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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
2It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
3designed to be readable as is.
4
5=head1 NAME
6
7README.aix - Perl version 5 on IBM Unix (AIX) systems
8
9=head1 DESCRIPTION
10
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11This document describes various features of IBM's Unix operating
12system (AIX) that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl)
13is compiled and/or runs.
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14
15=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on AIX
16
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17For information on compilers on older versions of AIX, see L<Compiling
18Perl 5 on older AIX versions up to 4.3.3>.
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19
20When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship
21an ANSI compliant C-compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of
22gcc for AIX are widely available.
23
24=head2 Supported Compilers
25
26Currently all versions of IBM's "xlc", "xlc_r", "cc", "cc_r" or
c5252117 27"vac" ANSI/C compiler will work for building Perl if that compiler
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28works on your system.
29
c5252117 30If you plan to link Perl to any module that requires thread-support,
e1051f11 31like DBD::Oracle, it is better to use the _r version of the compiler.
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32This will not build a threaded Perl, but a thread-enabled Perl. See
33also L<Threaded Perl> later on.
e1051f11 34
e3c125ff 35As of writing (2009-07) only the IBM XL C for AIX or XL C/C++ for AIX
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36compiler is supported by IBM on AIX 5L/6.1.
37
38The following compiler versions are supported by IBM:
39
40XL C and XL C/C++ V7, V8, V9, V10
41
42The XL C for AIX is integrated in the XL C/C++ for AIX compiler.
43
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44If you choose XL C/C++ V9 you need APAR IZ35785 installed
45otherwise the integrated SDBM_File do not compile correctly due
46to an optimization bug. You can circumvent this problem by
47adding -qipa to the optimization flags (-Doptimize='-O -qipa').
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48The PTF for APAR IZ35785 which solves this problem is available
49from IBM (April 2009 PTF for XL C/C++ Enterprise Edition for AIX, V9.0).
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51Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.
52The former is recommended, as not only it can compile Perl with no
53difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later
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54that require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
55
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56If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
57complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
58details. Please report any hoops you had to jump through to the
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59development team.
60
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61=head2 Incompatibility with AIX Toolbox lib gdbm
62
63If the AIX Toolbox version of lib gdbm 1.8.x ist installed on the
64system then Perl will not work. This library contains a defect version
65of the dbm_store() function.
66
67=head2 Perl 5.10 was successfully compiled and tested on:
68
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69 AIX Level | Compiler Level | w th | w/o th
70 --------------------------+-------------------------+------+-------
71 5.1 TL9 32 bit | XL C/C++ V7 | OK | OK
72 5.1 TL9 32 bit | gcc 3.2.2 | OK | OK
73 5.1 TL9 64 bit | XL C/C++ V7 | OK | OK
74 5.2 TL10 32 bit | XL C/C++ V8 | OK | OK
e3c125ff 75 5.2 TL8 64 bit | VA C/C++ V6 | OK | OK
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76 5.2 TL10 64 bit | XL C/C++ V8 | OK | OK
77 5.3 TL7 32 bit | XL C/C++ V9 + IZ35785 | OK | OK
78 5.3 TL7 32 bit | gcc 4.2.4 | OK | OK
79 5.3 TL7 64 bit | XL C/C++ V9 + IZ35785 | OK | OK
80 6.1 TL1 32 bit | XL C/C++ V10 | OK | OK
81 6.1 TL1 64 bit + IZ39077 | XL C/C++ V10 | OK | OK
e3c125ff 82
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83 w th = with thread
84 w/o th = without thread
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85 nyt = not yet tested
86 OK = tested
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87
88Successfully tested means that all make test runs with an result of 100% OK.
89All tests were conducted with -Duseshrplib set.
90
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91=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX
92
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93Starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.x / 5.10.x) and AIX 4.3
94or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface in the so
95called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface that was
96used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases 4.2 and
97earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with compiled
98modules from earlier Perl releases. The change was made to make Perl
99more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are
100using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of
101C++ code with static constructors and destructors in Perl extensions,
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102which was not possible using the emulated interface.
103
104It is highly recommended to use the new interface.
105
106=head2 Using Large Files with Perl
107
108Should yield no problems.
109
110=head2 Threaded Perl
111
81189653 112Should yield no problems with AIX 5.1 / 5.2 / 5.3 and 6.1.
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114IBM uses the AIX system Perl (V5.6.0 on AIX 5.1 and V5.8.2 on
115AIX 5.2 / 5.3 and 6.1) for some AIX
116system scripts. If you switch the links in /usr/bin from the
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117AIX system Perl (/usr/opt/perl5) to the newly build Perl then you
118get the same features as with the IBM AIX system Perl if the
119threaded options are used.
120
c5252117 121The threaded Perl build works also on AIX 5.1 but the IBM Perl
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122build (Perl v5.6.0) is not threaded on AIX 5.1.
123
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124=head2 64-bit Perl
125
126If your AIX system is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit
127configurations to work. If you want to use 64-bit Perl on AIX 6.1
128you need a APAR for a libc.a bug which affects (n)dbm_XXX functions.
81189653 129The APAR number for this problem is IZ39077.
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130
131If you need more memory (larger data segment) for your Perl programs you
132can set:
133
134 /etc/security/limits
135 default: (or your user)
e3c125ff 136 data = -1 (default is 262144 * 512 byte)
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137
138With the default setting the size is limited to 128MB.
139The -1 removes this limit.
140
e1051f11 141=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1 (threaded/32-bit)
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142
143With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which
144passes all make tests in threaded 32-bit mode, which is the default
c5252117 145configuration for the Perl builds that AIX ships with.
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146
147 rm config.sh
148 ./Configure \
149 -d \
150 -Dcc=cc_r \
151 -Duseshrplib \
152 -Dusethreads \
153 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
154
fe5460cc 155The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
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156IBM AIX system Perl installation.
157
158=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1 (32-bit)
159
fe5460cc 160With the following options you get a Perl version which passes
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161all make tests in 32-bit mode.
162
163 rm config.sh
164 ./Configure \
165 -d \
166 -Dcc=cc_r \
167 -Duseshrplib \
168 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
169
170The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
171IBM AIX system Perl installation.
172
e1051f11 173=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1 (threaded/64-bit)
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174
175With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which
176passes all make tests in 64-bit mode.
177
178 export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell)
179
180 rm config.sh
181 ./Configure \
182 -d \
183 -Dcc=cc_r \
184 -Duseshrplib \
185 -Dusethreads \
186 -Duse64bitall \
187 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
188
189=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3 and 6.1(64-bit)
190
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191With the following options you get a Perl version which passes all
192make tests in 64-bit mode.
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193
194 export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell)
e3c125ff 195
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196 rm config.sh
197 ./Configure \
198 -d \
199 -Dcc=cc_r \
200 -Duseshrplib \
201 -Duse64bitall \
202 -Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
203
fe5460cc 204The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
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205IBM AIX system Perl installation.
206
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207If you choose gcc to compile 64-bit Perl then you need to use the
208following options:
209
210 -Dcc='gcc -maix64'
211
212
213=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on older AIX versions up to 4.3.3
214
215Due to the fact that AIX 4.3.3 reached end-of-service in December 31,
2162003 this information is provided as is. The Perl versions prior to
217Perl 5.8.9 could be compiled on AIX up to 4.3.3 with the following
218settings (your mileage may vary):
7fabfece 219
d5d9880c 220When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship
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221an ANSI compliant C-compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of
222gcc for AIX are widely available.
223
224At the moment of writing, AIX supports two different native C compilers,
4951a6f9 225for which you have to pay: B<xlC> and B<vac>. If you decide to use either
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226of these two (which is quite a lot easier than using gcc), be sure to
227upgrade to the latest available patch level. Currently:
228
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229 xlC.C 3.1.4.10 or 3.6.6.0 or 4.0.2.2 or 5.0.2.9 or 6.0.0.3
230 vac.C 4.4.0.3 or 5.0.2.6 or 6.0.0.1
231
232note that xlC has the OS version in the name as of version 4.0.2.0, so
233you will find xlC.C for AIX-5.0 as package
234
235 xlC.aix50.rte 5.0.2.0 or 6.0.0.3
236
66a1b24b 237subversions are not the same "latest" on all OS versions. For example,
c67773d0 238the latest xlC-5 on aix41 is 5.0.2.9, while on aix43, it is 5.0.2.7.
20d11268 239
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240Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.
241The former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no
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242difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
243require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
244
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245The IBM's compiler patch levels 5.0.0.0 and 5.0.1.0 have compiler
246optimization bugs that affect compiling perl.c and regcomp.c,
247respectively. If Perl's configuration detects those compiler patch
248levels, optimization is turned off for the said source code files.
249Upgrading to at least 5.0.2.0 is recommended.
250
20d11268 251If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
eed1f4d3 252complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
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253details. Please report any hoops you had to jump through to the development
254team.
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255
256=head2 OS level
257
258Before installing the patches to the IBM C-compiler you need to know the
259level of patching for the Operating System. IBM's command 'oslevel' will
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260show the base, but is not always complete (in this example oslevel shows
2614.3.NULL, whereas the system might run most of 4.3.THREE):
1a3e4d88 262
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263 # oslevel
264 4.3.0.0
265 # lslpp -l | grep 'bos.rte '
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266 bos.rte 4.3.3.75 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime
267 bos.rte 4.3.2.0 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime
268 #
269
c5252117 270The same might happen to AIX 5.1 or other OS levels. As a side note, Perl
64cb7701 271cannot be built without bos.adt.syscalls and bos.adt.libm installed
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272
273 # lslpp -l | egrep "syscalls|libm"
274 bos.adt.libm 5.1.0.25 COMMITTED Base Application Development
c67773d0 275 bos.adt.syscalls 5.1.0.36 COMMITTED System Calls Application
64cb7701 276 #
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277
278=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX
279
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280AIX supports dynamically loadable objects as well as shared libraries.
281Shared libraries by convention end with the suffix .a, which is a bit
282misleading, as an archive can contain static as well as dynamic members.
c5252117 283For Perl dynamically loaded objects we use the .so suffix also used on
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284many other platforms.
285
286Note that starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.0) and AIX 4.3
287or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface in the so
288called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface that was
289used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases 4.2 and
290earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with compiled
c5252117 291modules from earlier Perl releases. The change was made to make Perl
efc3b6b5 292more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are
8218ea5d 293using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of C++
c5252117 294code with static constructors and destructors in Perl extensions, which
8218ea5d 295was not possible using the emulated interface.
12f54d27 296
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297=head2 The IBM ANSI C Compiler
298
299All defaults for Configure can be used.
300
301If you've chosen to use vac 4, be sure to run 4.4.0.3. Older versions
4951a6f9 302will turn up nasty later on. For vac 5 be sure to run at least 5.0.1.0,
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303but vac 5.0.2.6 or up is highly recommended. Note that since IBM has
304removed vac 5.0.2.1 through 5.0.2.5 from the software depot, these
305versions should be considered obsolete.
20d11268 306
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307Here's a brief lead of how to upgrade the compiler to the latest
308level. Of course this is subject to changes. You can only upgrade
309versions from ftp-available updates if the first three digit groups
310are the same (in where you can skip intermediate unlike the patches
c5252117 311in the developer snapshots of Perl), or to one version up where the
66a1b24b 312"base" is available. In other words, the AIX compiler patches are
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313cumulative.
314
315 vac.C.4.4.0.1 => vac.C.4.4.0.3 is OK (vac.C.4.4.0.2 not needed)
316 xlC.C.3.1.3.3 => xlC.C.3.1.4.10 is NOT OK (xlC.C.3.1.4.0 is not available)
317
318 # ftp ftp.software.ibm.com
319 Connected to service.boulder.ibm.com.
320 : welcome message ...
321 Name (ftp.software.ibm.com:merijn): anonymous
322 331 Guest login ok, send your complete e-mail address as password.
323 Password:
324 ... accepted login stuff
325 ftp> cd /aix/fixes/v4/
326 ftp> dir other other.ll
327 output to local-file: other.ll? y
328 200 PORT command successful.
329 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
330 226 Transfer complete.
331 ftp> dir xlc xlc.ll
332 output to local-file: xlc.ll? y
333 200 PORT command successful.
334 150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
335 226 Transfer complete.
336 ftp> bye
337 ... goodbye messages
338 # ls -l *.ll
339 -rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 1169432 Nov 2 17:29 other.ll
340 -rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 29170 Nov 2 17:29 xlc.ll
341
342On AIX 4.2 using xlC, we continue:
343
344 # lslpp -l | fgrep 'xlC.C '
345 xlC.C 3.1.4.9 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
346 xlC.C 3.1.4.0 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
347 # grep 'xlC.C.3.1.4.*.bff' xlc.ll
348 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6286336 Jul 22 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.1.bff
349 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6173696 Aug 24 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.10.bff
350 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6319104 Aug 14 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.2.bff
351 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6316032 Oct 21 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.3.bff
352 -rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6315008 Dec 20 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.4.bff
353 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6178816 Mar 28 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.5.bff
354 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6188032 May 22 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.6.bff
355 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6191104 Sep 5 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.7.bff
356 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6185984 Jan 13 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.8.bff
357 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6169600 May 27 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.9.bff
358 # wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/xlc/xlC.C.3.1.4.10.bff
359 #
360
361On AIX 4.3 using vac, we continue:
362
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363 # lslpp -l | grep 'vac.C '
364 vac.C 5.0.2.2 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
365 vac.C 5.0.2.0 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
366 # grep 'vac.C.5.0.2.*.bff' other.ll
367 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 13592576 Apr 16 2001 vac.C.5.0.2.0.bff
368 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14133248 Apr 9 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.3.bff
369 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14173184 May 20 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.4.bff
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370 -rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14192640 Nov 22 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff
371 # wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/other/vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff
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372 #
373
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374Likewise on all other OS levels. Then execute the following command, and
375fill in its choices
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376
377 # smit install_update
378 -> Install and Update from LATEST Available Software
c67773d0 379 * INPUT device / directory for software [ vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff ]
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380 [ OK ]
381 [ OK ]
382
383Follow the messages ... and you're done.
384
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385If you like a more web-like approach, a good start point can be
386http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/download/downloadaz.jsp and click
387"C for AIX", and follow the instructions.
388
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389=head2 The usenm option
390
391If linking miniperl
392
393 cc -o miniperl ... miniperlmain.o opmini.o perl.o ... -lm -lc ...
394
395causes error like this
396
397 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .aintl
398 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .copysignl
399 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .syscall
400 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .eaccess
401 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresuid
402 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresgid
403 ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setproctitle
404 ld: 0711-345 Use the -bloadmap or -bnoquiet option to obtain more information.
405
406you could retry with
407
408 make realclean
409 rm config.sh
410 ./Configure -Dusenm ...
411
412which makes Configure to use the C<nm> tool when scanning for library
413symbols, which usually is not done in AIX.
414
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415Related to this, you probably should not use the C<-r> option of
416Configure in AIX, because that affects of how the C<nm> tool is used.
417
c5252117 418=head2 Using GNU's gcc for building Perl
20d11268 419
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420Using gcc-3.x (tested with 3.0.4, 3.1, and 3.2) now works out of the box,
421as do recent gcc-2.9 builds available directly from IBM as part of their
422Linux compatibility packages, available here:
818c4caa 423
4238f5a6 424 http://www.ibm.com/servers/aix/products/aixos/linux/
20d11268 425
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426=head2 Using Large Files with Perl
427
60ecc970 428Should yield no problems.
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429
430=head2 Threaded Perl
431
60ecc970 432Threads seem to work OK, though at the moment not all tests pass when
1d69df2b 433threads are used in combination with 64-bit configurations.
20d11268 434
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435You may get a warning when doing a threaded build:
436
437 "pp_sys.c", line 4640.39: 1506-280 (W) Function argument assignment between types "unsigned char*" and "const void*" is not allowed.
438
439The exact line number may vary, but if the warning (W) comes from a line
440line this
441
442 hent = PerlSock_gethostbyaddr(addr, (Netdb_hlen_t) addrlen, addrtype);
443
444in the "pp_ghostent" function, you may ignore it safely. The warning
445is caused by the reentrant variant of gethostbyaddr() having a slightly
446different prototype than its non-reentrant variant, but the difference
447is not really significant here.
448
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449=head2 64-bit Perl
450
1d69df2b 451If your AIX is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit
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452configurations to work. In combination with threads some tests might
453still fail.
20d11268 454
12f54d27 455=head2 AIX 4.2 and extensions using C++ with statics
20d11268 456
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457In AIX 4.2 Perl extensions that use C++ functions that use statics
458may have problems in that the statics are not getting initialized.
459In newer AIX releases this has been solved by linking Perl with
460the libC_r library, but unfortunately in AIX 4.2 the said library
461has an obscure bug where the various functions related to time
462(such as time() and gettimeofday()) return broken values, and
463therefore in AIX 4.2 Perl is not linked against the libC_r.
20d11268 464
7fabfece 465=head1 AUTHORS
20d11268 466
3bd76f0a 467H.Merijn Brand <h.m.brand@xs4all.nl>
7fabfece 468Rainer Tammer <tammer@tammer.net>
20d11268 469
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470=head1 DATE
471
e3c125ff 472Version 0.0.9: 08 Jul 2009
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473
474=cut