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PP
1# File/Copy.pm. Written in 1994 by Aaron Sherman <ajs@ajs.com>. This
2# source code has been placed in the public domain by the author.
3# Please be kind and preserve the documentation.
4#
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5# Additions copyright 1996 by Charles Bailey. Permission is granted
6# to distribute the revised code under the same terms as Perl itself.
f716a1dd
PP
7
8package File::Copy;
9
3b825e41 10use 5.006;
71be2cbc 11use strict;
b395063c 12use warnings;
6c254d95 13use File::Spec;
96a91e01 14use Config;
17f410f9
GS
15our(@ISA, @EXPORT, @EXPORT_OK, $VERSION, $Too_Big, $Syscopy_is_copy);
16sub copy;
17sub syscopy;
18sub cp;
19sub mv;
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20
21# Note that this module implements only *part* of the API defined by
22# the File/Copy.pm module of the File-Tools-2.0 package. However, that
23# package has not yet been updated to work with Perl 5.004, and so it
24# would be a Bad Thing for the CPAN module to grab it and replace this
25# module. Therefore, we set this module's version higher than 2.0.
98225a64 26$VERSION = '2.09';
f716a1dd 27
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PP
28require Exporter;
29@ISA = qw(Exporter);
30@EXPORT = qw(copy move);
31@EXPORT_OK = qw(cp mv);
f716a1dd 32
441496b2 33$Too_Big = 1024 * 1024 * 2;
f716a1dd 34
8878f897
T
35sub croak {
36 require Carp;
37 goto &Carp::croak;
38}
39
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MS
40sub carp {
41 require Carp;
42 goto &Carp::carp;
43}
44
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45my $macfiles;
46if ($^O eq 'MacOS') {
47 $macfiles = eval { require Mac::MoreFiles };
48 warn 'Mac::MoreFiles could not be loaded; using non-native syscopy'
3a2263fe 49 if $@ && $^W;
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50}
51
6c254d95 52sub _catname {
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53 my($from, $to) = @_;
54 if (not defined &basename) {
55 require File::Basename;
56 import File::Basename 'basename';
57 }
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CN
58
59 if ($^O eq 'MacOS') {
60 # a partial dir name that's valid only in the cwd (e.g. 'tmp')
61 $to = ':' . $to if $to !~ /:/;
62 }
63
64 return File::Spec->catfile($to, basename($from));
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65}
66
67sub copy {
71be2cbc 68 croak("Usage: copy(FROM, TO [, BUFFERSIZE]) ")
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69 unless(@_ == 2 || @_ == 3);
70
71 my $from = shift;
72 my $to = shift;
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73
74 my $from_a_handle = (ref($from)
75 ? (ref($from) eq 'GLOB'
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76 || UNIVERSAL::isa($from, 'GLOB')
77 || UNIVERSAL::isa($from, 'IO::Handle'))
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78 : (ref(\$from) eq 'GLOB'));
79 my $to_a_handle = (ref($to)
80 ? (ref($to) eq 'GLOB'
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81 || UNIVERSAL::isa($to, 'GLOB')
82 || UNIVERSAL::isa($to, 'IO::Handle'))
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83 : (ref(\$to) eq 'GLOB'));
84
96a91e01 85 if ($from eq $to) { # works for references, too
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86 carp("'$from' and '$to' are identical (not copied)");
87 # The "copy" was a success as the source and destination contain
88 # the same data.
89 return 1;
96a91e01 90 }
91
ac7b122d 92 if ((($Config{d_symlink} && $Config{d_readlink}) || $Config{d_link}) &&
b8ccb221 93 !($^O eq 'MSWin32' || $^O eq 'os2' || $^O eq 'vms')) {
ac7b122d
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94 my @fs = stat($from);
95 if (@fs) {
96a91e01 96 my @ts = stat($to);
ac7b122d 97 if (@ts && $fs[0] == $ts[0] && $fs[1] == $ts[1]) {
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98 carp("'$from' and '$to' are identical (not copied)");
99 return 0;
96a91e01 100 }
101 }
102 }
103
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104 if (!$from_a_handle && !$to_a_handle && -d $to && ! -d $from) {
105 $to = _catname($from, $to);
106 }
107
1a04d035 108 if (defined &syscopy && !$Syscopy_is_copy
e6434134 109 && !$to_a_handle
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110 && !($from_a_handle && $^O eq 'os2' ) # OS/2 cannot handle handles
111 && !($from_a_handle && $^O eq 'mpeix') # and neither can MPE/iX.
7509b657 112 && !($from_a_handle && $^O eq 'MSWin32')
fa648be5 113 && !($from_a_handle && $^O eq 'MacOS')
2986a63f 114 && !($from_a_handle && $^O eq 'NetWare')
1a04d035 115 )
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PP
116 {
117 return syscopy($from, $to);
118 }
119
120 my $closefrom = 0;
121 my $closeto = 0;
f716a1dd 122 my ($size, $status, $r, $buf);
48a5c399 123 local($\) = '';
f716a1dd 124
23ba2776 125 my $from_h;
71be2cbc 126 if ($from_a_handle) {
23ba2776 127 $from_h = $from;
f716a1dd 128 } else {
fa648be5 129 $from = _protect($from) if $from =~ /^\s/s;
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130 $from_h = \do { local *FH };
131 open($from_h, "< $from\0") or goto fail_open1;
132 binmode $from_h or die "($!,$^E)";
f716a1dd 133 $closefrom = 1;
1a04d035
A
134 }
135
23ba2776 136 my $to_h;
71be2cbc 137 if ($to_a_handle) {
23ba2776 138 $to_h = $to;
1a04d035 139 } else {
fa648be5 140 $to = _protect($to) if $to =~ /^\s/s;
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WD
141 $to_h = \do { local *FH };
142 open($to_h,"> $to\0") or goto fail_open2;
143 binmode $to_h or die "($!,$^E)";
71be2cbc 144 $closeto = 1;
1a04d035 145 }
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146
147 if (@_) {
148 $size = shift(@_) + 0;
149 croak("Bad buffer size for copy: $size\n") unless ($size > 0);
150 } else {
025a6ea3 151 $size = tied(*$from_h) ? 0 : -s $from_h || 0;
f716a1dd 152 $size = 1024 if ($size < 512);
441496b2 153 $size = $Too_Big if ($size > $Too_Big);
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154 }
155
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156 $! = 0;
157 for (;;) {
158 my ($r, $w, $t);
23ba2776 159 defined($r = sysread($from_h, $buf, $size))
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160 or goto fail_inner;
161 last unless $r;
162 for ($w = 0; $w < $r; $w += $t) {
23ba2776 163 $t = syswrite($to_h, $buf, $r - $w, $w)
71be2cbc 164 or goto fail_inner;
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165 }
166 }
71be2cbc 167
23ba2776
WD
168 close($to_h) || goto fail_open2 if $closeto;
169 close($from_h) || goto fail_open1 if $closefrom;
71be2cbc 170
48a5c399 171 # Use this idiom to avoid uninitialized value warning.
f716a1dd 172 return 1;
1a04d035 173
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PP
174 # All of these contortions try to preserve error messages...
175 fail_inner:
176 if ($closeto) {
177 $status = $!;
178 $! = 0;
23ba2776 179 close $to_h;
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PP
180 $! = $status unless $!;
181 }
182 fail_open2:
183 if ($closefrom) {
184 $status = $!;
185 $! = 0;
23ba2776 186 close $from_h;
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187 $! = $status unless $!;
188 }
189 fail_open1:
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190 return 0;
191}
9b957b78 192
441496b2 193sub move {
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194 croak("Usage: move(FROM, TO) ") unless @_ == 2;
195
71be2cbc 196 my($from,$to) = @_;
754f2cd0 197
fa76202e 198 my($fromsz,$tosz1,$tomt1,$tosz2,$tomt2,$sts,$ossts);
441496b2 199
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200 if (-d $to && ! -d $from) {
201 $to = _catname($from, $to);
202 }
203
204 ($tosz1,$tomt1) = (stat($to))[7,9];
205 $fromsz = -s $from;
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206 if ($^O eq 'os2' and defined $tosz1 and defined $fromsz) {
207 # will not rename with overwrite
208 unlink $to;
209 }
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210 return 1 if rename $from, $to;
211
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212 # Did rename return an error even though it succeeded, because $to
213 # is on a remote NFS file system, and NFS lost the server's ack?
214 return 1 if defined($fromsz) && !-e $from && # $from disappeared
215 (($tosz2,$tomt2) = (stat($to))[7,9]) && # $to's there
216 ($tosz1 != $tosz2 or $tomt1 != $tomt2) && # and changed
217 $tosz2 == $fromsz; # it's all there
1a04d035 218
71be2cbc 219 ($tosz1,$tomt1) = (stat($to))[7,9]; # just in case rename did something
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220
221 {
222 local $@;
223 eval {
754f2cd0 224 local $SIG{__DIE__};
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225 copy($from,$to) or die;
226 my($atime, $mtime) = (stat($from))[8,9];
227 utime($atime, $mtime, $to);
228 unlink($from) or die;
229 };
230 return 1 unless $@;
231 }
fa76202e 232 ($sts,$ossts) = ($! + 0, $^E + 0);
1a04d035 233
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234 ($tosz2,$tomt2) = ((stat($to))[7,9],0,0) if defined $tomt1;
235 unlink($to) if !defined($tomt1) or $tomt1 != $tomt2 or $tosz1 != $tosz2;
236 ($!,$^E) = ($sts,$ossts);
237 return 0;
441496b2 238}
9b957b78 239
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PP
240*cp = \&copy;
241*mv = \&move;
242
fa648be5
CN
243
244if ($^O eq 'MacOS') {
245 *_protect = sub { MacPerl::MakeFSSpec($_[0]) };
246} else {
247 *_protect = sub { "./$_[0]" };
248}
249
9b957b78 250# &syscopy is an XSUB under OS/2
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251unless (defined &syscopy) {
252 if ($^O eq 'VMS') {
253 *syscopy = \&rmscopy;
254 } elsif ($^O eq 'mpeix') {
255 *syscopy = sub {
3f5ee302 256 return 0 unless @_ == 2;
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257 # Use the MPE cp program in order to
258 # preserve MPE file attributes.
259 return system('/bin/cp', '-f', $_[0], $_[1]) == 0;
260 };
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261 } elsif ($^O eq 'MSWin32' && defined &DynaLoader::boot_DynaLoader) {
262 # Win32::CopyFile() fill only work if we can load Win32.xs
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263 *syscopy = sub {
264 return 0 unless @_ == 2;
265 return Win32::CopyFile(@_, 1);
266 };
bcdb689b 267 } elsif ($macfiles) {
fa648be5
CN
268 *syscopy = sub {
269 my($from, $to) = @_;
270 my($dir, $toname);
271
272 return 0 unless -e $from;
273
274 if ($to =~ /(.*:)([^:]+):?$/) {
275 ($dir, $toname) = ($1, $2);
276 } else {
277 ($dir, $toname) = (":", $to);
278 }
279
280 unlink($to);
281 Mac::MoreFiles::FSpFileCopy($from, $dir, $toname, 1);
282 };
1d84e8df 283 } else {
1a04d035 284 $Syscopy_is_copy = 1;
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285 *syscopy = \&copy;
286 }
287}
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288
2891;
290
291__END__
a5f75d66 292
f716a1dd
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293=head1 NAME
294
295File::Copy - Copy files or filehandles
296
a5f75d66 297=head1 SYNOPSIS
f716a1dd 298
5ce10329 299 use File::Copy;
f716a1dd 300
5ce10329
NC
301 copy("file1","file2") or die "Copy failed: $!";
302 copy("Copy.pm",\*STDOUT);
441496b2 303 move("/dev1/fileA","/dev2/fileB");
f716a1dd 304
78e38bb6 305 use File::Copy "cp";
f716a1dd 306
23f3aea0 307 $n = FileHandle->new("/a/file","r");
c6dfe06b 308 cp($n,"x");
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PP
309
310=head1 DESCRIPTION
311
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312The File::Copy module provides two basic functions, C<copy> and
313C<move>, which are useful for getting the contents of a file from
314one place to another.
315
316=over 4
317
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318=item copy
319X<copy> X<cp>
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320
321The C<copy> function takes two
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PP
322parameters: a file to copy from and a file to copy to. Either
323argument may be a string, a FileHandle reference or a FileHandle
324glob. Obviously, if the first argument is a filehandle of some
325sort, it will be read from, and if it is a file I<name> it will
326be opened for reading. Likewise, the second argument will be
96a91e01 327written to (and created if need be). Trying to copy a file on top
328of itself is a fatal error.
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329
330B<Note that passing in
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PP
331files as handles instead of names may lead to loss of information
332on some operating systems; it is recommended that you use file
e6434134 333names whenever possible.> Files are opened in binary mode where
8dcee03e 334applicable. To get a consistent behaviour when copying from a
e6434134 335filehandle to a file, use C<binmode> on the filehandle.
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PP
336
337An optional third parameter can be used to specify the buffer
338size used for copying. This is the number of bytes from the
339first file, that wil be held in memory at any given time, before
340being written to the second file. The default buffer size depends
341upon the file, but will generally be the whole file (up to 2Mb), or
3421k for filehandles that do not reference files (eg. sockets).
343
344You may use the syntax C<use File::Copy "cp"> to get at the
345"cp" alias for this function. The syntax is I<exactly> the same.
346
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347=item move
348X<move> X<mv> X<rename>
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CB
349
350The C<move> function also takes two parameters: the current name
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PP
351and the intended name of the file to be moved. If the destination
352already exists and is a directory, and the source is not a
353directory, then the source file will be renamed into the directory
354specified by the destination.
355
356If possible, move() will simply rename the file. Otherwise, it copies
357the file to the new location and deletes the original. If an error occurs
358during this copy-and-delete process, you may be left with a (possibly partial)
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CB
359copy of the file under the destination name.
360
361You may use the "mv" alias for this function in the same way that
362you may use the "cp" alias for C<copy>.
363
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364=item syscopy
365X<syscopy>
441496b2 366
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PP
367File::Copy also provides the C<syscopy> routine, which copies the
368file specified in the first parameter to the file specified in the
369second parameter, preserving OS-specific attributes and file
370structure. For Unix systems, this is equivalent to the simple
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SB
371C<copy> routine, which doesn't preserve OS-specific attributes. For
372VMS systems, this calls the C<rmscopy> routine (see below). For OS/2
373systems, this calls the C<syscopy> XSUB directly. For Win32 systems,
374this calls C<Win32::CopyFile>.
9b957b78 375
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JH
376On Mac OS (Classic), C<syscopy> calls C<Mac::MoreFiles::FSpFileCopy>,
377if available.
378
0cdecedb 379B<Special behaviour if C<syscopy> is defined (OS/2, VMS and Win32)>
9b957b78 380
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PP
381If both arguments to C<copy> are not file handles,
382then C<copy> will perform a "system copy" of
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PP
383the input file to a new output file, in order to preserve file
384attributes, indexed file structure, I<etc.> The buffer size
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PP
385parameter is ignored. If either argument to C<copy> is a
386handle to an opened file, then data is copied using Perl
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PP
387operators, and no effort is made to preserve file attributes
388or record structure.
389
55497cff
PP
390The system copy routine may also be called directly under VMS and OS/2
391as C<File::Copy::syscopy> (or under VMS as C<File::Copy::rmscopy>, which
71be2cbc 392is the routine that does the actual work for syscopy).
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PP
393
394=item rmscopy($from,$to[,$date_flag])
0cdecedb 395X<rmscopy>
9b957b78 396
71be2cbc
PP
397The first and second arguments may be strings, typeglobs, typeglob
398references, or objects inheriting from IO::Handle;
399they are used in all cases to obtain the
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PP
400I<filespec> of the input and output files, respectively. The
401name and type of the input file are used as defaults for the
402output file, if necessary.
403
404A new version of the output file is always created, which
405inherits the structure and RMS attributes of the input file,
406except for owner and protections (and possibly timestamps;
407see below). All data from the input file is copied to the
408output file; if either of the first two parameters to C<rmscopy>
409is a file handle, its position is unchanged. (Note that this
410means a file handle pointing to the output file will be
411associated with an old version of that file after C<rmscopy>
412returns, not the newly created version.)
413
414The third parameter is an integer flag, which tells C<rmscopy>
1fef88e7
JM
415how to handle timestamps. If it is E<lt> 0, none of the input file's
416timestamps are propagated to the output file. If it is E<gt> 0, then
9b957b78
PP
417it is interpreted as a bitmask: if bit 0 (the LSB) is set, then
418timestamps other than the revision date are propagated; if bit 1
419is set, the revision date is propagated. If the third parameter
420to C<rmscopy> is 0, then it behaves much like the DCL COPY command:
421if the name or type of the output file was explicitly specified,
422then no timestamps are propagated, but if they were taken implicitly
423from the input filespec, then all timestamps other than the
424revision date are propagated. If this parameter is not supplied,
425it defaults to 0.
426
427Like C<copy>, C<rmscopy> returns 1 on success. If an error occurs,
428it sets C<$!>, deletes the output file, and returns 0.
429
55497cff
PP
430=back
431
f716a1dd
PP
432=head1 RETURN
433
441496b2
CB
434All functions return 1 on success, 0 on failure.
435$! will be set if an error was encountered.
f716a1dd 436
6c254d95
CN
437=head1 NOTES
438
439=over 4
440
441=item *
442
443On Mac OS (Classic), the path separator is ':', not '/', and the
444current directory is denoted as ':', not '.'. You should be careful
445about specifying relative pathnames. While a full path always begins
446with a volume name, a relative pathname should always begin with a
447':'. If specifying a volume name only, a trailing ':' is required.
448
449E.g.
450
451 copy("file1", "tmp"); # creates the file 'tmp' in the current directory
452 copy("file1", ":tmp:"); # creates :tmp:file1
453 copy("file1", ":tmp"); # same as above
0cdecedb 454 copy("file1", "tmp"); # same as above, if 'tmp' is a directory (but don't do
6c254d95
CN
455 # that, since it may cause confusion, see example #1)
456 copy("file1", "tmp:file1"); # error, since 'tmp:' is not a volume
457 copy("file1", ":tmp:file1"); # ok, partial path
458 copy("file1", "DataHD:"); # creates DataHD:file1
0cdecedb
GS
459
460 move("MacintoshHD:fileA", "DataHD:fileB"); # moves (don't copies) files from one
6c254d95
CN
461 # volume to another
462
463=back
464
f716a1dd
PP
465=head1 AUTHOR
466
441496b2 467File::Copy was written by Aaron Sherman I<E<lt>ajs@ajs.comE<gt>> in 1995,
bd3fa61c 468and updated by Charles Bailey I<E<lt>bailey@newman.upenn.eduE<gt>> in 1996.
f716a1dd
PP
469
470=cut
441496b2 471