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Strip S<> formatting codes from diagnostics output
[perl5.git] / pod / perldiag.pod
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1=head1 NAME
2
3perldiag - various Perl diagnostics
4
5=head1 DESCRIPTION
6
7These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of
8desperation):
9
10 (W) A warning (optional).
d1d15184 11 (D) A deprecation (enabled by default).
00eb3f2b 12 (S) A severe warning (enabled by default).
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13 (F) A fatal error (trappable).
14 (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
54310121 15 (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
cb1a09d0 16 (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).
a0d0e21e 17
75b44862 18The majority of messages from the first three classifications above
64977eb6 19(W, D & S) can be controlled using the C<warnings> pragma.
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20
21If a message can be controlled by the C<warnings> pragma, its warning
22category is included with the classification letter in the description
23below.
24
25Optional warnings are enabled by using the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-w>
26and B<-W> switches. Warnings may be captured by setting C<$SIG{__WARN__}>
27to a reference to a routine that will be called on each warning instead
28of printing it. See L<perlvar>.
29
b7eceb5b 30Severe warnings are always enabled, unless they are explicitly disabled
e476b1b5 31with the C<warnings> pragma or the B<-X> switch.
4438c4b7 32
748a9306 33Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator. See
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34L<perlfunc/eval>. In almost all cases, warnings may be selectively
35disabled or promoted to fatal errors using the C<warnings> pragma.
36See L<warnings>.
a0d0e21e 37
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38The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or
39lower-case. Some of these messages are generic. Spots that vary are
40denoted with a %s or other printf-style escape. These escapes are
41ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other than
42letters. To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
43letter.
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44
45=over 4
46
6df41af2 47=item accept() on closed socket %s
33633739 48
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49(W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket. Did you forget
50to check the return value of your socket() call? See
51L<perlfunc/accept>.
33633739 52
de42a5a9 53=item Allocation too large: %x
a0d0e21e 54
6df41af2 55(X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.
a0d0e21e 56
1109a392 57=item '%c' allowed only after types %s
ef54e1a4 58
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59(F) The modifiers '!', '<' and '>' are allowed in pack() or unpack() only
60after certain types. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
ef54e1a4 61
6df41af2 62=item Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
43192e07 63
75b44862 64(W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl
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65keyword, and you have used the name without qualification for calling
66one or the other. Perl decided to call the builtin because the
67subroutine is not imported.
43192e07 68
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69To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand
70before the subroutine name, or qualify the name with its package.
71Alternatively, you can import the subroutine (or pretend that it's
72imported with the C<use subs> pragma).
43192e07 73
6df41af2 74To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the C<CORE::> prefix
496a33f5 75on the operator (e.g. C<CORE::log($x)>) or declare the subroutine
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76to be an object method (see L<perlsub/"Subroutine Attributes"> or
77L<attributes>).
43192e07 78
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79=item Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
80
81(F) You wrote something like C<tr/a-z-0//> which doesn't mean anything at
82all. To include a C<-> character in a transliteration, put it either
83first or last. (In the past, C<tr/a-z-0//> was synonymous with
84C<tr/a-y//>, which was probably not what you would have expected.)
85
6df41af2 86=item Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
43192e07 87
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88(W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way
89you thought. Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying
90a missing quote, operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.
a0d0e21e 91
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92=item Ambiguous use of %c resolved as operator %c
93
94(W ambiguous) C<%>, C<&>, and C<*> are both infix operators (modulus,
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95bitwise and, and multiplication) I<and> initial special characters
96(denoting hashes, subroutines and typeglobs), and you said something
97like C<*foo * foo> that might be interpreted as either of them. We
98assumed you meant the infix operator, but please try to make it more
99clear -- in the example given, you might write C<*foo * foo()> if you
100really meant to multiply a glob by the result of calling a function.
d8225693 101
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102=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s} resolved to %c%s
103
104(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<@{foo}>, which might be
105asking for the variable C<@foo>, or it might be calling a function
106named foo, and dereferencing it as an array reference. If you wanted
1cecf2c0 107the variable, you can just write C<@foo>. If you wanted to call the
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108function, write C<@{foo()}> ... or you could just not have a variable
109and a function with the same name, and save yourself a lot of trouble.
110
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111=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s[...]} resolved to %c%s[...]
112
113=item Ambiguous use of %c{%s{...}} resolved to %c%s{...}
4da60377 114
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115(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<${foo[2]}> (where foo
116represents the name of a Perl keyword), which might be looking for
117element number 2 of the array named C<@foo>, in which case please write
118C<$foo[2]>, or you might have meant to pass an anonymous arrayref to
119the function named foo, and then do a scalar deref on the value it
120returns. If you meant that, write C<${foo([2])}>.
121
122In regular expressions, the C<${foo[2]}> syntax is sometimes necessary
123to disambiguate between array subscripts and character classes.
124C</$length[2345]/>, for instance, will be interpreted as C<$length>
125followed by the character class C<[2345]>. If an array subscript is what
126you want, you can avoid the warning by changing C</${length[2345]}/>
127to the unsightly C</${\$length[2345]}/>, by renaming your array to
128something that does not coincide with a built-in keyword, or by
129simply turning off warnings with C<no warnings 'ambiguous';>.
4da60377 130
bdac9d71 131=item Ambiguous use of -%s resolved as -&%s()
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132
133(W ambiguous) You wrote something like C<-foo>, which might be the
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134string C<"-foo">, or a call to the function C<foo>, negated. If you meant
135the string, just write C<"-foo">. If you meant the function call,
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136write C<-foo()>.
137
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138=item Ambiguous use of 's//le...' resolved as 's// le...'; Rewrite as 's//el' if you meant 'use locale rules and evaluate rhs as an expression'. In Perl 5.16, it will be resolved the other way
139
140(W deprecated, ambiguous) You wrote a pattern match with substitution
141immediately followed by "le". In Perl 5.14 and earlier, this is
142resolved as meaning to take the result of the substitution, and see if
143it is stringwise less-than-or-equal-to what follows in the expression.
144Having the "le" immediately following a pattern is deprecated behavior,
145so in Perl 5.16, this expression will be resolved as meaning to do the
146pattern match using the rules of the current locale, and evaluate the
147rhs as an expression when doing the substitution. In 5.14, if you want
148the latter interpretation, you can simply write "el" instead.
149
6df41af2 150=item '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
a0d0e21e 151
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152(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
153redirection, and found that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to
154redirect STDIN using '<'. Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.
c9f97d15 155
6df41af2 156=item '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
1028017a 157
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158(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
159redirection, and thinks you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and
160into a pipe to another command. You need to choose one or the other,
161though nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or Perl script
162which 'splits' output into two streams, such as
1028017a 163
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164 open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
165 while (<STDIN>) {
166 print;
167 print OUT;
168 }
169 close OUT;
c9f97d15 170
6df41af2 171=item Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
eb6e2d6f 172
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173(W misc) The pattern match (C<//>), substitution (C<s///>), and
174transliteration (C<tr///>) operators work on scalar values. If you apply
be771a83 175one of them to an array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
ac036724 176a scalar value (the length of an array, or the population info of a
177hash) and then work on that scalar value. This is probably not what
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178you meant to do. See L<perlfunc/grep> and L<perlfunc/map> for
179alternatives.
eb6e2d6f 180
6df41af2 181=item Arg too short for msgsnd
76cd736e 182
6df41af2 183(F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).
76cd736e 184
b0fdf69e 185=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
a0d0e21e 186
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187(F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element or a
188subroutine with an ampersand, such as:
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189
190 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 191 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
cc1c2e42 192 &do_something
a0d0e21e 193
8ea97a1e 194=item %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
5f05dabc 195
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196(F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element,
197such as:
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198
199 $foo{$bar}
cb4f522a 200 $ref->{"susie"}[12]
5f05dabc 201
8ea97a1e 202or a hash or array slice, such as:
5f05dabc 203
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204 @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
205 @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}
5315574d 206
6df41af2 207=item %s argument is not a subroutine name
a0d0e21e 208
6df41af2 209(F) The argument to exists() for C<exists &sub> must be a subroutine
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210name, and not a subroutine call. C<exists &sub()> will generate this
211error.
a0d0e21e 212
f86702cc 213=item Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
a0d0e21e 214
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215(W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator
216that expected a numeric value instead. If you're fortunate the message
217will identify which operator was so unfortunate.
a0d0e21e 218
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219=item Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
220
221(W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you
222forgot the ) that closes the argument list. (Layers take care of transforming
223data between external and internal representations.) Perl stopped parsing
224the layer list at this point and did not attempt to push this layer.
225If your program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be
226the result of the value of the environment variable PERLIO.
227
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228=item Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
229
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230(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some
231spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
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232
233=item assertion botched: %s
234
235(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
236
237=item Assertion failed: file "%s"
238
239(P) A general assertion failed. The file in question must be examined.
240
241=item Assignment to both a list and a scalar
242
243(F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
244must either both be scalars or both be lists. Otherwise Perl won't
245know which context to supply to the right side.
246
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247=item A thread exited while %d threads were running
248
4447dfc1 249(W threads)(S) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main
96ebfdd7 250thread) exited while there were still other threads running.
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251Usually it's a good idea first to collect the return values of the
252created threads by joining them, and only then to exit from the main
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253thread. See L<threads>.
254
2393f1b9 255=item Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
1b1f1335 256
49293501 257(F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in
2393f1b9 258the current set of allowed keys of a restricted hash.
49293501 259
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260=item Attempt to bless into a reference
261
262(F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be
263the name of the package to bless the resulting object into. You've
264supplied instead a reference to something: perhaps you wrote
265
266 bless $self, $proto;
267
268when you intended
269
270 bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;
271
272If you actually want to bless into the stringified version
273of the reference supplied, you need to stringify it yourself, for
274example by:
275
276 bless $self, "$proto";
277
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278=item Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
279
280(F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key
281which is not in its key set.
282
283=item Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
284
285(F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been
286declared readonly from a restricted hash.
287
de42a5a9 288=item Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%x
a0d0e21e 289
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290(P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas
291that will be garbage collected on exit. An SV was discovered to be
292outside any of those arenas.
a0d0e21e 293
54310121 294=item Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
bbce6d69 295
111a855e 296(P internal) Perl maintains a reference-counted internal table of
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297strings to optimize the storage and access of hash keys and other
298strings. This indicates someone tried to decrement the reference count
299of a string that can no longer be found in the table.
bbce6d69 300
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301=item Attempt to free temp prematurely
302
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303(W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the
304free_tmps() routine. This indicates that something else is freeing the
305SV before the free_tmps() routine gets a chance, which means that the
306free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unreferenced scalar when it does
307try to free it.
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308
309=item Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
310
e476b1b5 311(P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.
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312
313=item Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
314
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315(W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to
316see if it would go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0
317earlier, and should have been freed, and in fact, probably was freed.
318This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was called too many times, or
319that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV was
320mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
321corrupted.
a0d0e21e 322
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323=item Attempt to join self
324
325(F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an
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326impossible task. You may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need
327to move the join() to some other thread.
dcdda58d 328
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329=item Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
330
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331(W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a
332function, or a computed expression) to the "p" pack() template. This
333means the result contains a pointer to a location that could become
334invalid anytime, even before the end of the current statement. Use
335literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() template to
336avoid this warning.
84902520 337
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338=item Attempt to reload %s aborted.
339
340(F) You tried to load a file with C<use> or C<require> that failed to
341compile once already. Perl will not try to compile this file again
342unless you delete its entry from %INC. See L<perlfunc/require> and
343L<perlvar/%INC>.
344
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345=item Attempt to set length of freed array
346
347(W) You tried to set the length of an array which has been freed. You
348can do this by storing a reference to the scalar representing the last index
349of an array and later assigning through that reference. For example
350
351 $r = do {my @a; \$#a};
352 $$r = 503
353
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354=item Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
355
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356(W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr()
357used as an lvalue, which is pretty strange. Perhaps you forgot to
358dereference it first. See L<perlfunc/substr>.
b7a902f4 359
c32124fe
NC
360=item Attribute "locked" is deprecated
361
111a855e 362(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "locked"
c32124fe 363attribute on a code reference. The :locked attribute is obsolete, has had no
a5547419 364effect since 5005 threads were removed, and will be removed in a future
c32124fe
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365release of Perl 5.
366
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367=item Attribute "unique" is deprecated
368
111a855e 369(D deprecated) You have used the attributes pragma to modify the "unique"
b7a2910f 370attribute on an array, hash or scalar reference. The :unique attribute has
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371had no effect since Perl 5.8.8, and will be removed in a future release
372of Perl 5.
f1a3ce43 373
de42a5a9 374=item Bad arg length for %s, is %u, should be %d
a0d0e21e 375
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376(F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl()
377or shmctl(). In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively,
5f05dabc 378S<sizeof(struct msqid_ds *)>, S<sizeof(struct semid_ds *)>, and
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379S<sizeof(struct shmid_ds *)>.
380
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381=item Bad evalled substitution pattern
382
496a33f5 383(F) You've used the C</e> switch to evaluate the replacement for a
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384substitution, but perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate,
385most likely an unexpected right brace '}'.
386
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387=item Bad filehandle: %s
388
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389(F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the
390symbol has no filehandle associated with it. Perhaps you didn't do an
391open(), or did it in another package.
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392
393=item Bad free() ignored
394
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395(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never
396been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by
9ea8bc6d 397setting environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 0.
33c8a3fe 398
9ea8bc6d 399This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard"
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400dynamic linking, like C<AIX> and C<OS/2>. It is a bug of C<Berkeley DB>
401which is left unnoticed if C<DB> uses I<forgiving> system malloc().
a0d0e21e 402
aa689395
PP
403=item Bad hash
404
405(P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.
406
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407=item Badly placed ()'s
408
409(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead
410of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into
411Perl yourself.
412
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413=item Bad name after %s::
414
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415(F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then
416didn't finish the symbol. In particular, you can't interpolate outside
417of quotes, so
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418
419 $var = 'myvar';
420 $sym = mypack::$var;
421
422is not the same as
423
424 $var = 'myvar';
425 $sym = "mypack::$var";
426
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427=item Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s'
428
429(F) An extension using the keyword plugin mechanism violated the
430plugin API.
431
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432=item Bad realloc() ignored
433
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434(S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had
435never been malloc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled
4dcecea4 436by setting the environment variable C<PERL_BADFREE> to 1.
4ad56ec9 437
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438=item Bad symbol for array
439
440(P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that
441wasn't a symbol table entry.
442
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443=item Bad symbol for dirhandle
444
445(P) An internal request asked to add a dirhandle entry to something
446that wasn't a symbol table entry.
447
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448=item Bad symbol for filehandle
449
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450(P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something
451that wasn't a symbol table entry.
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452
453=item Bad symbol for hash
454
455(P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that
456wasn't a symbol table entry.
457
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458=item Bareword found in conditional
459
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460(W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a
461conditional, which often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part
462of the last argument of the previous construct, for example:
34d09196
GS
463
464 open FOO || die;
465
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466It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as
467a bareword:
34d09196
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468
469 use constant TYPO => 1;
470 if (TYOP) { print "foo" }
471
472The C<strict> pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.
473
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474=item Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
475
476(F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a
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477subroutine identifier, in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>"
478symbol. Perhaps you need to predeclare a subroutine?
6df41af2
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479
480=item Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
481
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482(W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form C<Foo::>, but the
483compiler saw no other uses of that namespace before that point. Perhaps
484you need to predeclare a package?
6df41af2 485
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486=item BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
487
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488(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN
489subroutine. Compilation stops immediately and the interpreter is
490exited.
a0d0e21e 491
68dc0745
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492=item BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
493
494(F) Perl found a C<BEGIN {}> subroutine (or a C<use> directive, which
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495implies a C<BEGIN {}>) after one or more compilation errors had already
496occurred. Since the intended environment for the C<BEGIN {}> could not
497be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subsequent code likely
498depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.
68dc0745 499
6df41af2
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500=item \1 better written as $1
501
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502(W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.
503The use of backslashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a
504substitution, but stylistically it's better to use the variable form
505because other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works better if
506there are more than 9 backreferences.
6df41af2 507
252aa082
JH
508=item Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
509
e476b1b5 510(W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
511(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
512L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 513
69282e91 514=item bind() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 515
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516(W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket. Did you forget to
517check the return value of your socket() call? See L<perlfunc/bind>.
a0d0e21e 518
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JH
519=item binmode() on closed filehandle %s
520
521(W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.
4dcecea4 522Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 523
f866a7cd
FC
524=item "\b{" is deprecated; use "\b\{" instead
525
526=item "\B{" is deprecated; use "\B\{" instead
527
528(W deprecated, regexp) Use of an unescaped "{" immediately following a
529C<\b> or C<\B> is now deprecated so as to reserve its use for Perl
530itself in a future release.
531
c5a0f51a
JH
532=item Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
533
e476b1b5 534(W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.
c5a0f51a 535
4633a7c4
LW
536=item Bizarre copy of %s in %s
537
be771a83 538(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not
4dcecea4 539copiable.
4633a7c4 540
f675dbe5
CB
541=item Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
542
be771a83
GS
543(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. While Perl was preparing to
544iterate over %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition
545which was too long, so it was truncated to the string shown.
f675dbe5 546
a0d0e21e
LW
547=item Callback called exit
548
4929bf7b 549(F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv()
a0d0e21e
LW
550exited by calling exit.
551
6df41af2 552=item %s() called too early to check prototype
f675dbe5 553
be771a83
GS
554(W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the
555parser saw a definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check
556that the call conforms to the prototype. You need to either add an
557early prototype declaration for the subroutine in question, or move the
558subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper prototype
559checking. Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the
560function correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid
561the warning. See L<perlsub>.
f675dbe5 562
49704364 563=item Cannot compress integer in pack
0258719b
NC
564
565(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress. The BER
566compressed integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you
567attempted to compress Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).
568See L<perlfunc/pack>.
569
49704364 570=item Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
0258719b
NC
571
572(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative. The BER compressed integer
573format can only be used with positive integers. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
574
5c1f4d79
NC
575=item Cannot convert a reference to %s to typeglob
576
577(F) You manipulated Perl's symbol table directly, stored a reference in it,
578then tried to access that symbol via conventional Perl syntax. The access
579triggers Perl to autovivify that typeglob, but it there is no legal conversion
580from that type of reference to a typeglob.
581
ba2fdce6
NC
582=item Cannot copy to %s in %s
583
584(P) Perl detected an attempt to copy a value to an internal type that cannot
4dcecea4 585be directly assigned to.
ba2fdce6 586
b5d97229
RGS
587=item Cannot find encoding "%s"
588
589(S io) You tried to apply an encoding that did not exist to a filehandle,
590either with open() or binmode().
591
96ebfdd7
RK
592=item Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
593
594(F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer. The BER compressed
595integer format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted
596to compress something else. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
597
a0d0e21e
LW
598=item Can't bless non-reference value
599
600(F) Only hard references may be blessed. This is how Perl "enforces"
601encapsulation of objects. See L<perlobj>.
602
dc57907a
RGS
603=item Can't "break" in a loop topicalizer
604
0d863452
RH
605(F) You called C<break>, but you're in a C<foreach> block rather than
606a C<given> block. You probably meant to use C<next> or C<last>.
607
608=item Can't "break" outside a given block
dc57907a 609
0d863452
RH
610(F) You called C<break>, but you're not inside a C<given> block.
611
6df41af2
GS
612=item Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
613
614(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
615object reference or package name contains an undefined value. Something
616like this will reproduce the error:
6df41af2
GS
617
618 $BADREF = undef;
619 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
620 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
621
a0d0e21e
LW
622=item Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
623
54310121 624(F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run. It
be771a83
GS
625ordinarily finds this out from the object reference you supply, but you
626didn't supply an object reference in this case. A reference isn't an
627object reference until it has been blessed. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
628
629=item Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
630
631(F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the
be771a83
GS
632object reference or package name contains an expression that returns a
633defined value which is neither an object reference nor a package name.
72b5445b
GS
634Something like this will reproduce the error:
635
636 $BADREF = 42;
637 process $BADREF 1,2,3;
638 $BADREF->process(1,2,3);
639
a0d0e21e
LW
640=item Can't chdir to %s
641
642(F) You called C<perl -x/foo/bar>, but C</foo/bar> is not a directory
643that you can chdir to, possibly because it doesn't exist.
644
0545a864 645=item Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
104d25b7 646
be771a83
GS
647(P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for
648nosuid.
104d25b7 649
22e74366 650=item Can't coerce %s to %s in %s
a0d0e21e
LW
651
652(F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries
55497cff 653(typeglobs), can't be forced to stop being what they are. So you can't
a0d0e21e
LW
654say things like:
655
656 *foo += 1;
657
658You CAN say
659
660 $foo = *foo;
661 $foo += 1;
662
663but then $foo no longer contains a glob.
664
0d863452 665=item Can't "continue" outside a when block
dc57907a 666
0d863452
RH
667(F) You called C<continue>, but you're not inside a C<when>
668or C<default> block.
669
a0d0e21e
LW
670=item Can't create pipe mailbox
671
be771a83
GS
672(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The process is suffering from exhausted
673quotas or other plumbing problems.
a0d0e21e 674
eb64745e
GS
675=item Can't declare %s in "%s"
676
30c282f6
NC
677(F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my", "our" or
678"state" variables. They must have ordinary identifiers as names.
a0d0e21e 679
6df41af2
GS
680=item Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
681
be771a83
GS
682(S inplace) You tried to use the B<-i> switch on a special file, such as
683a file in /dev, or a FIFO. The file was ignored.
6df41af2 684
a0d0e21e
LW
685=item Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
686
be771a83
GS
687(S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated
688reason.
a0d0e21e 689
54310121 690=item Can't do inplace edit without backup
a0d0e21e 691
be771a83
GS
692(F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try
693reading from a deleted (but still opened) file. You have to say
694C<-i.bak>, or some such.
a0d0e21e 695
10f9c03d 696=item Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
a0d0e21e 697
e476b1b5 698(S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14
10f9c03d
CK
699characters and Perl was unable to create a unique filename during
700inplace editing with the B<-i> switch. The file was ignored.
a0d0e21e 701
7253e4e3 702=item Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 703
b45f050a 704(F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your
7253e4e3 705regexp to match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the
b45f050a 706regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 707
a0d0e21e
LW
708=item Can't do waitpid with flags
709
be771a83
GS
710(F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only
711waitpid() without flags is emulated.
a0d0e21e 712
a0d0e21e
LW
713=item Can't emulate -%s on #! line
714
be771a83
GS
715(F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this
716point. For example, it'd be kind of silly to put a B<-x> on the #!
717line.
a0d0e21e 718
1109a392
MHM
719=item Can't %s %s-endian %ss on this platform
720
721(F) Your platform's byte-order is neither big-endian nor little-endian,
722or it has a very strange pointer size. Packing and unpacking big- or
723little-endian floating point values and pointers may not be possible.
724See L<perlfunc/pack>.
725
a0d0e21e
LW
726=item Can't exec "%s": %s
727
d1be9408 728(W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the
be771a83
GS
729named program for the indicated reason. Typical reasons include: the
730permissions were wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
731C<$ENV{PATH}>, the executable in question was compiled for another
732architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that
733can't be run for similar reasons. (Or maybe your system doesn't support
734#! at all.)
a0d0e21e
LW
735
736=item Can't exec %s
737
be771a83
GS
738(F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because
739that's what the #! line said. If that's not what you wanted, you may
740need to mention "perl" on the #! line somewhere.
a0d0e21e
LW
741
742=item Can't execute %s
743
be771a83
GS
744(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the copies of the script to execute
745found in the PATH did not have correct permissions.
2a92aaa0 746
6df41af2 747=item Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
2a92aaa0 748
be771a83
GS
749(F) A string of a form C<CORE::word> was given to prototype(), but there
750is no builtin with the name C<word>.
6df41af2 751
56ca2fc0
JH
752=item Can't find %s character property "%s"
753
754(F) You used C<\p{}> or C<\P{}> but the character property by that name
e1b711da
KW
755could not be found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property?
756See L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
757for a complete list of available properties.
56ca2fc0 758
6df41af2
GS
759=item Can't find label %s
760
be771a83
GS
761(F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's
762possible for us to go to. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
2a92aaa0
GS
763
764=item Can't find %s on PATH
765
be771a83
GS
766(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
767found in the PATH.
a0d0e21e 768
6df41af2 769=item Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
a0d0e21e 770
be771a83
GS
771(F) You used the B<-S> switch, but the script to execute could not be
772found in the PATH, or at least not with the correct permissions. The
773script exists in the current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.
a0d0e21e
LW
774
775=item Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
776
be771a83
GS
777(F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines. This message means
778that the closing delimiter was omitted. Because bracketed quotes count
779nesting levels, the following is missing its final parenthesis:
a0d0e21e 780
fb73857a
PP
781 print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);
782
97b3d10f 783If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have
b6b8cb97
FC
784included unseen whitespace before or after your closing tag or there
785may not be a linebreak after it. A good programmer's editor will have
786a way to help you find these characters (or lack of characters). See
787L<perlop> for the full details on here-documents.
a0d0e21e 788
660a4616
ST
789=item Can't find Unicode property definition "%s"
790
5f8ad6b6
FC
791(F) You may have tried to use C<\p> which means a Unicode
792property (for example C<\p{Lu}> matches all uppercase
793letters). If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
e1b711da 794L<perluniprops/Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}>
5f8ad6b6
FC
795for a complete list of available properties. If you didn't
796mean to use a Unicode property, escape the C<\p>, either by C<\\p>
797(just the C<\p>) or by C<\Q\p> (the rest of the string, or
798until C<\E>).
660a4616 799
b3647a36 800=item Can't fork: %s
a0d0e21e 801
be771a83
GS
802(F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a
803pipeline.
a0d0e21e 804
b3647a36
SR
805=item Can't fork, trying again in 5 seconds
806
c973c02e 807(W pipe) A fork in a piped open failed with EAGAIN and will be retried
b3647a36
SR
808after five seconds.
809
748a9306
LW
810=item Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
811
be771a83
GS
812(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. This arises because of the difference
813between access checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.
814Under VMS, access checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
815the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other protections can be taken into
816account. Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer contains all
817the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to
2fe2bdfd 818the access-checking routine. It will try to retrieve the filespec using
be771a83
GS
819the device name and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only
820if you haven't made a subsequent call to the CRTL stat() routine,
821because the device name is overwritten with each call. If this warning
2fe2bdfd
FC
822appears, the name lookup failed, and the access-checking routine gave up
823and returned FALSE, just to be conservative. (Note: The access-checking
be771a83
GS
824routine knows about the Perl C<stat> operator and file tests, so you
825shouldn't ever see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
826only if some internal code takes stat buffers lightly.)
748a9306 827
a0d0e21e
LW
828=item Can't get pipe mailbox device name
829
be771a83
GS
830(P) An error peculiar to VMS. After creating a mailbox to act as a
831pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for later use.
a0d0e21e
LW
832
833=item Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
834
748a9306
LW
835(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your
836mailbox buffers to be, and didn't get an answer.
a0d0e21e 837
6df41af2 838=item Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
a0d0e21e 839
be771a83
GS
840(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach
841loop. You can't get there from here. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2
GS
842
843=item Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
844
be771a83
GS
845(F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like
846a block, except that it isn't a proper block. This usually occurs if
847you tried to jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.
848See L<perlfunc/goto>.
a0d0e21e 849
9850bf21 850=item Can't goto subroutine from a sort sub (or similar callback)
cd299c6e 851
9850bf21
RH
852(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of the
853comparison sub for a sort(), or from a similar callback (such
854as the reduce() function in List::Util).
855
c74ace89 856=item Can't goto subroutine from an eval-%s
b150fb22 857
be771a83 858(F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval
c74ace89 859"string" or block.
b150fb22 860
6df41af2
GS
861=item Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
862
be771a83
GS
863(F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one
864subroutine call for another. It can't manufacture one out of whole
865cloth. In general you should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD
866routine anyway. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
6df41af2 867
0b5b802d
GS
868=item Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
869
be771a83
GS
870(W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD
871signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) disabled. Since disabling this
872signal will interfere with proper determination of exit status of child
873processes, Perl has reset the signal to its default value. This
874situation typically indicates that the parent program under which Perl
875may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.
0b5b802d 876
e2c0f81f
DG
877=item Can't kill a non-numeric process ID
878
879(F) Process identifiers must be (signed) integers. It is a fatal error to
880attempt to kill() an undefined, empty-string or otherwise non-numeric
881process identifier.
882
6df41af2 883=item Can't "last" outside a loop block
4633a7c4 884
6df41af2 885(F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block,
be771a83
GS
886except that there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current
887block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish"
888block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep(). You can
889usually double the curlies to get the same effect though, because the
890inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once. See
891L<perlfunc/last>.
4633a7c4 892
2c7d6b9c
RGS
893=item Can't linearize anonymous symbol table
894
895(F) Perl tried to calculate the method resolution order (MRO) of a
896package, but failed because the package stash has no name.
897
b8170e59
JB
898=item Can't load '%s' for module %s
899
900(F) The module you tried to load failed to load a dynamic extension. This
901may either mean that you upgraded your version of perl to one that is
902incompatible with your old dynamic extensions (which is known to happen
903between major versions of perl), or (more likely) that your dynamic
16d98ec5 904extension was built against an older version of the library that is
b8170e59
JB
905installed on your system. You may need to rebuild your old dynamic
906extensions.
907
748a9306
LW
908=item Can't localize lexical variable %s
909
2ba9eb46 910(F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a
30c282f6 911lexical variable using "my" or "state". This is not allowed. If you want to
748a9306
LW
912localize a package variable of the same name, qualify it with the
913package name.
914
6df41af2 915=item Can't localize through a reference
4727527e 916
6df41af2
GS
917(F) You said something like C<local $$ref>, which Perl can't currently
918handle, because when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref
be771a83 919pointed to after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't be sure
64977eb6 920that $ref will still be a reference.
4727527e 921
ea071790 922=item Can't locate %s
ec889f3a
GS
923
924(F) You said to C<do> (or C<require>, or C<use>) a file that couldn't be
925found. Perl looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC,
be771a83
GS
926unless the file name included the full path to the file. Perhaps you
927need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable to say where
928the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to add the library name
929to @INC. Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file. See
930L<perlfunc/require> and L<lib>.
a0d0e21e 931
6df41af2
GS
932=item Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
933
be771a83
GS
934(F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows
935autoload, but there is no function to autoload. Most probable causes
936are a misprint in a function/method name or a failure to C<AutoSplit>
937the file, say, by doing C<make install>.
6df41af2 938
b8170e59
JB
939=item Can't locate loadable object for module %s in @INC
940
941(F) The module you loaded is trying to load an external library, like
942for example, C<foo.so> or C<bar.dll>, but the L<DynaLoader> module was
943unable to locate this library. See L<DynaLoader>.
944
a0d0e21e
LW
945=item Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
946
947(F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package
948functioning as a class, but that package doesn't define that particular
2ba9eb46 949method, nor does any of its base classes. See L<perlobj>.
a0d0e21e
LW
950
951=item Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
952
be771a83
GS
953(W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that
954doesn't seem to exist.
a0d0e21e 955
2f7da168
RK
956=item Can't locate PerlIO%s
957
958(F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist,
959e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").
960
3e3baf6d
TB
961=item Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
962
be771a83
GS
963(F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably
964VMS.
3e3baf6d 965
a0d0e21e
LW
966=item Can't modify %s in %s
967
be771a83
GS
968(F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try
969to change it, such as with an auto-increment.
a0d0e21e 970
54310121 971=item Can't modify nonexistent substring
a0d0e21e
LW
972
973(P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed
974a NULL.
975
6df41af2
GS
976=item Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
977
978(F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as
2fe2bdfd 979such. See L<perlsub/"Lvalue subroutines">.
6df41af2 980
5f05dabc 981=item Can't msgrcv to read-only var
a0d0e21e 982
5f05dabc 983(F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive
a0d0e21e
LW
984buffer.
985
6df41af2
GS
986=item Can't "next" outside a loop block
987
988(F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but
989there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
be771a83
GS
990count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or
991grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
992though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops
993once. See L<perlfunc/next>.
6df41af2 994
a0d0e21e
LW
995=item Can't open %s: %s
996
c47ff5f1 997(S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the C<< <> >>
08e9d68e
DD
998filehandle, either implicitly under the C<-n> or C<-p> command-line
999switches, or explicitly, failed for the indicated reason. Usually this
be771a83
GS
1000is because you don't have read permission for a file which you named on
1001the command line.
a0d0e21e 1002
9a869a14
RGS
1003=item Can't open a reference
1004
1005(W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing,
2fe2bdfd 1006using the 3-arg open() syntax:
9a869a14
RGS
1007
1008 open FH, '>', $ref;
1009
1010but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of
1011open is not supported.
1012
a0d0e21e
LW
1013=item Can't open bidirectional pipe
1014
be771a83
GS
1015(W pipe) You tried to say C<open(CMD, "|cmd|")>, which is not supported.
1016You can try any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such
1017as IPC::Open2. Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
1018">", and then read it in under a different file handle.
a0d0e21e 1019
748a9306
LW
1020=item Can't open error file %s as stderr
1021
be771a83
GS
1022(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1023redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on
1024the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1025
1026=item Can't open input file %s as stdin
1027
be771a83
GS
1028(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1029redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the
1030command line for reading.
748a9306
LW
1031
1032=item Can't open output file %s as stdout
1033
be771a83
GS
1034(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1035redirection, and couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on
1036the command line for writing.
748a9306
LW
1037
1038=item Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
1039
be771a83
GS
1040(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl does its own command line
1041redirection, and couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined
1042for stdout.
748a9306 1043
2b8ca739 1044=item Can't open perl script%s
a0d0e21e
LW
1045
1046(F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.
1047
fa3aa65a
JC
1048If you're debugging a script that uses #!, and normally relies on the
1049shell's $PATH search, the -S option causes perl to do that search, so
1050you don't have to type the path or C<`which $scriptname`>.
1051
6df41af2
GS
1052=item Can't read CRTL environ
1053
1054(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read an element of %ENV
1055from the CRTL's internal environment array and discovered the array was
1056missing. You need to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ
be771a83
GS
1057or define F<PERL_ENV_TABLES> (see L<perlvms>) so that environ is not
1058searched.
6df41af2 1059
6df41af2
GS
1060=item Can't "redo" outside a loop block
1061
1062(F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but
1063there isn't a current block. Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't
1064count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
1065or grep(). You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
1066though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that
1067loops once. See L<perlfunc/redo>.
1068
64977eb6 1069=item Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
10f9c03d 1070
be771a83
GS
1071(S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup
1072file. Perl was unable to remove the original file to replace it with
1073the modified file. The file was left unmodified.
10f9c03d 1074
a0d0e21e
LW
1075=item Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
1076
e476b1b5 1077(S inplace) The rename done by the B<-i> switch failed for some reason,
10f9c03d 1078probably because you don't have write permission to the directory.
a0d0e21e 1079
748a9306
LW
1080=item Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
1081
be771a83
GS
1082(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried
1083to reopen it to accept binary data. Alas, it failed.
748a9306 1084
fe13d51d 1085=item Can't resolve method "%s" overloading "%s" in package "%s"
6df41af2 1086
be771a83
GS
1087(F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed
1088to a subroutine reference): no such method callable via the package. If
2fe2bdfd 1089the method name is C<???>, this is an internal error.
6df41af2 1090
cd06dffe
GS
1091=item Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
1092
be771a83
GS
1093(F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as
1094temporary or readonly values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue. This
1095is not allowed.
cd06dffe 1096
96ebfdd7
RK
1097=item Can't return outside a subroutine
1098
1099(F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where
1100there was no subroutine call to return out of. See L<perlsub>.
1101
78f9721b
SM
1102=item Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
1103
1104(F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine,
1105but you called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant
1106to return only one value. You probably meant to write parentheses around
1107the call to the subroutine, which tell Perl that the call should be in
1108list context.
1109
a0d0e21e
LW
1110=item Can't stat script "%s"
1111
be771a83
GS
1112(P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it
1113open already. Bizarre.
a0d0e21e 1114
a0d0e21e
LW
1115=item Can't take log of %g
1116
fb73857a
PP
1117(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a
1118negative number or zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes
be771a83
GS
1119standard with Perl, though, if you really want to do that for the
1120negative numbers.
a0d0e21e
LW
1121
1122=item Can't take sqrt of %g
1123
1124(F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a
fb73857a
PP
1125negative number. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard
1126with Perl, though, if you really want to do that.
a0d0e21e
LW
1127
1128=item Can't undef active subroutine
1129
1130(F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running. You can,
1131however, redefine it while it's running, and you can even undef the
1132redefined subroutine while the old routine is running. Go figure.
1133
c81225bc 1134=item Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
a0d0e21e 1135
be771a83
GS
1136(P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it
1137into a more specialized kind of SV. The top several SV types are so
1138specialized, however, that they cannot be interconverted. This message
1139indicates that such a conversion was attempted.
a0d0e21e 1140
1db89ea5
BS
1141=item Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
1142
e27ad1f2 1143(F) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol
1db89ea5
BS
1144table that doesn't have a name. Symbol tables can become anonymous
1145for example by undefining stashes: C<undef %Some::Package::>.
1146
96ebfdd7
RK
1147=item Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
1148
1149(F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must
1150be a defined value. This helps to delurk some insidious errors.
1151
6df41af2
GS
1152=item Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
1153
be771a83
GS
1154(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1155references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 1156
90b75b61 1157=item Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
1d2dff63
GS
1158
1159(F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the
1160Errno.pm module. The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to
1161provide symbolic names for C<$!> errno values.
1162
1109a392
MHM
1163=item Can't use both '<' and '>' after type '%c' in %s
1164
1165(F) A type cannot be forced to have both big-endian and little-endian
1166byte-order at the same time, so this combination of modifiers is not
1167allowed. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1168
6df41af2
GS
1169=item Can't use %s for loop variable
1170
be771a83
GS
1171(F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a
1172foreach.
6df41af2 1173
aab6a793 1174=item Can't use global %s in "%s"
6df41af2 1175
be771a83
GS
1176(F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable. This
1177is not allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location
1178(namely the global variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to
1179have variables in your program that looked like magical variables but
6df41af2
GS
1180weren't.
1181
6d3b25aa
RGS
1182=item Can't use '%c' in a group with different byte-order in %s
1183
1184(F) You attempted to force a different byte-order on a type
1185that is already inside a group with a byte-order modifier.
1186For example you cannot force little-endianness on a type that
1187is inside a big-endian group.
1188
c07a80fd
PP
1189=item Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
1190
1191(F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.
c47ff5f1 1192You mentioned $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator,
c07a80fd
PP
1193and the variable had earlier been declared as a lexical variable.
1194Either qualify the sort variable with the package name, or rename the
1195lexical variable.
1196
a0d0e21e
LW
1197=item Can't use %s ref as %s ref
1198
1199(F) You've mixed up your reference types. You have to dereference a
1200reference of the type needed. You can use the ref() function to
1201test the type of the reference, if need be.
1202
748a9306 1203=item Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
a0d0e21e 1204
be771a83
GS
1205(F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs". Symbolic
1206references are disallowed. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 1207
748a9306
LW
1208=item Can't use subscript on %s
1209
1210(F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a
1211subscript. But to the left of the brackets was an expression that
209e7cf1 1212didn't look like a hash or array reference, or anything else subscriptable.
748a9306 1213
6df41af2
GS
1214=item Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
1215
75b44862
GS
1216(W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that
1217creates a reference to its argument. The use of backslash to indicate a
1218backreference to a matched substring is valid only as part of a regular
be771a83
GS
1219expression pattern. Trying to do this in ordinary Perl code produces a
1220value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf). Use the $1 form
1221instead.
6df41af2 1222
0d863452 1223=item Can't use "when" outside a topicalizer
dc57907a 1224
0d863452
RH
1225(F) You have used a when() block that is neither inside a C<foreach>
1226loop nor a C<given> block. (Note that this error is issued on exit
1227from the C<when> block, so you won't get the error if the match fails,
1228or if you use an explicit C<continue>.)
1229
810b8aa5
GS
1230=item Can't weaken a nonreference
1231
1232(F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference. Only
1233references can be weakened.
1234
5f05dabc 1235=item Can't x= to read-only value
a0d0e21e 1236
be771a83
GS
1237(F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value)
1238with an assignment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.
a0d0e21e
LW
1239Perhaps you need to copy the value to a temporary, and repeat that.
1240
4a68bf9d 1241=item Character following "\c" must be ASCII
f9d13529 1242
17a3df4c
KW
1243(F|W deprecated, syntax) In C<\cI<X>>, I<X> must be an ASCII character.
1244It is planned to make this fatal in all instances in Perl 5.16. In the
1245cases where it isn't fatal, the character this evaluates to is
1246derived by exclusive or'ing the code point of this character with 0x40.
1247
1248Note that non-alphabetic ASCII characters are discouraged here as well.
f9d13529 1249
f337b084 1250=item Character in 'C' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1251
1252(W pack) You said
1253
1254 pack("C", $x)
1255
1256where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the C<"C"> format is
1257only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1258and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1259
1260 pack("C", $x & 255)
1261
1262If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1263instead.
1264
f337b084
TH
1265=item Character in 'W' format wrapped in pack
1266
1267(W pack) You said
1268
1269 pack("U0W", $x)
1270
1271where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255. However, C<U0>-mode expects
1272all values to fall in the interval [0, 255], so Perl behaved as if you
1273meant:
1274
1275 pack("U0W", $x & 255)
1276
1277=item Character in 'c' format wrapped in pack
ac7cd81a
SC
1278
1279(W pack) You said
1280
1281 pack("c", $x)
1282
1283where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the C<"c"> format
1284is only for encoding native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC,
1285and so on) and not for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant
1286
1287 pack("c", $x & 255);
1288
1289If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the C<"U"> format
1290instead.
1291
f337b084
TH
1292=item Character in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1293
1294(W unpack) You tried something like
1295
1296 unpack("H", "\x{2a1}")
1297
1a147d38 1298where the format expects to process a byte (a character with a value
f337b084
TH
1299below 256), but a higher value was provided instead. Perl uses the value
1300modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1301
1302 unpack("H", "\x{a1}")
1303
1304=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in pack
1305
1306(W pack) You tried something like
1307
1308 pack("u", "\x{1f3}b")
1309
1a147d38
YO
1310where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1311value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1312uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1313
1314 pack("u", "\x{f3}b")
1315
1316=item Character(s) in '%c' format wrapped in unpack
1317
1318(W unpack) You tried something like
1319
1320 unpack("s", "\x{1f3}b")
1321
1a147d38
YO
1322where the format expects to process a sequence of bytes (character with a
1323value below 256), but some of the characters had a higher value. Perl
f337b084
TH
1324uses the character values modulus 256 instead, as if you had provided:
1325
1326 unpack("s", "\x{f3}b")
1327
f866a7cd
FC
1328=item "\c{" is deprecated and is more clearly written as ";"
1329
1330(D deprecated, syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way
1331to specify non-printable characters. You used it with a "{" which
1332evaluates to ";", which is printable. It is planned to remove the
1333ability to specify a semi-colon this way in Perl 5.16. Just use a
1334semi-colon or a backslash-semi-colon without the "\c".
1335
1336=item "\c%c" is more clearly written simply as "%s"
1337
1338(W syntax) The C<\cI<X>> construct is intended to be a way to specify
1339non-printable characters. You used it for a printable one, which is better
1340written as simply itself, perhaps preceded by a backslash for non-word
1341characters.
1342
96ebfdd7
RK
1343=item close() on unopened filehandle %s
1344
1345(W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.
1346
abc7ecad
SP
1347=item closedir() attempted on invalid dirhandle %s
1348
1349(W io) The dirhandle you tried to close is either closed or not really
1350a dirhandle. Check your control flow.
1351
541ed3a9
FC
1352=item Closure prototype called
1353
1354(F) If a closure has attributes, the subroutine passed to an attribute
1355handler is the prototype that is cloned when a new closure is created.
1356This subroutine cannot be called.
1357
49704364
LW
1358=item Code missing after '/'
1359
1360(F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'. There must be another
1361template code following the slash. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1362
0876b9a0
KW
1363=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, may not be portable
1364
9ae3ac1a
KW
1365=item Code point 0x%X is not Unicode, no properties match it; all inverse properties do
1366
8457b38f 1367(W utf8, non_unicode) You had a code point above the Unicode maximum of U+10FFFF.
0876b9a0
KW
1368
1369Perl allows strings to contain a superset of Unicode code
1370points, up to the limit of what is storable in an unsigned integer on
1371your system, but these may not be accepted by other languages/systems.
1372At one time, it was legal in some standards to have code points up to
13730x7FFF_FFFF, but not higher. Code points above 0xFFFF_FFFF require
1374larger than a 32 bit word.
1375
9ae3ac1a
KW
1376None of the Unicode or Perl-defined properties will match a non-Unicode
1377code point. For example,
1378
1379 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\p{Any}/
1380
1381will not match, because the code point is not in Unicode. But
1382
1383 chr(0x7FF_FFFF) =~ /\P{Any}/
1384
1385will match.
1386
6df41af2
GS
1387=item %s: Command not found
1388
be771a83
GS
1389(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1390Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2 1391
7a2e2cd6
PP
1392=item Compilation failed in require
1393
1394(F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a C<require> statement.
be771a83
GS
1395Perl uses this generic message when none of the errors that it
1396encountered were severe enough to halt compilation immediately.
7a2e2cd6 1397
c3464db5
DD
1398=item Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
1399
be771a83
GS
1400(W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex
1401situations where back-tracking is required. Recursion depth is limited
1402to 32766, or perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot grow
1403arbitrarily. ("Simple" and "medium" situations are handled without
1404recursion and are not subject to a limit.) Try shortening the string
1405under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with C<while>) rather than
1406in the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so
c2e66d9e 1407that it is simpler or backtracks less. (See L<perlfaq2> for information
be771a83 1408on I<Mastering Regular Expressions>.)
c3464db5 1409
38875929
DM
1410=item cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
1411
1412(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1413cond_broadcast() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast()
a568ca76 1414function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
38875929 1415cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
a568ca76
FC
1416has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread
1417first to wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
38875929
DM
1418after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1419lock.
1420
38875929
DM
1421=item cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
1422
1423(W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call
1424cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal()
a568ca76 1425function is used to wake up another thread that is waiting in a
38875929 1426cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other thread
a568ca76
FC
1427has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread
1428first to wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed
38875929
DM
1429after the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the
1430lock.
1431
69282e91 1432=item connect() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1433
be771a83
GS
1434(W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket. Did you forget
1435to check the return value of your socket() call? See
1436L<perlfunc/connect>.
a0d0e21e 1437
41ab332f 1438=item Constant(%s)%s: %s
6df41af2 1439
be771a83
GS
1440(F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define
1441an overloaded constant, or when trying to find the character name
1442specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you forgot to load the
1443corresponding C<overload> or C<charnames> pragma? See L<charnames> and
1444L<overload>.
6df41af2 1445
fc8cd66c
YO
1446=item Constant(%s)%s: %s in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1447
1a147d38
YO
1448(F) The parser found inconsistencies while attempting to find
1449the character name specified in the C<\N{...}> escape. Perhaps you
1450forgot to load the corresponding C<charnames> pragma?
fc8cd66c
YO
1451See L<charnames>.
1452
779c5bc9
GS
1453=item Constant is not %s reference
1454
1455(F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the C<use constant> pragma)
be771a83
GS
1456is being dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.
1457The message indicates the type of reference that was expected. This
1458usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing the constant value.
779c5bc9
GS
1459See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> and L<constant>.
1460
4cee8e80
CS
1461=item Constant subroutine %s redefined
1462
bb028877 1463(S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been
be771a83
GS
1464eligible for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for
1465commentary and workarounds.
4cee8e80 1466
9607fc9c
PP
1467=item Constant subroutine %s undefined
1468
be771a83
GS
1469(W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible
1470for inlining. See L<perlsub/"Constant Functions"> for commentary and
1471workarounds.
9607fc9c 1472
e7ea3e70
IZ
1473=item Copy method did not return a reference
1474
64977eb6 1475(F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See
13a2d996 1476L<overload/Copy Constructor>.
e7ea3e70 1477
4aaa4757
FC
1478=item &CORE::%s cannot be called directly
1479
1480(F) You tried to call a subroutine in the C<CORE::> namespace
7530120a 1481with C<&foo> syntax or through a reference. Most subroutines
4aaa4757
FC
1482in this package cannot yet be called that way, but must be
1483called as barewords. Something like this will work:
1484
1485 BEGIN { *shove = \&CORE::push; }
1486 shove @array, 1,2,3; # pushes on to @array
1487
6798c92b
GS
1488=item CORE::%s is not a keyword
1489
1490(F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.
1491
a0d0e21e
LW
1492=item corrupted regexp pointers
1493
1494(P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular
1495expression compiler gave it.
1496
1497=item corrupted regexp program
1498
be771a83
GS
1499(P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a
1500valid magic number.
a0d0e21e 1501
de42a5a9 1502=item Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%x at 0x%x
6df41af2
GS
1503
1504(P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.
1505
49704364
LW
1506=item Count after length/code in unpack
1507
1508(F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but
1509you have also specified an explicit size for the string. See
1510L<perlfunc/pack>.
1511
a0d0e21e
LW
1512=item Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
1513
be771a83
GS
1514(W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly)
1515100 times more than it has returned. This probably indicates an
1516infinite recursion, unless you're writing strange benchmark programs, in
1517which case it indicates something else.
a0d0e21e 1518
aad1d01f
NC
1519This threshold can be changed from 100, by recompiling the F<perl> binary,
1520setting the C pre-processor macro C<PERL_SUB_DEPTH_WARN> to the desired value.
1521
f10b0346 1522=item defined(@array) is deprecated
69794302 1523
be771a83
GS
1524(D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it
1525checks for an undefined I<scalar> value. If you want to see if the
64977eb6 1526array is empty, just use C<if (@array) { # not empty }> for example.
69794302 1527
f10b0346 1528=item defined(%hash) is deprecated
69794302 1529
f0ec9725
KR
1530(D deprecated) C<defined()> is not usually right on hashes and has been
1531discouraged since 5.004.
1532
1533Although C<defined %hash> is false on a plain not-yet-used hash, it
1534becomes true in several non-obvious circumstances, including iterators,
1535weak references, stash names, even remaining true after C<undef %hash>.
1536These things make C<defined %hash> fairly useless in practice.
1537
1538If a check for non-empty is what you wanted then just put it in boolean
1539context (see L<perldata/Scalar values>):
16546e45
KR
1540
1541 if (%hash) {
1542 # not empty
1543 }
1544
f0ec9725
KR
1545If you had C<defined %Foo::Bar::QUUX> to check whether such a package
1546variable exists then that's never really been reliable, and isn't
1547a good way to enquire about the features of a package, or whether
1548it's loaded, etc.
1549
69794302 1550
bcb95744
FC
1551=item (?(DEFINE)....) does not allow branches in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1552
1553(F) You used something like C<(?(DEFINE)...|..)> which is illegal. The
1554most likely cause of this error is that you left out a parenthesis inside
1555of the C<....> part.
1556
1557The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1558discovered.
1559
62658f4d
PM
1560=item %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
1561
1562(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file
1563there are neither package declarations nor a C<$VERSION>.
1564
fc36a67e
PP
1565=item Delimiter for here document is too long
1566
be771a83
GS
1567(F) In a here document construct like C<<<FOO>, the label C<FOO> is too
1568long for Perl to handle. You have to be seriously twisted to write code
1569that triggers this error.
fc36a67e 1570
4a68bf9d 1571=item Deprecated character in \N{...}; marked by <-- HERE in \N{%s<-- HERE %s
cb233ae3
KW
1572
1573(D deprecated) Just about anything is legal for the C<...> in C<\N{...}>.
5fca8acb
FC
1574But starting in 5.12, non-reasonable ones that don't look like names
1575are deprecated. A reasonable name begins with an alphabetic character
1576and continues with any combination of alphanumerics, dashes, spaces,
1577parentheses or colons.
cb233ae3 1578
6d3b25aa
RGS
1579=item Deprecated use of my() in false conditional
1580
1581(D deprecated) You used a declaration similar to C<my $x if 0>.
1582There has been a long-standing bug in Perl that causes a lexical variable
1583not to be cleared at scope exit when its declaration includes a false
1584conditional. Some people have exploited this bug to achieve a kind of
1585static variable. Since we intend to fix this bug, we don't want people
1586relying on this behavior. You can achieve a similar static effect by
1587declaring the variable in a separate block outside the function, eg
36fb85f3 1588
6d3b25aa
RGS
1589 sub f { my $x if 0; return $x++ }
1590
1591becomes
1592
1593 { my $x; sub f { return $x++ } }
1594
36fb85f3
RGS
1595Beginning with perl 5.9.4, you can also use C<state> variables to
1596have lexicals that are initialized only once (see L<feature>):
1597
1598 sub f { state $x; return $x++ }
1599
500ab966
RGS
1600=item DESTROY created new reference to dead object '%s'
1601
1602(F) A DESTROY() method created a new reference to the object which is
1603just being DESTROYed. Perl is confused, and prefers to abort rather than
1604to create a dangling reference.
1605
3cdd684c
TP
1606=item Did not produce a valid header
1607
1608See Server error.
1609
6df41af2
GS
1610=item %s did not return a true value
1611
1612(F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that
1613it compiled correctly and ran its initialization code correctly. It's
1614traditional to end such a file with a "1;", though any true value would
1615do. See L<perlfunc/require>.
1616
cc507455 1617=item (Did you mean &%s instead?)
4633a7c4 1618
413ff9f6
FC
1619(W misc) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or
1620some such.
4633a7c4 1621
cc507455 1622=item (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
33633739 1623
be771a83
GS
1624(W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global
1625variable. You have declared it again in the same lexical scope, which
1626seems superfluous.
33633739 1627
cc507455 1628=item (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
a0d0e21e 1629
be771a83
GS
1630(W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or
1631@hash{@keys}. On the other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got
1632carried away.
748a9306 1633
7e1af8bc 1634=item Died
5f05dabc
PP
1635
1636(F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of C<die "">) or
075b00aa 1637you called it with no args and C<$@> was empty.
5f05dabc 1638
3cdd684c
TP
1639=item Document contains no data
1640
1641See Server error.
1642
62658f4d
PM
1643=item %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
1644
1645(F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not
1646define a C<$VERSION.>
1647
49704364
LW
1648=item '/' does not take a repeat count
1649
1650(F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right after the '/' code.
1651See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1652
a0d0e21e
LW
1653=item Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
1654
1655(P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.
1656
1657=item do_study: out of memory
1658
1659(P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.
1660
6df41af2
GS
1661=item (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
1662
56da5a46
RGS
1663(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
1664"%s found where operator expected". It often means a subroutine or module
6df41af2
GS
1665name is being referenced that hasn't been declared yet. This may be
1666because of ordering problems in your file, or because of a missing
be771a83
GS
1667"sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement. If you're referencing
1668something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
1669subroutine or package before the current location. You can use an empty
1670"sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.
6df41af2 1671
ac206dc8
RGS
1672=item dump() better written as CORE::dump()
1673
1674(W misc) You used the obsolescent C<dump()> built-in function, without fully
1675qualifying it as C<CORE::dump()>. Maybe it's a typo. See L<perlfunc/dump>.
1676
84d78eb7
YO
1677=item dump is not supported
1678
1679(F) Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
1680
a0d0e21e
LW
1681=item Duplicate free() ignored
1682
be771a83
GS
1683(S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had
1684already been freed.
a0d0e21e 1685
1109a392
MHM
1686=item Duplicate modifier '%c' after '%c' in %s
1687
1688(W) You have applied the same modifier more than once after a type
1689in a pack template. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
1690
4633a7c4
LW
1691=item elseif should be elsif
1692
56da5a46
RGS
1693(S syntax) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's
1694ugly. Your code will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named
be771a83 1695"elseif" for the class returned by the following block. This is
4633a7c4
LW
1696unlikely to be what you want.
1697
ab13f0c7
JH
1698=item Empty %s
1699
af6f566e
HS
1700(F) C<\p> and C<\P> are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as
1701described in L<perlunicode> and L<perlre>. You used C<\p> or C<\P> in
1702a regular expression without specifying the property name.
ab13f0c7 1703
85ab1d1d 1704=item entering effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 1705
85ab1d1d 1706(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
1707effective uids or gids failed.
1708
c038024b
RGS
1709=item %ENV is aliased to %s
1710
1711(F) You're running under taint mode, and the C<%ENV> variable has been
1712aliased to another hash, so it doesn't reflect anymore the state of the
1713program's environment. This is potentially insecure.
1714
748a9306
LW
1715=item Error converting file specification %s
1716
5f05dabc 1717(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Because Perl may have to deal with file
748a9306 1718specifications in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a
be771a83
GS
1719single form when it must operate on them directly. Either you've passed
1720an invalid file specification to Perl, or you've found a case the
1721conversion routines don't handle. Drat.
748a9306 1722
e4d48cc9
GS
1723=item %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
1724
be771a83
GS
1725(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
1726expression that contains the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion, which
1727is unsafe. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>, and L<perlsec>.
e4d48cc9 1728
fc8f615e 1729=item %s: Eval-group not allowed at runtime, use re 'eval'
e4d48cc9 1730
be771a83
GS
1731(F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the
1732C<(?{ ... })> zero-width assertion at run time, as it would when the
f11307f5
FC
1733pattern contains interpolated values. Since that is a security risk,
1734it is not allowed. If you insist, you may still do this by using the
1735C<re 'eval'> pragma or by explicitly building the pattern from an
1736interpolated string at run time and using that in an eval(). See
1737L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
e4d48cc9 1738
6df41af2
GS
1739=item %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
1740
be771a83
GS
1741(F) A regular expression contained the C<(?{ ... })> zero-width
1742assertion, but that construct is only allowed when the C<use re 'eval'>
1743pragma is in effect. See L<perlre/(?{ code })>.
6df41af2 1744
1a147d38
YO
1745=item EVAL without pos change exceeded limit in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
1746
1747(F) You used a pattern that nested too many EVAL calls without consuming
1748any text. Restructure the pattern so that text is consumed.
1749
1750The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
1751discovered.
1752
fc36a67e
PP
1753=item Excessively long <> operator
1754
1755(F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a
1756Perl identifier. If you're just trying to glob a long list of
1757filenames, try using the glob() operator, or put the filenames into a
1758variable and glob that.
1759
ed9aa3b7
SG
1760=item exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
1761
af8bb25a
FC
1762(F) The C<exec> function is not implemented on some systems, e.g., Symbian
1763OS. See L<perlport>.
ed9aa3b7 1764
fe13d51d 1765=item Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors.
a0d0e21e
LW
1766
1767(F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.
1768
1769=item Exiting eval via %s
1770
be771a83
GS
1771(W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a
1772goto, or a loop control statement.
e476b1b5
GS
1773
1774=item Exiting format via %s
1775
9a2ff54b 1776(W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a
be771a83 1777goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1778
0a753a76
PP
1779=item Exiting pseudo-block via %s
1780
be771a83
GS
1781(W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a
1782sort block or subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
1783loop control statement. See L<perlfunc/sort>.
0a753a76 1784
a0d0e21e
LW
1785=item Exiting subroutine via %s
1786
be771a83
GS
1787(W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such
1788as a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
1789
1790=item Exiting substitution via %s
1791
be771a83
GS
1792(W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such
1793as a return, a goto, or a loop control statement.
a0d0e21e 1794
7b8d334a
GS
1795=item Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
1796
be771a83
GS
1797(W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string. This has
1798the effect of blessing the reference into the package main. This is
1799usually not what you want. Consider providing a default target package,
1800e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');
7b8d334a 1801
6df41af2
GS
1802=item %s: Expression syntax
1803
be771a83
GS
1804(A) You've accidentally run your script through B<csh> instead of Perl.
1805Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.
6df41af2
GS
1806
1807=item %s failed--call queue aborted
1808
3c10abe3
AG
1809(F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a UNITCHECK,
1810CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine. Processing of the remainder of the
1811queue of such routines has been prematurely ended.
6df41af2 1812
7253e4e3 1813=item False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
73b437c8 1814
be771a83 1815(W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal
7253e4e3
RK
1816character, not another character class like C<\d> or C<[:alpha:]>. The "-"
1817in your false range is interpreted as a literal "-". Consider quoting the
1818"-", "\-". The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
1819problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
73b437c8 1820
1b1ee2ef 1821=item Fatal VMS error (status=%d) at %s, line %d
a0d0e21e 1822
be771a83
GS
1823(P) An error peculiar to VMS. Something untoward happened in a VMS
1824system service or RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more
1825details. The filename in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell
1826you which section of the Perl source code is distressed.
a0d0e21e
LW
1827
1828=item fcntl is not implemented
1829
1830(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl(). What is this, a
1831PDP-11 or something?
1832
22846ab4
AB
1833=item FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
1834
1835(F) A tied array claimed to have a negative number of elements, which
1836is not possible.
1837
f337b084
TH
1838=item Field too wide in 'u' format in pack
1839
1840(W pack) Each line in an uuencoded string start with a length indicator
1841which can't encode values above 63. So there is no point in asking for
1842a line length bigger than that. Perl will behave as if you specified
5c96f6f7 1843C<u63> as the format.
f337b084 1844
af8c498a 1845=item Filehandle %s opened only for input
a0d0e21e 1846
6c8d78fb
HS
1847(W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle. If you intended
1848it to be a read-write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or
1849"+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing. If you intended only to
1850write the file, use ">" or ">>". See L<perlfunc/open>.
a0d0e21e 1851
af8c498a 1852=item Filehandle %s opened only for output
a0d0e21e 1853
6c8d78fb
HS
1854(W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If
1855you intended it to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it
89a1bda8
FC
1856with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with ">". If you intended only to
1857read from the file, use "<". See L<perlfunc/open>. Another possibility
1858is that you attempted to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
1859output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).
97828cef
RGS
1860
1861=item Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
1862
1863(W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1864as STDOUT or STDERR. This occurred because you closed STDOUT or STDERR
97828cef
RGS
1865previously.
1866
1867=item Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
1868
1869(W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id
d7f8936a 1870as STDIN. This occurred because you closed STDIN previously.
a0d0e21e
LW
1871
1872=item Final $ should be \$ or $name
1873
1874(F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be
be771a83
GS
1875a literal dollar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that
1876happens to be missing. So you have to put either the backslash or the
1877name.
a0d0e21e 1878
56e90b21
GS
1879=item flock() on closed filehandle %s
1880
be771a83 1881(W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed
c289d2f7 1882some time before now. Check your control flow. flock() operates on
be771a83
GS
1883filehandles. Are you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
1884same name?
56e90b21 1885
6df41af2
GS
1886=item Format not terminated
1887
1888(F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot. Perl got
1889to the end of your file without finding such a line.
1890
a0d0e21e
LW
1891=item Format %s redefined
1892
e476b1b5 1893(W redefine) You redefined a format. To suppress this warning, say
a0d0e21e
LW
1894
1895 {
271595cc 1896 no warnings 'redefine';
a0d0e21e
LW
1897 eval "format NAME =...";
1898 }
1899
a0d0e21e
LW
1900=item Found = in conditional, should be ==
1901
e476b1b5 1902(W syntax) You said
a0d0e21e
LW
1903
1904 if ($foo = 123)
1905
1906when you meant
1907
1908 if ($foo == 123)
1909
1910(or something like that).
1911
6df41af2
GS
1912=item %s found where operator expected
1913
56da5a46
RGS
1914(S syntax) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.
1915If it sees what it knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an
be771a83
GS
1916operator, it gives you this warning. Usually it indicates that an
1917operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.
6df41af2 1918
a0d0e21e
LW
1919=item gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
1920
1921(S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.
1922
1923=item gethostent not implemented
1924
1925(F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably
1926because if it did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname
1927on the Internet.
1928
69282e91 1929=item get%sname() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 1930
be771a83
GS
1931(W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed
1932socket. Did you forget to check the return value of your socket() call?
a0d0e21e 1933
748a9306
LW
1934=item getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
1935
1936(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. The call to C<sys$getuai> underlying the
1937C<getpwnam> operator returned an invalid UIC.
1938
6df41af2
GS
1939=item getsockopt() on closed socket %s
1940
be771a83
GS
1941(W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket. Did you
1942forget to check the return value of your socket() call? See
6df41af2
GS
1943L<perlfunc/getsockopt>.
1944
1945=item Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
1946
a4edf47d 1947(F) You've said "use strict" or "use strict vars", which indicates
30c282f6 1948that all variables must either be lexically scoped (using "my" or "state"),
a4edf47d
GS
1949declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly qualified to say
1950which package the global variable is in (using "::").
6df41af2 1951
e476b1b5
GS
1952=item glob failed (%s)
1953
be771a83
GS
1954(W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for
1955C<glob> and C<< <*.c> >>. Usually, this means that you supplied a
1956C<glob> pattern that caused the external program to fail and exit with a
1957nonzero status. If the message indicates that the abnormal exit
1958resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C shell) is
1959broken. If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in
1960config.sh: If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it
1961were csh (e.g. C<full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'>); otherwise, make them all
1962empty (except that C<d_csh> should be C<'undef'>) so that Perl will
1963think csh is missing. In either case, after editing config.sh, run
75b44862 1964C<./Configure -S> and rebuild Perl.
e476b1b5 1965
a0d0e21e
LW
1966=item Glob not terminated
1967
1968(F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting
be771a83
GS
1969a term, so it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and
1970not finding it. Chances are you left some needed parentheses out
1971earlier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".
a0d0e21e 1972
bcd05b94 1973=item gmtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 1974
e9200be3 1975(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was larger than
fc003d4b 1976it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
b539c2c9 1977date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
1978not-a-number value).
1979
bcd05b94 1980=item gmtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 1981
e9200be3 1982(W overflow) You called C<gmtime> with a number that was smaller than
fc003d4b 1983it can reliably handle and C<gmtime> probably returned the wrong
b539c2c9 1984date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b 1985not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 1986
6df41af2 1987=item Got an error from DosAllocMem
a0d0e21e 1988
6df41af2
GS
1989(P) An error peculiar to OS/2. Most probably you're using an obsolete
1990version of Perl, and this should not happen anyway.
a0d0e21e
LW
1991
1992=item goto must have label
1993
1994(F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an
1995unspecified destination. See L<perlfunc/goto>.
1996
49704364 1997=item ()-group starts with a count
18529408 1998
bca4a986
FC
1999(F) A ()-group started with a count. A count is supposed to follow
2000something: a template character or a ()-group. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
18529408 2001
fe13d51d 2002=item %s had compilation errors.
6df41af2
GS
2003
2004(F) The final summary message when a C<perl -c> fails.
2005
a0d0e21e
LW
2006=item Had to create %s unexpectedly
2007
be771a83
GS
2008(S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought
2009to have existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be
2010created on an emergency basis to prevent a core dump.
a0d0e21e
LW
2011
2012=item Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
2013
be771a83
GS
2014(D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some
2015spots. This is now heavily deprecated.
a0d0e21e 2016
6df41af2
GS
2017=item %s has too many errors
2018
2019(F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.
2020Further error messages would likely be uninformative.
2021
e6897b1a
KW
2022=item Having no space between pattern and following word is deprecated
2023
2024(D syntax)
2025
bd0e971a 2026You had a word that isn't a regex modifier immediately following a
b6fa137b
FC
2027pattern without an intervening space. If you are trying to use the C</le>
2028flags on a substitution, use C</el> instead. Otherwise, add white space
2029between the pattern and following word to eliminate the warning. As an
2030example of the latter, the two constructs:
e6897b1a
KW
2031
2032 $a =~ m/$foo/sand $bar
2033 $a =~ m/$foo/s and $bar
2034
21356872
FC
2035both currently mean the same thing, but it is planned to disallow the first
2036form in Perl 5.16. And,
e6897b1a
KW
2037
2038 $a =~ m/$foo/and $bar
2039
2040will be disallowed too.
2041
252aa082
JH
2042=item Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
2043
e476b1b5 2044(W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
9e24b6e2
JH
2045(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
2046L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 2047
8903cb82
PP
2048=item Identifier too long
2049
2050(F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to
fc36a67e 2051about 250 characters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound
be771a83
GS
2052names (like C<$A::B>). You've exceeded Perl's limits. Future versions
2053of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary limitations.
8903cb82 2054
c3c41406 2055=item Ignoring zero length \N{} in character class
fc8cd66c 2056
ff3f963a
KW
2057(W) Named Unicode character escapes (\N{...}) may return a
2058zero length sequence. When such an escape is used in a character class
1a147d38 2059its behaviour is not well defined. Check that the correct escape has
fc8cd66c
YO
2060been used, and the correct charname handler is in scope.
2061
6df41af2 2062=item Illegal binary digit %s
f675dbe5 2063
6df41af2 2064(F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
f675dbe5 2065
6df41af2 2066=item Illegal binary digit %s ignored
a0d0e21e 2067
be771a83
GS
2068(W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a
2069binary number. Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the
2070offending digit.
a0d0e21e 2071
6597eb22
FC
2072=item Illegal character after '_' in prototype for %s : %s
2073
2074(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2075Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
2076
78d0fecf 2077=item Illegal character \%o (carriage return)
4fdae800 2078
d5898338 2079(F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it
be771a83
GS
2080would any other whitespace, which means you should never see this error
2081when Perl was built using standard options. For some reason, your
2082version of Perl appears to have been built without this support. Talk
2083to your Perl administrator.
4fdae800 2084
d37a9538
ST
2085=item Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
2086
197afce1 2087(W illegalproto) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.
2e9cc7ef 2088Legal characters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, \, and +.
d37a9538 2089
904d85c5
RGS
2090=item Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
2091
2092(F) When using the C<sub> keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine,
2093you must always specify a block of code. See L<perlsub>.
2094
8e742a20
MHM
2095=item Illegal declaration of subroutine %s
2096
2097(F) A subroutine was not declared correctly. See L<perlsub>.
2098
a0d0e21e
LW
2099=item Illegal division by zero
2100
be771a83
GS
2101(F) You tried to divide a number by 0. Either something was wrong in
2102your logic, or you need to put a conditional in to guard against
2103meaningless input.
a0d0e21e 2104
6df41af2
GS
2105=item Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
2106
be771a83
GS
2107(W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or
2108A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number. Interpretation of the hexadecimal
2109number stopped before the illegal character.
6df41af2 2110
a0d0e21e
LW
2111=item Illegal modulus zero
2112
be771a83
GS
2113(F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder. Most
2114numbers don't take to this kindly.
a0d0e21e 2115
6df41af2 2116=item Illegal number of bits in vec
399388f4 2117
6df41af2
GS
2118(F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of
2119two from 1 to 32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).
399388f4
GS
2120
2121=item Illegal octal digit %s
a0d0e21e 2122
d1be9408 2123(F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
a0d0e21e 2124
399388f4 2125=item Illegal octal digit %s ignored
748a9306 2126
d1be9408 2127(W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.
75b44862 2128Interpretation of the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.
748a9306 2129
fe13d51d 2130=item Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: -%c
6ff81951 2131
6df41af2 2132(X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the
646ca9b2 2133following switches: B<-[CDIMUdmtw]>.
6ff81951 2134
6df41af2 2135=item Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
81e118e0 2136
75b44862 2137(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read the CRTL's
be771a83
GS
2138internal environ array, and encountered an element without the C<=>
2139delimiter used to separate keys from values. The element is ignored.
09bef843 2140
6df41af2 2141=item Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
54310121 2142
be771a83
GS
2143(W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl tried to read a logical
2144name or CLI symbol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and
2145didn't see the expected delimiter between key and value, so the line was
2146ignored.
54310121 2147
6df41af2 2148=item (in cleanup) %s
9607fc9c 2149
be771a83
GS
2150(W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised
2151the indicated exception. Since destructors are usually called by the
2152system at arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast number of
2153times, the warning is issued only once for any number of failures that
2154would otherwise result in the same message being repeated.
6df41af2 2155
be771a83
GS
2156Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the C<G_KEEPERR> flag could
2157also result in this warning. See L<perlcall/G_KEEPERR>.
9607fc9c 2158
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2159=item Inconsistent hierarchy during C3 merge of class '%s': merging failed on parent '%s'
2160
2161(F) The method resolution order (MRO) of the given class is not
2162C3-consistent, and you have enabled the C3 MRO for this class. See the C3
2163documentation in L<mro> for more information.
2164
979699d9
JH
2165=item In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
2166
2167(F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC. Internally, v-strings are stored as
2168Unicode code points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC. The UTF-EBCDIC
2169encoding is limited to code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).
2170
1a147d38
YO
2171=item Infinite recursion in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2172
2173(F) You used a pattern that references itself without consuming any input
2174text. You should check the pattern to ensure that recursive patterns
2175either consume text or fail.
2176
2177The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2178discovered.
2179
6dbe9451
NC
2180=item Initialization of state variables in list context currently forbidden
2181
2182(F) Currently the implementation of "state" only permits the initialization
2183of scalar variables in scalar context. Re-write C<state ($a) = 42> as
2184C<state $a = 42> to change from list to scalar context. Constructions such
2185as C<state (@a) = foo()> will be supported in a future perl release.
2186
a0d0e21e
LW
2187=item Insecure dependency in %s
2188
8b1a09fc 2189(F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.
be771a83
GS
2190The tainting mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or
2191setgid, or when you specify B<-T> to turn it on explicitly. The
2192tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or indirectly
2193from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust. If any
2194such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error. See
2195L<perlsec> for more information.
a0d0e21e
LW
2196
2197=item Insecure directory in %s
2198
be771a83
GS
2199(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
2200setgid script if C<$ENV{PATH}> contains a directory that is writable by
df98f984
RGS
2201the world. Also, the PATH must not contain any relative directory.
2202See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2203
62f468fc 2204=item Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2205
2206(F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or
62f468fc 2207setgid script if any of C<$ENV{PATH}>, C<$ENV{IFS}>, C<$ENV{CDPATH}>,
332d5f78
SR
2208C<$ENV{ENV}>, C<$ENV{BASH_ENV}> or C<$ENV{TERM}> are derived from data
2209supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user. The script must set
2210the path to a known value, using trustworthy data. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2211
0e9be77f
DM
2212=item Insecure user-defined property %s
2213
2214(F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular
2215expression that contains a call to a user-defined character property
2216function, i.e. C<\p{IsFoo}> or C<\p{InFoo}>.
2217See L<perlunicode/User-Defined Character Properties> and L<perlsec>.
2218
b9ef414d
FC
2219=item Integer overflow in format string for %s
2220
2221(F) The indexes and widths specified in the format string of C<printf()>
2222or C<sprintf()> are too large. The numbers must not overflow the size of
2223integers for your architecture.
2224
a7ae9550
GS
2225=item Integer overflow in %s number
2226
75b44862 2227(W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified
be771a83
GS
2228either as a literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for
2229your architecture, and has been converted to a floating point number.
2230On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadecimal, octal or binary number
9e24b6e2
JH
2231representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
22320b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively. Note that Perl
2233transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation
2234internally--subject to loss of precision errors in subsequent
2235operations.
bbce6d69 2236
46314c13
JP
2237=item Integer overflow in version
2238
2239(F) Some portion of a version initialization is too large for the
2240size of integers for your architecture. This is not a warning
2241because there is no rational reason for a version to try and use a
2242element larger than typically 2**32. This is usually caused by
2243trying to use some odd mathematical operation as a version, like
2244100/9.
2245
7253e4e3 2246=item Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2247
2248(P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.
7253e4e3 2249The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
b45f050a
JF
2250discovered.
2251
748a9306
LW
2252=item Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
2253
be771a83
GS
2254(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl keeps track of the number of times
2255you've called C<fork> and C<exec>, to determine whether the current call
2256to C<exec> should affect the current script or a subprocess (see
2257L<perlvms/"exec LIST">). Somehow, this count has become scrambled, so
2258Perl is making a guess and treating this C<exec> as a request to
2259terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.
748a9306 2260
7253e4e3 2261=item Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
b45f050a 2262
7253e4e3
RK
2263(P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The
2264<-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
2265discovered.
a0d0e21e 2266
6df41af2
GS
2267=item %s (...) interpreted as function
2268
75b44862 2269(W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator
be771a83 2270followed by parentheses turns into a function, with all the list
64977eb6 2271operators arguments found inside the parentheses. See
13a2d996 2272L<perlop/Terms and List Operators (Leftward)>.
6df41af2 2273
09bef843
SB
2274=item Invalid %s attribute: %s
2275
a4a4c9e2 2276(F) The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized
09bef843
SB
2277by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
2278
2279=item Invalid %s attributes: %s
2280
a4a4c9e2 2281(F) The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not
be771a83 2282recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied handler. See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2283
c635e13b
PP
2284=item Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
2285
be771a83
GS
2286(W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion. See
2287L<perlfunc/sprintf>.
c635e13b 2288
9e08bc66
ST
2289=item Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2290
2291(W regexp) The numeric escape (for example C<\xHH>) of value < 256
2292didn't correspond to a single character through the conversion
2293from the encoding specified by the encoding pragma.
2294The escape was replaced with REPLACEMENT CHARACTER (U+FFFD) instead.
2295The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2296escape was discovered.
2297
8149aa9f
FC
2298=item Invalid hexadecimal number in \N{U+...}
2299
2300(F) The character constant represented by C<...> is not a valid hexadecimal
74f8e9e3
FC
2301number. Either it is empty, or you tried to use a character other than
23020 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
8149aa9f 2303
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2304=item Invalid mro name: '%s'
2305
162a3e34
FC
2306(F) You tried to C<mro::set_mro("classname", "foo")> or C<use mro 'foo'>,
2307where C<foo> is not a valid method resolution order (MRO). Currently,
2308the only valid ones supported are C<dfs> and C<c3>, unless you have loaded
2309a module that is a MRO plugin. See L<mro> and L<perlmroapi>.
2c7d6b9c 2310
7253e4e3 2311=item Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
6df41af2
GS
2312
2313(F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character
7253e4e3
RK
2314greater than the maximum character. One possibility is that you forgot the
2315C<{}> from your ending C<\x{}> - C<\x> without the curly braces can go only
2316up to C<ff>. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
2317problem was discovered. See L<perlre>.
6df41af2 2318
d1573ac7 2319=item Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
c2e66d9e
GS
2320
2321(F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum
2322character greater than the maximum character. See L<perlop>.
2323
09bef843
SB
2324=item Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
2325
0120eecf 2326(F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the
be771a83
GS
2327elements of an attribute list. If the previous attribute had a
2328parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.
2329See L<attributes>.
09bef843 2330
b4581f09
JH
2331=item Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specification %s
2332
2bfc5f71
FC
2333(W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other
2334than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.
b4581f09
JH
2335If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that
2336list was terminated too soon.
2337
2c86d456
DG
2338=item Invalid strict version format (%s)
2339
2340(F) A version number did not meet the "strict" criteria for versions.
2341A "strict" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2342decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
2343v-string with a leading 'v' character and at least three components.
a6485a24 2344The parenthesized text indicates which criteria were not met.
2c86d456
DG
2345See the L<version> module for more details on allowed version formats.
2346
49704364 2347=item Invalid type '%s' in %s
96e4d5b1 2348
49704364
LW
2349(F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type.
2350See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2351(W) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
75b44862 2352silently ignored.
96e4d5b1 2353
2c86d456
DG
2354=item Invalid version format (%s)
2355
2356(F) A version number did not meet the "lax" criteria for versions.
2357A "lax" version number is a positive decimal number (integer or
2358decimal-fraction) without exponentiation or else a dotted-decimal
9da2b86b
FC
2359v-string. If the v-string has fewer than three components, it must
2360have a leading 'v' character. Otherwise, the leading 'v' is optional.
2361Both decimal and dotted-decimal versions may have a trailing "alpha"
2c86d456
DG
2362component separated by an underscore character after a fractional or
2363dotted-decimal component. The parenthesized text indicates which
a6485a24 2364criteria were not met. See the L<version> module for more details on
2c86d456 2365allowed version formats.
46314c13 2366
798ae1b7
DG
2367=item Invalid version object
2368
2369(F) The internal structure of the version object was invalid. Perhaps
2370the internals were modified directly in some way or an arbitrary reference
2371was blessed into the "version" class.
2372
a0d0e21e
LW
2373=item ioctl is not implemented
2374
2375(F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty
2376strange for a machine that supports C.
2377
c289d2f7
JH
2378=item ioctl() on unopened %s
2379
2380(W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.
34b6fd5e 2381Check your control flow and number of arguments.
c289d2f7 2382
fe13d51d 2383=item IO layers (like '%s') unavailable
363c40c4
SB
2384
2385(F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO, and therefore
34b6fd5e 2386you cannot use IO layers. To have PerlIO, Perl must be configured
363c40c4
SB
2387with 'useperlio'.
2388
80cbd5ad
JH
2389=item IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
2390
2391(F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality,
34b6fd5e 2392neither as a system call nor an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).
80cbd5ad 2393
b4581f09
JH
2394=item $* is no longer supported
2395
a58ac25e
FC
2396(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$*>, deprecated in older
2397perls, has been removed as of 5.9.0 and is no longer supported. In
2398previous versions of perl the use of C<$*> enabled or disabled multi-line
2399matching within a string.
4fd19576
B
2400
2401Instead of using C<$*> you should use the C</m> (and maybe C</s>) regexp
570dedd4
FC
2402modifiers. You can enable C</m> for a lexical scope (even a whole file)
2403with C<use re '/m'>. (In older versions: when C<$*> was set to a true value
2404then all regular expressions behaved as if they were written using C</m>.)
b4581f09 2405
8ae1fe26
RGS
2406=item $# is no longer supported
2407
a58ac25e
FC
2408(D deprecated, syntax) The special variable C<$#>, deprecated in older
2409perls, has been removed as of 5.9.3 and is no longer supported. You
2410should use the printf/sprintf functions instead.
8ae1fe26 2411
6ad11d81
JH
2412=item `%s' is not a code reference
2413
04a80ee0
RGS
2414(W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant
2415needs to be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference
6ad11d81
JH
2416to a subroutine.
2417
2418=item `%s' is not an overloadable type
2419
04a80ee0
RGS
2420(W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is
2421unaware of.
6ad11d81 2422
a0d0e21e
LW
2423=item junk on end of regexp
2424
2425(P) The regular expression parser is confused.
2426
2427=item Label not found for "last %s"
2428
be771a83
GS
2429(F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop
2430of that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2431L<perlfunc/last>.
a0d0e21e
LW
2432
2433=item Label not found for "next %s"
2434
2435(F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of
2436that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2437L<perlfunc/last>.
2438
2439=item Label not found for "redo %s"
2440
2441(F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of
2442that name, not even if you count where you were called from. See
2443L<perlfunc/last>.
2444
85ab1d1d 2445=item leaving effective %s failed
5ff3f7a4 2446
85ab1d1d 2447(F) While under the C<use filetest> pragma, switching the real and
5ff3f7a4
GS
2448effective uids or gids failed.
2449
49704364
LW
2450=item length/code after end of string in unpack
2451
d7f8936a 2452(F) While unpacking, the string buffer was already used up when an unpack
49704364
LW
2453length/code combination tried to obtain more data. This results in
2454an undefined value for the length. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2455
f0e67a1d
Z
2456=item Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input
2457
2458(F) An extension is attempting to insert text into the current parse
96090e4f 2459(using L<lex_stuff_pvn|perlapi/lex_stuff_pvn> or similar), but tried to insert a character
d35a2c71
FC
2460that couldn't be part of the current input. This is an inherent pitfall
2461of the stuffing mechanism, and one of the reasons to avoid it. Where it
2462is necessary to stuff, stuffing only plain ASCII is recommended.
f0e67a1d
Z
2463
2464=item Lexing code internal error (%s)
2465
2466(F) Lexing code supplied by an extension violated the lexer's API in a
2467detectable way.
2468
69282e91 2469=item listen() on closed socket %s
a0d0e21e 2470
be771a83
GS
2471(W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket. Did you forget
2472to check the return value of your socket() call? See
2473L<perlfunc/listen>.
a0d0e21e 2474
bcd05b94 2475=item localtime(%f) too large
8b56d6ff 2476
e9200be3 2477(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was larger
fc003d4b 2478than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
b539c2c9 2479wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b
MS
2480not-a-number value).
2481
bcd05b94 2482=item localtime(%f) too small
fc003d4b 2483
e9200be3 2484(W overflow) You called C<localtime> with a number that was smaller
fc003d4b 2485than it can reliably handle and C<localtime> probably returned the
b539c2c9 2486wrong date. This warning is also triggered with NaN (the special
fc003d4b 2487not-a-number value).
8b56d6ff 2488
58e23c8d 2489=item Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex m/%s/
b45f050a
JF
2490
2491(F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can
58e23c8d 2492handle. This restriction may be eased in a future release.
2e50fd82 2493
b88df990
NC
2494=item Lost precision when %s %f by 1
2495
2496(W) The value you attempted to increment or decrement by one is too large
2497for the underlying floating point representation to store accurately,
2498hence the target of C<++> or C<--> is unchanged. Perl issues this warning
2499because it has already switched from integers to floating point when values
2500are too large for integers, and now even floating point is insufficient.
2501You may wish to switch to using L<Math::BigInt> explicitly.
2502
2f7da168
RK
2503=item lstat() on filehandle %s
2504
2505(W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle. What did you mean
2506by that? lstat() makes sense only on filenames. (Perl did a fstat()
2507instead on the filehandle.)
2508
bb3abb05
FC
2509=item lvalue attribute cannot be removed after the subroutine has been defined
2510
2511(W misc) The lvalue attribute on a Perl subroutine cannot be turned off
2512once the subroutine is defined.
2513
885ef6f5
GG
2514=item lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined
2515
bb3abb05
FC
2516(W misc) Making a Perl subroutine an lvalue subroutine after it has been
2517defined, whether by declaring the subroutine with an lvalue attribute
2518or by using L<attributes.pm|attributes>, is not possible. To make the subroutine an
2519lvalue subroutine, add the lvalue attribute to the definition, or put
2520the declaration before the definition.
885ef6f5 2521
2db62bbc 2522=item Malformed integer in [] in pack
49704364 2523
2db62bbc 2524(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2525are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2526
2527=item Malformed integer in [] in unpack
2528
2db62bbc 2529(F) Between the brackets enclosing a numeric repeat count only digits
49704364
LW
2530are permitted. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2531
6df41af2
GS
2532=item Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
2533
2534(F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form
2535
2536 prefix1;prefix2
2537
2538or
6df41af2
GS
2539 prefix1 prefix2
2540
be771a83
GS
2541with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2. If C<prefix1> is indeed a prefix of
2542a builtin library search path, prefix2 is substituted. The error may
2543appear if components are not found, or are too long. See
fecfaeb8 2544"PERLLIB_PREFIX" in L<perlos2>.
6df41af2 2545
2f758a16
ST
2546=item Malformed prototype for %s: %s
2547
d37a9538
ST
2548(F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype. The
2549syntax of function prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for
2550obvious errors like invalid characters. A more rigorous check is run
2551when the function is called.
2f758a16 2552
ba210ebe
JH
2553=item Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
2554
2575c402
JW
2555(S utf8) (F) Perl detected a string that didn't comply with UTF-8
2556encoding rules, even though it had the UTF8 flag on.
ba210ebe 2557
2575c402
JW
2558One possible cause is that you set the UTF8 flag yourself for data that
2559you thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for example legacy
25608-bit data). To guard against this, you can use Encode::decode_utf8.
2561
2562If you use the C<:encoding(UTF-8)> PerlIO layer for input, invalid byte
2563sequences are handled gracefully, but if you use C<:utf8>, the flag is
2564set without validating the data, possibly resulting in this error
2565message.
2566
2567See also L<Encode/"Handling Malformed Data">.
901b21bf 2568
ff3f963a
KW
2569=item Malformed UTF-8 returned by \N
2570
2571(F) The charnames handler returned malformed UTF-8.
2572
4a5d3a93
FC
2573=item Malformed UTF-8 string in '%c' format in unpack
2574
2575(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2576rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2577
f337b084
TH
2578=item Malformed UTF-8 string in pack
2579
2580(F) You tried to pack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2581rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2582
2583=item Malformed UTF-8 string in unpack
2584
2585(F) You tried to unpack something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding
2586rules and perl was unable to guess how to make more progress.
2587
4a5d3a93 2588=item Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
f337b084 2589
4a5d3a93
FC
2590(F) Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while
2591doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode surrogate.
2592
2593=item %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
2594
2595(W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the
2596regular expression engine didn't specifically check for that. The <-- HERE
2597shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
2598See L<perlre>.
f337b084 2599
de42a5a9 2600=item Maximal count of pending signals (%u) exceeded
2563cec5 2601
2db62bbc 2602(F) Perl aborted due to too high a number of signals pending. This
2563cec5
IZ
2603usually indicates that your operating system tried to deliver signals
2604too fast (with a very high priority), starving the perl process from
2605resources it would need to reach a point where it can process signals
2606safely. (See L<perlipc/"Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)">.)
2607
25f58aea
PN
2608=item "%s" may clash with future reserved word
2609
2610(W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4
2611interpreter, especially if the word that is being warned about is
2612"use" or "my".
2613
49704364 2614=item % may not be used in pack
6df41af2
GS
2615
2616(F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the
be771a83
GS
2617checksumming process loses information, and you can't go the other way.
2618See L<perlfunc/unpack>.
6df41af2 2619
a0d0e21e
LW
2620=item Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
2621
2622(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
e7ea3e70 2623doesn't resolve to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 2624
3cdd684c
TP
2625=item Method %s not permitted
2626
2627See Server error.
2628
a0d0e21e
LW
2629=item Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
2630
2631(S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused
2632by a missing delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually
2633ended earlier on the current line.
2634
2635=item Misplaced _ in number
2636
d4ced10d
JH
2637(W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not
2638separate two digits.
a0d0e21e 2639
7baa4690
HS
2640=item Missing argument in %s
2641
2642(W uninitialized) A printf-type format required more arguments than were
2643supplied.
2644
9e81e6a1
RGS
2645=item Missing argument to -%c
2646
2647(F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow
2648immediately after the switch, without intervening spaces.
2649
ff3f963a 2650=item Missing braces on \N{}
423cee85 2651
4a2d328f 2652(F) Wrong syntax of character name literal C<\N{charname}> within
532cb70d
FC
2653double-quotish context. This can also happen when there is a space
2654(or comment) between the C<\N> and the C<{> in a regex with the C</x> modifier.
2655This modifier does not change the requirement that the brace immediately
2656follow the C<\N>.
423cee85 2657
f0a2b745
KW
2658=item Missing braces on \o{}
2659
2660(F) A C<\o> must be followed immediately by a C<{> in double-quotish context.
2661
a0d0e21e
LW
2662=item Missing comma after first argument to %s function
2663
2664(F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an
2665"indirect object" before the argument list, this ain't one of them.
2666
06eaf0bc
GS
2667=item Missing command in piped open
2668
be771a83
GS
2669(W pipe) You used the C<open(FH, "| command")> or
2670C<open(FH, "command |")> construction, but the command was missing or
2671blank.
06eaf0bc 2672
961ce445
RGS
2673=item Missing control char name in \c
2674
2675(F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control
2676character name.
2677
6df41af2
GS
2678=item Missing name in "my sub"
2679
be771a83
GS
2680(F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that
2681they have a name with which they can be found.
6df41af2
GS
2682
2683=item Missing $ on loop variable
2684
be771a83
GS
2685(F) Apparently you've been programming in B<csh> too much. Variables
2686are always mentioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it
2687can vary from one line to the next.
6df41af2 2688
cc507455 2689=item (Missing operator before %s?)
748a9306 2690
56da5a46
RGS
2691(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2692"%s found where operator expected". Often the missing operator is a comma.
748a9306 2693
ab13f0c7
JH
2694=item Missing right brace on %s
2695
ff3f963a
KW
2696(F) Missing right brace in C<\x{...}>, C<\p{...}>, C<\P{...}>, or C<\N{...}>.
2697
4a68bf9d 2698=item Missing right brace on \N{} or unescaped left brace after \N
ff3f963a 2699
d32207c9
FC
2700(F) C<\N> has two meanings.
2701
2702The traditional one has it followed by a name enclosed in braces,
2703meaning the character (or sequence of characters) given by that
2704name. Thus C<\N{ASTERISK}> is another way of writing C<*>, valid in both
2705double-quoted strings and regular expression patterns. In patterns,
2706it doesn't have the meaning an unescaped C<*> does.
2707
2708Starting in Perl 5.12.0, C<\N> also can have an additional meaning (only)
2709in patterns, namely to match a non-newline character. (This is short
2710for C<[^\n]>, and like C<.> but is not affected by the C</s> regex modifier.)
2711
2712This can lead to some ambiguities. When C<\N> is not followed immediately
2713by a left brace, Perl assumes the C<[^\n]> meaning. Also, if the braces
2714form a valid quantifier such as C<\N{3}> or C<\N{5,}>, Perl assumes that this
2715means to match the given quantity of non-newlines (in these examples,
27163; and 5 or more, respectively). In all other case, where there is a
2717C<\N{> and a matching C<}>, Perl assumes that a character name is desired.
2718
2719However, if there is no matching C<}>, Perl doesn't know if it was
2720mistakenly omitted, or if C<[^\n]{> was desired, and raises this error.
2721If you meant the former, add the right brace; if you meant the latter,
2722escape the brace with a backslash, like so: C<\N\{>
ab13f0c7 2723
d98d5fff 2724=item Missing right curly or square bracket
a0d0e21e 2725
be771a83
GS
2726(F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing
2727ones. As a general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you
2728were last editing.
a0d0e21e 2729
6df41af2
GS
2730=item (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
2731
56da5a46
RGS
2732(S syntax) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message
2733"%s found where operator expected". Don't automatically put a semicolon on
6df41af2
GS
2734the previous line just because you saw this message.
2735
a0d0e21e
LW
2736=item Modification of a read-only value attempted
2737
2738(F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a
5f05dabc 2739constant. You didn't, of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler
a0d0e21e
LW
2740catches that. But an easy way to do the same thing is:
2741
2742 sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
2743 mod(2);
2744
2745Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.
2746
c5674021
PDF
2747Yet another way is to assign to a C<foreach> loop I<VAR> when I<VAR>
2748is aliased to a constant in the look I<LIST>:
2749
2750 $x = 1;
2751 foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
2752 $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
64977eb6 2753 }
c5674021 2754
7a4340ed 2755=item Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e
LW
2756
2757(F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the
2758subscript was probably negative, even counting from end of the array
2759backwards.
2760
7a4340ed 2761=item Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
a0d0e21e 2762
be771a83
GS
2763(P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it
2764couldn't be created for some peculiar reason.
a0d0e21e
LW
2765
2766=item Module name must be constant
2767
2768(F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".
2769
be98fb35 2770=item Module name required with -%c option
6df41af2 2771
be98fb35
GS
2772(F) The C<-M> or C<-m> options say that Perl should load some module, but
2773you omitted the name of the module. Consult L<perlrun> for full details
2774about C<-M> and C<-m>.
6df41af2 2775
fe13d51d 2776=item More than one argument to '%s' open
ed9aa3b7
SG
2777
2778(F) The C<open> function has been asked to open multiple files. This
2779can happen if you are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a
2780list of arguments, but have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.
2781See L<perlfunc/open> for details.
2782
a0d0e21e
LW
2783=item msg%s not implemented
2784
2785(F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.
2786
2787=item Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
2788
75b44862
GS
2789(W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like C<$foo[1,2,3]>.
2790They're written like C<$foo[1][2][3]>, as in C.
8b1a09fc 2791
49704364 2792=item '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
6df41af2 2793
49704364
LW
2794(F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/', but this did not
2795follow some unpack specification producing a numeric value.
2796See L<perlfunc/pack>.
6df41af2
GS
2797
2798=item "my sub" not yet implemented
2799
be771a83
GS
2800(F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented. Don't try
2801that yet.
6df41af2 2802
fd1b7234 2803=item "my" variable %s can't be in a package
6df41af2 2804
be771a83
GS
2805(F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make
2806sense to try to declare one with a package qualifier on the front. Use
2807local() if you want to localize a package variable.
09bef843 2808
8149aa9f
FC
2809=item Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
2810
2811(W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.
2812If you had a good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it
2813again somehow to suppress the message. The C<our> declaration is
2814provided for this purpose.
2815
2816NOTE: This warning detects symbols that have been used only once so $c, @c,
2817%c, *c, &c, sub c{}, c(), and c (the filehandle or format) are considered
2818the same; if a program uses $c only once but also uses any of the others it
2819will not trigger this warning.
2820
4a68bf9d 2821=item \N in a character class must be a named character: \N{...}
ff3f963a 2822
c3c41406 2823(F) The new (5.12) meaning of C<\N> as C<[^\n]> is not valid in a bracketed
f4e361c7
FC
2824character class, for the same reason that C<.> in a character class loses
2825its specialness: it matches almost everything, which is probably not
2826what you want.
c3c41406 2827
4a68bf9d 2828=item \N{NAME} must be resolved by the lexer
c3c41406 2829
f4e361c7
FC
2830(F) When compiling a regex pattern, an unresolved named character or
2831sequence was encountered. This can happen in any of several ways that
2832bypass the lexer, such as using single-quotish context, or an extra
7fae04b9 2833backslash in double-quotish:
c3c41406
KW
2834
2835 $re = '\N{SPACE}'; # Wrong!
b09c05e6 2836 $re = "\\N{SPACE}"; # Wrong!
c3c41406
KW
2837 /$re/;
2838
b09c05e6 2839Instead, use double-quotes with a single backslash:
c3c41406
KW
2840
2841 $re = "\N{SPACE}"; # ok
2842 /$re/;
2843
2844The lexer can be bypassed as well by creating the pattern from smaller
2845components:
2846
2847 $re = '\N';
2848 /${re}{SPACE}/; # Wrong!
2849
2850It's not a good idea to split a construct in the middle like this, and it
2851doesn't work here. Instead use the solution above.
2852
2853Finally, the message also can happen under the C</x> regex modifier when the
2854C<\N> is separated by spaces from the C<{>, in which case, remove the spaces.
2855
2856 /\N {SPACE}/x; # Wrong!
2857 /\N{SPACE}/x; # ok
ff3f963a 2858
49704364
LW
2859=item Negative '/' count in unpack
2860
2861(F) The length count obtained from a length/code unpack operation was
2862negative. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2863
a0d0e21e
LW
2864=item Negative length
2865
be771a83
GS
2866(F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer
2867length that is less than 0. This is difficult to imagine.
a0d0e21e 2868
ed9aa3b7
SG
2869=item Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
2870
2871(F) When C<vec> is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be
2872greater than or equal to zero.
2873
7253e4e3 2874=item Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
a0d0e21e 2875
b45f050a 2876(F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So
7253e4e3 2877things like ** or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
b45f050a 2878expression about where the problem was discovered.
a0d0e21e 2879
7253e4e3 2880Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, C<*?>, C<+?>, and
be771a83 2881C<??> appear to be nested quantifiers, but aren't. See L<perlre>.
a0d0e21e 2882
6df41af2 2883=item %s never introduced
a0d0e21e 2884
be771a83
GS
2885(S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of
2886scope before it could possibly have been used.
a0d0e21e 2887
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2888=item next::method/next::can/maybe::next::method cannot find enclosing method
2889
2890(F) C<next::method> needs to be called within the context of a
2891real method in a real package, and it could not find such a context.
2892See L<mro>.
2893
a0d0e21e
LW
2894=item No %s allowed while running setuid
2895
be771a83
GS
2896(F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or
2897setgid script to even be allowed to attempt. Generally speaking there
2898will be another way to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
2899securable. See L<perlsec>.
a0d0e21e 2900
a0d0e21e
LW
2901=item No comma allowed after %s
2902
2903(F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not
2904allowed to have a comma between that and the following arguments.
2905Otherwise it'd be just another one of the arguments.
2906
0a753a76
PP
2907One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a
2908constant to your name space with B<use> or B<import> while no such
2909importing took place, it may for example be that your operating system
2910does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you did use an
f7af5ce1 2911explicit import list for the constants you expect to see; please see
0a753a76
PP
2912L<perlfunc/use> and L<perlfunc/import>. While an explicit import list
2913would probably have caught this error earlier it naturally does not
2914remedy the fact that your operating system still does not support that
2915constant. Maybe you have a typo in the constants of the symbol import
2916list of B<use> or B<import> or in the constant name at the line where
2917this error was triggered?
2918
748a9306
LW
2919=item No command into which to pipe on command line
2920
be771a83
GS
2921(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2922redirection, and found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it
2923doesn't know where you want to pipe the output from this command.
748a9306 2924
a0d0e21e
LW
2925=item No DB::DB routine defined
2926
be771a83 2927(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
f7af5ce1 2928for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
ccafdc96
RGS
2929module) didn't define a routine to be called at the beginning of each
2930statement.
a0d0e21e
LW
2931
2932=item No dbm on this machine
2933
2934(P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should
5f05dabc 2935supply dbm nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM. See L<SDBM_File>.
a0d0e21e 2936
ccafdc96 2937=item No DB::sub routine defined
a0d0e21e 2938
ccafdc96
RGS
2939(F) The currently executing code was compiled with the B<-d> switch, but
2940for some reason the current debugger (e.g. F<perl5db.pl> or a C<Devel::>
2941module) didn't define a C<DB::sub> routine to be called at the beginning
2942of each ordinary subroutine call.
a0d0e21e 2943
c47ff5f1 2944=item No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
748a9306 2945
be771a83
GS
2946(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2947redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't
2948find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stderr.
748a9306 2949
49704364
LW
2950=item No group ending character '%c' found in template
2951
2952(F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or '[' without its
2953matching counterpart. See L<perlfunc/pack>.
2954
c47ff5f1 2955=item No input file after < on command line
748a9306 2956
be771a83
GS
2957(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2958redirection, and found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the
2959name of the file from which to read data for stdin.
748a9306 2960
2c7d6b9c
RGS
2961=item No next::method '%s' found for %s
2962
2963(F) C<next::method> found no further instances of this method name
2964in the remaining packages of the MRO of this class. If you don't want
2965it throwing an exception, use C<maybe::next::method>
2966or C<next::can>. See L<mro>.
2967
6df41af2
GS
2968=item "no" not allowed in expression
2969
be771a83
GS
2970(F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and
2971returns no useful value. See L<perlmod>.
6df41af2 2972
c47ff5f1 2973=item No output file after > on command line
748a9306 2974
be771a83
GS
2975(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2976redirection, and found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it
2977doesn't know where you wanted to redirect stdout.
748a9306 2978
c47ff5f1 2979=item No output file after > or >> on command line
748a9306 2980
be771a83
GS
2981(F) An error peculiar to VMS. Perl handles its own command line
2982redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't
2983find the name of the file to which to write data destined for stdout.
748a9306 2984
1ec3e8de
GS
2985=item No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
2986
be771a83
GS
2987(F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our"
2988declarations, because that doesn't make much sense under existing
2989semantics. Such syntax is reserved for future extensions.
1ec3e8de 2990
a0d0e21e
LW
2991=item No Perl script found in input
2992
2993(F) You called C<perl -x>, but no line was found in the file beginning
2994with #! and containing the word "perl".
2995
2996=item No setregid available
2997
2998(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for
2999your system.
3000
3001=item No setreuid available
3002
3003(F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for
3004your system.
3005
6df41af2
GS
3006=item No %s specified for -%c
3007
3008(F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but
3009you haven't specified one.
f7af5ce1 3010
e75d1f10
RD
3011=item No such class field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
3012
3013(F) You tried to access a key from a hash through the indicated typed variable
3014but that key is not allowed by the package of the same type. The indicated
3015package has restricted the set of allowed keys using the L<fields> pragma.
3016
2c692339
RGS
3017=item No such class %s
3018
dc7e5945
FC
3019(F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my", "our" or "state"
3020declaration, but this class doesn't exist at this point in your program.
2c692339 3021
3c20a832
SP
3022=item No such hook: %s
3023
dc7e5945
FC
3024(F) You specified a signal hook that was not recognized by Perl.
3025Currently, Perl accepts C<__DIE__> and C<__WARN__> as valid signal hooks.
3c20a832 3026
6df41af2
GS
3027=item No such pipe open
3028
3029(P) An error peculiar to VMS. The internal routine my_pclose() tried to
be771a83
GS
3030close a pipe which hadn't been opened. This should have been caught
3031earlier as an attempt to close an unopened filehandle.
6df41af2 3032
a0d0e21e
LW
3033=item No such signal: SIG%s
3034
be771a83
GS
3035(W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was
3036not recognized. Say C<kill -l> in your shell to see the valid signal
3037names on your system.
a0d0e21e
LW
3038
3039=item Not a CODE reference
3040
3041(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3042subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3043use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3044also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3045
3046=item Not a format reference
3047
3048(F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous
3049format, but this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.
3050
3051=item Not a GLOB reference
3052
be771a83
GS
3053(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a
3054symbol table entry that looks like C<*foo>), but found a reference to
3055something else instead. You can use the ref() function to find out what
3056kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3057
3058=item Not a HASH reference
3059
be771a83
GS
3060(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a
3061reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function to
3062find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3063
6df41af2
GS
3064=item Not an ARRAY reference
3065
be771a83
GS
3066(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found
3067a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3068to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
6df41af2 3069
d4fc4415
FC
3070=item Not an unblessed ARRAY reference
3071
3072(F) You passed a reference to a blessed array to C<push>, C<shift> or
3073another array function. These only accept unblessed array references
3074or arrays beginning explicitly with C<@>.
3075
a0d0e21e
LW
3076=item Not a SCALAR reference
3077
be771a83
GS
3078(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found
3079a reference to something else instead. You can use the ref() function
3080to find out what kind of ref it really was. See L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e
LW
3081
3082=item Not a subroutine reference
3083
3084(F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a
3085subroutine), but found a reference to something else instead. You can
be771a83
GS
3086use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was. See
3087also L<perlref>.
a0d0e21e 3088
e7ea3e70 3089=item Not a subroutine reference in overload table
a0d0e21e
LW
3090
3091(F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that
8b1a09fc 3092doesn't somehow point to a valid subroutine. See L<overload>.
a0d0e21e 3093
a0d0e21e
LW
3094=item Not enough arguments for %s
3095
3096(F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.
3097
6df41af2
GS
3098=item Not enough format arguments
3099
be771a83
GS
3100(W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line
3101supplied. See L<perlform>.
6df41af2
GS
3102
3103=item %s: not found
3104
be771a83
GS
3105(A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead
3106of Perl. Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl
3107yourself.
6df41af2
GS
3108
3109=item no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
a0d0e21e 3110
6df41af2
GS
3111(S) A warning peculiar to VMS. Perl was unable to find the local
3112timezone offset, so it's assuming that local system time is equivalent
be771a83
GS
3113to UTC. If it's not, define the logical name
3114F<SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL> to translate to the number of seconds which
3115need to be added to UTC to get local time.
a0d0e21e 3116
f0a2b745
KW
3117=item Non-octal character '%c'. Resolved as "%s"
3118
5493e060
FC
3119(W digit) In parsing an octal numeric constant, a character was
3120unexpectedly encountered that isn't octal. The resulting value is as
3121indicated.
f0a2b745 3122
4ef2275c
GA
3123=item Non-string passed as bitmask
3124
3125(W misc) A number has been passed as a bitmask argument to select().
3126Use the vec() function to construct the file descriptor bitmasks for
bc4b151d 3127select. See L<perlfunc/select>.
4ef2275c 3128
a0d0e21e
LW
3129=item Null filename used
3130
be771a83
GS
3131(F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many
3132machines that means the current directory! See L<perlfunc/require>.
a0d0e21e 3133
6df41af2
GS
3134=item NULL OP IN RUN
3135
be771a83
GS
3136(P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode
3137pointer.
6df41af2 3138
55497cff
PP
3139=item Null picture in formline
3140
3141(F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture
3142specification. It was found to be empty, which probably means you
3143supplied it an uninitialized value. See L<perlform>.
3144
a0d0e21e
LW
3145=item Null realloc
3146
3147(P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.
3148
3149=item NULL regexp argument
3150
5f05dabc 3151(P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.
a0d0e21e
LW
3152
3153=item NULL regexp parameter
3154
3155(P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.
3156
fc36a67e
PP
3157=item Number too long
3158
be771a83 3159(F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to
da75cd15 3160about 250 characters. You've exceeded that length. Future
be771a83
GS
3161versions of Perl are likely to eliminate this arbitrary limitation. In
3162the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
3163"1_000_000").
fc36a67e 3164
f0a2b745
KW
3165=item Number with no digits
3166
1043934d
FC
3167(F) Perl was looking for a number but found nothing that looked like
3168a number. This happens, for example with C<\o{}>, with no number between
3169the braces.
f0a2b745 3170
6df41af2
GS
3171=item Octal number in vector unsupported
3172
be771a83
GS
3173(F) Numbers with a leading C<0> are not currently allowed in vectors.
3174The octal number interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a
3175future version.
6df41af2 3176
252aa082
JH
3177=item Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
3178
75b44862 3179(W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1
be771a83
GS
3180(4294967295) and therefore non-portable between systems. See
3181L<perlport> for more on portability concerns.
252aa082 3182
6ad11d81
JH
3183=item Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
3184
04a80ee0
RGS
3185(W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of
3186arguments. The arguments should come in pairs.
6ad11d81 3187
b21befc1
MG
3188=item Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
3189
3190(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3191which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
3192
1930e939 3193=item Odd number of elements in hash assignment
a0d0e21e 3194
be771a83
GS
3195(W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash,
3196which is odd, because hashes come in key/value pairs.
a0d0e21e 3197
bbce6d69
PP
3198=item Offset outside string
3199
a4a4c9e2 3200(F|W layer) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv/seek operation
42bc49da 3201with an offset pointing outside the buffer. This is difficult to
f5a7294f
JH
3202imagine. The sole exceptions to this are that zero padding will
3203take place when going past the end of the string when either
3204C<sysread()>ing a file, or when seeking past the end of a scalar opened
1a7a2554
MB
3205for I/O (in anticipation of future reads and to imitate the behaviour
3206with real files).
bbce6d69 3207
c289d2f7 3208=item %s() on unopened %s
2dd78f96
JH
3209
3210(W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was
3211never initialized. You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket()
3212call, or call a constructor from the FileHandle package.
3213
96ebfdd7
RK
3214=item -%s on unopened filehandle %s
3215
3216(W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle
3217that isn't open. Check your control flow. See also L<perlfunc/-X>.
3218
a0d0e21e
LW
3219=item oops: oopsAV
3220
e476b1b5 3221(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e
LW
3222
3223=item oops: oopsHV
3224
e476b1b5 3225(S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.
a0d0e21e 3226
abc718f2
RGS
3227=item Opening dirhandle %s also as a file
3228
a4a4c9e2 3229(W io, deprecated) You used open() to associate a filehandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3230a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a dirhandle.
3231Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3232and is deprecated.
3233
3234=item Opening filehandle %s also as a directory
3235
a4a4c9e2 3236(W io, deprecated) You used opendir() to associate a dirhandle to
abc718f2
RGS
3237a symbol (glob or scalar) that already holds a filehandle.
3238Although legal, this idiom might render your code confusing
3239and is deprecated.
3240
a0288114 3241=item Operation "%s": no method found, %s
44a8e56a 3242
be771a83
GS
3243(F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no
3244handler was defined. While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms
3245of other handlers, there is no default handler for any operation, unless
e4aad80d 3246the C<fallback> overloading key is specified to be true. See L<overload>.
44a8e56a 3247
5ff1373f 3248=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for non-Unicode code point 0x%X
9ae3ac1a 3249
8457b38f
KW
3250(W utf8, non_unicode) You performed an operation requiring Unicode
3251semantics on a code
5ff1373f
FC
3252point that is not in Unicode, so what it should do is not defined. Perl
3253has chosen to have it do nothing, and warn you.
9ae3ac1a
KW
3254
3255If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3256matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3257
3258If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
8457b38f 3259C<no warnings 'non_unicode';>.
9ae3ac1a 3260
5ff1373f 3261=item Operation "%s" returns its argument for UTF-16 surrogate U+%X
9ae3ac1a 3262
8457b38f
KW
3263(W utf8, surrogate) You performed an operation requiring Unicode
3264semantics on a Unicode
5ff1373f
FC
3265surrogate. Unicode frowns upon the use of surrogates for anything but
3266storing strings in UTF-16, but semantics are (reluctantly) defined for
3267the surrogates, and they are to do nothing for this operation. Because
3268the use of surrogates can be dangerous, Perl warns.
9ae3ac1a
KW
3269
3270If the operation shown is "ToFold", it means that case-insensitive
3271matching in a regular expression was done on the code point.
3272
3273If you know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by
8457b38f 3274C<no warnings 'surrogate';>.
9ae3ac1a 3275
748a9306
LW
3276=item Operator or semicolon missing before %s
3277
be771a83
GS
3278(S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser
3279was expecting an operator. The parser has assumed you really meant to
3280use an operator, but this is highly likely to be incorrect. For
3281example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted as if you said
3282"*foo * 'foo'".
748a9306 3283
6df41af2
GS
3284=item "our" variable %s redeclared
3285
be771a83
GS
3286(W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before
3287in the current lexical scope.
6df41af2 3288
a80b8354
GS
3289=item Out of memory!
3290
3291(X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
be771a83
GS
3292remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. Perl has
3293no option but to exit immediately.
a80b8354 3294
19a52907
JH
3295At least in Unix you may be able to get past this by increasing your
3296process datasize limits: in csh/tcsh use C<limit> and
3297C<limit datasize n> (where C<n> is the number of kilobytes) to check
3298the current limits and change them, and in ksh/bash/zsh use C<ulimit -a>
3299and C<ulimit -d n>, respectively.
3300
6d3b25aa
RGS
3301=item Out of memory during %s extend
3302
3303(X) An attempt was made to extend an array, a list, or a string beyond
3304the largest possible memory allocation.
3305
6df41af2 3306=item Out of memory during "large" request for %s
a0d0e21e 3307
6df41af2
GS
3308(F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient
3309remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However,
be771a83
GS
3310the request was judged large enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a
3311possibility to shut down by trapping this error is granted.
a0d0e21e 3312
1b979e0a 3313=item Out of memory during request for %s
a0d0e21e 3314
be771a83
GS
3315(X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was
3316insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the
3317request.
eff9c6e2
CS
3318
3319The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it
3320depends on the way perl was compiled. By default it is not trappable.
be771a83
GS
3321However, if compiled for this, Perl may use the contents of C<$^M> as an
3322emergency pool after die()ing with this message. In this case the error
b022d2d2
IZ
3323is trappable I<once>, and the error message will include the line and file
3324where the failed request happened.
55497cff 3325
1b979e0a
IZ
3326=item Out of memory during ridiculously large request
3327
3328(F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes. This error
be771a83
GS
3329is most likely to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g.,
3330C<$arr[time]> instead of C<$arr[$time]>.
1b979e0a 3331
6df41af2
GS
3332=item Out of memory for yacc stack
3333
be771a83
GS
3334(F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue
3335parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or
3336otherwise.
6df41af2 3337
28be1210
TH
3338=item '.' outside of string in pack
3339
3340(F) The argument to a '.' in your template tried to move the working
3341position to before the start of the packed string being built.
3342
49704364