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1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
2see. It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
3specially designed to be readable as is.
5aabfad6 4
8736538c 5=head1 NAME
5aabfad6 6
f8dbba82 7README.cygwin - Perl for Cygwin
5aabfad6 8
8736538c 9=head1 SYNOPSIS
5aabfad6 10
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11This document will help you configure, make, test and install Perl
12on Cygwin. This document also describes features of Cygwin that will
13affect how Perl behaves at runtime.
5aabfad6 14
f8dbba82 15B<NOTE:> There are pre-built Perl packages available for Cygwin and a
b4bcd662 16version of Perl is provided on the Cygwin CD. If you do not need to
f8dbba82 17customize the configuration, consider using one of these packages:
5aabfad6 18
f8dbba82 19 http://cygutils.netpedia.net/
5aabfad6 20
f8dbba82 21=head1 PREREQUISITES
8736538c 22
f8dbba82 23=head2 Cygwin = GNU+Cygnus+Windows (Don't leave UNIX without it)
8736538c 24
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25The Cygwin tools are ports of the popular GNU development tools for Win32
26platforms. They run thanks to the Cygwin library which provides the UNIX
27system calls and environment these programs expect. More information
28about this project can be found at:
8736538c 29
125a13ce 30 http://sources.redhat.com/cygwin/
1cab015a 31
f8dbba82 32A recent net or commercial release of Cygwin is required.
8736538c 33
125a13ce 34At the time this document was last updated, Cygwin 1.1.4 was current.
8736538c 35
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36B<NOTE:> At this point, minimal effort has been made to provide
37compatibility with old (beta) Cygwin releases. The focus has been to
38provide a high quality release and not worry about working around old
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39bugs. If you wish to use Perl with Cygwin B20.1 or earlier, consider
40using perl5.005_03, which is available in source and binary form at
41C<http://cygutils.netpedia.net/>. If there is significant demand,
42a patch kit can be developed to port back to earlier Cygwin versions.
1cab015a 43
f8dbba82 44=head2 Cygwin Configuration
1cab015a 45
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46While building Perl some changes may be necessary to your Cygwin setup so
47that Perl builds cleanly. These changes are B<not> required for normal
48Perl usage.
1cab015a 49
f8dbba82 50B<NOTE:> The binaries that are built will run on all Win32 versions.
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51They do not depend on your host system (Win9x/WinME, WinNT/Win2K)
52or your Cygwin configuration (I<ntea>, I<ntsec>, binary/text mounts).
53The only dependencies come from hard-coded pathnames like C</usr/local>.
54However, your host system and Cygwin configuration will affect Perl's
55runtime behavior (see L</"TEST">).
1cab015a 56
f8dbba82 57=over 4
1cab015a 58
f8dbba82 59=item * C<PATH>
1cab015a 60
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61Set the C<PATH> environment variable so that Configure finds the Cygwin
62versions of programs. Any Windows directories should be removed or
63moved to the end of your C<PATH>.
1cab015a 64
f8dbba82 65=item * I<nroff>
1cab015a 66
f8dbba82 67If you do not have I<nroff> (which is part of the I<groff> package),
b4bcd662 68Configure will B<not> prompt you to install I<man> pages.
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69
70=item * Permissions
71
72On WinNT with either the I<ntea> or I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> settings, directory
73and file permissions may not be set correctly. Since the build process
125a13ce 74creates directories and files, to be safe you may want to run a `C<chmod
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75-R +w *>' on the entire Perl source tree.
76
77Also, it is a well known WinNT "feature" that files created by a login
78that is a member of the I<Administrators> group will be owned by the
79I<Administrators> group. Depending on your umask, you may find that you
80can not write to files that you just created (because you are no longer
81the owner). When using the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, this is not an
82issue because it "corrects" the ownership to what you would expect on
83a UNIX system.
1cab015a 84
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85=back
86
f8dbba82 87=head1 CONFIGURE
8736538c 88
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89The default options gathered by Configure with the assistance of
90F<hints/cygwin.sh> will build a Perl that supports dynamic loading
91(which requires a shared F<libperl.dll>).
f89d6eaa 92
f8dbba82 93This will run Configure and keep a record:
8736538c 94
f8dbba82 95 ./Configure 2>&1 | tee log.configure
8736538c 96
b4bcd662 97If you are willing to accept all the defaults run Configure with B<-de>.
f8dbba82 98However, several useful customizations are available.
5aabfad6 99
f8dbba82 100=head2 Strip Binaries
5aabfad6 101
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102It is possible to strip the EXEs and DLLs created by the build process.
103The resulting binaries will be significantly smaller. If you want the
104binaries to be stripped, you can either add a B<-s> option when Configure
105prompts you,
8736538c 106
f8dbba82 107 Any additional ld flags (NOT including libraries)? [none] -s
5db16f6a 108 Any special flags to pass to gcc to use dynamic linking? [none] -s
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109 Any special flags to pass to ld2 to create a dynamically loaded library?
110 [none] -s
8736538c 111
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112or you can edit F<hints/cygwin.sh> and uncomment the relevant variables
113near the end of the file.
8736538c 114
f8dbba82 115=head2 Optional Libraries
8736538c 116
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117Several Perl functions and modules depend on the existence of
118some optional libraries. Configure will find them if they are
119installed in one of the directories listed as being used for library
120searches. Pre-built packages for most of these are available at
121C<http://cygutils.netpedia.net/>.
8736538c 122
f8dbba82 123=over 4
8736538c 124
f8dbba82 125=item * C<-lcrypt>
8736538c 126
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127The crypt package distributed with Cygwin is a Linux compatible 56-bit
128DES crypt port by Corinna Vinschen.
129
130Alternatively, the crypt libraries in GNU libc have been ported to Cygwin.
1cab015a 131
5db16f6a 132The DES based Ultra Fast Crypt port was done by Alexey Truhan:
1cab015a 133
b4bcd662 134 ftp://ftp.franken.de/pub/win32/develop/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Okhapkin_Sergey/cw32crypt-dist-0.tgz
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135
136NOTE: There are various export restrictions on DES implementations,
137see the glibc README for more details.
1cab015a 138
f8dbba82 139The MD5 port was done by Andy Piper:
1cab015a 140
b4bcd662 141 ftp://ftp.franken.de/pub/win32/develop/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Okhapkin_Sergey/libcrypt.tgz
1cab015a 142
f8dbba82 143=item * C<-lgdbm> (C<use GDBM_File>)
1cab015a 144
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145GDBM is available for Cygwin. GDBM's ndbm/dbm compatibility feature
146also makes C<NDBM_File> and C<ODBM_File> possible (although they add
147little extra value).
1cab015a 148
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149NOTE: The ndbm/dbm emulations only completely work on NTFS partitions.
150
f8dbba82 151=item * C<-ldb> (C<use DB_File>)
1cab015a 152
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153BerkeleyDB is available for Cygwin. Some details can be found in
154F<ext/DB_File/DB_File.pm>.
1cab015a 155
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156NOTE: The BerkeleyDB library only completely works on NTFS partitions.
157
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158=item * C<-lcygipc> (C<use IPC::SysV>)
159
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160A port of SysV IPC is available for Cygwin.
161
162NOTE: This has B<not> been extensively tested. In particular,
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163C<d_semctl_semun> is undefined because it fails a Configure test
164and on Win9x the I<shm*()> functions seem to hang. It also creates
165a compile time dependency because F<perl.h> includes F<<sys/ipc.h>>
166and F<<sys/sem.h>> (which will be required in the future when compiling
167CPAN modules).
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168
169=back
170
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171=head2 Configure-time Options
172
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173The F<INSTALL> document describes several Configure-time options. Some of
174these will work with Cygwin, others are not yet possible. Also, some of
175these are experimental. You can either select an option when Configure
176prompts you or you can define (undefine) symbols on the command line.
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177
178=over 4
179
180=item * C<-Uusedl>
181
0a110db2 182Undefining this symbol forces Perl to be compiled statically.
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183
184=item * C<-Uusemymalloc>
1cab015a 185
f8dbba82 186By default Perl uses the malloc() included with the Perl source. If you
0a110db2 187want to force Perl to build with the system malloc() undefine this symbol.
1cab015a 188
6b49d266 189=item * C<-Dusemultiplicity>
1cab015a 190
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191Multiplicity is required when embedding Perl in a C program and using
192more than one interpreter instance. This works with the Cygwin port.
1cab015a 193
f8dbba82 194=item * C<-Duseperlio>
1cab015a 195
f8dbba82 196The PerlIO abstraction works with the Cygwin port.
1cab015a 197
0a110db2 198=item * C<-Duse64bitint>
1cab015a 199
f8dbba82 200I<gcc> supports 64-bit integers. However, several additional long long
5db16f6a 201functions are necessary to use them within Perl (I<{strtol,strtoul}l>).
f8dbba82 202These are B<not> yet available with Cygwin.
1cab015a 203
f8dbba82 204=item * C<-Duselongdouble>
1cab015a 205
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206I<gcc> supports long doubles (12 bytes). However, several additional
207long double math functions are necessary to use them within Perl
5db16f6a 208(I<{atan2,cos,exp,floor,fmod,frexp,log,modf,pow,sin,sqrt}l,strtold>).
f8dbba82 209These are B<not> yet available with Cygwin.
1cab015a 210
f8dbba82 211=item * C<-Dusethreads>
1cab015a 212
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213POSIX threads are B<not> yet implemented in Cygwin.
214
215=item * C<-Duselargefiles>
216
0a110db2 217Although Win32 supports large files, Cygwin currently uses 32-bit integers
5db16f6a 218for internal size and position calculations.
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219
220=back
221
f8dbba82 222=head2 Suspicious Warnings
1cab015a 223
f8dbba82 224You may see some messages during Configure that seem suspicious.
8736538c 225
f8dbba82 226=over 4
8736538c 227
b4bcd662 228=item * I<dlsym()>
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229
230I<ld2> is needed to build dynamic libraries, but it does not exist
231when dlsym() checking occurs (it is not created until `C<make>' runs).
232You will see the following message:
233
234 Checking whether your dlsym() needs a leading underscore ...
b4bcd662 235 ld2: not found
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236 I can't compile and run the test program.
237 I'm guessing that dlsym doesn't need a leading underscore.
238
239Since the guess is correct, this is not a problem.
240
b4bcd662 241=item * Win9x and C<d_eofnblk>
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242
243Win9x does not correctly report C<EOF> with a non-blocking read on a
244closed pipe. You will see the following messages:
245
246 But it also returns -1 to signal EOF, so be careful!
247 WARNING: you can't distinguish between EOF and no data!
248
249 *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
250 The recommended value for $d_eofnblk on this machine was "define"!
251 Keep the recommended value? [y]
252
253At least for consistency with WinNT, you should keep the recommended
254value.
255
f8dbba82 256=item * Checking how std your stdio is...
5aabfad6 257
f8dbba82 258Configure reports:
5aabfad6 259
f8dbba82 260 Your stdio doesn't appear very std.
5aabfad6 261
f8dbba82 262This is correct.
5aabfad6 263
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264=item * Compiler/Preprocessor defines
265
266The following error occurs because of the Cygwin C<#define> of
267C<_LONG_DOUBLE>:
268
269 Guessing which symbols your C compiler and preprocessor define...
270 try.c:3847: parse error
271
272This failure does not seem to cause any problems.
273
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274=back
275
f8dbba82 276=head1 MAKE
5aabfad6 277
b4bcd662 278Simply run I<make> and wait:
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279
280 make 2>&1 | tee log.make
281
282=head2 Warnings
283
284Warnings like these are normal:
285
286 warning: overriding commands for target <file>
287 warning: ignoring old commands for target <file>
288
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289 dllwrap: no export definition file provided
290 dllwrap: creating one, but that may not be what you want
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291
292=head2 ld2
293
294During `C<make>', I<ld2> will be created and installed in your $installbin
295directory (where you said to put public executables). It does not
296wait until the `C<make install>' process to install the I<ld2> script,
297this is because the remainder of the `C<make>' refers to I<ld2> without
298fully specifying its path and does this from multiple subdirectories.
299The assumption is that $installbin is in your current C<PATH>. If this
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300is not the case `C<make>' will fail at some point. If this happens,
301just manually copy I<ld2> from the source directory to somewhere in
302your C<PATH>.
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303
304=head1 TEST
305
306There are two steps to running the test suite:
307
308 make test 2>&1 | tee log.make-test
309
310 cd t;./perl harness 2>&1 | tee ../log.harness
311
312The same tests are run both times, but more information is provided when
313running as `C<./perl harness>'.
5aabfad6 314
f8dbba82 315Test results vary depending on your host system and your Cygwin
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316configuration. If a test can pass in some Cygwin setup, it is always
317attempted and explainable test failures are documented. It is possible
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318for Perl to pass all the tests, but it is more likely that some tests
319will fail for one of the reasons listed below.
1cab015a 320
f8dbba82 321=head2 File Permissions
1cab015a 322
f8dbba82 323UNIX file permissions are based on sets of mode bits for
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324{read,write,execute} for each {user,group,other}. By default Cygwin
325only tracks the Win32 read-only attribute represented as the UNIX file
326user write bit (files are always readable, files are executable if they
327have a F<.{com,bat,exe}> extension or begin with C<#!>, directories are
328always readable and executable). On WinNT with the I<ntea> C<CYGWIN>
329setting, the additional mode bits are stored as extended file attributes.
330On WinNT with the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, permissions use the standard
331WinNT security descriptors and access control lists. Without one of
332these options, these tests will fail:
1cab015a 333
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334 Failed Test List of failed
335 ------------------------------------
336 io/fs.t 5, 7, 9-10
337 lib/anydbm.t 2
338 lib/db-btree.t 20
339 lib/db-hash.t 16
340 lib/db-recno.t 18
341 lib/gdbm.t 2
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342 lib/ndbm.t 2
343 lib/odbm.t 2
344 lib/sdbm.t 2
345 op/stat.t 9, 20 (.tmp not an executable extension)
1cab015a 346
f8dbba82 347=head2 Hard Links
1cab015a 348
f8dbba82 349FAT partitions do not support hard links (whereas NTFS does), in which
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350case Cygwin implements link() by copying the file. On remote (network)
351drives Cygwin's stat() always sets C<st_nlink> to 1, so the link count
125a13ce 352for remote directories and files is not available. In either case,
497711e7 353these tests will fail:
1cab015a 354
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355 Failed Test List of failed
356 ------------------------------------
357 io/fs.t 4
358 op/stat.t 3
1cab015a 359
f8dbba82 360=head2 Filetime Granularity
1cab015a 361
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362On FAT partitions the filetime granularity is 2 seconds. The following
363test will fail:
1cab015a 364
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365 Failed Test List of failed
366 ------------------------------------
367 io/fs.t 18
1cab015a 368
f8dbba82 369=head2 Tainting Checks
1cab015a 370
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371When Perl is running in taint mode, C<$ENV{PATH}> is considered tainted
372and not used, so DLLs not in the default system directories will not
373be found. While the tests are running you will see warnings popup from
374the system with messages like:
1cab015a 375
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376 Win9x
377 Error Starting Program
378 A required .DLL file, CYGWIN1.DLL, was not found
1cab015a 379
f8dbba82 380 WinNT
125a13ce 381 perl.exe - Unable to Locate DLL
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382 The dynamic link library cygwin1.dll could not be found in the
383 specified path ...
1cab015a 384
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385Just click OK and ignore them. When running `C<make test>', 2 popups
386occur. During `C<./perl harness>', 4 popups occur. Also, these tests
387will fail:
1cab015a 388
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389 Failed Test List of failed
390 ------------------------------------
391 op/taint.t 1, 3, 31, 37
1cab015a 392
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393Alternatively, you can copy F<cygwin1.dll> into the directory where the
394tests run:
395
125a13ce 396 cp /bin/cygwin1.dll t
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397
398or one of the Windows system directories (although, this is B<not>
399recommended).
1cab015a 400
f8dbba82 401=head2 /etc/group
5aabfad6 402
5db16f6a 403Cygwin does not require F</etc/group>, in which case the F<op/grent.t>
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404test will be skipped. The check performed by F<op/grent.t> expects to
405see entries that use the members field, otherwise this test will fail:
f89d6eaa 406
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407 Failed Test List of failed
408 ------------------------------------
409 op/grent.t 1
1cab015a 410
f8dbba82 411=head2 Script Portability
1cab015a 412
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413Cygwin does an outstanding job of providing UNIX-like semantics on top of
414Win32 systems. However, in addition to the items noted above, there are
415some differences that you should know about. This is a very brief guide
416to portability, more information can be found in the Cygwin documentation.
1cab015a 417
f8dbba82 418=over 4
1cab015a 419
f8dbba82 420=item * Pathnames
1cab015a 421
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422Cygwin pathnames can be separated by forward (F</>) or backward (F<\>)
423slashes. They may also begin with drive letters (F<C:>) or Universal
424Naming Codes (F<//UNC>). DOS device names (F<aux>, F<con>, F<prn>,
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425F<com*>, F<lpt?>, F<nul>) are invalid as base filenames. However, they
426can be used in extensions (e.g., F<hello.aux>). Names may contain all
427printable characters except these:
1cab015a 428
f8dbba82 429 : * ? " < > |
1cab015a 430
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431File names are case insensitive, but case preserving. A pathname that
432contains a backslash or drive letter is a Win32 pathname (and not subject
433to the translations applied to POSIX style pathnames).
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434
435=item * Text/Binary
436
437When a file is opened it is in either text or binary mode. In text mode
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438a file is subject to CR/LF/Ctrl-Z translations. With Cygwin, the default
439mode for an open() is determined by the mode of the mount that underlies
440the file. Perl provides a binmode() function to set binary mode on files
441that otherwise would be treated as text. sysopen() with the C<O_TEXT>
442flag sets text mode on files that otherwise would be treated as binary:
443
444 sysopen(FOO, "bar", O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_TEXT)
f8dbba82 445
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446lseek(), tell() and sysseek() only work with files opened in binary mode.
447
448The text/binary issue is covered at length in the Cygwin documentation.
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449
450=item * F<.exe>
451
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452The Cygwin stat(), lstat() and readlink() functions make the F<.exe>
453extension transparent by looking for F<foo.exe> when you ask for F<foo>
454(unless a F<foo> also exists). Cygwin does not require a F<.exe>
455extension, but I<gcc> adds it automatically when building a program.
456However, when accessing an executable as a normal file (e.g., I<cp>
457in a makefile) the F<.exe> is not transparent. The I<install> included
458with Cygwin automatically appends a F<.exe> when necessary.
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459
460=item * chown()
461
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462On WinNT chown() can change a file's user and group IDs. On Win9x chown()
463is a no-op, although this is appropriate since there is no security model.
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464
465=item * Miscellaneous
466
467File locking using the C<F_GETLK> command to fcntl() is a stub that
468returns C<ENOSYS>.
469
f8dbba82 470Win9x can not rename() an open file (although WinNT can).
1cab015a 471
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472The Cygwin chroot() implementation has holes (it can not restrict file
473access by native Win32 programs).
474
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475=back
476
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477=head1 INSTALL
478
b4bcd662 479This will install Perl, including I<man> pages.
f8dbba82 480
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481 make install | tee log.make-install
482
483NOTE: If C<STDERR> is redirected `C<make install>' will B<not> prompt
484you to install I<perl> into F</usr/bin>.
1cab015a 485
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486You may need to be I<Administrator> to run `C<make install>'. If you
487are not, you must have write access to the directories in question.
1cab015a 488
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489Information on installing the Perl documentation in HTML format can be
490found in the F<INSTALL> document.
1cab015a 491
f8dbba82 492=head1 MANIFEST
1cab015a 493
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494These are the files in the Perl release that contain references to Cygwin.
495These very brief notes attempt to explain the reason for all conditional
496code. Hopefully, keeping this up to date will allow the Cygwin port to
497be kept as clean as possible.
1cab015a 498
f8dbba82 499=over 4
1cab015a 500
f8dbba82 501=item Documentation
1cab015a 502
6b49d266 503 INSTALL README.cygwin
f8dbba82 504 Changes Changes5.005 Changes5.004
6b49d266 505 AUTHORS MAINTAIN MANIFEST README.win32
f8dbba82 506 pod/perl.pod pod/perlfaq3.pod pod/perlhist.pod pod/perlmodlib.pod
b4bcd662 507 pod/perlport.pod pod/perltoc.pod pod/perldelta.pod pod/perl5004delta.pod
1cab015a 508
f8dbba82 509=item Build, Configure, Make, Install
1cab015a 510
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511 cygwin/Makefile.SHs
512 cygwin/ld2.in
513 cygwin/perlld.in
514 ext/IPC/SysV/hints/cygwin.pl
515 ext/NDBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
516 ext/ODBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
517 hints/cygwin.sh
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518 Configure - help finding hints from uname,
519 shared libperl required for dynamic loading
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520 Makefile.SH - linklibperl
521 Porting/patchls - cygwin in port list
f8dbba82 522 installman - man pages with :: translated to .
5db16f6a 523 installperl - install dll/ld2/perlld, install to pods
6b49d266 524 makedepend.SH - uwinfix
1cab015a 525
f8dbba82 526=item Tests
1cab015a 527
f8dbba82 528 t/io/tell.t - binmode
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529 t/lib/glob-basic.t - Win32 directory list access differs from read mode
530 t/op/magic.t - $^X/symlink WORKAROUND, s/.exe//
531 t/op/stat.t - no /dev, skip Win32 ftCreationTime quirk
532 (cache manager sometimes preserves ctime of file
533 previously created and deleted), no -u (setuid)
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534
535=item Compiled Perl Source
536
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537 EXTERN.h - __declspec(dllimport)
538 XSUB.h - __declspec(dllexport)
b4bcd662 539 cygwin/cygwin.c - os_extras (getcwd, spawn)
6b49d266 540 perl.c - os_extras
f8dbba82 541 perl.h - binmode
6b49d266 542 doio.c - win9x can not rename a file when it is open
b4bcd662 543 pp_sys.c - do not define h_errno, pp_system with spawn
f8dbba82 544 mg.c - environ WORKAROUND
f8dbba82 545 unixish.h - environ WORKAROUND
6b49d266 546 util.c - environ WORKAROUND
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547
548=item Compiled Module Source
549
550 ext/POSIX/POSIX.xs - tzname defined externally
551 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/pair.c
552 - EXTCONST needs to be redefined from EXTERN.h
553 ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/sdbm.c
554 - binary open
555
556=item Perl Modules/Scripts
557
6b49d266 558 lib/Cwd.pm - hook to internal Cwd::cwd
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559 lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm
560 - require MM_Cygwin.pm
561 lib/ExtUtils/MM_Cygwin.pm
562 - canonpath, cflags, manifypods, perl_archive
497711e7 563 lib/File/Find.pm - on remote drives stat() always sets st_nlink to 1
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564 lib/File/Spec/Unix.pm - preserve //unc
565 lib/perl5db.pl - use stdin not /dev/tty
566 utils/perlcc.PL - DynaLoader.a in compile, -DUSEIMPORTLIB
567 utils/perldoc.PL - version comment
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568
569=back
f89d6eaa 570
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571=head1 BUGS
572
b4bcd662 573When I<make> starts, it warns about overriding commands for F<perlmain.o>.
f8dbba82 574
125a13ce 575`C<make clean>' does not remove library F<.def> or F<.exe.stackdump>
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576files.
577
578The I<ld2> script contains references to the source directory. You should
b4bcd662 579change these to $installbin after `C<make install>'.
f8dbba82 580
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581Support for swapping real and effective user and group IDs is incomplete.
582On WinNT Cygwin provides setuid(), seteuid(), setgid() and setegid().
583However, additional Cygwin calls for manipulating WinNT access tokens
584and security contexts are required.
585
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586=head1 AUTHORS
587
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588Charles Wilson <cwilson@ece.gatech.edu>,
589Eric Fifer <efifer@sanwaint.com>,
590alexander smishlajev <als@turnhere.com>,
591Steven Morlock <newspost@morlock.net>,
592Sebastien Barre <Sebastien.Barre@utc.fr>,
593Teun Burgers <burgers@ecn.nl>.
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594
595=head1 HISTORY
596
125a13ce 597Last updated: 10 August 2000