpth and -Dloclibpth
1795to avoid the BIND.
1796
8e07c86e
AD
1797=back
1798
58a21a9b
JH
1799=head2 Cross-compilation
1800
e7a3c61b 1801Perl can be cross-compiled. It is just not trivial, cross-compilation
30bba555 1802rarely is. Perl is routinely cross-compiled for several platforms: as of
f36edc68 1803January 2014, these include Android, Blackberry 10, PocketPC aka
30bba555
BF
1804WinCE, ARM Linux, and Solaris. Previous versions of
1805Perl also provided support for Open Zaurus, Symbian, and
1806the IBM OS/400, but it's unknown if those ports are still functional.
ab97e755
MB
1807These platforms are known as the B<target> platforms, while the systems
1808where the compilation takes place are the B<host> platforms.
e7a3c61b
JH
1809
1810What makes the situation difficult is that first of all,
1811cross-compilation environments vary significantly in how they are set
1812up and used, and secondly because the primary way of configuring Perl
1813(using the rather large Unix-tool-dependent Configure script) is not
1814awfully well suited for cross-compilation. However, starting from
30bba555
BF
1815version 5.18.0, the Configure script also knows two ways of supporting
1816cross-compilation, so please keep reading.
e7a3c61b
JH
1817
1818See the following files for more information about compiling Perl for
1819the particular platforms:
1820
1821=over 4
1822
1823=item WinCE/PocketPC
1824
30bba555 1825L<README.ce or perlce|perlce>
e7a3c61b 1826
30bba555 1827=item Android
e7a3c61b 1828
ab97e755
MB
1829L<"Cross-compilation" in README.android or
1830perlandroid|perlandroid/Cross-compilation>
e7a3c61b 1831
30bba555 1832=item Blackberry
e7a3c61b 1833
30bba555 1834L<"Cross-compilation" in README.qnx or perlqnx|perlqnx/Cross-compilation>
e7a3c61b 1835
30bba555 1836=item Solaris
e7a3c61b 1837
ab97e755
MB
1838L<"CROSS-COMPILATION" in README.solaris or
1839perlsolaris|perlsolaris/CROSS-COMPILATION>
30bba555
BF
1840
1841=item Linux
1842
1843This document; See below.
e7a3c61b
JH
1844
1845=back
1846
1847Packaging and transferring either the core Perl modules or CPAN
1848modules to the target platform is also left up to the each
1849cross-compilation environment. Often the cross-compilation target
1850platforms are somewhat limited in diskspace: see the section
1851L<Minimizing the Perl installation> to learn more of the minimal set
1852of files required for a functional Perl installation.
1853
1854For some cross-compilation environments the Configure option
1855C<-Dinstallprefix=...> might be handy, see L<Changing the installation
1856directory>.
1857
30bba555 1858About the cross-compilation support of Configure: There's two forms.
ab97e755
MB
1859The more common one requires some way of transferring and running
1860executables in the target system, such as an ssh connection; this is the
1861C<./Configure -Dusecrosscompile -Dtargethost=...> route. The second
1862method doesn't need access to the target system, but requires you to
1863provide a config.sh, and and a canned Makefile; the rest of this section
1864describes the former.
e7a3c61b 1865
30bba555 1866This cross-compilation setup of Configure has successfully been used in
ab97e755
MB
1867a wide variety of setups, such as a 64-bit OS X host for an Android ARM
1868target, or an amd64 Linux host targeting x86 Solaris, or even Windows.
e7a3c61b
JH
1869
1870To run Configure in cross-compilation mode the basic switch that
30bba555 1871has to be used is C<-Dusecrosscompile>:
58a21a9b
JH
1872
1873 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile -D...
1874
1875This will make the cpp symbol USE_CROSS_COMPILE and the %Config
30bba555 1876symbol C<usecrosscompile> available.
58a21a9b
JH
1877
1878During the Configure and build, certain helper scripts will be created
1879into the Cross/ subdirectory. The scripts are used to execute a
1880cross-compiled executable, and to transfer files to and from the
1881target host. The execution scripts are named F<run-*> and the
1882transfer scripts F<to-*> and F<from-*>. The part after the dash is
1883the method to use for remote execution and transfer: by default the
1884methods are B<ssh> and B<scp>, thus making the scripts F<run-ssh>,
1885F<to-scp>, and F<from-scp>.
1886
1887To configure the scripts for a target host and a directory (in which
1888the execution will happen and which is to and from where the transfer
1889happens), supply Configure with
1890
1891 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st -Dtargetdir=/tar/get/dir
1892
1893The targethost is what e.g. ssh will use as the hostname, the targetdir
93bc48fa
JH
1894must exist (the scripts won't create it), the targetdir defaults to /tmp.
1895You can also specify a username to use for ssh/rsh logins
58a21a9b
JH
1896
1897 -Dtargetuser=luser
1898
30bba555 1899but in case you don't, "root" will be used. Similarly, you can specify
ab97e755
MB
1900a non-standard (i.e. not 22) port for the connection, if applicable,
1901through
30bba555
BF
1902
1903 -Dtargetport=2222
58a21a9b 1904
30bba555
BF
1905If the name of C<cc> has the usual GNU C semantics for cross
1906compilers, that is, CPU-OS-gcc, the target architecture (C<targetarch>),
1907plus names of the C<ar>, C<nm>, and C<ranlib> will also be automatically
1908chosen to be CPU-OS-ar and so on.
1909(The C<ld> requires more thought and will be chosen later by Configure
1910as appropriate). This will also aid in guessing the proper
1911operating system name for the target, which has other repercussions, like
ab97e755
MB
1912better defaults and possibly critical fixes for the platform. If
1913Configure isn't guessing the OS name properly, you may need to either add
1914a hint file redirecting Configure's guess, or modify Configure to make
1915the correct choice.
30bba555
BF
1916
1917If your compiler doesn't follow that convention, you will also need to
1918specify which target environment to use, as well as C<ar> and friends:
58a21a9b
JH
1919
1920 -Dtargetarch=arm-linux
30bba555
BF
1921 -Dcc=mycrossgcc
1922 -Dar=...
1923
1924Additionally, a cross-compilation toolchain will usually install it's own
ab97e755 1925logical system root somewhere -- that is, it'll create a directory
a95b3d6a
KW
1926somewhere which includes subdirectories like C<'include'> or C<'lib'>. For
1927example, you may end up with F</skiff/local/arm-linux>, where
1928F</skiff/local/arm-linux/bin> holds the binaries for cross-compilation,
1929F</skiff/local/arm-linux/include> has the headers, and
1930F</skiff/local/arm-linux/lib> has the library files.
30bba555
BF
1931If this is the case, and you are using a compiler that understands
1932C<--sysroot>, like gcc or clang, you'll want to specify the
1933C<-Dsysroot> option for Configure:
1934
1935 -Dsysroot=/skiff/local/arm-linux
1936
1937However, if your don't have a suitable directory to pass to C<-Dsysroot>,
1938you will also need to specify which target environment to use:
1939
58a21a9b
JH
1940 -Dusrinc=/skiff/local/arm-linux/include
1941 -Dincpth=/skiff/local/arm-linux/include
1942 -Dlibpth=/skiff/local/arm-linux/lib
1943
58a21a9b
JH
1944In addition to the default execution/transfer methods you can also
1945choose B<rsh> for execution, and B<rcp> or B<cp> for transfer,
1946for example:
1947
1948 -Dtargetrun=rsh -Dtargetto=rcp -Dtargetfrom=cp
1949
1950Putting it all together:
1951
1952 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile \
93bc48fa 1953 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st \
30bba555 1954 -Dtargetdir=/tar/get/dir \
58a21a9b
JH
1955 -Dtargetuser=root \
1956 -Dtargetarch=arm-linux \
1957 -Dcc=arm-linux-gcc \
30bba555 1958 -Dsysroot=/skiff/local/arm-linux \
58a21a9b
JH
1959 -D...
1960
e7a3c61b 1961or if you are happy with the defaults:
93bc48fa
JH
1962
1963 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile \
1964 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st \
1965 -Dcc=arm-linux-gcc \
1966 -D...
1967
e7a3c61b
JH
1968Another example where the cross-compiler has been installed under
1969F</usr/local/arm/2.95.5>:
1970
1971 sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile \
1972 -Dtargethost=so.me.ho.st \
1973 -Dcc=/usr/local/arm/2.95.5/bin/arm-linux-gcc \
30bba555
BF
1974 -Dsysroot=/usr/local/arm/2.95.5
1975
1976There is also a C<targetenv> option for Configure which can be used
1977to modify the environment of the target just before testing begins
1978during 'make test'. For example, if the target system has a nonstandard
1979/tmp location, you could do this:
1980
1981 -Dtargetenv="export TMPDIR=/other/tmp;"
1982
ab97e755
MB
1983If you are planning on cross-compiling to several platforms, or some
1984other thing that would involve running Configure several times, there are
1985two options that can be used to speed things up considerably.
30bba555
BF
1986As a bit of background, when you
1987call Configure with C<-Dusecrosscompile>, it begins by actually partially
1988building a miniperl on the host machine, as well as the generate_uudmap
1989binary, and we end up using that during the build.
ab97e755
MB
1990So instead of building that new perl every single time, you can build it
1991just once in a separate directory, and then pass the resulting binaries
1992to Configure like this:
30bba555
BF
1993
1994 -Dhostperl=/path/to/second/build/dir/miniperl
1995 -Dhostgenerate=/path/to/second/build/dir/generate_uudmap
1996
1997Much less commonly, if you are cross-compiling from an ASCII host to an
1998EBCDIC target, or vise versa, you'll have to pass C<-Uhostgenerate> to
1999Configure, to signify that you want to build a generate_uudmap binary
2000that, during make, will be run on the target system.
e7a3c61b 2001
8e07c86e
AD
2002=head1 make test
2003
d6baa268
JH
2004This will run the regression tests on the perl you just made. If
2005'make test' doesn't say "All tests successful" then something went
36bded94 2006wrong.
84902520 2007
84902520 2008Note that you can't run the tests in background if this disables
fb73857a
PP
2009opening of /dev/tty. You can use 'make test-notty' in that case but
2010a few tty tests will be skipped.
c3edaffb 2011
c4f23d77
AD
2012=head2 What if make test doesn't work?
2013
1ec51d55 2014If make test bombs out, just cd to the t directory and run ./TEST
36bded94 2015by hand to see if it makes any difference.
8e07c86e 2016
36bded94
AD
2017One way to get more detailed information about failed tests and
2018individual subtests is to run the harness from the t directory:
aa689395 2019
785aa5e3 2020 cd t ; ./perl harness <list of tests>
aa689395 2021
fb73857a 2022(this assumes that most basic tests succeed, since harness uses
785aa5e3
RGS
2023complicated constructs). If no list of tests is provided, harness
2024will run all tests.
10c7e831 2025
36bded94
AD
2026If individual tests fail, you can often run them by hand (from the main
2027perl directory), e.g.,
2028
2029 ./perl -MTestInit t/op/groups.t
2030
fb73857a 2031You should also read the individual tests to see if there are any helpful
10c7e831
JH
2032comments that apply to your system. You may also need to setup your
2033shared library path if you get errors like:
2034
2035 /sbin/loader: Fatal Error: cannot map libperl.so
2036
36bded94
AD
2037The file t/README in the t subdirectory contains more information about
2038running and modifying tests.
2039
10c7e831 2040See L</"Building a shared Perl library"> earlier in this document.
c3edaffb 2041
c4f23d77
AD
2042=over 4
2043
2044=item locale
2045
1ec51d55 2046Note: One possible reason for errors is that some external programs
c07a80fd 2047may be broken due to the combination of your environment and the way
785aa5e3 2048'make test' exercises them. For example, this may happen if you have
1ec51d55
CS
2049one or more of these environment variables set: LC_ALL LC_CTYPE
2050LC_COLLATE LANG. In some versions of UNIX, the non-English locales
e57fd563
PP
2051are known to cause programs to exhibit mysterious errors.
2052
2053If you have any of the above environment variables set, please try
aa689395
PP
2054
2055 setenv LC_ALL C
2056
2057(for C shell) or
2058
2059 LC_ALL=C;export LC_ALL
2060
1ec51d55
CS
2061for Bourne or Korn shell) from the command line and then retry
2062make test. If the tests then succeed, you may have a broken program that
aa689395 2063is confusing the testing. Please run the troublesome test by hand as
e57fd563 2064shown above and see whether you can locate the program. Look for
1ec51d55
CS
2065things like: exec, `backquoted command`, system, open("|...") or
2066open("...|"). All these mean that Perl is trying to run some
e57fd563 2067external program.
eed2e782 2068
0740bb5b
AD
2069=item Timing problems
2070
c29923ff
JH
2071Several tests in the test suite check timing functions, such as
2072sleep(), and see if they return in a reasonable amount of time.
9341413f
JH
2073If your system is quite busy and doesn't respond quickly enough,
2074these tests might fail. If possible, try running the tests again
2075with the system under a lighter load. These timing-sensitive
2076and load-sensitive tests include F<t/op/alarm.t>,
d0b0e707
TH
2077F<dist/Time-HiRes/t/alarm.t>, F<dist/Time-HiRes/t/clock.t>,
2078F<dist/Time-HiRes/t/itimer.t>, F<dist/Time-HiRes/t/usleep.t>,
1543af16 2079F<dist/threads-shared/t/waithires.t>,
c935ba53 2080F<dist/threads-shared/t/stress.t>, F<lib/Benchmark.t>,
9341413f 2081F<lib/Memoize/t/expmod_t.t>, and F<lib/Memoize/t/speed.t>.
0740bb5b 2082
f89caa8d
RGS
2083You might also experience some failures in F<t/op/stat.t> if you build
2084perl on an NFS filesystem, if the remote clock and the system clock are
2085different.
2086
c4f23d77
AD
2087=item Out of memory
2088
2089On some systems, particularly those with smaller amounts of RAM, some
2090of the tests in t/op/pat.t may fail with an "Out of memory" message.
7970f296
GS
2091For example, on my SparcStation IPC with 12 MB of RAM, in perl5.5.670,
2092test 85 will fail if run under either t/TEST or t/harness.
c4f23d77
AD
2093
2094Try stopping other jobs on the system and then running the test by itself:
2095
04bd6448 2096 ./perl -MTestInit t/op/pat.t
c4f23d77
AD
2097
2098to see if you have any better luck. If your perl still fails this
2099test, it does not necessarily mean you have a broken perl. This test
2100tries to exercise the regular expression subsystem quite thoroughly,
2101and may well be far more demanding than your normal usage.
2102
a55bb48b
AD
2103=item libgcc_s.so.1: cannot open shared object file
2104
2105This message has been reported on gcc-3.2.3 and earlier installed with
2106a non-standard prefix. Setting the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable
2107(or equivalent) to include gcc's lib/ directory with the libgcc_s.so.1
2108shared library should fix the problem.
2109
4f76e5ba
AD
2110=item Failures from lib/File/Temp/t/security saying "system possibly insecure"
2111
2112First, such warnings are not necessarily serious or indicative of a
2113real security threat. That being said, they bear investigating.
2114
2115Note that each of the tests is run twice. The first time is in the
2116directory returned by File::Spec->tmpdir() (often /tmp on Unix
2117systems), and the second time in the directory from which the test was
2118run (usually the 't' directory, if the test was run as part of 'make
2119test').
2120
2121The tests may fail for the following reasons:
2122
2123(1) If the directory the tests are being run in is owned by somebody
2124other than the user running the tests, or by root (uid 0).
2125
2126This failure can happen if the Perl source code distribution is
668cbedd 2127unpacked in such a way that the user IDs in the distribution package
4f76e5ba
AD
2128are used as-is. Some tar programs do this.
2129
2130(2) If the directory the tests are being run in is writable by group or
2131by others, and there is no sticky bit set for the directory. (With
2132UNIX/POSIX semantics, write access to a directory means the right to
2133add or remove files in that directory. The 'sticky bit' is a feature
2134used in some UNIXes to give extra protection to files: if the bit is
2135set for a directory, no one but the owner (or root) can remove that
2136file even if the permissions would otherwise allow file removal by
2137others.)
2138
2139This failure may or may not be a real problem: it depends on the
2140permissions policy used on this particular system. This failure can
2141also happen if the system either doesn't support the sticky bit (this
2142is the case with many non-UNIX platforms: in principle File::Temp
2143should know about these platforms and skip the tests), or if the system
2144supports the sticky bit but for some reason or reasons it is not being
2145used. This is, for example, the case with HP-UX: as of HP-UX release
214611.00, the sticky bit is very much supported, but HP-UX doesn't use it
2147on its /tmp directory as shipped. Also, as with the permissions, some
2148local policy might dictate that the stickiness is not used.
781948c1 2149
b2b23189
JH
2150(3) If the system supports the POSIX 'chown giveaway' feature and if
2151any of the parent directories of the temporary file back to the root
2152directory are 'unsafe', using the definitions given above in (1) and
4f76e5ba
AD
2153(2). For Unix systems, this is usually not an issue if you are
2154building on a local disk. See the documentation for the File::Temp
2155module for more information about 'chown giveaway'.
781948c1
JH
2156
2157See the documentation for the File::Temp module for more information
4f76e5ba 2158about the various security aspects of temporary files.
781948c1 2159
c4f23d77
AD
2160=back
2161
5ee651a9 2162The core distribution can now run its regression tests in parallel on
ab97e755
MB
2163Unix-like platforms. Instead of running C<make test>, set C<TEST_JOBS>
2164in your environment to the number of tests to run in parallel, and run
5ee651a9
NC
2165C<make test_harness>. On a Bourne-like shell, this can be done as
2166
2167 TEST_JOBS=3 make test_harness # Run 3 tests in parallel
2168
ab97e755
MB
2169An environment variable is used, rather than parallel make itself,
2170because L<TAP::Harness> needs to be able to schedule individual
2171non-conflicting test scripts itself, and there is no standard interface
2172to C<make> utilities to interact with their job schedulers.
5ee651a9 2173
8e07c86e
AD
2174=head1 make install
2175
2176This will put perl into the public directory you specified to
ab97e755
MB
2177Configure; by default this is /usr/local/bin. It will also try to put
2178the man pages in a reasonable place. It will not nroff the man pages,
2179however. You may need to be root to run B<make install>. If you are not
2180root, you must still have permission to install into the directories
ce80d64e
AD
2181in question and you should ignore any messages about chown not working.
2182
19f4563d 2183If "make install" just says "'install' is up to date" or something
ce80d64e
AD
2184similar, you may be on a case-insensitive filesystems such as Mac's HFS+,
2185and you should say "make install-all". (This confusion is brought to you
2186by the Perl distribution having a file called INSTALL.)
8e07c86e 2187
dd64f1c3
AD
2188=head2 Installing perl under different names
2189
2190If you want to install perl under a name other than "perl" (for example,
2191when installing perl with special features enabled, such as debugging),
2192indicate the alternate name on the "make install" line, such as:
2193
2194 make install PERLNAME=myperl
2195
beb13193 2196You can separately change the base used for versioned names (like
be8498a1 2197"perl5.8.9") by setting PERLNAME_VERBASE, like
beb13193
RS
2198
2199 make install PERLNAME=perl5 PERLNAME_VERBASE=perl
2200
ab97e755
MB
2201This can be useful if you have to install perl as "perl5" (e.g. to avoid
2202conflicts with an ancient version in /usr/bin supplied by your vendor).
be8498a1 2203Without this the versioned binary would be called "perl55.8.8".
beb13193 2204
ce80d64e
AD
2205=head2 Installing perl under a different directory
2206
2207You can install perl under a different destination directory by using
2208the DESTDIR variable during C<make install>, with a command like
2209
2210 make install DESTDIR=/tmp/perl5
2211
2212DESTDIR is automatically prepended to all the installation paths. See
7df75831 2213the example in L<"DESTDIR"> above.
ce80d64e 2214
dd64f1c3
AD
2215=head2 Installed files
2216
8e07c86e
AD
2217If you want to see exactly what will happen without installing
2218anything, you can run
4633a7c4 2219
8e07c86e
AD
2220 ./perl installperl -n
2221 ./perl installman -n
2222
1ec51d55 2223make install will install the following:
8e07c86e 2224
d56c5707
JH
2225 binaries
2226
8e07c86e 2227 perl,
be8498a1 2228 perl5.n.n where 5.n.n is the current release number. This
8e07c86e 2229 will be a link to perl.
d56c5707
JH
2230
2231 scripts
2232
979b4168
KW
2233 cppstdin This is used by the deprecated switch perl -P,
2234 if your cc -E can't read from stdin.
2235 c2ph, pstruct Scripts for handling C structures in header
2236 files.
979b4168
KW
2237 corelist Shows versions of modules that come with
2238 different
668cbedd
KW
2239 versions of perl.
2240 cpan The CPAN shell.
668cbedd 2241 enc2xs Encoding module generator.
979b4168
KW
2242 h2ph Extract constants and simple macros from C
2243 headers.
8e07c86e 2244 h2xs Converts C .h header files to Perl extensions.
73d6d1b0
RGS
2245 instmodsh A shell to examine installed modules.
2246 libnetcfg Configure libnet.
24b3df7f 2247 perlbug Tool to report bugs in Perl.
8e07c86e 2248 perldoc Tool to read perl's pod documentation.
668cbedd 2249 perlivp Perl Installation Verification Procedure.
73d6d1b0 2250 piconv A Perl implementation of the encoding conversion
668cbedd
KW
2251 utility iconv.
2252 pl2pm Convert Perl 4 .pl files to Perl 5 .pm modules.
8e07c86e 2253 pod2html, Converters from perl's pod documentation format
d56c5707
JH
2254 pod2man,
2255 pod2text,
d56c5707 2256 pod2usage
668cbedd
KW
2257 podchecker POD syntax checker.
2258 podselect Prints sections of POD documentation.
2259 prove A command-line tool for running tests.
2260 psed A Perl implementation of sed.
2261 ptar A Perl implementation of tar.
2262 ptardiff A diff for tar archives.
2263 ptargrep A grep for tar archives.
668cbedd
KW
2264 shasum A tool to print or check SHA checksums.
2265 splain Describe Perl warnings and errors.
2266 xsubpp Compiler to convert Perl XS code into C code.
979b4168 2267 zipdetails display the internal structure of zip files
8e07c86e 2268
d56c5707
JH
2269 library files
2270
2271 in $privlib and $archlib specified to
8e07c86e 2272 Configure, usually under /usr/local/lib/perl5/.
d56c5707
JH
2273
2274 documentation
2275
d6baa268
JH
2276 man pages in $man1dir, usually /usr/local/man/man1.
2277 module man
2278 pages in $man3dir, usually /usr/local/man/man3.
8e07c86e
AD
2279 pod/*.pod in $privlib/pod/.
2280
33cceb07 2281installperl will also create the directories listed above
d6baa268 2282in L<"Installation Directories">.
4633a7c4 2283
d56c5707 2284Perl's *.h header files and the libperl library are also installed
d6baa268 2285under $archlib so that any user may later build new modules, run the
56c6f531
JH
2286optional Perl compiler, or embed the perl interpreter into another
2287program even if the Perl source is no longer available.
8e07c86e 2288
6baaafe3 2289=head2 Installing with a version-specific suffix
33cceb07 2290
6baaafe3
DC
2291Sometimes you only want to install the perl distribution with a
2292version-specific suffix. For example, you may wish to install a newer
2293version of perl alongside an already installed production version.
d56c5707
JH
2294To only install the version-specific parts of the perl installation, run
2295
2296 Configure -Dversiononly
2297
2298or answer 'y' to the appropriate Configure prompt. Alternatively,
2299you can just manually run
2300
2301 ./perl installperl -v
2302
2303and skip installman altogether.
33cceb07 2304
d56c5707
JH
2305See also L<"Maintaining completely separate versions"> for another
2306approach.
2307
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2308=head1 cd /usr/include; h2ph *.h sys/*.h
2309
2310Some perl scripts need to be able to obtain information from the
2311system header files. This command will convert the most commonly used
2312header files in /usr/include into files that can be easily interpreted
2313by perl. These files will be placed in the architecture-dependent
2314library ($archlib) directory you specified to Configure.
2315
668cbedd 2316Note: Due to differences in the C and perl languages, the conversion
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2317of the header files is not perfect. You will probably have to
2318hand-edit some of the converted files to get them to parse correctly.
2319For example, h2ph breaks spectacularly on type casting and certain
2320structures.
2321
2322=head1 installhtml --help
2323
2324Some sites may wish to make perl documentation available in HTML
2325format. The installhtml utility can be used to convert pod
2326documentation into linked HTML files and install them.
2327
2328Currently, the supplied ./installhtml script does not make use of the
2329html Configure variables. This should be fixed in a future release.
2330
2331The following command-line is an example of one used to convert
2332perl documentation:
2333
2334 ./installhtml \
2335 --podroot=. \
2336 --podpath=lib:ext:pod:vms \
2337 --recurse \
2338 --htmldir=/perl/nmanual \
2339 --htmlroot=/perl/nmanual \
2340 --splithead=pod/perlipc \
2341 --splititem=pod/perlfunc \
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2342 --verbose
2343
2344See the documentation in installhtml for more details. It can take
2345many minutes to execute a large installation and you should expect to
2346see warnings like "no title", "unexpected directive" and "cannot
2347resolve" as the files are processed. We are aware of these problems
2348(and would welcome patches for them).
2349
2350You may find it helpful to run installhtml twice. That should reduce
2351the number of "cannot resolve" warnings.
2352
2353=head1 cd pod && make tex && (process the latex files)
2354
2355Some sites may also wish to make the documentation in the pod/ directory
2356available in TeX format. Type
2357
2358 (cd pod && make tex && <process the latex files>)
2359
2360=head1 Starting all over again
2361
668cbedd 2362If you wish to rebuild perl from the same build directory, you should
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2363clean it out with the command
2364
2365 make distclean
2366
2367or
2368
2369 make realclean
2370
2371The only difference between the two is that make distclean also removes
dd8235d9 2372your old config.sh and Policy.sh files. (A plain 'make clean' is now
54f6f377 2373equivalent to 'make realclean'.)
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2374
2375If you are upgrading from a previous version of perl, or if you
2376change systems or compilers or make other significant changes, or if
668cbedd 2377you are experiencing difficulties building perl, you should not reuse
f4ce0e6d
RGS
2378your old config.sh.
2379
2380If your reason to reuse your old config.sh is to save your particular
2381installation choices, then you can probably achieve the same effect by
2382using the Policy.sh file. See the section on L<"Site-wide Policy
2383settings"> above.
2384
ff52061e
RGS
2385=head1 Reporting Problems
2386
2387Wherever possible please use the perlbug tool supplied with this Perl
2388to report problems, as it automatically includes summary configuration
2389information about your perl, which may help us track down problems far
2390more quickly. But first you should read the advice in this file,
2391carefully re-read the error message and check the relevant manual pages
32356571
DC
2392on your system, as these may help you find an immediate solution.
2393Once you've exhausted the documentation, please report bugs to us using
2394the 'perlbug' tool.
ff52061e
RGS
2395
2396The perlbug tool is installed along with perl, so after you have
2397completed C<make install> it should be possible to run it with plain
2398C<perlbug>. If the install fails, or you want to report problems with
2399C<make test> without installing perl, then you can use C<make nok> to
2400run perlbug to report the problem, or run it by hand from this source
2401directory with C<./perl -Ilib utils/perlbug>
2402
2403If the build fails too early to run perlbug uninstalled, then please
2404B<run> the C<./myconfig> shell script, and mail its output along with
2405an accurate description of your problem to perlbug@perl.org
2406
2407If Configure itself fails, and does not generate a config.sh file
2408(needed to run C<./myconfig>), then please mail perlbug@perl.org the
2409description of how Configure fails along with details of your system
668cbedd 2410-- for example the output from running C<uname -a>
ff52061e
RGS
2411
2412Please try to make your message brief but clear. Brief, clear bug
2413reports tend to get answered more quickly. Please don't worry if your
668cbedd 2414written English is not great -- what matters is how well you describe
ff52061e
RGS
2415the important technical details of the problem you have encountered,
2416not whether your grammar and spelling is flawless.
2417
2418Trim out unnecessary information. Do not include large files (such as
2419config.sh or a complete Configure or make log) unless absolutely
2420necessary. Do not include a complete transcript of your build
2421session. Just include the failing commands, the relevant error
2422messages, and whatever preceding commands are necessary to give the
668cbedd 2423appropriate context. Plain text should usually be sufficient -- fancy
ff52061e
RGS
2424attachments or encodings may actually reduce the number of people who
2425read your message. Your message will get relayed to over 400
2426subscribers around the world so please try to keep it brief but clear.
2427
87c118b9
DM
2428If the bug you are reporting has security implications which make it
2429inappropriate to send to a publicly archived mailing list, then see
2430L<perlsec/SECURITY VULNERABILITY CONTACT INFORMATION>
2431for details of how to report the issue.
5acb7768 2432
ff52061e
RGS
2433If you are unsure what makes a good bug report please read "How to
2434report Bugs Effectively" by Simon Tatham:
2435http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/bugs.html
2436
7df75831 2437=head1 Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5
4633a7c4 2438
23cf469f 2439Perl 5.25.8 is not binary compatible with earlier versions of Perl.
cc65bb49 2440In other words, you will have to recompile your XS modules.
14eee2f1 2441
ab97e755
MB
2442In general, you can usually safely upgrade from one version of Perl
2443(e.g. 5.X.Y) to another similar minor version (e.g. 5.X.(Y+1))) without
33cceb07 2444re-compiling all of your extensions. You can also safely leave the old
ab97e755
MB
2445version around in case the new version causes you problems for some
2446reason.
693762b4 2447
be8498a1
RGS
2448Usually, most extensions will probably not need to be recompiled to be
2449used with a newer version of Perl. Here is how it is supposed to work.
ce80d64e 2450(These examples assume you accept all the Configure defaults.)
693762b4 2451
33cceb07
RGS
2452Suppose you already have version 5.8.7 installed. The directories
2453searched by 5.8.7 are typically like:
d6baa268 2454
33cceb07
RGS
2455 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.7/$archname
2456 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.7
2457 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.7/$archname
2458 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.7
d6baa268 2459
33cceb07
RGS
2460Now, suppose you install version 5.8.8. The directories
2461searched by version 5.8.8 will be:
d6baa268 2462
33cceb07
RGS
2463 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.8/$archname
2464 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.8.8
2465 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8/$archname
2466 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8
d6baa268 2467
33cceb07
RGS
2468 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.7/$archname
2469 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.7
c42e3e15 2470 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
bfb7748a 2471
c42e3e15 2472Notice the last three entries -- Perl understands the default structure
d6baa268 2473of the $sitelib directories and will look back in older, compatible
33cceb07
RGS
2474directories. This way, modules installed under 5.8.7 will continue
2475to be usable by 5.8.7 but will also accessible to 5.8.8. Further,
d6baa268 2476suppose that you upgrade a module to one which requires features
33cceb07
RGS
2477present only in 5.8.8. That new module will get installed into
2478/usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8 and will be available to 5.8.8,
2479but will not interfere with the 5.8.7 version.
bfb7748a 2480
c42e3e15 2481The last entry, /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/, is there so that
fe23a901 24825.6.0 and above will look for 5.004-era pure perl modules.
d6baa268 2483
33cceb07
RGS
2484Lastly, suppose you now install 5.10.0, which is not binary compatible
2485with 5.8.x. The directories searched by 5.10.0 (if you don't change the
fe23a901
RF
2486Configure defaults) will be:
2487
33cceb07
RGS
2488 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.10.0/$archname
2489 /usr/local/lib/perl5/5.10.0
2490 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.10.0/$archname
2491 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.10.0
d6baa268 2492
33cceb07 2493 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.8
d6baa268 2494
33cceb07 2495 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.7
fe23a901 2496
d6baa268 2497 /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/
bfb7748a 2498
cc65bb49
AD
2499Note that the earlier $archname entries are now gone, but pure perl
2500modules from earlier versions will still be found.
2501
0a08c020
GS
2502This way, you can choose to share compatible extensions, but also upgrade
2503to a newer version of an extension that may be incompatible with earlier
2504versions, without breaking the earlier versions' installations.
693762b4
AD
2505
2506=head2 Maintaining completely separate versions
4633a7c4 2507
1ec51d55 2508Many users prefer to keep all versions of perl in completely
d6baa268 2509separate directories. This guarantees that an update to one version
0a08c020
GS
2510won't interfere with another version. (The defaults guarantee this for
2511libraries after 5.6.0, but not for executables. TODO?) One convenient
2512way to do this is by using a separate prefix for each version, such as
d52d4e46 2513
23cf469f 2514 sh Configure -Dprefix=/opt/perl5.25.8
d52d4e46 2515
23cf469f 2516and adding /opt/perl5.25.8/bin to the shell PATH variable. Such users
d52d4e46
PP
2517may also wish to add a symbolic link /usr/local/bin/perl so that
2518scripts can still start with #!/usr/local/bin/perl.
2519
693762b4 2520Others might share a common directory for maintenance sub-versions
33cceb07 2521(e.g. 5.10 for all 5.10.x versions), but change directory with
693762b4
AD
2522each major version.
2523
6877a1cf
AD
2524If you are installing a development subversion, you probably ought to
2525seriously consider using a separate directory, since development
2526subversions may not have all the compatibility wrinkles ironed out
2527yet.
2528
a0e0fa22 2529=head2 Upgrading from 5.25.2 or earlier
693762b4 2530
23cf469f 2531B<Perl 5.25.8 may not be binary compatible with Perl 5.25.3 or
4683a5d7 2532earlier Perl releases.> Perl modules having binary parts
e655887d 2533(meaning that a C compiler is used) will have to be recompiled to be
23cf469f
CG
2534used with 5.25.8. If you find you do need to rebuild an extension with
25355.25.8, you may safely do so without disturbing the older
7df75831 2536installations. (See L<"Coexistence with earlier versions of perl 5">
e655887d 2537above.)
c42e3e15
GS
2538
2539See your installed copy of the perllocal.pod file for a (possibly
2540incomplete) list of locally installed modules. Note that you want
cc65bb49 2541perllocal.pod, not perllocale.pod, for installed module information.
693762b4 2542
8ebf57cf
JH
2543=head1 Minimizing the Perl installation
2544
2545The following section is meant for people worrying about squeezing the
2546Perl installation into minimal systems (for example when installing
2547operating systems, or in really small filesystems).
2548
c8214fdf 2549Leaving out as many extensions as possible is an obvious way:
5cda700b
AD
2550Encode, with its big conversion tables, consumes a lot of
2551space. On the other hand, you cannot throw away everything. The
2552Fcntl module is pretty essential. If you need to do network
c8214fdf
JH
2553programming, you'll appreciate the Socket module, and so forth: it all
2554depends on what do you need to do.
2555
8ebf57cf
JH
2556In the following we offer two different slimmed down installation
2557recipes. They are informative, not normative: the choice of files
2558depends on what you need.
2559
2560Firstly, the bare minimum to run this script
2561
2562 use strict;
2563 use warnings;
2564 foreach my $f (</*>) {
2565 print("$f\n");
2566 }
2567
23cf469f 2568in Linux with perl-5.25.8 is as follows (under $Config{prefix}):
8ebf57cf
JH
2569
2570 ./bin/perl
23cf469f
CG
2571 ./lib/perl5/5.25.8/strict.pm
2572 ./lib/perl5/5.25.8/warnings.pm
2573 ./lib/perl5/5.25.8/i686-linux/File/Glob.pm
2574 ./lib/perl5/5.25.8/feature.pm
2575 ./lib/perl5/5.25.8/XSLoader.pm
2576 ./lib/perl5/5.25.8/i686-linux/auto/File/Glob/Glob.so
8ebf57cf 2577
ab97e755
MB
2578Secondly, for perl-5.10.1, the Debian perl-base package contains 591
2579files, (of which 510 are for lib/unicore) totaling about 3.5MB in its
2580i386 version. Omitting the lib/unicore/* files for brevity, the
2581remaining files are:
8ebf57cf 2582
bfe08c74 2583 /usr/bin/perl
00930d57
AD
2584 /usr/bin/perl5.10.1
2585 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Config.pm
2586 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Config_git.pl
2587 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Config_heavy.pl
2588 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Cwd.pm
2589 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/DynaLoader.pm
2590 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Errno.pm
2591 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Fcntl.pm
2592 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/File/Glob.pm
2593 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Hash/Util.pm
2594 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO.pm
2595 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/File.pm
2596 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Handle.pm
2597 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Pipe.pm
2598 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Seekable.pm
2599 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Select.pm
2600 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Socket.pm
2601 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Socket/INET.pm
2602 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/IO/Socket/UNIX.pm
2603 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/List/Util.pm
2604 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/POSIX.pm
2605 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Scalar/Util.pm
2606 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/Socket.pm
2607 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/XSLoader.pm
2608 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/Cwd/Cwd.so
2609 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/DynaLoader/autosplit.ix
2610 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/DynaLoader/dl_expandspec.al
2611 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/DynaLoader/dl_find_symbol_anywhere.al
2612 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/DynaLoader/dl_findfile.al
2613 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/Fcntl/Fcntl.so
2614 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/File/Glob/Glob.so
2615 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/Hash/Util/Util.so
2616 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/IO/IO.so
2617 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/List/Util/Util.so
2618 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/POSIX/POSIX.so
2619 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/POSIX/autosplit.ix
2620 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/POSIX/load_imports.al
2621 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/auto/Socket/Socket.so
2622 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/lib.pm
2623 /usr/lib/perl/5.10.1/re.pm
8ebf57cf 2624 /usr/share/doc/perl/AUTHORS.gz
bfe08c74 2625 /usr/share/doc/perl/Documentation
00930d57 2626 /usr/share/doc/perl/README.Debian
8ebf57cf 2627 /usr/share/doc/perl/changelog.Debian.gz
bfe08c74 2628 /usr/share/doc/perl/copyright
00930d57 2629 /usr/share/lintian/overrides/perl-base
8ebf57cf 2630 /usr/share/man/man1/perl.1.gz
00930d57
AD
2631 /usr/share/man/man1/perl5.10.1.1.gz
2632 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/AutoLoader.pm
2633 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Carp.pm
2634 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Carp/Heavy.pm
2635 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Exporter.pm
2636 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Exporter/Heavy.pm
2637 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/File/Spec.pm
2638 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/File/Spec/Unix.pm
2639 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/FileHandle.pm
2640 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Getopt/Long.pm
2641 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/IPC/Open2.pm
2642 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/IPC/Open3.pm
2643 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/SelectSaver.pm
2644 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Symbol.pm
2645 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Text/ParseWords.pm
2646 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Text/Tabs.pm
2647 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Text/Wrap.pm
2648 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/Tie/Hash.pm
2649 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/attributes.pm
2650 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/base.pm
2651 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/bytes.pm
2652 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/bytes_heavy.pl
2653 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/constant.pm
2654 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/fields.pm
2655 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/integer.pm
2656 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/locale.pm
2657 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/overload.pm
2658 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/strict.pm
2659 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/unicore/*
2660 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/utf8.pm
2661 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/utf8_heavy.pl
2662 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/vars.pm
2663 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/warnings.pm
2664 /usr/share/perl/5.10.1/warnings/register.pm
8ebf57cf 2665
e7a3c61b
JH
2666A nice trick to find out the minimal set of Perl library files you will
2667need to run a Perl program is
2668
a0a8d9d3 2669 perl -e 'do "prog.pl"; END { print "$_\n" for sort keys %INC }'
e7a3c61b
JH
2670
2671(this will not find libraries required in runtime, unfortunately, but
2672it's a minimal set) and if you want to find out all the files you can
2673use something like the below
2674
979b4168
KW
2675 strace perl -le 'do "x.pl"' 2>&1 \
2676 | perl -nle '/^open\(\"(.+?)"/ && print $1'
e7a3c61b
JH
2677
2678(The 'strace' is Linux-specific, other similar utilities include 'truss'
2679and 'ktrace'.)
2680
c19ccd8c
RGS
2681=head2 C<-DNO_MATHOMS>
2682
2683If you configure perl with C<-Accflags=-DNO_MATHOMS>, the functions from
2684F<mathoms.c> will not be compiled in. Those functions are no longer used
2685by perl itself; for source compatibility reasons, though, they weren't
2686completely removed.
2687
8e07c86e
AD
2688=head1 DOCUMENTATION
2689
bfb7748a
AD
2690Read the manual entries before running perl. The main documentation
2691is in the pod/ subdirectory and should have been installed during the
8e07c86e 2692build process. Type B<man perl> to get started. Alternatively, you
bfb7748a
AD
2693can type B<perldoc perl> to use the supplied perldoc script. This is
2694sometimes useful for finding things in the library modules.
8e07c86e
AD
2695
2696=head1 AUTHOR
2697
bfb7748a
AD
2698Original author: Andy Dougherty doughera@lafayette.edu , borrowing very
2699heavily from the original README by Larry Wall, with lots of helpful
2700feedback and additions from the perl5-porters@perl.org folks.
fb73857a 2701
f5b3b617
AD
2702If you have problems, corrections, or questions, please see
2703L<"Reporting Problems"> above.
2704
2705=head1 REDISTRIBUTION
2706
2707This document is part of the Perl package and may be distributed under
d6baa268 2708the same terms as perl itself, with the following additional request:
f5b3b617 2709If you are distributing a modified version of perl (perhaps as part of
d6baa268
JH
2710a larger package) please B<do> modify these installation instructions
2711and the contact information to match your distribution.